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  • Genberg, Jonna Heidi Elisabeth (2014)
    Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters (the Brussels I Regulation) has been considered the most important legal document in the area of civil procedure on EU level. Article 1(2)(d) of the Regulation excludes arbitration from the scope of application of the Brussels I Regulation. However, the ECJ interpreted the arbitration exclusion narrowly in Case C-185/07 Allianz SpA & Generali Assicurazioni Generali SpA v. West Tankers Inc. (2009) ECR I-663. In practice, this preliminary ruling watered down the arbitration exclusion in the Regulation, and thereby caused an intensive debate on the influence of EU legislation on international arbitration. Case law of the ECJ has shown that the scope of application of the Regulation and the arbitration exclusion in it depends on the substantive subject matter of the dispute in question. If that subject matter falls within the scope of the Regulation, a court which has jurisdiction under the Regulation is entitled to examine whether the arbitration exception applies and, depending on its assessment of the validity of the arbitration agreement, to refer the case to the arbitral body or adjudicate the matter itself. The revised Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012 becomes applicable on matters issued as of 10 January 2015. The result of the revision is that the arbitration exclusion remains unchanged, however with an added recital (12) in the preamble. This has left the arbitration audience and legal scholars somewhat confused concerning the reasons for keeping the arbitration exclusion unaltered in the revised Regulation. This thesis examines the factors that have led to the current legal situation in the area of EU civil procedure, in particular concerning arbitration. It also provides an analysis of what the revision of the Regulation signifies in practice. Lastly, it contemplates what the standpoint of the CJEU potentially will be in future arbitration proceedings in the light of i.e. West Tankers and based on the revised Regulation. The revised Regulation introduces some key changes originally aiming to make the recognition and enforcement of judgments given by the Member States’ courts easier and more effective. However, contrary to the arbitration community’s expectations, the Regulation has not fully clarified the interface between the Regulation and arbitration. The added recital only provides assistance to some extent, and it seems that we stand before a revision that chose status quo instead of presenting any revolutionary renovations to the arbitration exclusion.
  • Juottonen, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Methanogens are anaerobic Archaea with unique energy metabolism resulting in production of methane (CH4). In the atmosphere methane is an effective greenhouse gas. The largest natural sources of atmospheric methane are wetlands, including peat-forming mires. Methane emissions vary greatly between and within mires, depending on season and hydrological and botanical characteristics. The aim of this work was to elucidate the microbiology underlying the variation. Methanogens and potential methane production were assessed along spatial and temporal gradients of ecohydrology, season, ash fertilization, and peat depth in three Finnish boreal mires. Non-methanogenic Archaea and Bacteria were additionally addressed as potential substrate producers and competitors to methanogens. Characterization of microbial communities targeted the mcrA gene, essential in methane production, and archaeal or bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The communities were differentiated by analysis of clone libraries, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting. Methanogen communities and methane production changed markedly along an ecohydrological gradient from fen to bog, with changing vegetation and pH. The most acidic Sphagnum bog showed mainly Methanomicrobiales-associated, hydrogenotrophic Fen cluster methanogens, whereas the oligotrophic and mesotrophic fens with higher pH and sedge coverage had more diverse communities including acetoclastic methanogens. Season had a minor effect on the archaeal community in an acidic oligotrophic fen, but the temporal variation of methane production potential was substantial. Winter potential was unexpectedly high, and active methanogens were detected in winter peat. Ash fertilization, a forestry practice for promoting tree growth, had no substantial effects on methane production or methanogen communities in a drained bog, but the communities changed with peat depth. Comparison of three mcrA primer sets revealed that their coverage of methanogens from the drained bog was similar, but the quantitative representations of communities were primer-dependent. Bacterial and non-methanogenic archaeal groups detected in mires included Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Crenarchaeota of groups 1.1c and 1.3. Their detection forms a starting point for further studies to distinguish possible interactions with methanogens. Overall, the results indicate that methanogen community composition reflects chemical or botanical gradients that affect methane production, such as mire hydrology. Predictions of methane production in the spatially heterogeneous mires could thus benefit from characterization of methanogens and their ecophysiology.
