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  • Knaster, Peter (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Chronic pain is a long-lasting burdensome condition. Comorbid psychological symptoms are common in chronic pain patients and they tend to worsen the treatment outcome. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in chronic pain patients and to assess the associations between chronic pain, anxiety, anger, and depression. The study participants in the study were one hundred consecutive chronic pain patients referred to the Meilahti Pain Clinic of Helsinki University Hospital. The subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I disorders (SCID-I). In addition self-report questionnaires were used in the assessment. Most (75%) patients had at least one lifetime mental disorder. The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 37% and of a specific anxiety disorder 25% over the past 12 months. The psychiatric comorbidity was associated with increased pain intensity, measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The majority (77%) of the anxiety disorders had their onset before the onset of pain, whereas only 37% of the mood disorders preceded pain onset. The Harm Avoidance (HA) scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger was associated with pain-related anxiety measured with Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale-20. The pain intensity influenced the strength of the association between the Harm Avoidance HA4 subscale and pain-related anxiety. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the variables. Likewise, pain intensity influenced the association between anger management and depression. A tendency to inhibit angry feelings was associated the somatic and physical symptoms of depression, measured by a two-factor model of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The association was stronger in patients with higher pain intensity. Chronic pain patients with current MDD scored higher in both the somatic and cognitive-emotional subscales of the BDI compared with those without MDD. However, the somatic-physical-related items were more strongly associated with the diagnosis of MDD. Psychiatric disorders are common in chronic pain patients. Because of their influence on the chronic pain treatment and outcome, their thorough assessment is important. The linking mechanisms between chronic pain and the psychiatric disorders and symptoms are complicated and there is an overlap between the constructs. Clear boundaries between pain, anxiety and depression can be difficult to draw, which can be a reflection of the common background mechanisms such as common neural circuits and neurotransmitters.
  • Manninen, Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Anxiety disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders characterized by excessive fear and anxiety that disrupts normal life. They are very common, having an estimated life-time prevalence of 16.6 %, and they start often at an early age. Anxiety disorders have a clear genetic component, but the onset is also largely affected by the environment. Although several brain regions and neurotransmitter systems have been shown to take part in the regulation of anxiety, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms behind anxiety disorders are largely unknown. Mouse models are a good tool when studying the genetic component behind anxiety disorders. Different behavioral tests measuring the anxiety-like behavior of mice exist, and these tests can be used to model certain aspects of pathological anxiety. Individual gene effects on anxiety can be studied by using transgenic mouse models, which was done in this study, where a knockout mouse model lacking the functional version of glutathione reductase (Gsr) was used to study the effect of Gsr in anxiety. Because of the reduced viability of the homozygotic knockout mice, our study was done using heterozygotic knockout mice, which have 64 % of normal glutathione reductase activity. Glutathione is one of the most important endogenous antioxidants, which protects cells from oxidative stress by getting oxidized by reactive oxygen species. Glutathione reductase takes part in this process by transforming glutathione back to its functional reduced form. Gsr expression in amygdala and cingulate cortex has been previously shown to correlate with anxiety-like behavior in mice such that mice with upregulated Gsr expression were more anxious. This and other results obtained from mice and human studies suggest that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. In this study we wanted to investigate, whether the heterozygous Gsr knockout mice have lower anxiety-like behavior than the wild-type mice and whether there is more oxidative damage present in the brain of heterozygous Gsr knockout mice compared to the wild-type mice. To assess the first question, we set up and validated two behavioral tests (novelty-induced hypophagia and marble burying) and tested the Gsr mice using these tests. To assess the second question, we used nitrotyrosine as a marker for oxidative damage and measured the amount of this marker from brain tissue samples of Gsr mice by a nitrotyrosine immunoblotting assay. We discovered that both our novelty-induced hypophagia and marble burying test settings were able to detect some behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains, but were not optimal in distinguishing highly anxious strains from less anxious strains. When testing the Gsr mice, no behavioral difference between the heterozygous knockout and wild-type mice was observed, but a significant difference in the behavior between sexes was detected. We obtained preliminary results showing that the nitrotyrosine levels are slightly increased in the cortex of male heterozygous Gsr knockout mice. Whether this is the case also in other brain regions and in female mice still needs to be tested. These results and previous results obtained by our group suggest that heterozygous Gsr knockout mice do not have a striking anxiety phenotype under baseline conditions, but might have slightly reduced anxiety-like behavior and slightly increased brain oxidative stress status when compared to the wild-type mice.
