Browsing by Issue Date

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 21-40 of 24777
  • Ruppel, Meri M. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The Arctic has been warming twice as fast as the rest of the world during the last decades of global warming. Reasons for the amplified Arctic warming are thought to partly relate to positive feedbacks affecting the radiative budget of the area. Black carbon (BC) is a light-absorbing particulate produced by incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. BC strongly warms the atmosphere, and its climate effects are amplified in the Arctic where its deposition on light surfaces decreases their reflectivity, resulting in elevated heat absorption and further hastening melt of snow and ice. Globally, BC is estimated to be the second most important climate-warming agent after carbon dioxide. Historical information on BC deposition plays a significant role in the assessment of long-term climate effects of BC, but scarce data on this past variability has been available from the Arctic. Historical BC records can be attained from environmental archives, such as ice cores, peat deposits and marine and lake sediments, which store direct evidence of past BC deposition in chronological order. The objective of this thesis is to collect new spatial and temporal data on BC deposition in the European Arctic from the preindustrial to the present (i.e., the last ca. 300 years), and assess BC sources and climatic implications, by analysing five lake sediment cores from Arctic Finland and an ice core from Svalbard. No standard method exists to determine BC, and the precise definition of BC depends on the methodology used for its quantification. Here, three different analytical methods were used to quantify different components of BC. Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles (SCP) and soot-BC (SBC) were analysed from the Arctic Finland lake sediments by SCP analysis and chemothermal oxidation at 375 °C, respectively, and elemental carbon (EC) from the Svalbard ice core with a thermal optical method. The results suggest temporal variation in past BC trends, both between study sites and between methods. While SCPs show a marked trend with fluxes peaking around 1980 and declining afterwards, they represent only a minor fraction of total BC. SBC and EC are better suited to indicate general historical BC trends. SBC fluxes vary between sites but some regional patterns are noticeable. The two northernmost lakes indicate generally decreasing SBC fluxes during the latter half of the 20th century which is in line with previous data from Greenland ice cores, modelling studies and atmospheric measurements. However, two other lake sites indicate increasing SBC fluxes from ca. 1970 to the end of the records, likely caused by local emissions from the Kola Peninsula, Russia. Moreover, an increasing EC deposition trend from ca. 1970 to 2004 is also recorded in the Svalbard ice core. This increasing trend is unexpected and unparalleled among available arctic records. The observed increase in the ice core is likely caused by flaring emissions from northern Russia. The fact that a similar trend in BC fluxes and deposition is recorded in two separate environmental archives analysed with different methods and receiving atmospheric transport from mostly different source areas, highlights the plausibility of such a trend, and implies that it may also be observable at other locations in the Arctic. In such a case, BC may have exerted a significant impact on the radiative forcing and thereby past climatic warming of the Arctic, in the most recent three or four decades. However, the present study indicates that local results cannot necessarily be extrapolated over wider areas, and therefore further studies are required to establish regional BC deposition trends within the Arctic. In addition, the study highlights that BC results obtained using different analytical methods should be compared with caution.
  • Pasanen, Annika (Suomalais-ugrilainen seura ja Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The topic of this study is the revitalization of the Inari Saami language, the only Saami language spoken exclusively in Finland. The Inari Saami language became severely endangered in the 1900s, and toward the 1990s its extinction seemed inevitable. Thanks to conscious efforts originating from the community, this grim path of development was reversed. The most important factors for reversing language shift have been the language nest (an Inari Saami immersion program for children under school age), mother tongue medium school instruction and intensive language education for adults. The Inari Saami language association Anarâškielâ servi, founded in 1986, has played the most important role in the revitalization activities. The study investigates the revitalization of the Inari Saami language on the societal and individual levels between 1997 and 2014. The data consists of interviews with members of the language community, observations from Inari Saami-speaking environments, questionnaires sent to members of Anarâškielâ servi, reports from students of the intensive adult language education program and interviews with their language masters, as well as editorials from the Inari Saami-language Anarâš newspaper. The data is analysed primarily in the light of three main concepts: linguistic culture, language ideologies and ideological clarification. In the study, linguistic culture refers to the combination of historical, political, geographical, sociological, demographic and ideological circumstances under which the Inari Saami language has experienced endangerment and subsequent revitalization. The concept of language ideologies encompasses the language-related attitudes, beliefs, principles and choices prevalent in the language community that have facilitated the revitalization of the language. A third decisive phenomenon from the perspective of the outcome of revitalization is manifested in the process of ideological clarification, which refers to facing language ideologies consciously, recognizing the goals and means of revitalization, and personally committing to and taking responsibility for one,s own language. The study demonstrates that on a global scale, Inari Saami revitalization has been exceptionally successful. During the period analysed in the study, transmission of the language to children has resumed, adults have begun to learn and reclaim the Inari Saami language through intensive language education, older native speakers have taken on an active role in the revitalization process and the use of the language has increased significantly in several integral domains, such as the home and school. The language is now valued by the local community, and has gradually gained a more equal position with the other Saami languages. The community-based revitalization of the Inari Saami language exemplifies a linguistic culture and language ideology that foster a reversal of language shift, including factors related to linguistic tolerance. The process of ideological clarification in the language community can be seen in the motivation and commitment of those who have learned Inari Saami as adults, in the personal reversal of language shift in families and social networks, and in collective endeavours to use Inari Saami whenever possible. On the other hand, the revitalization of Inari Saami is connected to several critical factors and questions that have been investigated relatively little in the language community as of the end of this study. These include questions related to the language skills and linguistic identities of new speakers, language transmission at home vs. outside of the home, and the linguistic choices and identities of children and youth. These questions are significant with regard to the vitality of the language and should be examined both in daily life in the linguistic community and in future studies.