  • Bomberg, Malin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Archaea were long thought to be a group of ancient bacteria, which mainly lived in extreme environments. Due to the development of DNA sequencing methods and molecular phylogenetic analyses, it was shown that the living organisms are in fact divided into three domains; the Archaea, Bacteria and the Eucarya. Since the beginning of the previous decade, it was shown that archaea generally inhabit moderate environments and that these non-extremophilic archaea are more ubiquitous than the extremophiles. Group 1 of non-extreme archaea affiliate with the phylum Crenarchaeota. The most commonly found soil archaea belong to the subgroup 1.1b. However, the Crenarchaeota found in the Fennoscandian boreal forest soil belong to the subgroup 1.1c. The organic top layer of the boreal forest soil, the humus, is dominated by ectomycorrhizal fungal hyphae. These colonise virtually all tree fine root tips in the humus layer and have been shown to harbour distinct bacterial populations different from those in the humus. The archaea have also been shown to colonise both boreal forest humus and the rhizospheres of plants. In this work, studies on the archaeal communities in the ectomycorrhizospheres of boreal forest trees were conducted in microcosms. Archaea belonging to the group 1.1c Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota of the genera Halobacterium and Methanolobus were detected. The archaea generally colonised fungal habitats, such as ectomycorrhizas and external mycelia, rather than the non-mycorrhizal fine roots of trees. The species of ectomycorrhizal fungus had a great impact on the archaeal community composition. A stable euryarchaeotal community was detected especially in the mycorrhizas, of most of the tested Scots pine colonising ectomycorrhizal fungi. The Crenarchaeota appeared more sporadically in these habitats, but had a greater diversity than the Euryarchaeota. P. involutus mycorrhizas had a higher diversity of 1.1c Crenarchaeota than the other ectomycorrhizal fungi. The detection level of archaea in the roots of boreal trees was generally low although archaea have been shown to associate with roots of different plants. However, alder showed a high diversity of 1.1c Crenarchaeota, exceeding that of any of the tested mycorrhizas. The archaeal 16S rRNA genes detected from the non-mycorrhizal roots were different from those of the P. involutus mycorrhizas. In the phylogenetic analyses, the archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from non-mycorrhizal fine roots fell in a separate cluster within the group 1.1c Crenarchaeota than those from the mycorrhizas. When the roots of the differrent tree species were colonised by P. involutus, the diversity and frequency of the archaeal populations of the different tree species were more similar to each other. Both Cren- and Euryarchaeota were enriched in cultures to which C-1 substrates were added. The 1.1c Crenarchaeota grew anaerobically in mineral medium with CH4 and CO2 as the only available C sources, and in yeast extract media with CO2 and CH4 or H2. The crenarchaeotal diversity was higher in aerobic cultures on mineral medium with CH4 or CH3OH than in the anaerobic cultures. Ecological functions of the mycorrhizal 1.1c Crenarchaeota in both anaerobic and aerobic cycling of C-1 compounds were indicated. The phylogenetic analyses did not divide the detected Crenarchaeota into anaerobic and aerobic groups. This may suggest that the mycorrhizospheric crenarchaeotal communities consist of closely related groups of anaerobic and aerobic 1.1c Crenarchaeota, or the 1.1c Crenarchaeota may be facultatively anaerobic. Halobacteria were enriched in non-saline anaerobic yeast extract medium cultures in which CH4 was either added or produced, but were not detected in the aerobic cultures. They may potentially be involved in anaerobic CH4 cycling in ectomycorrhizas. The CH4 production of the mycorrhizal samples was over 10 times higher than for humus devoid of mycorrhizal hyphae, indicating a high CH4 production potential of the mycorrhizal metanogenic community. Autofluorescent methanogenic archaea were detected by microscopy and 16S rRNA gene sequences of the genus Methanolobus were obtained. The archaeal community depended on both tree species and the type of ectomycorrhizal fungus colonising the roots and the Cren- and Euryarchaeota may have different ecological functions in the different parts of the boreal forest tree rhizosphere and mycorrhizosphere. By employing the results of this study, it may be possible to isolate both 1.1c Crenarchaeota as well as non-halophilic halobacteria and aerotolerant methanogens from mycorrhizospheres. These archaea may be used as indicators for change in the boreal forest soil ecosystem due to different factors, such as exploitations of forests and the rise in global temperature. More information about the microbial populations with apparently low cell numbers but significant ecological impacts, such as the boreal forest soil methanogens, may be of crucial importance to counteract human impacts on such globally important ecosystems as the boreal forests.
