Browsing by Issue Date

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 21-40 of 24408
  • Koskela-Niska, Virpi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Both ovarian and tubal cancers are rare. Therefore only a few studies explored such postmenopausal hormone therapies (HT) as used in Finland, as a risk factor for these cancers. I compared the incidence of ovarian and tubal cancer in HT users with the incidences of these cancers in the background population in two nationwide cohort studies. To exclude a number of potential confounders I conducted two case-control studies to further elucidate HT use as a risk factor for these cancers. The cohort studies included all women aged 50 or older who had used HT-regimens for 6 months or longer in 1994-2008. These women were identified from the Finnish Medical Reimbursement Register. The ovarian cancer cohort study included 224,015 women using estradiol-progestin therapy (EPT), whereas in the primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) cohort study included altogether 365,601 women using EPT (n=247,781) or estradiol-only therapy (ET)(n=117,820). These women were followed from the first HT purchase to the diagnosis of ovarian or tubal cancer, death, emigration or to the end of the study period through the national Finnish Cancer Registry. Relative risks of these cancers in HT users were estimated by comparing the incidence of ovarian or tubal cancer in HT users to the age-matched comparable background population and calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). In the case-control studies, all 50-year-old or older women with incident ovarian cancer (n=3,958) or PFTC (n= 360) during 1995-2007 were identified from the Cancer Registry. The Population Register provided control women, 3 per each case of ovarian cancer and 10 per each case of PFTC, and parity data. The controls had to be alive and without ovarian/primary fallopian tube cancer and they were matched for age (+/- one month) and place or residence. The controls with an oophorectomy (n=506) or a salpingectomy (n=158) were excluded leaving 11,325 and 3,442 controls, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% CIs for various HT regimens were estimated by using conditional logistic regression adjusted for parity, ages at deliveries, hysterectomy and sterilization. The use of any type of EPT for less than five years did not modify the overall risk of ovarian cancer. Instead, the use of sequential EPT for five years or longer was associated with an elevation in the overall risk of ovarian cancer (SIR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06-1.37). The risk rises were most marked for serous (1.56; 1.33-1.80) and mixed cancer (1.54; 1.22-1.91) whereas the risk for mucinous cancer was decreased (0.47; 0.22-0.86). The risk increase connected to EPT use did not depend on the progestin type, mode or route of administration of EPT. The use of ET for five years or longer was linked with an increase in the risk for serous ovarian cancer (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.20-1.75) while the risk of mucinous cancer was decreased (0.35; 0.19-0.67). As a whole the use of ET was accompanied with borderline rise in overall ovarian cancer risk (1.15; 0.99-1.32). In the users of sequential EPT, the risk rise was similar for endometroid (1.88; 1.24-2.86) and serous (1.32; 1.01-1.71) cancers. The use of continuous EPT, tibolone or E+LNG-IUS did not modify the risk of ovarian cancer. The use of ET was not a risk factor for PFTC. However, the use of sequential EPT for five years or longer was accompanied with a risk elevation (SIR 2.15, 95% CI 1.66-2.72), which was further increased if the use of sequential EPT continued for 10 years or longer (3.36; 2.02-5.24). In contrast, the use of continuous EPT did not modify the risk for PFTC. The uses of E+LNG-IUS for five years or longer was associated with increased risks of PFTC (ORs 2.84, 95% CI 1.10-7.38 and 3.37; 2.23-5.08, respectively), but this finding was based on low number of cases and controls. Postmenopausal hormone therapy use modifies the risks of both ovarian and fallopian tube cancers. The risk of serous and endometroid ovarian cancer rises but the risk of mucinous cancer decreases. The use of sequential EPT regimen is characterized with the highest risk elevations. In absolute terms, in 10,000 women using sequential EPT for five years or longer, there would be four extra cases of ovarian cancer and two extra cases of PFTC after follow-up of five years. These data should be incorporated into modern guidelines for the optimal use of HT.
  • Mönttinen, Heli (2015)
    The right-hand-shaped polymerases comprising the DNA/RNA polymerase superfamily represent at least six different protein families containing replicases, transcriptases and repair proteins from all three domains of life as well as from their viruses. All of these polymerases have at least three subdomains: fingers, palm and thumb, which form together a structure resembling a right-hand. The catalytic site is located in the palm subdomain, in which polymerization process is catalysed by two Mg2+ ions. There can also be additional ions such as the non-catalytic ion in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of phage φ6, which is located approximately 6 Ångströms from the catalytic site. The phylogeny and common regions of the right-hand-shaped polymerases have been previously studied mainly using amino acid sequence alignments. However, the sequence similarity between polymerases belonging into different protein families is low and therefore, the structure alignment provides a potential alternative because protein structures can retain similarity longer in evolution than amino acid sequences. In this thesis, the common structural features between and within the families of the right-hand-shaped polymerases are described, and based on the structural cores the phylogenetic trees are deduced. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships between the right-hand-shaped polymerases and other structurally related proteins are described. As results, it is shown that a phylogenetic tree following the established boundaries of protein families is possible to construct based on structural core sharing no sequence identity. This tree, illustrating long distance phylogenetic relationships suggests that the known right-hand-shaped polymerase families are not the closest relatives to each other. The phylogenies within polymerase families suggest that the relationships among the polymerases do not always follow the evolution of the corresponding organism, which implies horizontal gene transfer between cells, and cells and viruses. The phylogeny of RNA virus RNA polymerases seem to be dependent on the priming mechanism and it does not follow the virion architecture or the Baltimore classification. In addition, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases seem to share a third ion binding site in the proximity of catalytic site.