  • Kangasharju, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    In recent years, XML has been accepted as the format of messages for several applications. Prominent examples include SOAP for Web services, XMPP for instant messaging, and RSS and Atom for content syndication. This XML usage is understandable, as the format itself is a well-accepted standard for structured data, and it has excellent support for many popular programming languages, so inventing an application-specific format no longer seems worth the effort. Simultaneously with this XML's rise to prominence there has been an upsurge in the number and capabilities of various mobile devices. These devices are connected through various wireless technologies to larger networks, and a goal of current research is to integrate them seamlessly into these networks. These two developments seem to be at odds with each other. XML as a fully text-based format takes up more processing power and network bandwidth than binary formats would, whereas the battery-powered nature of mobile devices dictates that energy, both in processing and transmitting, be utilized efficiently. This thesis presents the work we have performed to reconcile these two worlds. We present a message transfer service that we have developed to address what we have identified as the three key issues: XML processing at the application level, a more efficient XML serialization format, and the protocol used to transfer messages. Our presentation includes both a high-level architectural view of the whole message transfer service, as well as detailed descriptions of the three new components. These components consist of an API, and an associated data model, for XML processing designed for messaging applications, a binary serialization format for the data model of the API, and a message transfer protocol providing two-way messaging capability with support for client mobility. We also present relevant performance measurements for the service and its components. As a result of this work, we do not consider XML to be inherently incompatible with mobile devices. As the fixed networking world moves toward XML for interoperable data representation, so should the wireless world also do to provide a better-integrated networking infrastructure. However, the problems that XML adoption has touch all of the higher layers of application programming, so instead of concentrating simply on the serialization format we conclude that improvements need to be made in an integrated fashion in all of these layers.
  • Somero, Marika Katariina (2014)
    Globalisation has reconfigured the territoriality and sovereignty, which has traditionally been associated with states. Economic actors, such as transnational corporations, have become powerful actors within the world’s economy and they are increasingly using their economic power to influence the actions of states. Transnational corporations business operations also directly affect the enjoyment of human rights by individuals, especially women. One such case which is considered in this thesis involves a textile manufacturing plant in Jordan called Classic, which produces clothes for some of America’s biggest retailers. The case involves allegations of sexual and physical abuse by the factory’s management against the factory’s female workers. As the case will demonstrate, transnational corporations are increasingly escaping liability for abuses which happen within their corporate structures and supply chains. Due to the power shift which has taken place in the last few decades, states are finding it increasingly more difficult to control the acts of non-state actors. Especially developing nations are often unable to regulate against the powerful transnational conglomerates, due to their economical dependence on the corporations presence in the country. Although international law is directly applicable to states, and most states sign up to international human rights conventions, international human rights law, as it currently stands, does not impose direct human rights obligations on corporations. Also, there are only limited circumstances when states can be held liable for the acts of non-state actors. As a result, the current human rights paradigm suffers from severe governance gap, which is rooted in the statist nature of international law. To address this shift in power dynamics, the thesis examines how the duty to protect individual’s human rights and the responsibility to respect human rights is distributed between states and transnational corporations. This thesis addresses this problem from two fronts: firstly, the thesis examines the current position of non-state actors within the international human rights structure and explores how states can be held liable for human rights violations which are committed by non-state actors, including transnational corporations. States duty to take positive steps to protect individuals within their jurisdictions are examined. International law has adopted a due “diligence” doctrine to address state responsibility in this context. To this end, the thesis reviews the development of the due diligence principle under international law and more specifically under women specific human rights instruments such as Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women. Jurisprudence of the European and Americas human rights courts as well as treaty bodies’ deliberations which interpret the due diligence concept are examined. Secondly, international law typically leaves states to regulate corporations via domestic law provisions and international law permits states to enforce international human rights norms against corporations under domestic law. Thus, states can hold corporations criminally and civilly liable for human rights violations under domestic laws, however, corporations do not currently have general obligations under international human rights law. To address this, the thesis examines recent attempts to establish direct human rights responsibilities on corporations within the international human rights system. The UN Draft Norms and John Ruggie’s “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework are explored in this context. Both frameworks highlight that corporations have specific duties to respect human rights and the “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework provides practical guidance for corporations in discharging this responsibility. The thesis concludes that recent decent developments domestically and internationally are increasingly contributing towards a paradigm shift within the international human rights law system, which is beginning to recognise that states as well as corporations have their distinctive roles to play in protecting human rights.