  • Käpyaho, Asko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This thesis summarises the results of four original papers concerning U-Pb geochronology and geochemical evolution of Archaean rocks from the Kuhmo terrain and the Nurmes belt, eastern Finland. The study area belongs to a typical Archaean granite-greenstone terrain, composed of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks in generally N-S trending greenstone belts as well as a granitoid-gneiss complex with intervening gneissic and migmatised supracrustal and plutonic rocks. U-Pb data on migmatite mesosomes indicate that the crust surrounding the Tipasjärvi-Kuhmo-Suomussalmi greenstone belt is of varying age. The oldest protolith detected for a migmatite mesosome from the granitoid-gneiss complex is 2.94 Ga, whereas the other dated migmatites protoliths have ages of 2.84 2.79 Ga. The latter protoliths are syngenetic with the majority of volcanic rocks in the adjacent Tipasjärvi-Kuhmo-Suomussalmi greenstone belt. This suggests that the genesis of some of the volcanic rocks within the greenstone belt and surrounding migmatite protoliths could be linked. Metamorphic zircon overgrowths with ages of 2.84 2.81 Ga were also obtained. The non-migmatised plutonic rocks in the Kuhmo terrain and in the Nurmes belt record secular geochemical evolution, typical of Archaean cratons. The studied tonalitic rocks have ages of 2.83 2.75 Ga and they have geochemical characteristics similar to low-Al and high-Al TTD (tonalite-trondhjemite-dacite). The granodiorites, diorites, and gabbros with high Mg/Fe and LILE-enriched characteristics were mostly emplaced between 2.74 2.70 Ga and they exhibit geochemical characteristics typical of Archaean sanukitoid suites. The latest identified plutonic episode took place at 2.70 2.68 Ga, when compositionally heterogeneous leucocratic granitoid rocks, with a variable crustal component, were emplaced. U-Pb data on migmatite leucosomes suggest that leucosome generation may have been coeval with this latest plutonic event. On the basis of available U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic data it appears that the plutonic rocks of the Kuhmo terrain and the Nurmes belt do not contain any significant input from Palaeoarchaean sources. A characteristic feature of the Nurmes belt is the presence of migmatised paragneisses, locally preserving primary edimentary structures, with sporadic amphibolite intercalations. U-Pb studies on zircons indicate that the precursors of the Nurmes paragneisses were graywackes that were deposited between 2.71 Ga and 2.69 Ga and that they had a prominent 2.75 2.70 Ga source. Nd isotopic and whole-rock geochemical data for the intercalated amphibolites imply MORB sources. U-Pb data on zircons from the plutonic rocks and paragneisses reveal that metamorphic zircon growth took place at 2.72 2.63 Ga. This was the last tectonothermal event related to cratonisation of the Archaean crust of eastern Finland.
  • Marila, Marko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    In this master s thesis, I have discussed the question of authenticity in postprocessual archaeology. Modern archaeology is a product of the modern world, and postprocessual archaeology in turn is strongly influenced by postmodernism. The way authenticity has been understood in processual archaeology is largely dictated by the modern condition. The understanding of authenticity in postprocessual archaeology, however, rests on notions of simulation and metaphor. It has been argued by postprocessual archaeologists that the past can be experienced by metaphor, and that the relationship between now and then is of a metaphorical kind. In postprocessual archaeology, authenticity has been said to be contextual. This view has been based on a contextualist understanding of the meanings of language and metaphor. I argue that, besides being based on metaphor, authenticity is a conventional attribute based on habits of acting, which in turn have their basis in the material world and the materiality of objects. Authenticity is material meaning, and that meaning can be found out by studying the objects as signs in a chain of signification called semiosis. Authenticity therefore is semiosis.
  • Mannermaa, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The prominent roles of birds, often mentioned in historical sources, are not well reflected in archaeological research. Absence or scarcity of bird bones in archaeological assemblages has been often seen as indication of a minor role of birds in the prehistoric economy or ideology, or explained by taphonomic loss. Few studies exist where birds form the basis for extensive archaeological interpretation. In this doctoral dissertation bird bone material from various Stone Age sites in the Baltic Sea region is investigated. The study period is approximately 7000-3400 BP, comprising mainly Neolithic cultures. The settlement material comes from Finland, Åland, Gotland, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. Osteological materials are used for studying the economic and cultural importance of birds, fowling methods and principal fowling seasons. The bones were identified and earlier identifications partially checked with help of a reference material of modern skeletons. Fracture analysis was used in order to study the deposition history of bones at Ajvide settlement site. Birds in burials at two large cemeteries, Ajvide on Gotland and Zvejnieki in northern Latvia were investigated in order to study the roles of birds in burial practices. My study reveals that the economic importance of birds is at least seasonally often more prominent than usually thought, and varies greatly in different areas. Fowling has been most important in coastal areas, and especially during the breeding season. Waterbirds and grouse species were generally the most important groups in Finnish Stone Age economy. The identified species composition shows much resemblance to contemporary hunting with species such as the mallard and capercaillie commonly found. Burial materials and additional archaeological evidence from Gotland, Latvia and some other parts of northern Europe indicate that birds –e.g., jay, whooper swan, ducks – have been socially and ideologically important for the studied groups (indicating a place in the belief system, e.g. clan totemism). The burial finds indicate that some common ideas about waterbirds (perhaps as messengers or spirit helpers) might have existed in the northern European Stone Age.
  • Michael, Martin Peter (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Mobile RFID services for the Internet of Things can be created by using RFID as an enabling technology in mobile devices. Humans, devices, and things are the content providers and users of these services. Mobile RFID services can be either provided on mobile devices as stand-alone services or combined with end-to-end systems. When different service solution scenarios are considered, there are more than one possible architectural solution in the network, mobile, and back-end server areas. Combining the solutions wisely by applying the software architecture and engineering principles, a combined solution can be formulated for certain application specific use cases. This thesis illustrates these ideas. It also shows how generally the solutions can be used in real world use case scenarios. A case study is used to add further evidence.