  • Selonen, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Despite the known toxicity of lead (Pb) and the ban on waterfowl hunting, Pb pellets are still used at shotgun shooting ranges around the world. After firing a shotgun, pellets spread across wide areas, ending up in nearby ecosystems, which typically are forests in Finland. Still, little is known about the effects of Pb in these ecosystems and hardly anything about changes in ecosystem structure and function after range abandonment. Thus, ecosystem-level research was conducted in a shotgun shooting range area to evaluate the fate and effects of Pb in a boreal forest ecosystem and the possible recovery of the system after range abandonment. Bioaccumulation, the leaching and vertical distribution of Pb in the soil, soil nutrients and their leaching as well as structure and activity of decomposer community were studied at two contaminated sites (active [NC] and abandoned [OC] shooting ranges) and a control site, each locating in the same pine forest stand. Furthermore, tree growth, nutritional status and litter production were measured. Total Pb pellet burdens at the contaminated sites were similar, reaching up to 4 kg m-2, and shooting activity had lasted for 20 years at both sites, but occurred 20 years earlier at OC. Total Pb concentrations at the shooting ranges were extremely high, and Pb accumulated in the biota. The vertical distribution of Pb in the organic soil horizon differed between the shooting range sites, with total Pb concentrations at NC being higher in the upper F layer than in the lower H layer, but vice versa at OC. Soil fungi and all studied faunal groups (enchytraeid worms, microarthropods and nematodes) except protozoans were affected negatively by Pb. Lead decreased phosphate (PO43-) and increased nitrate (NO3-) concentrations. pH was also increased by Pb, which can further affect the biota directly or indirectly by changing Pb availability and toxicity. In the entire organic soil horizon, the negative effects of Pb were less pronounced at OC than at NC. In addition, pine needle litter decomposed faster at OC than at NC, and tree (Pinus sylvestris) radial growth was suppressed at NC after shooting activity started and increased at OC after shooting activity ceased. However, in the H layer the effects were stronger at OC, enchytraeid worms being completely absent. Furthermore, leaching of Pb through the organic soil horizon was twice as high at OC as at NC. A decrease in total Pb concentrations and toxicity in the topmost soil layer and enhanced litter decomposition rate at the abandoned shooting range indicate an on-going recovery process. In boreal forest soils that are characterized by low decomposition rates and little soil mixing due to the scarcity of earthworms, a less contaminated soil layer is gradually formed when shooting activities cease. This topmost soil layer can provide habitat for the decomposer biota and promote the recovery of soil functions. However, at the same time the dissolution of Pb from pellets deeper in the soil increases toxicity of the humus and the leaching of Pb, increasing risks to the ecosystem and groundwater quality. These findings suggest that communities and functions in Pb-contaminated boreal forest ecosystems depend on contamination history. However, despite Pb-induced changes in the decomposer communities, only slight changes in ecosystem processes were detected. This indicates high resistance of boreal forest ecosystems to this type of stress.
  • Hokkanen, Ann-Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Disbudding entails destroying calves horn buds, and in dairy farming is most often done with a hot-iron. Disbudding is routinely carried out because hornless cattle are considered to be safer for themselves and for humans. Hot-iron disbudding is very painful and causes severe pain-related distress and behavioural changes in calves. Options for treating disbudding-related pain during the procedure, and for 24 hours subsequently, are well known, but continued pain and its management are not much studied in calves after disbudding. Pain can cause restlessness and thus affect calves lying time. Pain in humans and rats also changes sleeping behaviour. Pain connected with disbudding often remains untreated. Reasons for this are unclear. Therefore, more knowledge and research are needed on the recognition of calves pain after hot-iron disbudding, on the duration of pain and on options to treat it in an effective, safe and practical way. Research is also needed on producer knowledge and attitudes towards pain in calves and their decision-making in connection with pain alleviation. The objectives of the work reported in this thesis were all connected with gaining an improved understanding of producer perceptions about pain caused to young calves by hot-iron disbudding, and with options available to increase the use of pain alleviation for this common and painful procedure. Initially we asked dairy producers for their perceptions towards disbudding pain in calves. Then, in order to be able to study the duration of pain after disbudding in the future, we attempted to develop a new device to measure calves lying and sleeping time: a small, neck-based, wireless accelerometer system. Because new methods and various options for pain alleviation are needed, we investigated if sublingual detomidine provided sufficient sedation in calves to allow administration of local anaesthetics prior to disbudding. Because the use of pain alleviation is often a choice faced by producers, we wanted to study Finnish dairy producers interests and motivation regarding pain alleviation in connection with disbudding. We studied Finnish dairy producers perceptions on disbudding-related pain and the need for pain alleviation, and how such perceptions affect the actual practice of pain alleviation. Finnish dairy producers estimated disbudding pain to be severe and producer estimation of pain severity caused by disbudding was correlated with their sensitivity to pain caused by different cattle diseases in general. We were able to develop an accurate device for measuring calves lying and sleeping time. Detomidine oromucosal gel was an effective sedative for calves before infiltration of local anaesthetics and disbudding. Finnish dairy producers who estimated the disbudding-related pain and need for pain alleviation to be high had a veterinarian medicate calves before disbudding more often than producers who ranked disbudding pain and need for pain alleviation lower. Because more studies on duration and alleviation of disbudding pain are needed, our new device for measuring lying and sleeping time in calves could make these studies easier in the future. A non-invasive and user-friendly oromucosal sedation method for calves could enhance the use of local anaesthetics before disbudding by making sedation easier. Our findings among dairy producers support the idea that persons who have knowledge of pain and who think pain alleviation is beneficial and important are also more prone to administer pain alleviation. Education of producers on disbudding-related pain could increase the use of pain alleviation in the future. It could also increase pain alleviation for other cattle diseases because producer perceptions on disbudding-related pain are likely to be connected with pain in cattle in general.
