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  • Nykyri, Johanna (2008)
    Pectobacterium atrosepticum -bakteeri aiheuttaa perunan tyvi- ja märkämätää lauhkealla ilmastovyöhykkeellä. P. atrosepticum -bakteerin genomi sekvensoitiin 2004. Genomin sekvensoinnissa löydettiin kuusi vgrG-geeniä, joista viiden ennustetaan koodaavan toiminnaltaan tuntemattomia proteiineja. VgrG-proteiinien on havaittu olevan hiljattain löydetyn uuden VI-tyypin eritysreitin kautta eritettäviä proteiineja ja niiden on myös ehdotettu muodostavan osan proteiinien eritykseen tarvittavasta proteiinikompleksista. VgrG-proteiinien oletetaan vahingoittavan patogeenisten bakteerien isäntäeliöitä. Mutaatio vgrG-geenissä alentaa muutamien ihmisja eläinpatogeenisten bakteerien virulenssia. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää vgrG-geenien vaikutus P. atrosepticum -bakteerin virulenssiin. Tässä tutkimuksessa mitattiin reaaliaikaisella käänteiskopionti-PCR:llä P. atrosepticum - bakteerin vgrG-geenien transkriptio virulenssigeenejä indusoivissa kasvatusoloissa. Aktiivisimmat vgrG-geenit poistettiin Red-rekombinaasi-menetelmällä. Kussakin mutanttikannassa oli mutaatio vain yhdessä vgrG-geenissä. Mutanttien virulenssi mitattiin testaamalla niiden mädätyskyky perunan mukuloissa. vgrG-geeneistä kolme oli aktiivisia in vitro ja in planta -kokeissa. vgrG-geenit olivat aktiivisimmillaan varsissa kasvatetuista bakteereista otetuissa näytteissä 96 tuntia inokulaation jälkeen. Yhden vgrG-geenin mutaatio lisäsi vähän virulenssi (p = 0,0077). Kahden vgrG-geenin mutaatio alensi hieman virulenssia, mutta tulokset eivät olleet tilastollisesti merkitseviä (p > 0,05). Transkriptioprofiilin perusteella vgrG-geenit saattavat vaikuttaa virulenssiin. Virulenssikokeet eivät kuitenkaan tukeneet tätä mahdollisuutta. Yhden vgrG-geenin mutaatio jopa lisäsi P. atrosepticum -bakteerin virulenssia. On mahdollista, että muut vgrG-geenit korvaavat puuttuvan geenin. Toistaiseksi ei ole selkeitä todisteita siitä, että vgrG-geenit tai VI-tyypin eritysreitti liittyisivät P. atrosepticum -bakteerin virulenssiin. Ehkä vgrG-geeneillä on jokin muu merkitys aktiivisen infektion aikana, kuten puolustautuminen mädätetystä solukosta ravintoa hakevia muita mikrobeja vastaan.
  • Rautio, Rauha (1913)
  • Rytkönen, K. V. (1895)
  • Lindgren, Anna-Riitta (1974)
  • Metsikkö, Taimi (1932)
  • Hyytiäinen, Päivi Hannele (1975)
  • Bliumbaum, Arkadi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
    The subject of this work is the poetics of «The Wax Effigy», a short novel or novella by Jurii Tynianov, Russian writer, literary critic, historian of literature and prominent literary theoretician. The plot structure of the novel is based upon a real event, the creation by Bartolomeo Carlo Rastrelli in 1725 of a wax sculpture of the first Russian emperor, Peter the Great. «Construction of the Sham» consists of three chapters, an introduction and a conclusion. Due to the fact that Tynianov was at the same time a prose writer and theoretician of literature it seemed important to consider the reception of his prose and his works on literary theory in relationship to each other. The introduction is devoted to this task. The first chapter is about the history of the creation of the novel and its reception. Tynianov stopped writing one short story in order to write the novel; these two works have some common traits. It seems almost obvious that his work on the first text was a real step toward the creation of the second. In the first story there is an opposition of dead/alive which is semantic prefiguring of a central motif in «The Wax Effigy». An analysis of the reception of the novel demonstrated that almost every critic writing about the novel has described it as nonsense. Critics considered Tynianov's work in terms of «devices» and «content» and could not understand how devices are related to the content of the novel: the novel was thought as a signifier without any signified. Implicitly, critics thought the signified of the novel as a traditional one of the historical novel, as the historiosophical «idea», embodied in the system of literary devices. In this case literature becomes something instrumental, a kind of expression of extraliterary content. In contradistinction to that Tynianov considered literary semantics as an effect of the literary structure. From his point of view the literary sense is immanent to the process of signification accomplished inside the literary text. The second chapter is devoted to a rhetorical analysis of the opposition dead/alive. Tynianov systematically compares both terms of the opposition. As a result of this strategy the wax effigy of the dead emperor becomes «as if» alive and the world of living people «as if» dead. The qualifier «as if» refers to the fact that Tynianov creates an ambiguous semantic system. This rhetoric is related to European Romanticism and his «fantastic literature» (Merimé, Hoffmann, Maupassant etc.). But Tynianov demonstrates a linguistic origin of the strange fantoms created by romantics; he demystifies these idols by parodying the fantastic literature, that is, showing «how it was done». At the same time, the opposition mentioned above refers to his idea of «incongruity» which plays a prominent role in Tynianov s theory but has never been conceptualised. The incongruity is a inner collision of the literary text; from Tynianov's point of view the meaning of the work of literature is always a dynamic collision of semantically heterogeneous elements struggling with each other. In «The Wax Effigy» Tynianov creates a metalevel of the work demonstrating the process of creation of the literary sense. The third chapter is a reconstruction of Tynianov's conception of the historical prose, specifically of the mechanisms by which historical facts are transformed into literary events. Tynianov thought that the task of the historical novelist is to depict his hero as an actor, to demonstrate that as a wearer of many