  • Miettinen, Jarkko (2003)
    ARCH-malleilla tarkoitetaan tässä tutkielmassa paitsi Robert Englen vuonna 1982 esittelemää aikasarjamallia, myös sille kirjallisuudessa esitettyjä lukuisia laajennuksia. ARCH-mallien voidaan sanoa olevan yleisimmin käytetty menetelmä niin sanotun ehdollisen heteroskedastisuuden mallintamisessa. Ehdollista heteroskedastisuutta esiintyy muun muassa taloudellisissa aikasarjoissa, kuten osake-, korko- ja valuuttakurssituottoaineistoissa. Työssä käsiteltyjä spesifikaatioita ovat alkuperäisen ARCH-mallin lisäksi GARCH-, EGARCH-, GJR-GARCH- ja GARCH-M-mallit. Diagnostiikan tarkoituksena on varmistaa, että aineistoon sovitettu malli täyttää sille asetetut vaatimukset. ARCH-mallien tapauksessa tyypillinen diagnostiikkamenettely on standardoitujen residuaalien jakauman sekä riippuvuusrakenteen tarkastelu. Toisaalta malli voidaan asettaa vaativampaan testiin tarkastelemalla sen sopivuutta aineistoon estimointiperiodin ulkopuolella ennusteperiodilla. Etenkin rahoitusalalla yhä tärkeämmiksi ovat viime vuosina tulleet niin kutsutut tiheysfunktioennusteet. Tiheysfunktioennusteella tarkoitetaan arviota satunnaismuuttujan tulevan realisaation mahdollisten arvojen todennäköisyysjakaumasta. Tutkielman tavoitteena onkin esitellä ARCH-mallien teorian ohella niiden diagnostiikkaa erityisesti tiheysfunktioennustamisen viitekehyksessä. Tähän soveltuu työssä käsiteltävä niin sanottuun kertymäfunktiomuunnokseen perustuva tiheysfunktioennusteiden arviointimenetelmä. Sama menetelmä soveltuu myös mallin oikeellisuuden arviointiin estimointiperiodilla. Tutkielman empiriaosassa esitettiin kaksi esimerkkiä taloudellisilla aikasarjoilla. Kyseessä olivat Saksan markan ja Yhdysvaltain dollarin välisen valuuttakurssin päivätuotot sekä Saksan pörssin DAX-osakeindeksin päivätuotot. Molemmat aineistot osoittautuivat tyypillisiksi rahoitusaikasarjoiksi, mutta myös joitakin eroja voitiin odottaa valuuttakurssi- ja osakeindeksiaikasarjojen erilaisen luonteen vuoksi. Erityisiä mielenkiinnon kohteita olivat epäsymmetristen GARCH-mallien sekä GARCH-M-spesifikaation tarpeellisuus osakeindeksituottoaineistossa. Tehdyissä tarkasteluissa nähtiin, että sovelletuilla menetelmillä kyettiin erottamaan 1-3 aineistoon sopivinta mallia. Lisäksi osoittautui, että ehdolliseen normaalijakaumaan perustuvat mallit eivät tuottaneet tyydyttävää kuvausta kummastakaan aineistosta. Valuuttakurssiaineiston tapauksessa kokeilluista malleista sopivimpana voitiin pitää GARCH(1,1)-mallia, jossa ehdollisena jakaumana käytettiin t-jakaumaa. Osakeindeksiaineiston tapauksessa sekä epäsymmetrisyyden implikoiva GJR-GARCH-laajennus, että talousteoreettisesti perusteltavissa oleva GARCH-M-spesifikaatio osoittautuivat tilastollisesti merkitseviksi. Verrattaessa edellä mainittuja malleja yksinkertaisempaan GARCH(1,1)-t-malliin ei suuria eroja mallien ennustekyvyissä kuitenkaan voitu havaita. Sen sijaan saatujen tulosten mukaan kaikki kolme mallia näyttivät sopivan aineistoon varsin hyvin. Lopuksi todettiin, että ennusteperiodin tarkastelut vahvistivat estimointiperiodin tarkastelujen jälkeen tehtyjä johtopäätöksiä. Toisin sanoen estimointiperiodilla aineistoihin hyvin sopineet mallit vaikuttivat kohtuullisilta myös ennusteperiodilla. Tutkielman tärkeimmät lähteet ARCH-mallien teorian osalta ovat Bollerslevin, Englen ja Nelsonin (1994) katsausartikkeli sekä Fransesin ja van Dijkin (2002) kirja. ARMA-GARCH-mallilla ennustamista koskevassa kappaleessa seuraillaan Baillieta ja Bollerslevia (1992). Kertymäfunktiomuunnoksen soveltamista tiheysfunktioennusteiden arviointiin ehdottivat ensimmäisen kerran Diebold, Gunther ja Tay (1998). Muista lähteistä mainittakoon Bollerslevin, Choun ja Kronerin (1992) ARCH-mallien empiirisiä sovelluksia käsittelevä artikkeli sekä Tayn ja Wallisin (2000) katsaus tiheysfunktioennustamiseen.