  • Ronkainen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Northern peatlands form a large storage of terrestrial carbon and at the same time they provide an important palaeoecological archive to study past climate changes and associated carbon dynamics. One of the most widely used methods to study peatland histories is the plant macrofossil method. However, peat material of the early succession stages, the fens, is often highly decomposed hampering the identification of the fossil plant remains. Thus, current methods may give only a partial view on the past vegetation, and as a result the accuracy of carbon balance estimations and climate implications may remain low. A new promising method to study past plant assemblages from peat is the geochemical plant biomarker method, which has performed well in less decomposed bog peat environments. In my study I assess the applicability of the geochemical plant biomarker method to study past plant assemblages from highly decomposed fen peat. For the first time I apply a living fen plant biomarker training set to study past fen phases. To do this, I collected and analysed two sets of living key fen plants. The training sets included boreal fen, arctic fen and permafrost peat plateau plants. The biomarker analyses on fossil peat were applied in parallel with macrofossil analyses to two boreal and one arctic permafrost peat section, all known to contain highly decomposed peat. The analyses of living plants showed that the biomarker compositions did not differ between the same species collected from different bioclimatic zones, suggesting that, at least to some extent, plant biomarkers can be used universally beyond the geographical areas where the training set was collected. The plant biomarker analyses indicate that the n-alkanes, and their ratios, are the most useful compounds to separate fen plant groups: Sphagnum mosses and vascular plants. Results showed also that biomarker composition of fen plants did not differ substantially from their bog counterparts. However, results indicated that when a wider combination of plants, plant parts and peatland habitats are incorporated into the training set the data interpretation becomes more challenging. For example, the biomarker composition of Sphagnum mosses and sedge roots resembled each other despite their differences in biology. Thus, a larger set of proxies is advisable when plant groups need to be separated more accurately. In the peat sections studied here, the biomarker method performed well in less humified bog peat layers but less well in the highly decomposed fen peat layers. The macrofossil method proved to be most competitive proxy to reconstruct past vegetation assemblages and local environmental conditions through-out the peat sections. However, when macrofossil and biomarker data were interpreted in parallel, it became clear that biomarkers were also able to reflect the major changes in dominating plant groups and in moisture conditions. Accordingly, the analysis separated the most important bog microhabitats and the major regime shifts from fen to bog. I conclude, however, that in fen environments the interpretation of biomarker data can be rather challenging. As a result, it appears that the biomarker method, as applied here, performs the best as a complimentary proxy when used in conjunction with macrofossils, and that the data should be interpreted cautiously.
  • Lindh, Erika (Hansaprint, 2015)
    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a significant zoonotic pathogen, with a diverse range of subtypes infecting both humans and birds. NDV is the causative agent of Newcastle Disease, a significant infectious disease of poultry. While wild waterfowl, the natural host, remains apparently healthy during the even frequent infections with these viruses, poultry is susceptible for mild to severe disease. Both viruses have a heavy impact on the poultry industry by causing outbreaks with significant economical losses. Low pathogenic IAV and NDV viruses are efficiently transmitted in host populations and have the ability to mutate and become virulent. The segmented genome of IAV also allows it to reassort during dual infections, giving rise to novel viruses with unpredictable pathogenic properties including the potential to transmit to humans and other mammals. Extensive surveillance studies of IAV and NDV during the past decades have revealed their wide global distribution and host species range. Previous surveillance studies have yielded limited information about avian IAV in Finland and so far, NDV has been the causative agent of varying outbreaks in Finland, for example in poultry, a zoo and domestic pigeons. This project was initiated for surveillance purposes, to gather information about prevalence and subtype/genotype distribution of IAVs and NDVs and to assess the potential presence of highly pathogenic strains in wild waterfowl in Finland. Through annual sampling and screening of wild waterfowl, 875 birds were screened during the years 2006-2010 and 2014. The birds represent mainly young, hunted ducks from local breeding areas. We detected altogether 76 IAVs (in 8.7%) and 39 NDVs (in 5.5%). From most of the samples (75%) the viruses were successfully propagated in embryonated chicken eggs and partially sequenced for phylogenetic and pathogenicity analyses. Importantly, while no highly pathogenic strains were encountered, several of the wild waterfowl derived viruses detected in Finland were phylogenetically closely related to viruses detected during outbreaks in Finland and elsewhere in Europe. These viruses includ IAV subtypes H5N2, H7N3, H9N2 as well as NDVs. An unexpectedly high subtype dominance of H3N8 was recorded each year, counting for over 60% of all the subtyped IAVs. Genetic characterization of these viruses demonstrated high sequence homology, even between temporally separated viruses and suggests local perpetuation of the viruses. The past decades have witnessed an increase in the incidence of IAV outbreaks in poultry in Europe and zoonotic transmission of a growing number of subtypes. Surveillance data of IAV in the natural host is important for designing efficient national policies aiming to control the transmission of IAV to susceptible populations and for risk assessment. Our results also show that the northern breeding sites have implications on a European scale.
  • Nokkonen, Soili (Société Néophilologique, 2015)
    This cumulative dissertation is the first systematic study of semi-modal NEED TO and its semantic variation in Present-day British English. This topic is particularly relevant today, since the use of semi-modals, e.g., HAVE TO, HAVE (GOT) TO and NEED TO has increased in the field of obligation and necessity, while the frequencies of core modals such as MUST and NEED have decreased. The link of modal change with the process of democratization, and the way the semi-modals offer a less authoritarian way of obliging, present an interesting background for a corpus-based sociolinguistic study. The primary material of the five studies in this thesis is drawn from mainly spoken corpora from the 1950s to the 1990s. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are applied in data retrieval and the empirical analyses. The chosen corpora enable the exploration of NEED TO across variables such as real time, medium, the speaker variables of age, gender and social class, and a number of spoken registers. For comparison, Article 5 studies NEED TO and six other modals as variants of deontic obligation. The findings on the semantic variation indicate that the functions of NEED TO increasingly resemble those of core modals: the directive obligation uses cover most of the instances, and NEED TO is in the process of developing epistemic meaning. However, the original inherent necessity sense is still frequent. NEED TO shows clear social stratification. It is strongly favoured by the younger age groups, and they also use the newer semantic functions more. It is slightly more frequent among men in general, but in certain relevant speaker groups, e.g., among young adults, women have a lead. The upper middle class leads in its use. NEED TO is clearly undergoing change, but Labovian concepts cannot be applied in a rigid way. A finding that stands out is that register variation plays a decisive role. NEED TO is significantly more frequent in spoken public contexts as opposed to private contexts. Both the persuasive nature of a register and its high degree of interactivity increase the use of NEED TO. The basic inherent meaning relates to the strategic value of NEED TO in a deontic situation by softening an imposed obligation as being in the addressee s best interest. Indeed, NEED TO has found a niche in the face-to-face conversations where it is necessary to negotiate power and also to oblige the addressee in the least face-threatening manner.