  • Juntunen, Marianne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Chemistry plays an important role in making the future more sustainable and solving the related global issues. Curricula, national and international educational strategies, research literature and chemical industry are all focusing on sustainable development. We need more environmentally literate chemists, chemistry teachers and students future citizens, who are to solve the numerous environmental challenges that face the whole world. The main aim of this design research study was to find out what are the features of holistic and inquiry-based education for sustainable development in chemistry. At the same time, the aim was to foster students environmental literacy, argumentation skills and positive attitudes towards chemistry. Education for sustainable development in chemistry is related to socio-scientific issues, e.g., life-cycle thinking and green chemistry. Theoretical problem-analysis of the study was used to investigate the approaches that are of key importance to the study presented in this dissertation: sustainable development, green chemistry, the life-cycles of different products, environmental literacy, socio-scientific education, and the pedagogical methods of inquiry-based learning and argumentation. The empirical design phase sought an answer to the main research question: What are the main features of holistic and inquiry-based education for sustainable development in chemistry? The main focus of the research was in teaching life-cycle analysis, which is one of the key elements in the Finnish national curriculum. The design research project constituted of three phases, which were conducted during the years 2010 2014. The first empirical phase was conducted in four chemistry teachers in-service training courses. During these courses, a total of 20 chemistry teachers created new inquiry-based methods for teaching life-cycle analysis in chemistry. This development process was based on theoretical problem analysis. The second empirical phase focused on creating a collaboratively-developed design solution based on the teachers concepts and the effects of this solution. The participants in this second phase were 105 9th grade students, whose environmental literacy, argumentation skills and attitudes towards chemistry learning were evaluated. The third phase was theoretical. It consisted of comparing the gained empirical knowledge to theoretical literature in order to answer the main research question. The methods of data analysis included content analysis of texts, semi-structured interviews and quantitative surveys. The validity of the results of the conducted cyclic design research project is enhanced by theoretical literature analysis, methodological triangulation, researcher triangulation, the testing of the developed teaching concept in authentic environments and the systematic, visualised documentation of the design phases. The design phases resulted in three types of knowledge: 1) new chemistry teaching concepts for sustainability education that use life-cycle thinking and inquiry-based learning methods, and a collaboratively-developed design solution (Article I), 2) knowledge about how inquiry-based learning of life-cycle analysis affects students environmental literacy, argumentation skills and attitudes towards chemistry (Articles II and III) and 3) domain knowledge about holistic and inquiry-based education for sustainable development in chemistry (Article IV). Holistic and inquiry-based education for sustainable development in chemistry includes interdisciplinary and socio-scientific issues. Socio-constructivist and contextual chemistry education is bound to societal actors and co-operational, real-life activities. Learning occurs in social interaction, through argumentation and self-reflection, for example. The students themselves may choose the focus of inquiry, and it may relate to raw materials, consumer products, food substances or water, for example. As the knowledge of chemistry is combined with possibilities for societal action, the importance of chemistry becomes apparent to the students. They gain competence to act towards building a more sustainable future. The improved scientific and ecological argumentation skills reflect their environmental literacy and competence in societal thinking. The holistic and inquiry-based chemistry education presented in this dissertation supports versatile studying and citizenship skills in a new way. It motivates students to study chemistry and guides them to take sustainable development into account. Education for sustainable development is needed at all school levels. The approaches presented in this study may be applied on all levels of education. The results may be used to promote sustainable development in the planning of chemistry education and the education of chemistry teachers. Keywords: chemistry education, sustainable development, green chemistry, teaching concepts, design research
  • Kuusniemi, Kalle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS) had no contacts with the Baltic and Ingrian Lutheran Churches in the Soviet Union. It was virtually impossible for the Missouri Synod to make connections because of its narrow view of ecumenism, its anti-communism, and its non-membership in the Lutheran World Federation (LWF), which communicated to some extent with the churches of the USSR. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union made it possible for the Synod to establish totally new contacts with post-Soviet Lutherans. I examine how the Missouri Synod influenced the Baltic and Ingrian Churches between 1991 and 2001 in the context of inter-Lutheran relations. The starting point of the study is when the Missouri Synod first made contact with the Baltic and Ingrian Lutherans. It set up initial connections in 1991 through the LCMS auxiliary organizations in cooperation with the Finnish sister organization, the Confessional Lutheran Church of Finland. However, the first direct official Missourian contacts with the Lutherans in those countries were established in 1992. The Estonian Church, being more developed, more self-sufficient and strongly supported by the Finnish Church, was not so needful of support from the Missouri Synod. Having a more liberal theological approach it had allowed women to become pastors, and continued doing so, whereas the positions of the Ingrian, Latvian and Lithuanian Churches were and continued to be more open to cooperation with the Missouri Synod. The Latvian Church, for example, which allowed the ordination of women, overruled the decision in 1993 so that the problematic question of women´s ministry no longer hindered cooperation between the Latvians and the Missourians. As a result of the cooperation and of fellowship discussions between the Missouri Synod and the Ingrian Church, an altar and pulpit fellowship agreement was signed at the 1998 LCMS convention. Significantly, this was the very first time an existing member of the Lutheran World Federation entered into fellowship with the Missouri Synod. One could say that this fellowship became a model for the two Baltic Churches that later signed the agreement with the Missouri Synod. From the Missourian side, fellowship with the Ingrians meant that the Missouri Synod had developed a more tolerant and more open attitude towards its partner Churches and their pluralism. The end point of the study is July 2001, when the Missouri Synod´s convention delegates voted to declare church fellowship with the Latvians and the Lithuanians. Of most importance was the theological, financial and moral support the LCMS gave to the Ingrian, Latvian and Lithuanian Lutheran Churches, and to the Estonian Church to a lesser degree, and it also exerted the most significant influence in these areas. Theological support was the top priority. The LCMS extensively supported theological education in the area for two basic reasons. First, the Missouri Synod had reaffirmed its positions on many theological questions and was not as progressive as the German and Swedish Lutherans, for instance. LCMS theology was more understandable and more similar to the post-ghetto theology of the Churches that had been under Soviet rule. Second, the Missouri Synod had the capacity for educational cooperation with its comprehensive education system. Financial support was given on quite a large scale. Much of it directly served the purposes of theological education, but there was also some support for diaconal work, for example. Perhaps to the surprise of many Western Lutherans, the financial support made the Baltic and Ingrian Churches more independent and less vulnerable to the threat of being cut off from funding that came from some members of the LWF. Moral support was essential, and was usually connected with theological and financial support. At first it involved offering encouragement to the small Churches in Eastern Europe that had suffered under Communist persecution, but may have been of utmost significance in the new situation that arose when the Baltic and Ingrian Churches attracted heavy criticism and were under strong pressure from mainstream European Lutherans. Because of the Missouri Synod´s influence and the conservative nature of the Baltic and Ingrian Lutheran Churches a Lutheran New Deal or reallotment was made in Eastern Europe. Between mainstream and non-mainstream Lutheranism appeared the middle ground of the Ingrian, Latvian, Lithuanian, and to some degree Estonian Lutheran Churches, all of which were now deeply connected to both the LCMS and the LWF. In only one decade the Missouri Synod had gained a strong foothold in the Baltic and Ingrian Churches.