  • Nordlund, Toni (2003)
    Venture capital is in general terms an outside investment to a start-up business that hasstrong gro~rth opportunities but no access to capital markets. We study the rationalvaluation of such investments by constructing a model where a venture project is in atraditional fashion implemented as a cooperation between two complementary parties. Theinvestor, or the venture capitalist, keeps the project running by supplying equity capital,while the entrepreneur collaborates by supplying unique human capital. The key factor in themodel is that the infusion of capital is staged, so that the venture capitalist in the capacity ofan inside investor exercises strategic discretion to periodically rescreen the current state ofthe project along with the future prospects. If the project turns out a failure, the venturecapitalist exits immediately with a zero scrap value. His primary objective is however to findthe optimal timing for an initial public offering (IPO), where the accumulated equity stake issold in the market. It follows that the rational valuation emerges as an optimal stoppingprob em, which is approached by means of real options. Drawing on the optimality principle of dynamic programming and the general stoppingtheory, the rational value and the optimal stopping rule are derived in detail. The concepts ofregularity and an excessive majorant are introduced as elemental building blocks in theanalysis. It is in fact shown that the rational value conforms to a specific smallest excessivemajorant that incorporates in a simple way the time-to-build element created by the stagingof capital infusion. As a novelty in the venture-financing literature, we also introduce theconcept of a near-optimal stopping rule in conjunction with the optimal rule. Near-optimalitysimply means that a rule may call for stopping even if the time-to-build element implicit in theventure project is larger in value than the gain obtainable by immediate stopping. Both theoptimal rule and near optimal rules are made use of to study some absorbing aspects ofventure financing. We for example establish the effect of entrepreneurial exit options on theoptimal stopping behaviour of the venture capitalist, and on the rational real-option value. Equipped with the optimal rule, the study lastly derives sufficient conditions under whichstopping, and an IPO in particular, is not optimal to the venture capitalist. The starting point for the study is provided by the following references.Shiryayev, A. N. (1978): Optimal Stopping Rules. Springer-Verlag. Harrison, J.M., and Kreps, D.M. (1979): Martingales and Arbitrage in Multip riod SecuritiesMarkets. Journal of Economic Theory, vol. 20, pp. 381-408. Trigeorgis, Lenos (1996): Real Options: Managerial Flexibility and Strategy in ResourceAllocation. The MIT Press.
  • Nordlund, Toni (2003)
    Riskisijoittamisella (venture capital) tarkoitetaan yleisesti sijoitusten tekemistä kohteisiin,joilla on vahvat kasvuedellytykset mutta ei pääsyä pääomamarkkinoille. Työn tavoitteena on tutkia tällaisten kohteiden rationaalista arvottamista rakentamalla malli, jossa riskiprojekti(venture project) toteutetaan perinteisesti kahden komplementaarisen osapuolenyhteistyönä. Rahoittaja (venture capitalist) panostaa projektiin osakesijoituksilla, kun taas yrittäjän (entrepreneur) panos muodostuu henkisestä pääomasta. Työ lähtee liikkeelle oletuksesta, että rahoittajan pääomapanostus on vaiheistettua, mikä antaa hänelle vahvan aseman projektin kontrolloimisessa: rahoittaja käy periodisesti läpi projektin kehitysvaiheensekä tulevaisuuden näkymät. Jos projekti osoittautuu epäonnistuneeksi, rahoittaja voi poistua välittömästi nolla tuotolla. Päätavoitteena rahoittajalla on kuitenkin määrittää optimaalinen ajoitus ensitarjousmyynnille (IPO), jossa kertynyt osuus projektin osakepääomasta suunnataan markkinoille. Tästä johtuen projektin rationaalinen arvottaminen ilmenee optimaalisen pysäytyksen ongelmana, jota työssä lähestytään reaalioptioiden näkökulmasta. Dynaamisen ohjelmoinnin optimaalisuusperiaatteeseen sekä yleiseen pysäytysteoriaan nojaten riskiprojektin rationaalinen arvo sekä optimaalinen pysäytyssääntö (stopping rule) johdetaan yksityiskohtaisesti. Eksessiivisen majorantin käsite ja pysäytyssäännön regulariteetti tuodaan esille analyysin keskeisinä rakennuspalikoina. Osoittautuu, että rationaalinen hinta voidaan ilmaista ns. pienimmällä eksessiivisellä majorantilla, joka pitää sisällään vaiheistetun pääomapanostuksen synnyttämän time-to-build elementin. Uutuutena riskirahoituskirjallisuudessa työssä esitellään melkein optimaaliset (near-optimal) pysäytyssäännöt optimaalisen säännön rinnalla. Poikkeama optimaalisuudesta tulkitaan yksinkertaisesti siten että projekti pysäytetään, vaikka time-to-build elementin arvo on suurempi kuin välitön tuotto. Sekä optimaalista sääntöä että melkein optimaalisia sääntöjä sovelletaan joihinkin riskirahoitusteorian mielenkiintoisia ongelmiin. Työssä mm. tutkitaan yrittäjän outside optioiden vaikutusta projektin rationaalisen reaalioptioarvoon sekä rahoittajan optimaalisen pysäytysstrategiaan. Optimaalista pysäytyssääntöä hyödyntäen työssä johdetaan lopuksi riittävät ehdot pysäytyksen - ja etenkin ensitarjousmyynnin - epäoptimaalisuudelle. Peruslähteinä työssä ovat mm. seuraavat:Shiryayev, A. N. (1978): Optimal Stopping Rules. Springer-Verlag. Harrison, J.M., and Kreps, D.M. (1979): Martingales and Arbitrage in Multiperiod Securities Markets. Journal of Economic Theory, vol. 20, ss. 381-408. Trigeorgis, Lenos (1996): Real Options: Managerial Flexibility and Strategy in Resource Allocation. The MIT Press.