  • Damerau, Annelie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The consumption of whole grain foods high in fibre is of interest because of the health-promoting effects associated with dietary fibre. Therefore, there is interest in developing new fibre-rich cereal foods. However, these kinds of foods also contain polyunsaturated lipids, which are prone to oxidation. Further, lipids are dispersed in a heterogeneous matrix of starch, proteins and fibre, which increases their tendency to oxidize because of a large surface area and possible contact with prooxidants. The oxidation of lipids decreases nutritional quality and causes the formation of undesirable flavours. Knowledge of the oxidation behaviour of dispersed lipids in solid cereal foods, and of how factors like process parameters, structural features of the products and storage conditions affect lipid oxidation, is limited. In this thesis, the oxidative behaviour of foods with dispersed lipids was studied using two model systems. The first model system was a spray-dried emulsion containing sunflower oil encapsulated in a Na-caseinate-maltodextrin matrix, with either non-cross-linked or cross-linked proteins. The stability of the total and surface lipid fractions was determined during storage under different relative humidities (RHs). Further, the effect of RH on the amount of volatiles released from oxidized spray-dried emulsions was studied. The second model system consisted of extruded cereals produced from either whole grain oats or rye bran (coarse or fine) using different extrusion parameters. Their oxidative stability was studied during storage at 40 ºC, after milling and standardization to RH 33%. The primary oxidation was measured by peroxide values in the spray-dried emulsions and by losses of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the spray-dried emulsions and rye bran extrudates. Secondary oxidation was determined based on volatile secondary lipid oxidation products analysed by static head space (SHS-GC-FID) in the spray-dried emulsions and by head space solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS) in the extruded cereals. In addition to the oxidation parameters, enzymatic hydrolysis of lipids in the oat extrudates and the fatty acid composition of all models were studied by measuring the neutral lipid and fatty acid profiles, respectively. Increasing the RH improved the oxidative stability of both the total and surface lipid fractions of the stored spray-dried emulsions. This behaviour was mainly linked to the loss of individual powder particles upon caking and collapsing of the matrix at RH 75%. In addition, excess protein may have delayed oxidation via its radical scavenging activity. At RH 54%, cross-linking of the protein slightly improved the oxidative stability. The profiles of the volatile oxidation products from the spray-dried emulsions analysed by HS-SPME were also influenced by the RH. The effect was related to water-induced changes in hydrophilicity, structure and binding ability of the matrix, and to partitioning and solubility of the volatiles. The highest overall amount of volatiles released was obtained at water contents of 3.1% and 5.2% (RH 11% and 33%). The enzymatic hydrolysis of lipids in oats was effectively prevented by extrusion, even at the lowest temperature of 70 °C. The extrusion temperature could be increased to 110 °C without subjecting the lipids to non-enzymatic oxidation. However, by increasing the temperature to 130 °C, lipid oxidation was promoted, which also yielded losses of neutral lipids over time. In the case of the rye bran, the low water content (13% or 16%) in the extrusion of coarse or fine bran led to the most stable lipids during storage. The improved oxidative stability at low water contents in extrusion was connected with the higher formation of Maillard reaction products, which could have acted as antioxidants. The grinding of rye bran prior to extrusion caused a loss of tocols and increased the amounts of Maillard reaction products formed. The oxidative stability of the dispersed lipids was shown to be highly related to water induced physical changes in the matrix structure, which makes controlling the RH in the surrounding atmosphere an important factor in storage. Further, the RH affected the amount of volatile lipid oxidation products released, and this needs to be considered in determining lipid oxidation by HS-SPME. Extrusion was shown to inactivate lipases in oats. For the lipid stability in cereal extrudates, low temperature and low water content during extrusion were shown to be beneficial.
  • Toivakka, Svetlana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Suomalainen koloratuurisopraano Alma Fohström (1856-1936) oli yksi 1800-luvun lopun ja 1900-luvun alun tunnetuimpia oopperalaulajattaria, varsinainen primadonna. Hänen musiikkikoulutuksensa pohjautui italialaiseen bel canto -traditioon; hänelle koloratuurilaulu oli helppoa. Laulajattaren ääniala ulottui matalasta a:sta korkeaan f-säveleen (a f3). Alma Fohströmin ohjelmistoon kuului 40 oopperaroolia, joista menestyksekkäimpiä olivat Donizettin Lucia sekä Verdin Violetta ja Gilda. Kosmopoliittisen uransa aikana Alma Fohström loi nimeä neljässä maanosassa: Euroopassa, Aasiassa sekä Pohjois- ja Etelä-Amerikassa. Hän vieraili mm. Milanon La Scalassa, Lontoon Covent Gardenissa, Wienin Hovioopperassa, Rio de Janeiron Teatro Imperialissa sekä Buenos Airesin Colón-teatterissa. Alma Fohström teki kaksi Yhdysvaltain-matkaa ja esiintyi Washingtonin Valkoisessa talossa sekä eri osavaltioiden pääkaupungeissa. Hän oli ensimmäinen suomalainen primadonna, joka lauloi New Yorkin Metropolitanissa, näytäntökaudella 1888-1889. Hänet kiinnitettiin Moskovan keisarillisen oopperan, nykyisen Bol oi-teatterin solistiksi vuosiksi 1890-1899. Laulajataruran jälkeen hän toimi opettajana Pietarin, Berliinin ja Helsingin konservatorioissa. Vanhaa oopperatraditiota ei ole vaalittu ja uutta luotu pelkästään suurissa ja kuuluisissa oopperataloissa. Onneksi on säilynyt kuvauksia niinikään paikoista, jotka ovat jääneet nimekkäämpien varjoon. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan Alma Fohströmin toimintaa suurelta osin juuri niissä. Primadonnalla tarkoitetaan Alma Fohströmin kohdalla hänen toimintaansa solistina oopperaseurueissa sekä juhlitun laulajattaren erikoisasemaa omana aikanaan. Työ keskittyy erityisesti Alma Fohströmin ammatilliseen profiiliin; se jäsentyy kolmeen osa-alueeseen: laulajattaren varsinaisiin taitoihin, tukiverkostoon sekä yhteiskunnalliseen statukseen. Analyysiluvuissa häntä verrataan muihin hänen aikakautensa kuuluisiin kansainvälisiin primadonniin, kuten Adelina Pattiin, Marchella Sembrichiin ja Félia Litvinneen sekä kotimaassa Emmy Achtéhen. Tämä työ pyrkii olemaan kontribuutio esittävän säveltaiteen historian tutkimukseen ja erityisesti primadonna-traditioon. Väitöskirjassa rekonstruoidaan Alma Fohströmin elämäntyötä tarkastelemalla sen mikro- ja makrotasojen vuorovaikutussuhteita erilaisista perspektiiveistä. Näitä perspektiivejä kutsutaan mikrohistorialliseksi katseeksi, joka kohdistuu Helsingin yliopiston juhlasaliin, oopperatalojen katsomoihin ja kulissien taa.