  • Granholm, Kaj (2002)
    Viimeaikaiset ehdotukset muuttaa Euroopan komissio Euroopan unionin hallitukseksi ovat kohdanneet monenlaisia reaktioita. Laajalle osalle tutkimuksesta on yhteistä se, että tämänsuuntaiset ehdotukset on kumottu vedoten yhtenäisen kansan kehittymättömyyteen, mikä estäisi hallituksen oikeutuksen. Tämä tutkimus ei pyri kiistämään aikaisempia väitteitä, vaan vain erottamaan hallituksen problematiikan laajemmasta kokonaisuudesta. Tutkimuksen aiheena on tulkita parlamentaarisen vastuunalaisuuden luonnetta Euroopan komissiossa. Tutkimus pyrkii ensiksi arvioimaan, miltä osin komission poliittinen vastuunalaisuus Euroopan parlamentille vastaa parlamentarismin periaatteita. Toiseksi, se hyödyntää vertailukohtana Kanadan hallituksen tilannetta ja asemaa liittovaltion toimeenpanevana elimenä. Vastuunalaisuuden katsotaan tässä tarkoittavan alttiutta parlamentaarisille kontrollimekanismeille. Tutkimuksen menetelmät ja olettamukset nojaavat institutionalistisen teorian atomistiseen lähestymistapaan sekä vertailevaan politiikan tutkimukseen. Tutkimus on normatiivinen, koska teoreettisena viitekehyksenä toimii parlamentarismin periaatteet. Vertailevan politiikan menetelmät tuodaan mukaan tutkimuksen varsinaisessa analyysissä rinnastettaessa Euroopan komission ja Kanadan hallituksen asema asianomaisiin edustuslaitoksiin nähden. Vertailevan tutkimuksen mahdollistamiseksi tutkimus tekee tiettyjä olettamuksia Euroopan unionin federalistisista olemuksista aikaisempien tutkimuksien perusteella sekä rinnastaa komission enemmistöhallitukseen. Teoreettisen viitekehyksen avulla esiin nostetut tulkinnat komission poliittisesta vastuunalaisuudesta rinnastetaan Kanada hallituksen asemasta tehtyihin tulkintoihin. Näin pyritään selvittämään, miten paljon paremmin hallituksen poliittisen vastuunalaisuuden voidaan olettaa toteutuvan täysin demokraattisessa federaatiossa. Tutkimuksen tuloksena havaittiin, että enemmistöhallituksen perinteen omaavassa federaatiossa parlamentaarinen vastuullisuus toteutuu heikommin. Tämä vahvisti tietyt aikaisemmat väitteet. Kuitenkin, myös parlamentaariset periaatteet keskenään toimivat osin toisiaan vastaan johtuen vastakkaisista voimista, joilla toisaalta pyritään mahdollistamaan parlamentin harjoittama kontrolli ja toisaalta takaamaan hallituksen työrauha. Näin ollen komission vastuullisuuden toteutuminen tietyiltä osin ei ole ratkaisevasti heikompi kuin esimerkkitapauksessa. Toisaalta tutkimuksen mahdollisuudet analysoida kaikkia vaikuttavia seikkoja oli puutteellinen, mistä johtuen kysymyksiä jäi avoimiksi lähinnä Euroopan parlamentin osalta.
  • Granholm, Kaj (2002)
    This study derives its motive from the recent proposals to transform the European Commission into the formal government of the European Union. It assumes political accountability to the parliament the executive to be a central element of any government, and therefore goes on to assess the degree to which the Commission is currently politically accountable to the European Parliament. Political accountability is regarded as susceptibility to parliamentary control mechanisms on the basis of political, rather than legal or financial matters. The study follows the atomistic approach to the institutionalist logic and a comparative method of political science, as it relates the Commission situation to that of the federal government of Canada. Comparativeness necessitates certain presumptions, which will be built on the nature of federalism in the EU, and consequently to the notion, that the European Commission can be regarded as a majority government. The central findings, on the one hand confirm previous arguments about the difficulty to fully realize parliamentary accountability in a federal setting. On the other hand, they add to the discussion an argument, by which certain parliamentarian principles also hinder the functioning of political accountability as they appear to outweight one another. Overall, however, albeit some outlying questions, this study finds that political accountability in Canada, a full parliamentary democracy, and the political accountability of the European Commission share certain common deficiencies.