  • Penny, Richard (2009)
    This thesis will focus on our understanding of the nature of concepts within political theory. We will begin by noting that our possession of a functional conceptual model is a vital, perhaps essential, prerequisite for rich and useful theorizing about political concepts. We will then hypothesise that the model of the concept common to political study is not fully functional, but problematic, and a likely source of some of the difficulties political theorists have in offering useful definitions of key political concepts. In the first chapter we shall seek to uncover and document a common political approach to the concept. This will be achieved by focusing on a case-study - the debates over the meaning of the term freedom . Using the works of a number of scholars, but particularly Isaiah Berlin, we will attempt to explicate a common conceptual model that these contributors presuppose. With this achieved we will then draw upon the conceptual theory of both the disciplines of analytical philosophy and the cognitive sciences, in order to mount a critique of this conceptual model. Having done so, we will attempt to construct an alternative conceptual account, which addresses the shortcomings of current approaches, and also takes into account the particular nature of political terms. In the final section we will assess the potential of such an approach as a tool for future conceptual research. We will document how it has the capacity to both offer a richer account of political concepts, and moderate the contestation which is often characteristic of political terms.
  • Bain, Allan (2009)
    The principle of decentralisation has always been an important element of green thought. By making the local the primary political unit, many greens believe that human-nature relations as well as human-human relations would be greatly improved. However, a number of green thinkers in the last twenty years have questioned this green commitment to decentralisation, with those involved in the green political theory (GPT) academic community being the most vocal. Although criticism of green decentralisation has taken a number of forms, the most interesting of these for the disciplines of political science and world politics is arguably the interest of most GPT writers in bringing the state back into green theorising. This move has been made in an effort to compensate for what GPT writers claim is a mistaken dismissal of the state in both pragmatic and, to a lesser extent, normative terms especially in relation to the politics of global environmental problems. This thesis discusses in depth the GPT reaction to the perceived flaws of traditional green decentralist thought and the latter s aversion to the state with the aim of defending, yet at the same time updating, the principle of decentralisation. In particular, GPT s contention that different environmental problems should be dealt with at different levels the local, state or international for example is given much attention. Such levels thinking is found wanting in a number of areas, not least in respect to how an environmental problem should be matched up to its correct political level. Whilst it is argued in the thesis that GPT s dissatisfaction with the green principle of decentralisation, as traditionally interpreted, is understandable, GPT writers are urged to reconsider the way in which they have kept some qualified decentralist sentiment in their work. Accordingly, the thesis offers an alternative approach to studying environmental problems which tries to update green decentralist thought by combining it with the insights of GPT and elements of green International Relations theory (GIRT). The result is the author s international centralisation approach. This approach conceptualises the international as a new sphere of centralisation and holds that a move away from this level is an act of decentralisation, even when this leads to an empowerment of the state. Thus the fixed meanings given to the terms centralisation and decentralisation in green thought including traditional green decentralist thought, GPT and GIRT are reinterpreted, giving rise to a dynamic and contextsensitive approach. It is argued in the thesis that a move away from the international level would allow global environmental challenges to be approached in a manner more consistent with traditional green thought.