  • Outinen, Sami (Into Kustannus Oy, 2015)
    Abstract The study puts into historical context the continuities and discontinuities of the employment concepts and policies of leading social democrats in Finland from 1975 to 1998. It concentrates on the decision-making of the most influential political party in Finland at that time, the Social Democratic Party (SDP). The study applies the methods of social science history and conceptual history by researching both the strategic decision-making and public argumentation of the social democrats. The framework of the analysis is based on regulation theory, which distinguishes five fundamental institutional forms in capitalist societies: (1) the nature of the state (economic, employment and unemployment security policy), (2) the wage-labour nexus (labour market policy),(3) the monetary regime (monetary policy and the regulation of capital markets), (4) the forms of competition (state company, privatisation and competition policy) and (5) international interconnectedness (European integration, economic globalisation as well as the impact of Sweden and international organisations). Finnish social democrats moved towards emphasising private sector-led employment, approached the middle class, adopted monetarist ideas, accepted the market economy and favoured controlled restructuring over counter-cyclical measures in a series of steps in 1975 1998. Export sector competitiveness in global markets, European integration, active labour market policy and R and D investment were the cornerstones of social democratic employment policy in Finland at the time. Finnish social democrats also partly adopted neoliberal practices such as activation, privatisation, financial market deregulation and labour market flexibility. The deregulation of financial markets meant a shifting of the basis of social democratic employment policy from steering the capitalist economy to seeking market acceptance of the party s politics. This did not manage to guarantee full employment in Finland during the period, and exacerbated the poverty of the unemployed. Furthermore, Finnish social democrats practised a third way type of Bad Sillanpää policy long before its adherents such as Tony Blair in the UK. After the mid-1970s, the Finnish social democrat-led governments implemented many reforms which also resembled the premises of the Swedish social democrats Third Way Programme in the 1980s.
  • Özcan-Ketola, Nergiz (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In this thesis, structural effects on magnetic response properties: magnetically induced ring currents, the ESR g-tensor and hyperfine coupling tensor, and NMR chemical shifts, are investigated computationally with DFT methods, using various exchange-correlation functionals and basis sets. Magnetically induced currents are calculated for thieno-bridged porphyrins with the emphasis on the aromatic character of the systems, the degree of which is investigated for varying molecular modifications. The ESR g-tensor, as well as the hyperfine coupling tensors for Sn and O nuclei in the vicinity of a positively charged oxygen vacancy in solid tin dioxide, are reported with finite cluster methods using different cluster embedding techniques to define the structural environment. The NMR spectral trends for increasing-size nanoflakes of graphenic materials are predicted as functions of the size and boundary geometry of the flakes. Finally, a number of dye molecules are subjected to NMR chemical shift calculations where the intermolecular interaction effects present in liquid solution are studied with dynamic simulation techniques. The magnetically induced currents calculated for thieno-bridged porphyrins show that the changes in the molecular structure such as the direction of the thiophene ring or the substitution by Zn^2+ do not change the aromatic character of the molecule. It is possible to confirm the experimental assignment of the ESR signal with the g-factor around 2.00 to the positively charged vacancy in tin dioxide, whereas the other experimental assignment of a signal at g=1.89 is not supported by our calculations. Distinct characteristic NMR spectral patterns are found for graphene nanoflakes reflecting the effects of increasing size and different boundary geometries on the NMR shifts. Solvent effects on the NMR of dye molecules are found to be location-specific: nuclei from different regions of the systems display distinct response to solvation.
  • Niemelä, Reko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Doctoral dissertation Inclusionary practices in a Finnish pre-primary school context has been made in the context of the five-year EU project Includ-Ed (2006- 2011), which has 14 European universities as partners. The aim of the research was to find out the most supportive practices and the most unsupportive practices from a perspective of inclusion experienced by agents (persons). Agents are children, parents, teachers and administration and organisation members who were interviewed by communicative open interview. There were a total of 54 interviews. Inclusion is examined through perspectives of transformation and critical communication. Critical communicative methodology assumes that people can interpret their own behaviour and modify their actions based on that. To be able to analyse interviews, theory-based categories were used. After this, clusters were created using open categorisation. Of the results, when answering types are separated, 212 quotations were from professionals (teachers, administrators, members of organisations) whilst 88 quotations were from family and children. Professionals did make their voices heard more often than parents and children. Professionals gave over four times more transformative quotations than parents/children. Parents/children gave slightly more exclusionary quotations than professionals. In the light of research findings, parents and children are still unable to make their voices heard as well as they could, and parents attitude and preconceptions are unsupportive of inclusion. Lack of resources was the most unsupportive practice to inclusion according to the professionals. For all the agents, the most supportive practice to inclusion was co-operation. Keywords: inclusion, educational science, critical communicative methodology, content analysis, agents, ATLAS.ti
  • Lithovius, Raija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    As health care resources are limited, it is crucial to identify potential subgroups of patients with different resource needs and the major cost drivers in order to improve understanding of the cost structure of diabetes care. About one-third of the patients with type 1 diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is the most burdensome diabetic complication and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. Pharmaceutical interventions play an important role not only in controlling glycaemia, but also in preventing and treating related co-morbidities. The aim was to evaluate the use and costs of prescription medication in a large nationwide cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes, stratified by severity stages of diabetic kidney disease, and to study to what extent target values of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines were met in normal clinical settings and how achievement of the most relevant targets predicts the prognosis of the patients. All sub-studies are part of the ongoing, multicentre Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane). Studies I (N=3,717), II (N=1,905), III (N=330) and V (N=3,151) have longitudinal and Study IV (N=3,678) a cross-sectional design. To obtain information on purchases of prescription medications, co-morbidities and mortality, the FinnDiane data were linked with several national registers. In patients with ESRD, the 11-year cumulative costs increased fourfold or even 15-fold, when diabetes medications were excluded compared to those without severe complications. The cost of diabetes medications remained quite stable irrespective of the presence of complications and duration of diabetes. The costs were significantly higher in patients with macroalbuminuria than in those with earlier stages of DN, and the gap continued to increase until the end of follow-up. A large gap exists between evidence-based guidelines and clinical practice since only a minority of all patients reached the targets for HbA1C, blood pressure (BP) and LDL cholesterol proposed by the ADA. Failure to reach the targets was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. One of the novel findings was the high prevalence of treatment-resistant hypertension (RH) which increased in parallel with the worsening of DN in patients with type 1 diabetes. Progression to a more severe stage of DN has a substantial impact on prescription medication costs, highlighting the importance of early intervention to prevent or delay the onset of diabetic kidney disease. The treatment targets of HbA1C, BP and LDL cholesterol have not been achieved. Successful implementation of these targets would be a key for the optimal prevention of CVD and mortality.