  • Kallinen, Helena (2007)
    Eristetään Etelä-Afrikka –kampanja (EELAK) niminen kansalaisjärjestö toimi apartheidin vastaisen toiminnan kattojärjestönä Suomessa 1983-1992. Auto- ja Kuljetusalan Työntekijäliitto AKT oli EELAK:n merkittävin jäsenjärjestö, joka aloitti vuonna 1985 käytännössä Suomen ja Etelä-Afrikan välisen kaupan lopettaneen kuljetusboikotin. Tutkimuksessa selvitetään EELAK:n ja AKT:n roolijakoa boikotin ja siihen liittyneen painostustoiminnan aikana sekä EELAK:n merkitystä Suomen Etelä-Afrikkaan kohdistuneessa ulkopolitiikassa tapahtuneeseen muutokseen. Lisäksi tutkitaan EELAK:n ja apartheidin vastaisen toiminnan sopivuutta uuden politiikan teorioiden sekä liiketutkimuksen tarjoamaan viitekehykseen. Tutkimuksessa pääasiallisina lähteinä olivat Kansan Arkistossa sijaitsevat EELAK:n jälkeensä jättämät asiakirjat, lehtileikkeet, tiedotteet ja julkaistu kirjallisuus, Ulkoasiainministeriön Ulkopoliittisia lausuntoja ja asiakirjoja –julkaisut vuosilta 1985-1991 ja valtiopäivien pöytä- ja asiakirjat vuosilta 1985-1992. Näiden lisäksi tärkeimmät kirjallisuuslähteet olivat Tapio Bergholmin Kovaa peliä kuljetusalalla III, Timo-Erkki Heinon Politics on Paper -Finland’s South Africa Policy 1945-91, Pekka Peltolan ja Iina Soirin Finland and National Liberation in South Africa sekä Jari Luodon Ulkopolitiikka ja Ihmisoikeudet –Suomen kansainvälisen ihmisoikeuspolitiikan murroskausi 1985-1995. Tutkimus osoitti EELAK:n protestitoiminnan olleen tiivistä yhteistyötä AKT:n kanssa. EELAK levittyi laajalle yhteiskuntaan ja sillä oli kannattajia sekä kansaliaisjärjestöissä, ammattiyhdistysliitoissa, luterilaisessa kirkossa että eduskunnassa ja sen toiminta sisälsi sekä uuden politiikan että uusien liikkeiden muodot. EELAK ajoi samanaikaisesti esimerkiksi sekä Etelä-Afrikan vastaisten lakien säätämistä Suomen eduskuntaa ja hallitusta painostamalla että järjesti mielenosoituksia ja keräyksiä vapausliikkeiden ja apartheidin uhrien tukemiseksi. Tutkimuksen aikana selvisi, että uudet poliittisen vaikuttamisen muodot ja uusien liikkeiden vaikuttamisen muodot ovat lähes täysin yhteneväiset vaikka uudesta politiikasta ja uusista liikkeistä puhuttaessa tarkoitetaan täysin eri aikakausia. Tutkimuksen myötä esitetään, että oikeudenmukaisempaa olisi puhua vaihtoehtoisista vaikuttamisen muodoista, jotka kattaisivat alleen uuden politiikan ja uusien liikkeiden toimintarepertuaarin. EELAK:n voidaan esittää olevan yhteiskunnallinen liike, joka oli 1960-luvulla heränneen apartheidin vastaisen liikkeen toinen herääminen. Boikotoinnin ymmärtäminen sen laajan käsitteen mukaisesti kattaa alleen myös kuluttajaboikotoinnista eroavat boikotoinnin muodot ja samalla siihen voi ymmärtää liittyvän muitakin painostuskeinoja. AKT:n kuljetusboikotin lisäksi Etelä-Afrikan boikotin nimellä on hyväksyttävää puhua kaikesta Etelä-Afrikan eristystä ajavasta toiminnasta.