  • Meretniemi, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This dissertation uses the approach of history of ideas and consepts to examine how the concepts of a good home and spiritual motherhood were seen by kindergarten teachers. These concepts were the guiding principles of Finnish kindergartens from approximately 1890 to 1950. The key research problem explored in the dissertation is the tension between the private and the public in the intellectual foundations of kindergarten activities, in the objectives of these activities and in the self-understanding of kindergarten teachers. The dissertation poses the following questions: How was the concept of spiritual motherhood, as emphasised in the kindergarten ideology, manifested in the professional dialogue of kindergarten teachers? What meanings were ascribed to it and what tensions were involved in its interpretations? What kinds of physical environments and everyday practices did kindergarten teachers create in kindergartens based on the concept of a good home? What arguments did kindergarten teachers use when responding to proposals and calls to expand the kindergarten day care to a full-time day care? The research material includes the diaries and letters of the major actors involved in the early stages of kindergarten education, archival resources related to the education, and biographical and interview material from providers of kindergarten education. The key figures in the study are Hanna Rothman and Elisabeth Alander, both pioneers of kindergarten education, and Elsa Borenius, who developed kindergarten work. Through these individuals, this dissertation analyses the reception aforementioned concepts as well as their processing and application in the education and work of kindergarten teachers. Introduced by Friedrich Fröbel and Henriette Schrader-Breymann, the concepts of a good home and spiritual motherhood were adopted in Finnish kindergarten work largely in their original form. The concepts were shaped by the religious convictions of Hanna Rothman and Elisabeth Alander: spiritual motherhood was close to religious motherhood, and kindergarten work in its early stages was viewed as Christian social missionary work in a pedagogical framework. As a spiritual mother, the female kindergarten educator had to place herself in the service of love for the benefit of those close to her. This expectation created tensions in education and easily resulted in teachers becoming exhausted in their work. The principle of spiritual motherhood guided the professional image of kindergarten teachers for several decades and linked the kindergarten closely with the private, rather than the public, sphere. Maternal qualities were considered professional requirements which weakened the connection between kindergarten teaching and the worlds of school and academia. Initially, kindergarten teaching was an ambivalent profession lying between motherhood and teaching. It was a caring occupation characterised by a strict ethical code and unselfishness. The Christian values of the kindergarten came under scrutiny as the work began to develop into a public social service. The ideal of a good home informed the planning of kindergarten facilities as home-like environments based on the teachers own bourgeois homes. Kindergarten teachers themselves designed the kindergarten facilities and furniture. The kitchen was considered particularly important. The sense of community and social growth were promoted through both pedagogy of work and common activities in the kindergarten. The ideal of the home, emphasis on the link between mother and child, and part-time day care in the kindergarten constituted a practice that was difficult to break when calls for the expansion of full-time day care began to come from various directions of society in the 1940s and 1950s. Kindergarten teachers opposed full-time day care by appealing to children s own good and and the principle of home as the primary environment for child rearing before school age. The teachers felt that part-time day care could satisfy the need for early childhood education. To resolve the issue of full-time day care, the kindergarten teachers suggested as early as the late 1940s that mothers work part-time or receive a maternity salary . From 1918 onwards, separate groups were established in kindergartens for school children in full-time day care, but these groups did not develop as anticipated. The ideological tradition of the pioneers of kindergarten education emphasised religion, spiritual motherhood and Fröbel s pedagogy. The rules of the Ebeneser Foundation, which provided training in the field, were tied to Christian values. This tradition conduced to the uniformity of kindergarten teacher education, but also separated it from other teacher education and may have hampered its academic development. The `shine of spiritual motherhood´wore off when the realities of the profession set in. Changes in social policy began to affect day care arrangements only after the end of my research period. The ideal of the home remained unchanged, although what originally began as private kindergarten work gradually developed into a publicly funded and managed activity. Keywords: History of the kindergarten, a good home, spiritual motherhood, pedagogy of work, part-time day care, full-time day care, day care for schoolchildren
  • Veistinen, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The flat bones of the skull, the calvarial bones, develop by intramembranous ossification during which mesenchymal cells first condense and subsequently differentiate into osteoblasts. Sutures separate the calvarial bones and facilitate the synchronized growth of the underlying brain and the calvaria. Hedgehog (Hh) signalling has an indisputable role in craniofacial development as well as during endochondral ossification. Yet, little is known about its function during intramembranous ossification of the calvarial bones. GLI-Kruppel family member 3 (Gli3) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that mediates Hh signalling. In the absence of Hh ligand Gli3 is proteolytically cleaved into a repressor that inhibits transcription of Hh target genes. Mutations in GLI3 cause Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome in humans, in which an infrequent, but significant feature is premature fusion of the metopic suture (interfrontal suture in mice). We have used Gli3 loss-of- function mouse (Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J) as a model to investigate the effects of aberrant Hh signalling during calvarial development. In my thesis I describe how loss of Gli3 causes craniosynostosis of the lambdoid as well as interfrontal sutures in mice. Elevated proliferation and ectopic differentiation of osteoprogenitors underlies this phenomenon. We were able to rescue craniosynostosis in these mice by two mechanisms. Firstly, by elevating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signalling in the suture prior to its fusion by imbedding Fgf2 soaked beads in tissue culture. This induced Twist1 expression, which inhibits function of ectopically expressed Runx2. Secondly, craniosynostosis was prevented by genetically reducing Runx2 activity by generating Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J;Runx2+/- mice, which normalized elevated levels of Bmp signalling in the affected sutures. We also put forward a model of how Hh signalling helps to maintain the integrity of bone margins during calvarial development. The repressor isoform of Gli3 inhibits Runx2 activity in the early osteoprogenitor cells. Runx2, on the other hand, activates Ihh expression in the mature osteoblasts, which then induces osteogenesis by inhibiting the function of Gli3 repressor. Our findings indicate that Gli3 and Hh signalling have an important role in mediating the location of osteoblast differentiation and the speed of bone formation in the developing calvaria. Uncovering the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie normal calvarial development, as well as pathological processes, is a vital step in developing treatment strategies for patients with craniosynostosis.