  • Valaste, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In sample surveys, the uncertainty of parameter estimates comes from two main sources: sampling and measuring the study units. Some aspects of survey errors are quite well understood (e.g. sampling errors, nonresponse errors) and reported but others, like measurement errors, are often neglected. This thesis studies measurement uncertainty in covariates. Focus is on the adjustment for covariate measurement errors in logistic regression for cluster-correlated data. Three methods for adjustment for covariate measurement errors in surveys are studied. The methods are Maximum Likelihood, Multiple Imputation and Regression Calibration. These methods require information obtained from validation study. The thesis consists of a theoretical part and extensive Monte Carlo simulation experiments. At the first simulation experiment, the simulation study is conducted with artificial data and with independent observations to test and have experience of the three methods: MI, ML and RC. The second and third simulation study is performed with cluster-correlated data. In these simulation studies, the first simulation uses artificial data and the latter uses real data. In both simulations regression calibration and multiple imputation approaches are examined in various simulation designs. The quality of the methods is assessed by the bias and accuracy. The bias is measured by absolute relative bias percentages (ARB%) and the accuracy by relative root mean-squared error percentages (RRMSE%). The results suggest that additional information from validation (calibration) data enables more accurate estimates in terms of bias percentages.
  • Wang, Liang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In-network caching aims at improving content delivery and alleviating pressures on network bandwidth by leveraging universally networked caches. This thesis studies the design of cooperative in-network caching strategy from three perspectives: content, topology and cooperation, specifically focuses on the mechanisms of content delivery and cooperation policy and their impacts on the performance of cache networks. The main contributions of this thesis are twofold. From measurement perspective, we show that the conventional metric hit rate is not sufficient in evaluating a caching strategy on non-trivial topologies, therefore we introduce footprint reduction and coupling factor, which contain richer information. We show cooperation policy is the key in balancing various tradeoffs in caching strategy design, and further investigate the performance impact from content per se via different chunking schemes. From design perspective, we first show different caching heuristics and smart routing schemes can significantly improve the caching performance and facilitate content delivery. We then incorporate well-defined fairness metric into design and derive the unique optimal caching solution on the Pareto boundary with bargaining game framework. In addition, our study on the functional relationship between cooperation overhead and neighborhood size indicates collaboration should be constrained in a small neighborhood due to its cost growing exponentially on general network topologies.
  • Stanikic, Teija (Suomalainen lakimiesyhdistys ry., 2015)
    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the process in which the court assesses what kind of evidential value eyewitness identification should have in an individual criminal case in court. The attention is on special features of national procedural law and on witness psychological research connected to this process. Since the stages of the criminal proceeding preceding the evaluation of evidence also have an impact on this process, the following questions have been set for this research: (1) on which factors should the evidence be gathered in cases in which an identification is made; (2) which special features are connected with the process of presenting evidence that applies to the reliability of the identification in court; and (3) how should the reliability of the eyewitness identification be analyzed in the court. The first question is partly discussed in the form of a literature review. The results of witness psychological studies conducted on the sources of errors affecting identification as the crime occurs (estimator variables) are discussed, and conclusions are made of the applicability of those experimental rules in legal settings. For instance, observation distance, exposure time, the perpetrator of the crime having masked themselves, eyewitness age and ethnic origin can influence the reliability of the identification. Secondly, the factors affecting the reliability of the identification in the police investigation (system variables) are discussed. These include, for instance, the possible use of a show-up or a lineup with fillers or the presentation of the suspect to the eyewitness in person or in a photograph. Experimental rules for the system variables have also been included into the Finnish procedural regulation of police investigations. The focus of this research is also to study that regulation using the research method of the interpretation and systematization of legal rules. In addition to this, propositions for the developing of legislation de lege ferenda are made based on witness psychological research and practical points. An important result in this part of the study is that the valid regulation mainly corresponds to the results of witness psychological research. However, development needs have been detected. The regulation is partially contradictory and insufficient, and the terminology used in it is partly unsettled and not accurate. Another problem is that the rules have been deconcentrated in different levels of legal regulation. For this reason the regulation includes overlapping rules and several rules that refer to other rules. How to interpret the latter is questionable. For instance, the legal rules for the method of identification in which a single suspect is shown to a witness by the police remain unclear. Thus, through the interpretation of the regulation this study also clarifies which procedural regulation should be followed when identification is put into practice in different ways for example, as a show-up, a lineup or a photograph or video identification. In addition, the experimental results of witness psychological research support some specific new procedural rules being included into the legislation. These are also presented in this study. In answer to the first research question, the objective of gathering the evidence in its entirety is the error sources in identification and the other factors affecting reliability. In addition to this, collecting evidence of the eyewitness confidence and the time used for identification is recommended. When evaluating evidence, the level of confidence, however, should be taken into consideration only under specific conditions mentioned in the research. The second question is considered in the light of the rules and principles for the legal procedure of the presentation of evidence. Interpretation and systematization is used as the method, and witness psychological research results are considered. The study showed that the rules and other principles for the legal procedure together with the principle of the free presentation of evidence facilitate the presentation of the evidence applying to the identification error sources per se. Procedural principles, however, must be interpreted in a way that allows the use of the police identification report and police identification video as evidence in the trial. When gathering and presenting the evidence, the objectivity principle has an essential importance as well as the witness psychological expertise of the prosecutor and suspect's assistant. Further, the court should find out, on the basis of its duty to lead the process and with specific preconditions that have been specified in this study, what factors have influenced the reliability of the identification. For the most part, the use of expert witnesses is advisable only in connection with the identification of criminals suspected of serious crimes. The third question focuses on the evaluation of eyewitness identification evidence on the basis of the argumentation presented in the theories of evaluating evidence. The analysis model of identification reliability is represented as a