  • Uski, Jaana (2013)
    Tässä työssä esitellään Apollonioksen ongelma. Alkuperäinen Apollonioksen ongelma oli löytää euklidisessa tasossa ympyrä, joka sivuaa kolmea annettua ympyrää. Yleensä kuitenkin sallitaan ympyröiden degeneroituminen pisteeksi tai suoraksi (ympyrä, jonka säde on nolla tai "ääretön"). Tämän takia ongelma usein laajennetaan ongelmaksi löytää ympyrä, joka sivuaa kolmea kuviota, joista kukin voi olla piste, suora tai ympyrä. Ongelmassa on näin yhteensä kymmenen eri tapausta. Apollonios Pergalainen (n. 240-190 eaa) julkaisi ja ratkaisi ongelman teoksessaan Sivuamisista lukuunottamatta vaikeinta kolmen ympyrän tapausta. Ratkaisut eivät ole säilyneet, mutta ne on voitu rekonstruoida Pappos Aleksandrialaisen kuvausten perusteella. 1500-1600-luvulla monet matemaatikot yrittivät ratkaista Apollonioksen ongelman vaikeinta tapausta euklidisen geometrian hengessä harpilla ja viivottimella. Tässä työssä perehdytään yleisimpiin menetelmiin, joilla Apollonioksen ongelma saadaan ratkaistua. Erityisesti työssä perehdytään vaikeimpaan, kolmen ympyrän, tapaukseen. Tälle esitetään algebrallinen ratkaisumenetelmä sekä inversioon eli ympyräpeilaukseen ja hyperbeleihin perustuvat ratkaisumenetelmät. Lisäksi esitellään vielä Joseph Diaz Gergonnen keksimä konstruktio.
  • Viheriäranta, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Escaping apoptosis is an important, acquired capability of tumor cells and is considered a hallmark of cancer. Furthermore, tumor suppressors and apoptotic proteins function as natural barriers for excessive proliferation induced by oncogenes and can be often found as mutated or lost in cancer. Understanding how tumor cell specific apoptotic pathways are working, may guide development of future therapeutic strategies inducing apoptosis specifically in tumor cells. One of the highly overexpressed oncogene in cancers is Myc that is a global transcription factor regulating variety of cellular functions such as proliferation and apoptosis. One of the major aims in this study was to elucidate mechanisms for Myc-induced sensitization of cells to cell death. Herein, the results presented here provide evidence that Myc-induced apoptosis is strictly mitochondria-dependent. Furthermore, our findings expose new evidence for Bcl-2 family member mediated control of Myc-induced apoptosis showing that Myc expression results in activation of Bak. Interestingly, our data suggest a novel Bak activation step, where Myc induces Bak to undergo conformational change and expose its N-termini, however, without further homo-oligomerization or apoptosis. Hence, we open new ideas for the current Bak/Bax activation models suggested earlier. In addition, our data indicate that Myc expression results in phosphorylation and accumulations of mitochondrial p53 that is priming the mitochondria for death stimuli. Herein, these results indicate that cytoplasmic p53 has a crucial role in Myc-induced stress responses. The data presented here also suggest that BH3 mimetic drugs can sensitize tumor cells to Myc-apoptosis in vivo, which also highlights the role of Bcl-xL as a key controller of Myc-dependent apoptosis in epithelial tumors. Thereby, our results point new therapeutic possibilities that could be used in combination to treat breast cancer. Finally, in this study we found an interesting connection between the Myc-induced metabolic transformation and the apoptotic signaling of Myc. We suggest that Myc expression induces activation of metabolic pathways specific for cancer cell such as activating the glutaminolytic pathway and promoting a catabolic mode of metabolism through increasing fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, our results indicate that Myc-induced decline in the ATP contents of the cell is leading to an activation of a cellular energy sensor AMPK. Consequently, AMPK is able to induce Bak activation and apoptotic sensitivity via phosphorylation and stabilization of p53. Importantly, our results bring new insight into oncogenic stress and apoptotic sensitivity by Myc highlighting the role of metabolism. All together, it will be future challenge to understand how that knowledge of coupled metabolic stress and apoptotic sensitivity can be used for therapeutic interventions in cancer.