masks he is a creator of appearances, ambiguities. Here, in the «figure of fiction» (Andrei Belyi), the very idea of the historical prose and rhetoric employed in «The Wax Effigy», history and literature meet each other. In his last theoretical work, «On parody» Tynianov writes about the so-called sham structure of parody. In his opinion every parody is a text about other texts and «serious» work which could be read at the same time as a text about «reality». This twofold structure of parody is that of «The Wax Effigy»: that text speaks about ambiguities of the history and about ambiguities of the literary sense, about social reality of the past and - about the working of the literature itself. «The Wax Effigy» is written as a autoreflective text, as an experiment in literary semantics, as a system of literary ambiguities - of hero, rhetoric and the text itself. The meaning of the novel is created not by the embodiment extraliterary idea, but by the process of signification accomplished inside the work of literature. In this sense Tynianov's novel is parody, a break with the tradition of the historical novel preceding «The Wax Effigy».
  • Hyytinen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The aim of this study is to explore by systematic textual analysis the crucial conceptions of constructive alignment and to reconstruct the concept of constructive alignment and examine the relation between conceptual relationships in John Biggs’s texts. In this study, I have also analyzed the presuppositions of the concept of constructive alignment and its possible implications. The research material includes Biggs’s (1996b; 2003) article entitled Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment and book entitled Teaching for Quality Learning at University. The primary purpose of the systematic textual analysis is to reconstruct concepts and gain access to a new or more profound understanding of the concepts. The main purpose of the constructive alignment is to design a teaching system that supports and encourages students to adopt a deep approach learning. At the center of the constructive alignment are two concepts: constructivism in learning and alignment in teaching. A tension was detected between these concepts. Biggs assumes that students’ learning activities are primed by the teaching. Because of this it is not important what the teacher does. At the same time he emphasizes that teaching interacts with learning. The teacher’s task is to support student’s appropriate learning activities. On the basis of the analysis, I conclude these conceptions are not mutually exclusive. Interaction between teaching and learning has an effect on student’s learning activities. The most essential benefit of the model of constructive alignment is that Biggs brings together and considers teaching at the same level with learning. A weakness of Biggs’s model relates to the theoretical basis and positions of the concept of constructive alignment. There are some conflicts between conceptions of epistemology in Biggs’s texts. In addition, Biggs writes about constructivism also as conceptions of epistemology, but doesn’t consider implications of that position or what follows or doesn’t follow from that commitment. On the basis of the analysis, I suggest that constructivism refers in Biggs’s texts rather to constructivism in learning than philosophical constructivism. In light of this study, constructive alignment doesn´t lead to philosophical constructivism. That’s why constructive alignment stays out of idealism. Biggs’s way of thinking about teachers possibility to confronting students’ misconceptions and evaluate and assess students’ constructions support a realist purpose in terms of philosophical stance. Realism does not drift toward general problems of relativism, like lack of criteria for assessing or evaluate these constructions.
  • Kotilainen, Lari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Dynamic constructions Dynamic constructions is a study of the dynamism of Finnish grammar. Dynamism as a linguistic phenomenon is studied on both the diachronic and synchronic level. The study therefore focuses not only on the temporal changes of grammar but also on the conventionality of grammatical structures and on the interplay between closely related constructions. Dynamism is also treated as a phenomenon occurring between different varieties of Finnish. All in all, dynamism is shown to be a key feature of the nature of grammar. The study is set within the framework of cognitive linguistics and construction grammar. Both theories emphasise the role of constructions pairings of form with semantic or discourse function in the composition and development of grammar. The grammar of a language is understood to be a structured inventory of such constructions. I argue that the constructions are best studied in their original contexts of use. Thus, the study is usage-based in a strict sense. The data is compiled from various corpora consisting of both written and spoken as well as standard and non-standard Finnish. The dissertation consists of an introduction and four empirical studies. The four papers examine various Finnish constructions and thereby shed light on different aspects of the dynamism of a grammar. The first paper focuses on the diachronic development of the Finnish temporal converb essa. The second paper discusses a specific construction which includes the essa converb, that is, the mikäs on ollessa construction. Some closely related constructions and their semantic interplay are also examined. The third paper extensively studies what is generally regarded as an ellipsis of the negation verb in Finnish. By using present day Finnish data, I show that the omission of the negation verb is not an instance of mere ellipsis but rather a construction. The final paper combines the themes of the second and the third paper by focusing on closely related constructions of the negative ellipsis construction.