solution to the question of how the reliability of eyewitness identification should be analyzed in court. It is essential in this model that when the principle of the free evaluation of evidence is dominant, the reliability of the identification is analyzed utilizing witness psychological rules by specifying them, yet always considering their probable value. When applying experimental rules in a single case, the circumstances and characteristics of the case must be taken into consideration, as well. The frequency-based theories of juror decision-making are rejected as not suitable for the analysis. Certain preconditions are also set for the use of the Story Model and the method based on falsification of hypotheses by Christian Diesen. The importance of a sufficient account for the factors affecting the reliability of the identification is emphasized as a part of the analysis, and evaluating the sufficiency separately is recommended. Categorization of the identification error sources is suggested for helping the analyzing process. This categorization should be made of the factors affecting the reliability before and during the investigation. The research also outlines how evidence relating to the identity of the perpetrator other than eyewitness identification and the gravity of the crime affect the analysis. In its entirety the analysis is different in each case, and the judge's intuition has a significant importance in applying the experimental rules of witness psychological research, especially in assessing the joint influence of the different factors affecting the reliability of the identification. Case material is also utilized in the study. Practical information based on the material is provided about the evaluation of eyewitness identification evidence in court a few points are also made about the identification procedures of the police. In the future, it is of great importance that the results of witness psychological studies are taken into consideration in the regulation of identification proceedings and in its interpretation as well as in the development of the quality of the analysis in individual cases in court.
  • Sahlstedt, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study is to introduce how basic education works in Finland with the new comprehensive school form, in which all pupils from grades 1 9 study in the same school building. The school is specially designed and constructed for this purpose. The view point of this research is school pedagogy. This study describes the development of normal institutional school guidance towards the newest school form with a focus on the vertical and coherence development in the Finnish school system. The study examines experiences of unified comprehensive school practice from the view point of teachers, pupils and guardians. It investigates the diverse diversity of opinions between teachers, pupils and guardians and what things should be considered in the future when new schools like this are built. The research involved a case study of a new unified comprehensive school built in a capital region of Finland in 2006. The research data were collected in five different phases between 2005 and 2010. The data consist of answers from 275 guardians, 871 pupils and 64 teachers. The study used mixed methods, and the data were collected with Quest-MM according to closed and open questions. The qualitative data were analysed with the content analysis. The quantitative material was analysed by using the Kruskall-Wallis test and cross tables. According to the results, the teachers, pupils and guardians showed significant statistical differences in their opinions about the school. Altogether 83 % of the guardians and 71 % of pupils were satisfied with the unified comprehensive school. In fact, 70 % of the guardians and 60 % of the pupils wanted to see the construction of more unified comprehensive schools. The guardians focused on the safety of their own child in the school. They appreciated that in the new school form, their child did not have to change schools between grades 6 and 7, a transition that the parents usually found to be undesirable. The students tended to highlight the informal elements, such as friendship, the school environment and school rules; they also showed marked age-related differences in their views. The teens thought that the unified comprehensive school was suited mainly for the younger primary school pupils. The teachers were the most critical of the new school form; 53 % of them were satisfied with it, and only 29 % wanted to see more of them. The teachers considered the matter primarily from the point of view of their own work. They thought the unified comprehensive school was a rich working environment, but disliked it as an organization. According to the teachers, the unified comprehensive schools are built too large to function effectively. The action of a large school organization must be divided, so that the risk of the parts is to divide such action too much. Horizontal coherence did not work. Also, the guardians, like the teachers were skeptical of the number of pupils in the unified comprehensive school. According the guardians, large size of the school units reduced the safety of the pupils. The result show that one can see the need to reduce the size of the unified comprehensive school for the benefit of the pupils and teachers. Additionally, school ergonomics, school culture and pedagogy also deserve careful consideration. The school must to realise that pupils studying between the ages of 6 and 16 have different needs. The unified comprehensive school seems to require more resources or help from outside of the school in establishing their pedagogy and school culture from the beginning. ________________________________________ Keywords: basic education, comprehensive school, unified comprehensive school, school pedagogy
  • Niemi, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines conceding as a social practice in Finnish conversation as well as the linguistic structures that are used to implement it, such as "voihan se olla" it may (well) be . The four case studies that are analysed are connected by a concessive sequence of turns at talk. In this sequence, the concessor concedes the prior speaker s point of view as (potentially) correct and either implies reserve or subsequently asserts a contrastive point of view. The data consist of telephone calls and video-recorded conversations between acquaintances and family members, as well as conversations from internet forums and a chat room. This study applies the method of Conversation Analysis and adopts the orientation of Construction Grammar on linguistic structures as holistic combinations of form and function. The central research questions of this analysis are 1) what gets done with the linguistic structures that the study examines, 2) what are the social, interactional, and sequential factors involved in the choice of a specific format, and 3) what is the relationship between linguistic constructions and social interaction. The functions of the linguistic structures analysed in this study differ in several ways. The concessor may comment on the truthfulness of the prior speaker s statement or its implied consequences. He or she may modify the prior speaker s statement or assert agreement without modification. In addition, concession can imply either independent knowledge about the subject at hand, or a lack of that knowledge. In the data, the more minimal concessive structures (such as "voi olla" may be and "se voi olla" it may be ) are crystallized so that even a small difference in form results in a difference in function. By contrast, more elaborated clausal concessions allow for variation in their lexical form while retaining their function. This study reveals the two faces of conceding in interaction. While conceding may advance the speakers agreement and mutual understanding, it also may serve as a resource to express disagreement and to represent the other speaker s point of view as rather foolish. In addition, this study demonstrates that concessive structures carry a frame semantic meaning of a larger concessive sequence. The recipients of a concession can therefore anticipate disagreement on the basis of the concessive move. As a result, constructions are to be understood as established practices through which speakers perform and interpret social actions as well as projections of upcoming actions.