  • Bandyopadhyay, Payel (2015)
    The way the users interact with Information Retrieval (IR) systems is an interesting topic of interest in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and IR. With the ever increasing information in the web, users are often lost in the vast information space. Navigating in the complex information space to find the required information, is often an abstruse task by users. One of the reasons is the difficulty in designing systems that would present the user with an optimal set of navigation options to support varying information needs. As a solution to the navigation problem, in this thesis we propose a method referred as interaction portfolio theory, based on Markowitz’s "Modern Portfolio theory", a theory of finance. It provides the users with N optimal interaction options in each iteration, by taking into account user’s goal expressed via interaction during the task, but also the risk related to a potentially suboptimal choice made by the user. In each iteration, the proposed method learns the relevant interaction options from user behaviour interactively and optimizes relevance and diversity to allow the user to accomplish the task in a shorter interaction sequence. This theory can be applied to any IR system to help users to retrieve the required information efficiently.
  • Kanckos, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    After Gödel's incompleteness theorems and the collapse of Hilbert's programme Gerhard Gentzen continued the quest for consistency proofs of Peano arithmetic. He considered a finitistic or constructive proof still possible and necessary for the foundations of mathematics. For a proof to be meaningful, the principles relied on should be considered more reliable than the doubtful elements of the theory concerned. He worked out a total of four proofs between 1934 and 1939. This thesis examines the consistency proofs for arithmetic by Gentzen from different angles. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic is shown both in a sequent calculus notation and in natural deduction. The former proof includes a cut elimination theorem for the calculus and a syntactical study of the purely arithmetical part of the system. The latter consistency proof in standard natural deduction has been an open problem since the publication of Gentzen's proofs. The solution to this problem for an intuitionistic calculus is based on a normalization proof by Howard. The proof is performed in the manner of Gentzen, by giving a reduction procedure for derivations of falsity. In contrast to Gentzen's proof, the procedure contains a vector assignment. The reduction reduces the first component of the vector and this component can be interpreted as an ordinal less than epsilon_0, thus ordering the derivations by complexity and proving termination of the process.
  • From, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tämän pro gradu-tutkielman tarkoitus on selvittää, mainitseeko Paavali Roomalaiskirjeensä 16. luvun 7. jakeessa naispuolisen apostolin. Tässä on Room. 16:7 jae kreikan- ja suomenkielisenä: ἀσπάσασθε Ἀνδρόνικον καὶ Ἰουνιαν τοὺς συγγενεῖς µου καὶ συναιχµαλώτους µου, οἵτινές εἰσιν ἐπίσηµοι ἐν τοῖς ἀποστόλοις, οἳ καὶ πρὸ ἐµοῦ γέγοναν ἐν Χριστῷ. Terveisiä Andronikokselle ja Junialle, heimolaisilleni ja vankitovereilleni, jotka ovat arvossapidettyjä apostolien joukossa ja ovat olleet Kristuksessa jo ennen minua. Saadakseni selville, puhuuko Paavali tässä naispuolisesta apostolista, perehdyn työssäni yksityiskohtaisesti alkuperäiseen tekstiin ja ilmaisuun. Mitä kreikankieliset ilmaisut tarkoittavat? Mitä käsikirjoituksissa lukee? Miten tulkinta- ja tutkimushistoriassa – pitäen sisällään myös nykytutkimuksen – tämä asia on ymmärretty? Kuinka asian ymmärsivät ensimmäisen tuhannen vuoden oppineet ja koulutetut kreikan- ja latinantaitoiset kirkkoisät? Luvussa 1 "Johdanto", esittelen tarkemmin tutkimuskysymyksiä sekä aiheeseen liittyvää problematiikkaa. Luvussa 2 "Tulkintahistoriallinen katsaus", käyn lyhyesti läpi tutkijoiden ja kommentaattorien näkemyksiä koskien päätutkimuskysymyksiäni. Miten tutkijat ja kommentaattorit ovat nähneet tämän henkilön, oliko hän mies vai nainen ja oliko hän apostoli vai ei. Noin 2000-vuotisen tulkintahistoriansa aikana tämä aihe on saanut erittäin mielenkiintoisia käänteitä, joita tarkastellaan tässä luvussa. Luvussa 3 "Oliko hän mies vai nainen?", selvitän perusteellisesti henkilön sukupuolta kielen, nimien ja nimistöjen, kieliopin, tehtyjen varhaisten käännösten sekä käsikirjoitusten perusteella. Luvussa 4 "Mitä tarkoittaa ἐπίσηµοι ἐν τοῖς ἀποστόλοις?", tarkastelen sitä, tarkoittaako tämä ilmaus, että kyseinen henkilö on apostoli, kuten tulkintahistoriassa on yleisesti nähty, vai tarkoittaako ilmaus, että hän on arvostettu apostolien silmissä, mutta ei itse ole apostoli. Tarkastelen asiaa yleisen konsensuksen haastavan näkemyksen näkökulmasta, ja selvitän, onko se perustellumpi kuin vallitseva tulkinta, jonka mukaan ilmaus tarkoittaa