  • Perander, Katarina (2005)
    Syftet med denna pro gradu-avhandling var att undersöka huruvida kvinnans identitetskonstruktion har förändrats över två generationer och hur dessa eventuella förändringar ser ut. Den empiriska delen av studien utgjordes av en enkätundersökning där materialet samlades in bland kvinnor som väntade sitt första barn (n = 34) och dessa kvinnors egna mödrar (n = 29). Kvinnorna kom från Helsingfors och Joensuu. Identitetskonstruktionen analyserades med hjälp av Identity Structure Analysis (ISA) -instrumentet, som utvecklats av Weinreich. Instrumentet för denna studie konstruerades av prof. Airi Hautamäki som en del av en longitudinell tregenerationsstudie. ISA bygger på en metateoretisk referensram med element av Eriksons psykodynamiska utvecklingsteori, symbolisk interaktionism, socialkonstruktionism, Kellys teori om personliga konstruktioner, värdeteorier samt den kognitivt-affektiva konsistensteorins grundläggande antaganden. De resultat som erhölls med ISA jämfördes med resultaten för samma grupp kvinnor på The Silencing the Self Scale (STSS), som Hautamäki fått fram. Syftet var att utreda sambandet mellan eventuella identifikationskonflikter och tendensen att tysta ner den egna rösten samt skillnaderna i detta samband mellan den yngre och den äldre generationens kvinnor. Studiens resultat visade att ingendera gruppen av kvinnor upplevde den traditionella kvinnligheten som särskilt viktig för den egna identiteten. Den yngre generationen av kvinnor identifierade sig med den egna modern och värderade modern högre än vad den äldre generationens kvinnor gjorde. Sambandet mellan identifikationskonflikt och nertystande av självet var tydligt för den äldre generationens kvinnor främst i förhållande till den egna modern. För de yngre kvinnorna var detta samband inte lika påtagligt. I Finland har kvinnan redan länge arbetat utanför hemmet, vilket syntes i att självständighet och självförverkligande också var viktiga element för den äldre generationens kvinnor. Resultaten tyder på att det verkar vara den äldre generationens kvinnor som tagit det stora steget ifrån den traditionella kvinnorollen, medan de yngre redan representerar en andra generationens emanciperade kvinnor. De viktigaste källorna: Bjerrum Nielsen 1999; Bjerrum Nielsen & Rudberg 1994; Chodorow 1978, 1990, 1995; Hautamäki 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005; Kaplan 1992; Wager 1994; Weinreich 1989, 1998, 2003
  • Lunabba, Harry (2007)
    Avsikten med avhandlingen är att studera på vilket sätt pojkars genus och pojkdom konstrueras i socialt arbete inom barnskydd och förklara samt beskriva pojkars barnskyddsprocesser. Frågeställningen är: Hur konstrueras pojkars klientskap i barnskyddsarbete och vilken betydelse har denna konstruktion för pojkar? Studiet baserar sig på två pojkars barnskyddsberättelser. Berättelserna uppfattas som den helhetsbild som socialarbetarna utgår ifrån i sitt arbete med ifrågavarande pojkar. Studiet genomfördes på två socialkontor i två olika kommuner. Förståelsen om pojkar och pojkars problemförhållanden bygger på genusforskning samt det s.k. nya barndomsperspektivet. Forskningsmetoden i avhandlingen är fallstudie. Materialet består av pojkars barnskyddsdokument. Dokumentationsmaterialet har dessutom kompletteras med intervju med socialarbetare. Intervjuerna med socialarbetare karakteriseras som vagt strukturerade temaintervjuer där utgångspunkten var att låta socialarbetarna självständigt berätta om sina tankar och erfarenheter om handläggningen av pojkarnas ärende. Materialet sammanställdes till en kronologisk struktur med hjälp av en tidsaxelanalys och därefter har materialet vidare utarbetats till en enhetlig berättelse. Materialet har analyserats genom en mönstermatchningsanalys och explikationsuppbyggnadsmodell. Mönstermatchningsanalys går ut på att man jämför anteciperade mönster med det empiriska materialet. I materialet framträdde två generella mönster. Pojkarnas problemförhållanden uppmärksammades och konstruerades främst utgående från händelser där pojkars beteende framträdda som aggressivt eller oroligt. Den övergripande konstruktionen av pojkarna var att de uppfattades som besvärliga. Det aggressiva och oroliga beteendemönstret framträdde i flera olika sammanhang och denna typ av beteende var också förekommande i de anmälningar som gjordes till barnskyddet gällande pojkarna. Det andra mönstret som var framträdande i pojkars barnskyddsberättelser var att pojkarna uppfattades som utmanande för det sociala arbetet inom barnskydd, eftersom socialarbetarna upplevde att den tillgängliga vården och servicen inte är tillräcklig eller annars lämplig för att tillgodose pojkarnas behov. Socialarbetarna hade svårigheter att erbjuda eller finna lämpliga eller passande serviceformer för pojkarna. Studiet visade att pojkars ställning inom barnskyddsarbete inte är hegemonisk och att det finns skäl att utveckla barnskyddets beredskap i att bemöta pojkars behov av service. Det framkom också att konstruktionen av pojkars genus är förekommande i barnskyddsarbete och denna konstruktion är av betydelse för utförandet av det praktiska sociala arbetet. Konstruktionen av pojkars genus har också betydelse i socialarbetarnas utvärdering av pojkars behov av skydd.