  • Kujala, Riina (2013)
    Työ käsittelee GATT:n artiklan XI suhdetta OPEC:n ylläpitämiin öljyn tuotannonrajoituksiin. Artikla XI kieltää määrälliset tuotteiden kaupanrajoitukset, joita valtiot ylläpitävät tuontiin tai vientiin liittyen. OPEC:n jäsenmaat asettavat tuotannonrajoituksia jokaiselle jäsenmaalle öljyn tuotantoon liittyen. Jokainen jäsenmaa saa siis nostaa maasta vain tietyn määrän öljyä määrätyllä aikavälillä. Öljyn tuotannonrajoituksella on käytännössä vientiä rajoittava vaikutus, ja rajoitus vastaa vaikutuksiltaan artiklassa XI kiellettyjä määrällisiä rajoituksia. On kuitenkin epäselvää kuuluvatko OPEC:n tuotannonrajoitukset artiklan XI piiriin. Artikla edellyttää, että on olemassa rajoitus, joka kohdistuu tuotteen vientiin. Artiklan tulkinta on jaoteltu toisaalta siihen, mitä tarkoittaa se, että rajoituksen on kohdistuttava vientiin ja toisaalta siihen, mitä voidaan pitää tuotteena artiklan XI tarkoittamalla tavalla. Tulkinta suoritetaan hyödyntämällä WTO-järjestelmässä käytössä olevia tulkintaperiaatteita, niistä tärkeimpänä Valtiosopimusoikeutta koskevan Wienin yleissopimuksen tulkintaperiaatteet. WTO:n oikeuskäytäntö on myös merkittävässä osassa artiklan tulkinnassa. WTO:n oikeuskäytännöstä ei löydy suoranaista vastausta kysymykseen, ja myös tuotteen määritelmän osalta hyvin vähän oikeuskäytäntöä. Toisaalta rajoituksen määritelmästä ja sen kohdistumisesta vientiin löytyy useita oikeustapauksia, ja tapauksia hyödynnetään erityisesti arvioimalla eri tulkintaperiaatteideiden käyttöä ja merkitystä WTO-järjestelmässä. Työ rakentuu artiklan XI tulkinnan ympärille ja siihen liittyviin kysymyksiin, kuten mikä on GATT:n ja tuotannonrajoitusten suhde, mitä voidaan pitää tuotteena, mikä on GATT:n suhde luonnonvaroihin, voiko GATT säännellä luonnonvarojen hyödyntämistä niiden luonnollisessa tilassa ja mikä on valtioiden itsemääräämisoikeuden merkitys asiassa. Analyysin perusteella OPEC:n tuotannonrajoitukset eivät kuulu artiklan XI piiriin, koska öljy sen luonnollisessa tilassa ei täytä tuotteen määritelmää. Tutkimus kuitenkin paljastaa useita mahdollisia tapoja tulkita artiklaa, minkä osoittaa muun muassa vertailu aiempien kysymystä käsittelevien tutkimusten kanssa. Aiempi tutkimus on ollut suppeampaa, eikä artiklan XI termejä ole pyritty määrittelemään tarkasti. Valtioiden itsemääräämisoikeutta niiden luonnonvaroista käsitellään tulkintaosiossa erikseen omana laajempana kokonaisuutenaan. Tutkimus osoittaa, että vaikka periaate otetaan huomioon WTO:n sopimusten tulkinnassa, sen merkitys on hyvin rajallinen, koska sopimuksen teksti on tulkinnassa aina etusijalla. Tämän lisäksi WTO:n käytännössä on painotettu vapaata kauppaa suosivia periaatteita, kun taas itsemääräämisoikeutta painottava tulkinta suosisi mahdollisesti kauppaa rajoittavaa ja ympäristöystävällistä tulkintaa. Tulkinta-analyysin jälkeen työssä otetaan esiin seikkoja, jotka ovat ongelmallisia WTO-järjestelmässä erityisesti tutkimuskysymykseen liittyen. Näitä ovat WTO:n poliittinen luonna, kansainvälisen kauppaoikeuden suhde kansainväliseen ympäristöoikeuteen ja kilpailua koskevien sääntöjen puute WTO:ssa. WTO on loppujen lopuksi poliittinen elin vaikka riidanratkaisujärjestelmän luotettavuus ja ennakoitavuus on parantunut huomattavasti WTO:n perustamisen jälkeen, kun pysyvä valituselin luotiin, ja päätösten hyväksimistä koskevia sääntöjä muutettiin. Erilaiset valtasuhteet sekä valtioiden resurssit saattavat vaikuttaa siihen, millä tavalla WTO:n riidanratkaisujärjestelmää hyödynnetään. Kansainvälinen ympäristöoikeus on otettu enenevässä määrin huomioon WTO:n perustamisen jälkeen. Vieläkään WTO:ssa ei ole kuitenkaan riittävästi säännöksiä, joissa otettaisiin ympäristönäkökohtia huomioon verrattuna siihen kuinka moni WTO:n oikeustapauksista liittyy jollakin lailla ympäristöön. Tutkielman tutkimuskysymys soveltuisi ehkä parhaiten kilpailuoikeudellisten säännösten piirissä arvioitavaksi. Vaikka WTO:ssa on jatkuvasti keskustelua kilpailuoikeudellisten säännösten mukaan ottamisesta WTO:n piiriin, kansainvälisten kilpailuoikeudellisten säännösten laatiminen on monimutkaista eroavista kansallisista säännöksistä johtuen.