henkilön kuuluvan apostoleihin. Luvussa 5 "Mitä kirkkoisät sanoivat?", tuon esiin, mitä Paavalin Roomalaiskirjeen varhaisimmat kommentaattorit eli kirkkoisät ensimmäisen tuhannen vuoden ajalta ovat kyseisen henkilön sukupuolesta ja apostoliudesta sanoneet. Nämä kirkkoisät olivat aikansa oppineita ja koulutettuja henkilöitä, ja heidän käsityksensä asiasta on merkittävän tärkeä asian selvittämiseksi. Asiaan perehtyminen tässä työssä osoitti mielenkiintoisia käänteitä tulkintahistoriassa. Käsikirjoitusevidenssi, varhaiset käännökset, perehtyminen laajemmin ja yksityiskohtaisesti kreikan kieleen ja kielioppiin sekä ensimmäisen tuhannen vuoden kirkkoisien tulkintahistoriaan osoittivat, että varhaiset tulkitsijat ymmärsivät ensimmäiset 1200 vuotta henkilön naispuoliseksi apostoliksi. Ongelmalliseksi naispuolinen apostoli muuttui vasta sydänkeskiajalla. Ensimmäisen kristillisen sukupolven joukossa evankeliumin työtä tekemässä oli merkittävä naispuolinen apostoli nimeltään Junia.
  • McVeigh, Joseph (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Although the genres of blogs and marketing have been studied, the sub-genres of single-topic blogs and email marketing have not received as much attention by scholars. An account of the ways that these sub-genres use language to meet their goals or purposes is needed to see whether they follow similar patterns of the larger genres that contain them. Since research on the blogging and marketing genres has already been done, a comparative analysis is possible. This thesis analyzes the linguistic properties of blog and marketing texts which share a topic (labor and employment law) and discourse community (lawyers), but which have different goals (exposition vs. promotion). Drawing on previous genre and corpus linguistics research, I wish to answer two related questions. First, I want to know how the two sub-genres differ in terms of their linguistic properties. Second, I want to see whether a comparison of the texts from the two sub-genres is really possible or whether it would be just like comparing apples to oranges. A combination of corpus linguistic and genre analysis methods are used to compare the lexico-grammatical properties of the texts from the two sub-genres. An analysis is then made of the rhetorical moves in certain texts which share the same micro-topic (DISCRIMINATION). Throughout the analysis, the extra-textual properties of the two sub-genres are taken into account to see how they might affect the language of the texts. The results show that texts from single-topic blogs and email marketing do not always divide easily based on either their genres or expectations from previous research.
  • Laitinen, Totti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This thesis is based on the construction of a two-step laser desorption-ionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (laser AMS), which is capable of measuring 10 to 50 nm aerosol particles collected from urban and rural air at-site and in near real time. The operation and applicability of the instrument was tested with various laboratory measurements, including parallel measurements with filter collection/chromatographic analysis, and then in field experiments in urban environment and boreal forest. Ambient ultrafine aerosol particles are collected on a metal surface by electrostatic precipitation and introduced to the time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with a sampling valve. Before MS analysis particles are desorbed from the sampling surface with an infrared laser and ionized with a UV laser. The formed ions are guided to the TOF-MS by ion transfer optics, separated according to their m/z ratios, and detected with a micro channel plate detector. The laser AMS was used in urban air studies to quantify the carbon cluster content in 50 nm aerosol particles. Standards for the study were produced from 50 nm graphite particles, suspended in toluene, with 72 hours of high power sonication. The results showed the average amount of carbon clusters (winter 2012, Helsinki, Finland) in 50 nm particles to be 7.2% per sample. Several fullerenes/fullerene fragments were detected during the measurements. In boreal forest measurements, the laser AMS was capable of detecting several different organic species in 10 to 50 nm particles. These included nitrogen-containing compounds, carbon clusters, aromatics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated hydrocarbons. A most interesting event occurred during the boreal forest measurements in spring 2011 when the chemistry of the atmosphere clearly changed during snow melt. On that time concentrations of laser AMS ions m/z 143 and 185 (10 nm particles) increased dramatically. Exactly at the same time, quinoline concentrations in molecular clusters measurements (APi-TOFMS) decreased markedly. With the help of simultaneously collected 30 nm filter samples, laser AMS ions m/z 143 and 185 were later identified as originating from 1-(X-methylquinolin-X-yl)ethanone.