  • Kalinowski, Jaroslaw (2015)
    One of the goals of modern quantum chemistry is to simulate actual chemical experiments. In order to study species closer to real life systems and bulk environments there is a need for methodological developments. There are two ways to approach large systems with a given level of accuracy: conceptual changes to quantum chemistry methods or algorithmic developments for current methods. Many scientists believe that the conceptual changes truly increase the size of the systems one can study. With more or less advanced approximations to the method it is possible to increase the efficiency of calculations orders of magnitude. The implementation and algorithms fall down in the priority list, as advanced algorithmic developments are time consuming and usually lead to lower efficiency increases than conceptual changes. In this work it is shown that algorithmic developments cannot be neglected, and that even simple changes help in utilizing the power of modern computers and can also increase the efficiency by orders of magnitude. In this work new algorithmic developments are presented and used for solving various timely chemical problems.
  • Mäkinen, Laura K. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Predicting the clinical course of an early-stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is challenging, as even small tumors can behave aggressively. OTSCC often metastasizes to the cervical lymph nodes, and the presence of lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis is considered the most important tumor-related prognostic factor in OTSCC. The mechanisms of this disease progression are poorly understood. Despite slight improvement in the prognosis of OTSCC in recent decades, the outcome of these patients is still modest. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the phenomena behind tumor progression would enable medical professionals to evaluate the aggressiveness of the disease and to adjust its treatment more effectively. The extracellular matrix and basement membrane must be broken down before a tumor can invade surrounding tissues and further spread into blood and lymph vessels. This is a process that involves various proteolytic enzymes, the most important of which are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Over 25 structurally related, but genetically distinct, human MMPs have been identified and characterized: collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type MMPs, and other MMPs. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition molecules involved in innate immunity that are also expressed in many types of cancer. TLRs apparently play a pivotal role in malignant disease: they are related to tumor progression and, conversely, to cancer inhibition. Their expression pattern and role in oral cancer, however, remains unclear. In this thesis we studied the expression of MMPs 2, 7, 8, 9, 13, and 25 and TLRs 2, 4, 5, 7, and 9 in early-stage OTSCC. The study comprised 73 consecutive clinically T1N0M0 and T2N0M0 OTSCC patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland in 1992-2002. We prepared tissue array blocks from primary tumors and immunostained them. We also used whole section slides from patients with metastasized or recurrent disease. We compared immunoexpression of MMPs and TLRs to tumor and patient characteristics as well as to patient outcomes. We also used Western immunoblot to examine TLR-2 and -4 expression in the highly invasive and aggressive HSC-3 OTSCC cell line. In addition, we studied the effect of TLR-2 and -4 antagonist GIT27 (4,5-dihydro-5-isoxasoleacetic acid) on the invasion of the HSC-3 cell line in myoma organotypic invasion assay. OTSCC tumors expressed both MMPs and TLRs. Nuclear expression of MMP-13, but not cytoplasmic expression of MMP-2, -8, and -9, associated with deeper invasion and advanced tumor size. Furthermore, high nuclear MMP-13 expression predicted poor disease-specific survival. High MMP-7 protein expression associated with the presence of occult cervical metastases, increased invasion depth, and higher tumor grade, and also predicted poor outcome. Immunostaining of MMP-25 failed to correlate with any clinical parameters. High TLR-2, -4, and -9 expression correlated with deeper tumor invasion. Cytoplasmic expression of TLR-2 and -4 also correlated significantly with higher tumor grade, whereas high TLR-5 expression associated with lower tumor grade. High expression of TLR-9 correlated with advanced tumor size. Negative or mild TLR-5 expression predicted poor disease-specific survival. OTSCC primary tumors, neck metastases and recurrent tumors expressed TLR-2, -4, and -9. TLR-2 and -4 antagonist GIT27 did not affect the invasion of the HSC-3 cell line in myoma organotypic invasion assay. Thus, TLRs may operate under a different mechanism of action depending on whether they are activated by damage-associated molecular patterns in cancer or by pathogen-associated molecular patterns in infection. Our results suggest that MMP-7 and MMP-13 in particular may have prognostic value in OTSCC. Their use as prognostic biomarkers, however, calls for further study. TLR-2, -4, and -9 seemed to predict invasive tumor growth. Primary tumors and neck metastases as well as recurrent tumors of OTSCC express these TLRs, suggesting that TLRs seem to play a role in both the development and progression of tongue carcinoma.
  • Rouhe, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Every 10th pregnant women suffers from severe fear of childbirth. It causes anxiety and physical symptoms during pregnancy, and may interfere with mother-infant bonding. Caesarean sections on maternal request are rising worldwide. The major indication is fear of childbirth. There is no clinical guideline regarding how to help these women. This present study was designed to investigate the background factors of fear of childbirth; to assess the methods to screen fear of childbirth; analyse the effect of group psycho-education on delivery mode, delivery experience, costs and postnatal psycho-social well-being; and also to evaluate the psychiatric morbidity of women with fear of childbirth. We tested the fear of childbirth questionnaire in the Finnish population and simultaneously gathered the obstetrical background information of 1,348 pregnant women. We used the Fear of Childbirth VAS for the first time in measuring fear of childbirth. With a cut-off of Fear of Childbirth VAS over 5.0, the sensitivity is 98%, and the specificity is 67% for severe fear of childbirth. Nulliparous women have more fear of childbirth than parous women. Women who were more afraid of childbirth preferred caesarean section as delivery mode. Women who had have previously delivered by caesarean section or had vacuum-assisted delivery, were more fearful. The Fear of Childbirth VAS is a simple method for screening fear of childbirth. In a register-based study, we analysed specialised care with psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication of 2,500 women with fear of childbirth and 5,000 control women. The prevalence of mental health problems was higher (54%) among women with fear of childbirth than among control women (34%). The most common mental disorders were anxiety disorders and depression. Mental health problems should be acknowledged in maternity care. In randomised study, nulliparous women were screened for fear of childbirth, and 371 women with severe fear of childbirth were included in our study. These women were randomised into an intervention group and convetional care. The intervention consisted of six times of group psycho-education with mindfulness relaxation exercises led by a psychologist during pregnancy and one session postnatal. Women in the intervention group had more often normal vaginal delivery (63% vs. 48%) than women in the control group. The childbirth experience was less frightening for women in the intervention group, regardless of the delivery mode. Group psycho-education improved maternal adjustment and reduced the risk of postnatal depressive symptoms. The costs of group psycho-education were saved in delivery costs, and thus this treatment causes no additional expenses to conventional care. By providing nulliparous women with group psycho-education, more resources can be appointed to parous women with fear of childbirth in special maternity care.