  • Forsskåhl, Mona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This study concerns the most common word pair in spoken Swedish, de e (it is, third person pronoun + copula-verb in present tense). The aim of the study is twofold, with an empirical aim and a theoretical aim. The empirical aim is to investigate if and how the string de e can be understood and described as a construction in its own right with characteristics that distinguishes it from other structures and resources in spoken Swedish. The theoretical aim is to test how two different linguistic theories and methods, interactional linguistics and construction grammar, can be combined and used to describe and explain patterns in languaging that traditional grammar does take into account. The empirical analysis is done within the interactional linguistic framework with sequence analyses of excerpts from authentic conversation data. The data consists of approximately ten hours of recorded conversation from Finland and Sweden. The sequence analysis suggests that the string de e really is used as a resource in its own right. In most cases, the string is also used in ways consistent with abstract grammatical patterns described by traditional grammar. Nevertheless, there are instances where de e is used in ways not described before: with numerals and infinitive phrases as complements, without any complements at all and together with certain complements (bra, de) in idiomatic ways. Furthermore, in the instances where de e is used according to known grammatical patterns the function of the particular string de e is clearly contextually specific and in various ways linked to the micro-context in which it is used. A new model is suggested for understanding and concluding the results from the sequence analyses. It consists of two different types of constructions grammatical and interactional. The grammatical constructions show how the string is used in eleven structurally different ways. The interactional constructions show seven different sequential positions and functions in which the string occurs. The two types of constructions are also linked to each other as potentials. This is a new way to describe how interactants use and responds to a concrete string like de e in conversation.
  • Martola, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The topic for the study is the Swedish preposition “åt”. The corresponding prepositions in English are “to”, “for” and “at”. One of the main purposes of the study is to compare the use of the preposition in two varieties of Swedish, the Swedish spoken in Sweden (Sweden Swedish, ‘sverigesvenska’) and the Swedish spoken in Finland (Finland Swedish, ‘finlandssvenska’), and to point out differences and similarities. The study is corpus-based and the corpora, one for each variety, consist mainly of newspapers and novels from 1980 to around 2000. The total number of words is around 40 million, 19 million in the Sweden Swedish and 23 million in the Finland Swedish corpus. The other purpose of the study is to analyze in what kind of patterns the preposition åt occurs. General semantic patterns, valency patterns and idiomatic patterns are all brought to the fore. The theoretical basis for the study is Construction Grammar as developed by Ch. Fillmore, Fried & Östman, A. Goldberg, and W. Croft. Also Frame Semantics and its further development FrameNet play an important role in the study. According to Construction Grammar, constructions are constellations of form and meaning/function. The constructions are abstract units, but in an empirical study it is possible to arrive at abstract constructions through generalizations over concrete occurrences. The results indicate that the use of the preposition “åt” differs in Finland Swedish from the use in Sweden Swedish – but not as much as expected (on the basis of previous studies), at least not in written language. In Finland Swedish the preposition is used more to indicate the role Recipient, whereas the role Beneficiary is more predominant in Sweden Swedish. In both varieties, however, the use of “åt” is most often highly idiomatic and it is only the Beneficiary-role that can be said to be entirely productive. As to valency binding, the preposition phrase with “åt” occurs either as an argument or as a middle. Middles are complements that are neither arguments nor real adjuncts but stand somewhere in between these two. The preposition “åt” occurs as part both of general patterns and of specific idiomatic patterns. The constructions in which the preposition “åt” is an element are connected in an intricate network.