  • Anttila, Saku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Spatial and temporal variation within water bodies causes uncertainties in freshwater monitoring programmes that are surprisingly seldom perceived. This poses a major challenge for the representative sampling and subsequent assessment of water bodies. The sources of variability in lakes are relatively well known. The majority of them produce consistent patterns in water quality that can be statistically described. This information can be used in calibrating the sampling intervals, locations and monitoring methods against the typical variation in a water body as well as the accuracy requirements of monitoring programmes. Similarly, understanding of ecosystem history and functioning in different states can help in contextualizing the collected data. Specifically, studies on abrupt transitions and the interactions involved produce a framework against which recent water quality information can be compared. This thesis research aimed to facilitate water quality monitoring by examining 1) feasible statistical tools to study spatial and temporal uncertainty associated with sampling efforts, 2) the characteristics of variation and 3) ecosystem interactions in different states. Research was conducted at Lake Vesijärvi, southern Finland. Studies of uncertainty utilized data-rich observations of surface water chlorophyll a from flow-through, automated and remote sensing systems. Long-term monitoring information of several trophic levels was used in the analysis of ecosystem interactions. Classical sample size estimates, bootstrap methodology, autocorrelation and spatial standard score analyses were used in spatio-temporal uncertainty analysis. A general procedure to identify abrupt ecosystem transitions was applied in order to characterize lake interactions in different states. The results interlink variability at the study site with information required in sampling design. Sampling effort estimates associated with the spatial and temporal variance were used to derive precision information for summary statistics. The structure of the variance illustrated with an autocorrelation model revealed the low spatial representativeness of discrete sampling in the study area. A generalized autocorrelation model and its parameters from the monitoring area were found applicable in sampling design. Furthermore, areas with constantly higher chlorophyll a concentrations, which had an effect on the water quality information derived with remote sensing, were identified from the study area. Characterization of the interactions between the main trophic levels in different ecosystem states revealed the key role of zooplankton in maintaining the current state as well as the resilience of the studied pelagic ecosystem. The results are brought into a broader context by discussing the applicability of presented methods in sampling design of water quality monitoring programmes. According to this thesis research, sampling design in individual monitoring regimes would benefit from the characterization of variance and subsequent uncertainty analysis of different data sources. This approach allows the calibration of sampling frequency and locations on the observed variance, as well as a quantitative comparison between the abilities of different monitoring methods. The derived precision information also supports the joint use of several monitoring methods. Furthermore, analysis of long-term records can reveal the key elements of freshwater ecosystem functioning and how it has responded to earlier pressures, to which recent monitoring data can be compared. This thesis thus highlights analysis of the variance and history of the monitored system in developing a rationalized and adaptive monitoring programme
  • Meichsner, Julia (2001)
    The objective of this study is to analyse the applicability of growth predictions in the case of the Eastern enlargement. For this purpose the growth model developed by Uwe Walz (1998) was chosen and compared to empirical data as well as to further studies about the process of Eastern enlargement. In the first part of the paper Walz´ model is introduced. The production patterns of a trade union consisting of two countries are described before the enlargement. Then, a third technology-deficient country is integrated in two steps: First, barriers to trade are removed, and secondly migration is liberalized. The model shows that free trade between the two trade blocks with specialization patterns of the Heckscher-Ohlin type causes the growth rate to shift. This holds true in the next step, when skilled workers are assumed to immigrate to the countries with the higher level of technology. On the contrary, the growth rate declines when unskilled workers are assumed to migrate to the technologically-advanced countries. In the second part, the growth predictions of Walz´ model are decomposed in their underlying assumptions, defined and compared to empirical data regarding the process of the Eastern enlargement. The comparison reveals a high degree of congruency between the theoretical assumptions and the corresponding developments in reality. This congruency comes to an end when further studies on the Eastern enlargement are called in. In the final part of the paper, the results of the comparisons between Walz´ model and the data and studies about the Eastern enlargement are evaluated trying to give an answer to the question as to how applicable the theoretical growth predictions are in the case of the Eastern enlargement.