  • Onodera, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This is an ethnographic study of the lived experiences of young activists during the last years of Mubarak s presidency in Egypt. Its general aim is to provide an understanding of what it was like to be involved in opposition politics during a period when the eventual end of Mubarak s rule in 2011 was little more than a collective aspiration. Drawing on different strands of qualitative social science, including anthropology, sociology and youth research, the study is based on 12 months of fieldwork in Cairo, conducted between 2007 and 2011. It makes use of political engagement as an open analytic that enables the examination of different activities that were oriented towards, but not exclusive to, public political processes and formal avenues to political participation. In this vein, the study explores the activities that the young activists regarded as meaningful in terms of challenging the status quo, and how being young in itself shaped their ways of participating in public political life. While it focuses on the experiences of young Cairenes who were predominantly male and aged in their 20s, it is acknowledged that important differences existed among them that conditioned their efforts to acquire new visibilities and political roles, including social differences such as class, gender and global connectedness. In order to explore the diversity of their political experiences, the study discusses four principal areas of analysis and related topics: namely, generational consciousness, tactical practice, friendship relations and ethical reflections. It is demonstrated that, firstly, the new forms of youth activism in the 2000s promoted a critical generational consciousness as a disenfranchised social location in the intergenerational order, while also providing reinvigorated meanings to youth as a subversive political category, and in some ways a privileged experiential realm, ready to conduct public political dissent on its own terms. The new youth movements, such as Youth for Change and April 6 Youth that emerged on the fringes of larger processes of contentious politics, assumed new roles in public political life and merged, at least temporarily, young Egyptians from different backgrounds and affiliations into collective actions: forging alliances, largely beyond the formal political institutions. Secondly, the young activists resorted to a number of tactical practices in order to reach out to wider publics via both offline and online avenues. Their operating preferences lay in organizing unlicensed street protests in the popular, lower-class residential areas and tapping into the subversive potential of the new information and communication technologies, including blogs and social media. Although these forms of public dissent expanded their otherwise narrow political opportunities, their adoption was not, however, equally available to everyone. Some either had the necessary social networks in place, including family support, or the available time and the economic means to do so, while those, who were less equipped for public dissent, could nonetheless acquire new combinations of practical skills, knowledge and social connections that enabled them to enact their sense of meaningful political action. At the same time, the efforts to build youth coalitions faced a number of challenges, one of which was internal factionalism, which, coupled with the growing use of social media, diversified the scope of youth activism in the run-up period to the 2011 uprisings. Thirdly, being a young activist in the late 2000s provided much more varied everyday experiences than merely the acts of public political dissent. It also involved absorbing pre-existing oppositional culture and adopting dissident lifestyles that were filled with shared moments of being and doing things with others on a daily basis. In the absence of representative political institutions, the experiences of having friends and being a friend to others offered intimate avenues to public political life that stretched beyond kin ties and formal organizations. Although oppositional youth activism was divided along lines of class, gender and political affiliation, the young could forge mutual grounds for friendship relations on the basis of their shared experiences and stories of contention, while frequenting downtown Cairo as the main hub of their everyday trajectories. Although friendship relations were at times volatile in the contested field of politics, safeguarding the bonds of trust, belonging and everyday solidarity represented highly relevant everyday activities. Fourthly, the young Cairenes were faced with a number of ethical reflections on the meaningfulness of their own dissent practices, not the least due to the personals risks that opposition politics involved in authoritarian settings. While the prospect of impoverishment did not generally motivate their political engagements, they shared a sense of injured patriotism that prevailed in the wider prodemocracy movement, and aspired to greater recognition as rightful citizens. At the same time, they operated on an ambivalent moral terrain that required positioning one s self and others in relation to normative claims to the common good; furthermore, they had to contend with popular suspicion about the impact of their public political dissent and about possible motives for their activism, such as the pursuit of social status and personal wellbeing. Despite the differences that existed among the activist youth in terms of class and gender, however, they could in part challenge these types of speculations by enacting the prevailing ideals of personhood in terms of bravery, righteousness and self-sacrifice. Meanwhile, although the young Cairenes were embedded in the moral worlds of prodemocracy mobilization, they were also compelled to balance their political engagements in terms of multiple life transitions, especially in terms of balancing their activism with the requirements of gaining a livelihood. While there were multiple ways of being or becoming an activist in the late Mubarak era, the young Cairenes political engagements were connected to their collective pursuit of playing a meaningful role in what happened in the present, while acknowledging that Egypt s future was intimately tied to their own life trajectories.