  • Kerttunen, Mika (Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulu, Strategian laitos, 2009)
    This thesis examines the interrelationship and dynamics between the Indian United Progressive Alliance government’s foreign policy and its nuclear weapons policy. The purpose of the study is to situate nuclear policy within a foreign policy framework, and the fundamental research problem is thus how does the Indian nuclear policy reflect and respond to the Indian foreign policy? The study examines the intentions in the Indian foreign and nuclear policies, and asks whether these intentions are commensurable or incommensurable. Moreover, the thesis asks whether the UPA government differs from its predecessors, most notably the Bharatiya Janata Party-led National Democratic Alliance government in its foreign and nuclear policies. Answers to these questions are based on the interpretation of political texts and speeches as suggested by Quentin Skinner’s notion of meaning3, what does a writer or speaker mean by what he or she says in a given text, and by J.L. Austin’s speech act theory. This linguistic perspective and the approach of intertextualizing, place the political acts within their contingent intellectual and political contexts. The notion of strategic culture is therefore introduced to provide context for these juxtapositions. The thesis firstly analyses the societal, historical and intellectual context of India’s foreign and nuclear policy. Following from this analysis the thesis then examines the foreign and nuclear policies of Prime Minister Manmo-han Singh’s UPA government. This analysis focuses on the texts, speeches and statements of Indian authorities between 2004 and 2008. This study forwards the following claims: firstly, the UPA Government conducts a foreign policy that is mainly and explicitly inclusive, open and enhancing, and it conducts a nuclear policy that is mainly and implicitly excluding, closed and protective. Secondly, despite the fact that the notion of military security is widely appreciated and does not, as such, necessarily collide with foreign policy, the UPA Government conducts a nuclear policy that is incommensurable with its foreign policy. Thirdly, the UPA Gov-ernment foreign and nuclear policies are, nevertheless, commensurable re-garding their internal intentions. Finally, the UPA Government is conduct-ing a nuclear policy that is gradually leading India towards having a triad of nuclear weapons with various platforms and device designs and a function-ing and robust command and control system encompassing political and military planning, decision-making and execution. Regarding the question of the possible differences between the UPA and NDA governments this thesis claims that, despite their different ideological roots and orientations in domestic affairs, the Indian National Congress Party conducts, perhaps surprisingly, quite a similar foreign and nuclear policy to the Bharatiya Janata Party.
  • Pho, Sanna (2013)
    In recent years, Cambodia has endured a siege of land conflicts, notably land grabbing. Land grabbing is a serious issue as it violates fundamental human rights and denies land from local communities. Moreover, the question of land ownership tends to exhaust informal dwellers as they have no legal documents to their land. Various international donors, especially the World Bank supported the Land Management Administrative Project (LMAP) in order to establish land titling in Cambodia. An important figure behind such proposal is Hernando De Soto. This research is primarily focused upon four crucial aspects of land and housing situation in informal settlements: the Cambodians conceptions of land ownership and their perceptions on land titling; the effects of private development; land disputes cases; and housing wishes/needs or recommendations from the locals. I seek to close the gap of previous research on landownership and land tenure in Cambodia. I have conducted a qualitative research that is based on twenty-one semi-structured interviews in Phnom Penh. In the literature review I draw on the history of land ownership in Cambodia and the Land Law, as well as land titling theory by De Soto (2000) and previous studies on the effect of land titling. The major findings are based on people’s conceptions of land ownership that were shaped by the 2001 Land Law. Although 18 of the 20 interviewees are without land titles, they still consider themselves as owners of their land. The interviewees referred to the 2001 Land Law, states that anyone who has occupied their land for five consecutive years prior to the Land Law has the right to apply for a definite title. Thus, the interviewees are inspired to obtain land title as they believe that land titling will prevent them from eviction. Only two of the twenty interviewees viewed land titling as insignificant and inefficient, this is mainly because the Government/authorities are corrupted and does not obey the Land Law. Such feelings stems from the corrupted and violent nature of the Cambodian Government/authorities. Land disputes in Phnom Penh mainly revolve around resettling/eviction of poor dwellers in informal settlements. Informal dwellers are often alienated from socioeconomic seriously hampered them from integrating into the society, thus, preventing them from finding formal jobs. As interviewees from the outskirt of the city confirmed relocation would mean that their living condition and housing situation will be significantly reduced. The interviewees want to stay in the city due to the great locations, proximity to services, and work. Interviewees stated that private development is “making the poor poorer and the rich richer.” In general, slum dwellers are happy and satisfied to live in city center.
  • Matila, Marianne (1999)