  • Kaitarinne, Niko (2015)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan singulaariarvohajotelmaa ja sen sovelluksena pseudoinverssiä. Lukija johdatellaan aiheeseen esittelemällä ensin joitakin tarvittavia esitietoja. Tämän jälkeen esittelemme unitaariset matriisit, jotka ovat yleistys ortogonaalisista matriiseista. Unitaaristen matriisien avullaesittelemme myös unitaarisen similaarisuuden käsitteen sekä Schurin hajotelmaksi kutsutun lauseen. Seuraavaksi esittelemme normaalit matriisit ja käsittelemme niiden tärkeimmät ominaisuudet. Vielä ennen tutkielman aiheeseen pääsyä käsittelemme hermiittiset matriisit, jotka ovat symmetristen matriisien yleistys, ja definiitit matriisit, jotka ovat hermiittisten matriisien eräänlainen osajoukko. Definiittien matriisien avulla käsitellään singulaariarvot sekä niiden avulla saatava singulaariarvohajotelma. Lopulta määritellään pseudoinverssi ja käydään läpi sen ominaisuudet, jonka jälkeen sovelletaan sitä pienimmän neliösumman probleeman ratkaisuun.
  • Kalinainen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tutkielmassa selvitetään suomen kielen objektin sijanvalintaan vaikuttavia tekijöitä aistihavaintoverbien 'nähdä', 'kuulla', 'haistaa', 'maistaa' ja 'tuntea' osalta. Nämä verbit kuuluvat objektin suhteen ns. kvasiresultatiivisten verbien ryhmään. Tuon ryhmän verbejä on pidetty objektin sijanvalinnan pääsäännöstä poikkeavana, sillä ne saavat akkusatiiviobjektin, vaikka niiden kuvaama tilanne ei ole johtanut päätepisteeseen tai tulokseen. Objektin sijanvalintaa pidetään yleisesti ja näiden erityistapausten vuoksi hyvin vaikeana suomea toisena kielenä opiskeleville. Tavoitteena on aineistoa tutkimalla ymmärtää paremmin, mitkä semanttiset piirteet vaikuttavat objektin sijamuotoon. Aineisto on kerätty Kielipankista ja internetistä, sisältäen sanomalehtitekstejä ja vapaamuotoista kirjoitettua kieltä. Aineistoa luokitellaan sen mukaan, mitkä seikat vaikuttavat akkusatiivi- tai partitiiviobjektin valintaan. Analyysimetodina on yleislingvistinen semanttinen analyysi, jossa verrataan eri sijamuodon aiheuttamia muutoksia merkityksen tasolla. Tutkimuksessa huomioidaan verbien monimerkityksisyys ja sen vaikutus objektin sijamuotoon. Aistihavaintoverbit luokitellaan oman järjestelmänsä sisällä kolmeen tyyppiin: katsoa, nähdä, näkyä. Epäagentiivisen aistihavainnon luokkaan (nähdä) kuuluvat verbit jaotellaan aistihavaintomerkitykseen ja muihin merkityksiin. Aistihavaintomerkitys jaetaan vielä kahteen mikromerkitykseen: punktuaaliseen Näin hänet yhtäkkiä ja staattiseen Näen ikkunasta kirkon. Tämä eronteko on oleellinen objektin sijan selittämisen kannalta. Punktuaalinen havaintolause saa akkusatiiviobjektin, koska se ilmaisee päätepisteellisen muutoksen: aistija saa yhteyden ärsykkeeseen. Staattinen havaintoyhteys taas ei sisällä mitään muutosta, ja siksi sitä ilmaisevaa akkusatiiviobjektia on pidetty objektisääntöjen vastaisena. Eri sijoilla ilmaistava aspektuaalinen resultatiivisuus : irresultatiivisuus -oppositio koskee kuitenkin vain dynaamisia lauseita, ei staattisia, joten akkusatiivi on ymmärrettävä. Taustalla on sellainen historia, että kun partitiivi levisi objekteihin irresultatiivisen aspektin ilmaisimeksi, kehitys ei ulottunut staattisten lauseiden alueelle (huomaa myös lauseet 'Omistan tämän talon', 'Rasia sisältää korun'). Näissä säilyi alkuperäinen akkusatiivi, joka kyllä vaihteli kvantitatiivisista syistä (Näen laivan, Näen jo laivaa saaren takaa). Niinpä nykyisenkin akkusatiiviobjektin funktio staattisissa on lauseissa vain objektin erottaminen subjektista. Tutkimuksessa käsitellään myös partitiivinkäyttöjä, jotka ilmentävät muunlaista aspektuaalisuutta: frekventatiivisuutta (Näin häntä koulussa joka päivä) ja nopeasti tapahtuvaa havaintoa (Näin häntä vilaukselta). Lisäksi tutkimuksen kohteena on objektin sijaan vaikuttava jaollisuus : jaottomuus -oppositio, jonka tarkka määrittely ei ole aivan ongelmatonta. Tutkimuksessa esille tulleet aspektuaaliset partitiivin käytöt muussa kuin irresultatiivisessa merkityksessä olisivat hedelmällinen kohde jatkotutkimukselle. Lisäksi objektiteorian kannalta jako staattisiin ja dynaamisiin tilanteisiin olisi otettava paremmin huomioon ja tutkittava mitkä verbit ovat suomen kielen kannalta staattisia. Tämä jaottelu olisi myös S2-opetuksen kannalta tärkeää.