  • Heiskanen, Jouni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from lakes result from processes between the watershed, lake characteristics and the atmosphere. The organic matter loading from the watershed both provides carbon for the lake biota and in major part defines water clarity, which, in addition to wind and heat flux, is essential in thermocline formation. Thermal stratification suppresses the wind-induced momentum input to the surface water preventing effective mixing of gases throughout the water column. The lake biota process the organic matter, producing carbon dioxide (CO2) in oxic surface water and also methane (CH4) if the near-bottom water becomes anoxic, and thus influence the chemical properties of the water column. Finally, air-water GHG exchange occurs over a thin layer at the water surface. Lakes are typically supersaturated with CO2 and CH4 in relation to average atmospheric mixing ratios causing fluxes of these gases to the atmosphere. Even though lakes cover only 2 % of the world s land surface, it has been estimated that lakes release about 10 % of the carbon fixed annually by the terrestrial ecosystems back to the atmosphere. A critical parameter in the gas exchange estimates is the gas transfer velocity (k), which is governed by turbulence. The implementation of direct flux measurement using the eddy covariance (EC) technique allows the detailed measurements needed to estimate k. However, on lakes, the EC method is a novel subject and as of yet, there has been no published estimates of the error related to these measurements nor fully established set of accepted procedures. The aim of this thesis was to assess the current global CO2 evasion estimates from lakes to the atmosphere by comparing parameterizations for k and the significance of wind and heat flux to the gas transfer in small lakes. To improve future predictions of gas evasion from lakes, we focused on the changes in water clarity and how they affect water column physics and processes in the air-water interface. We used the EC method for the high precision data needed, and therefore also aimed to improve the EC methodology on lakes. The air-water gas transfer was related to both wind and heat loss during times of seasonal stratification, but only to wind during autumn overturn, and the mean value for k of CO2 was 6.0 cm h-1 in Lake Kuivajärvi. When wind-induced thermocline tilting and resulting spatial variability in surface water CO2 concentrations was accounted for, k derived from the measurements dropped to 5.2 cm h-1. This was still over twice the estimate (2.2 cm h-1) calculated with a widely used model for k in lakes suggesting that the global estimates of gas evasion from lakes might be underestimations. Unsolved question is that how important factor the thermocline tilting is in other lakes in defining spatial variability? Our results showed that k for CH4 was higher than for CO2, a result which has been reported in some other studies, but as of yet, no solid explanation has been found. Water clarity was a significant parameter defining the thermal stratification of the lake: a change from clear to dark water would lead to shorter stratification period and lower water column temperatures in small lakes and therefore have significant impact on the lake-atmosphere exchange processes. Important question is how changes is climate will affect lake water clarity e.g. via precipitation and runoff related DOC loading. We concluded that the EC method produces reliable results even in a small lake after rigorous data processing. After these procedures, about half of the CO2 and turbulent heat flux data were of good quality with relative random errors of 10 % and 26 % for heat and CO2 fluxes, respectively. When measuring GHG fluxes accurately from lakes, methods that integrate over time and space are a necessity. These will provide more detailed knowledge on the complex processes that contribute to the gas transfer, from large scale physical phenomena such as thermocline tilting to small scale such as near-surface turbulence. Since most of the world s lakes are small and in northern latitudes, our studies have wide implications even to the global level. Better understanding of the lake biogeochemistry will allow us to make more accurate estimates of GHG evasion from lakes in different regions as well as predictions of how the climate change will affect the lake-atmosphere GHG fluxes.
  • Kankare, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The precise knowledge of forest structural attributes play an essential role in decision-making, forest management procedure planning and in wood supply chain optimization. Laser scanning (LS) is one of the most promising remote sensing techniques, which can be used to estimate forest attributes at all levels, from single trees to global applications. The main objectives of the present thesis were to develop LS-based methodologies for mapping and measuring single trees. More specifically, new high-density LS-based models and methodologies were developed for the prediction of aboveground biomass (AGB), logging recovery, stem curve and external tree quality estimation. Multisource remote sensing methodologies were additionally introduced for the detailed next generation forest-inventory process. Substudies I and II concentrated on developing LS-based biomass models. Total AGB was estimated with the relative root mean squared errors (RMSE%) of 12.9% and 11.9% for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.), respectively using terrestrial LS (TLS) -derived predictors in multiple regression modelling. TLS-based AGB models significantly improved the estimation accuracy of AGB components compared to state-of-the-art allometric biomass models. Airborne LS (ALS) resulted in slightly higher RMSE% values of 26.3% and 36.8% for Scots pine and Norway spruce compared to results obtained with TLS. The goal of substudies III and IV was to predict timber assortment and tree quality information using high-density LS data. Sawlog volumes were estimated with RMSE% of 17.5% and 16.8% with TLS and a combination of TLS and ALS, respectively. Results in IV showed that trees could be successfully classified in different quality classes based on TLS-measured attributes with accuracies between 76.4% and 83.6% depending on the amount of quality classes. Substudies V and VI presented new automatic processing tools for TLS data and a multisource approach for the more detailed prediction of diameter distribution. Automatic processing of TLS data was demonstrated to be effective and accurate and could be utilized to make future TLS measurements more efficient. Accuracies of ~1 cm were achieved using the automatic stem curve procedure. The multisource single-tree inventory approach combined accurate treemaps produced automatically from the TLS data, and ALS individual tree detection technique. Results from diverse forest conditions were promising, resulting in diameter prediction accuracies between 1.4 cm and 4.7 cm depending on tree density and main tree species. Each substudy (I VI) presented new methods and results for single-tree AGB modelling, external tree quality classification, automatic stem reconstruction and multisource approaches.
  • Laaksonen, Esti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The estimated number of heavy consumers of alcohol is about 20 percent of population, of which 10 percent suffer from alcohol dependency. Many heavy consumers of alcohol also smoke. The effectiveness of treatments can be significantly improved with medical treatment. The problems are: how medical treatment can be utilized in practical treatment, and how to ensure treatment adherence. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies combined with a brief manual-based cognitive-behavioural intervention (CBT) in treating alcohol-dependent patients. In the large-scale clinical treatment study, which ran for 2.5 years, the effectiveness and patient response to the three drugs (naltrexone, acamprosate and disulfiram) were compared. The study used a survey drawn up guidebook for patients, Winning at last defeating the drinking problem. In addition, we researched how the reduced alcohol consumption affects the quality of life, mood and smoking. In the study of sweet preference we analyzed possible associations between sweet preference and efficacy of naltrexone treatment. In addition, we researched patients treatment adherence and medication adherence to targeted naltrexone, as well as reduction of problem drinking and craving. This combined treatment (medication and CBT) significantly reduced alcohol consumption resulting in improved quality of life. Noticeable is that compared to the other study medicines, especially during the continuous medication period, supervised disulfiram appeared superior. During the targeted medication period, there were no other significant differences between the groups except for that the abstinence days were significantly more frequent in the disulfiram group. The treatment was also associated with success in quitting smoking among patients using disulfiram. The study of sweet preference, it was significantly related to treatment measures in the naltrexone group when the outcome was relapses to heavy drinking. Our study offers a possible new explanation of the clinical observation that naltrexone is not effective for every patient. Adherence to the targeted use of naltrexone added treatment compliance and efficacy of the medicine. Patients who had less symptoms of alcohol dependence, suffered from high craving for alcohol, were unemployment, young or could not keep the drinking diary were less committed to treatment. Problem drinking can be changed to abstinence or moderate drinking with the combination of medical therapy, CBT and good treatment commitment. The benefits of treatments are probably long-term, because part of the positive results lasted over two years. The treatment methods used in this study were usable and they can be implemented in all levels of Finnish health care.
  • Paramonov, Mikhail (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The research conducted and presented herein concentrates primarily on the life cycle of a cloud condensation nucleus CCN. The primary motivation of the work is the importance of CCN in the global aerosol-cloud-climate system, and focus is placed on the production of CCN, their behaviour in the atmosphere and their properties with respect to CCN activation, as well as the removal pathways. The work presented in this thesis covers measurements performed at 16 locations around the world. The results further corroborated the notion that atmospheric new particle formation NPF is an important and widespread source of CCN in the atmosphere. The number of newly formed CCN from NPF depends on many factors, including, but not limited to, biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, frequency of NPF events, nucleation and growth rates and pre-existing CCN concentrations; method of calculation also affects the estimate of NPF contribution to CCN budgets. Highest relative increase in CCN as a result of NPF was observed at a clean remote location in Northern Finland, where in the summer the number concentration of particles above 50 nm in diameter N50 can increase by as much as 800%. Highest absolute increases in NCCN as a result of NPF (up to 3500 particles cm 3 for N50) were found at a dry savannah location of Botsalano in South Africa. In Hyytiälä Type I nucleation events were found to always, at the very least, double NCCN concentrations. It was found that in many environments around the world a rather similar fraction of aerosols activated into cloud droplets at any given level of supersaturation S, and a simple linear parameterisation is provided for an easy calculation of annual mean CCN concentration NCCN based only on total number concentration NCN and the desired S. At the majority of studied locations hygroscopicity was found to increase with size, with accumulation mode hygroscopicity parameter κ values being significantly larger than Aitken mode κ at some locations. Depending on the focus and desired accuracy, the use of κ values as a function of particle dry size rather than the assumption of a size-independent κ should preferably be considered. The photochemistry, aging processes, atmospheric NPF and other atmospheric processes occurring on a diurnal scale were found to affect the CCN activation and hygroscopic properties of Aitken mode aerosol only. The hygroscopicity of the accumulation mode aerosol is more affected by processes occurring on a time scale of a few days to months, e.g. long range transport and seasonal variation in vegetation activity. Below-cloud scavenging by snow was found to be an inefficient mechanism of CCN removal from the atmosphere compared to, e.g., in-cloud scavenging. Additionally, nucleation and Aitken mode particles are scavenged by snow more efficiently that CCN-sized aerosol. No apparent difference in the scavenging efficiency of snow was observed between a rural and an urban site in Southern Finland. Ambient relative humidity was found to correlate positively with the scavenging efficiency of snow, and a new parameterisation for calculating snow scavenging coefficients based on both particle dry size and relative humidity is presented. A reconsideration of the purpose, the focus and the motivation for the cloud condensation nuclei counter CCNC measurements at the SMEAR II is needed if they are to be continued with reasonable, interesting and exciting output.
  • Nybond, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Due to the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria, bacterial infections are still a major healthcare problem. Many factors have led to a discovery void of new antibacterial agents, rendering the current antibiotic pipeline inadequate for future medical needs. For example, the outcomes from pure biochemical high-throughput screening (HTS) assays have, in many cases, not led to successful clinical compounds. Therefore cell-based assays might be a better choice for primary screening. However, the antibacterial cell-based assays in the current use often require long incubation times and they are not always amenable for miniaturization and automation for HTS. In this work, two screening assays based on recombinant bioluminescent E. coli strains were optimized and implemented in the screening of chemical libraries and natural products in antibacterial drug discovery. One of the recombinant bacterial strains was a strain which is sensitive towards transcriptional and translational inhibitors. The assay based on this strain was successfully miniaturized into 384-format using automatized liquid handling and was validated with a proof-of-concept library containing known drugs. This provided a means to perform a larger scale high throughput screen of a compound library. Based on the HTS hit structures, a ligand-based in silico screening of a virtual chemical library was employed for hit enrichment. The most active hits and the in silico selected compounds were further investigated in more detail. Natural products have been an important source in drug discovery, especially in the discovery of antibiotics in the current use. However, matrix effects such as colour or turbidity of natural product extracts can potentially cause interference in conventional absorbance based microbial growth inhibition assays. Also, conventional antibacterial assays are usually not sensitive enough for detecting very small concentrations in fractionated natural product extracts. The feasibility of bioreporter -based assays in antimicrobial screening of natural products was demonstrated by screening an in-house natural product library. One of the assays was also implemented for investigating the antibacterial properties of an extract from a fungal culture filtrate, which demonstrated the sensitivity of the assay for identification of active components from fractionated samples. In conclusion, sensitive and reproducible bioassays amenable for further miniaturization and automation were developed for antibacterial drug discovery. Compared to conventional antimicrobial testing, the bioreporter-based methods offer important improvements such as simultaneous data acquirement on antimicrobial activity, first indication of mode of action and significant reduction of assay time to 2-4 h compared to 24 h in standard susceptibility assays. The developed bioluminescent assays led to the improvement of compound throughput in antimicrobial screening: from hundreds of samples (natural product extracts and fractions) in manually performed assays in 96-well plates, to thousands of test compounds (synthetic compound libraries) in 384-well format using automated liquid handling.
  • Hannuniemi, Anja (ei ole vielä painettu, 2015)
    Parents Mental Disorders and Parental Alienation in Custody Disputes. A Medical Legal and Legal Sociological Study. The aim of the thesis is to find out solutions for a better management of custody disputes. Several studies show that children in especially high-conflict custody cases suffer in various ways and also permanently of the high conflict. The main recommendation to improve the system is a law-based psychiatric evaluation of parents when the dispute is at risk of escalation. The thesis consists of four articles and the summary. The articles are written about the problems present in high-conflict custody disputes; the parents mental disorders and their proneness to alienate their children from the other parent. To study the circumstances in the litigating families and the proceedings an empirical research was performed by getting information about court cases, in which the other parent has tried to get an enforcement of a court order concerning his/her access to the child. Court decisions were supplemented with other kinds of decisions concerning the same children and their parents, especially custody decisions, and information about the family relations, occupational status, compulsory care and other social services, mental health, debts, criminality, and deaths. The original number of the cases are 114, but they were reduced to 103 as non-custody cases were left away. The total time of the disputes are counted from the beginning of the first proceeding to the end of the last one. 103 cases are divided in three subgroups: 1) Short disputes (41) with a duration under two years, 2) Middle lenght disputes (36) from two years to five years five months, and 3) Long disputes (26) from five years five months to twelve years. Results: 1) 40 percent of all litigants suffer from a psychiatric disorder or substance abuse. The average prevalence of mental disorders in populations is considered to be 20 per cent, and the litigants exceed it twofold. The number of men and women with disorders is the same, but women have about two times more severe and mood disorders than men and men two times more substance abuse than women. 2) In the long disputes litigants have nearly as much disorders as the litigants in the short and middle lenght disputes counted together. The litigants in the short and middle lenght disputes have nearly same amount of disorders. 3) Of all 103 families 69 (67 per cent) are clients of child protection; in the long cases all exception one family. After the dispute has continued four years, practically all families are clients of child protection. About 20 per cent of the children are taken in compulsory care. 4) Litigants have also much umemployment, unability to work, economic and housing problems,and the number of litigants with these problems grows as the disputes get longer. 5) Proportion of litigants with alienating behaviour or some other attitude problem harming children ranges in different kinds of disputes from 74 to 88 per cent in women, and from 43 per cent to 88 per cent in men.
  • Aarnio, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Today's medical education faces the challenge of developing students competencies to resolve ever more complex problems in collaboration with other professionals. Problem-based learning (PBL) has proven useful for developing many of the competencies needed in modern healthcare. In PBL students collaboratively construct knowledge to explain and solve problems related to real-life situations. In such knowledge construction, dealing with conflicting ideas and knowledge has the potential to enhance student learning while also developing teamwork and critical thinking, skills that are central to multi-professional healthcare teams. The studies that make up the present doctoral thesis explored how students deal with conflicts on knowledge and how they are facilitated to handle such conflicts in PBL tutorial discussions. In addition, the thesis focuses on how to help students learn teamwork skills and critical thinking. Study I examined how to teach teamwork skills to first-year medical students and how to motivate them to learn these skills. The teamwork skills focused on verbal communication in PBL tutorial sessions and in healthcare teams. Feedback on the teamwork skills module from three consecutive classes of first-year students was analysed. Students motivation to learn teamwork skills increased significantly when the introduction to the topic was improved by more clearly pointing out the clinical relevance of such skills. Study II focused on how conflicts on knowledge were dealt with in PBL tutorial group discussions. Four video-recorded tutorial sessions including 33 first-year medical and dental students were analysed. Conflicts on knowledge were found to be relatively rare and generally fairly brief. This was due to a lack of collaborative and thorough argumentation, as well as a lack of questions that would elicit elaboration on the issues. Study III examined tutor facilitation during tutorial discussions, and particularly how the facilitation helped students to collaboratively resolve conflicts on knowledge. The study focused on the tutors in the same video-recorded tutorial sessions as in Study II. The tutors typically intervened by confirming what the students had said or by giving explanations, but they rarely asked questions that would stimulate elaboration on knowledge. During conflicts on knowledge the tutors gave more explanations, but did little to encourage the students to elaborate on conflicting ideas. Study IV focused on medical students conceptions of critical thinking in preclinical PBL. The aim was to find out how the students defined critical thinking, how they perceived it in preclinical PBL and what they expected it to be in clinical practice. The students typically understood critical thinking as judging the reliability of sources of information. Few students understood critical thinking to mean reflecting on their own thinking or viewing things from different perspectives. Students conceptions of critical thinking may have prevented them from seeing the connection between critical thinking in preclinical PBL and critical thinking in clinical practice. The present thesis sheds light on the processes of collaborative knowledge construction related to dealing with conflicting knowledge and ideas in PBL tutorial discussions. The results confirmed prior research findings, which have shown that students rarely deal with conflicting ideas and knowledge, and they point to the central role of the tutor in facilitating students to address these matters in tutorial discussions. The findings also revealed that engaging in deep inquiry during conflicts on knowledge was challenging for both students and tutors. The results further underlined the importance of clearly pointing out to students how they will benefit from the skills learned in preclinical PBL, such as teamwork and critical thinking, in their future professions. Based on these findings, new ideas for improving learning from conflicting ideas in small-group discussions are introduced. Future studies are encouraged to continue exploring the many exciting avenues opened by the present doctoral thesis.
  • Anttila, Jani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Environmental opportunist pathogens are a class of organisms that are able to both infect multicellular hosts and grow in the outside-host environment as free-living organisms. Environmental opportunism differs from obligate parasitism in that direct host-to-host contact is not necessary for disease transmission and that there are environmental pathogen reservoirs which in suitable conditions act as sources of infection. Because of this, environmental opportunist pathogens form a persistent threat to human health, livestock, and wildlife, and cannot be eradicated by treating hosts. Three well-known examples of pathogens of this class are Vibrio cholerae, Flavobacterium columnare, and Bacillus anthracis, all of which cause sporadic outbreaks. Between infections, these pathogens are subject to multiple biotic and abiotic environmental pressures in the outside-host environment. While environmental opportunist pathogens are not dependent on live hosts for transmission and thus benefit from increased virulence, balancing between the two environments, within-host and outside-host, might incur trade-offs and thus limitations to their spread. In this thesis I have developed mathematical models of environmental opportunist pathogen dynamics and studied the effects of environmental variation and outsidehost interactions on patterns of pathogen outbreaks. The studies included in the thesis address (i) the origin of a sigmoidal dose-dependent infectivity response, (ii) the effect of competition in the outside-host environment on opportunist pathogen outbreaks, (iii) the effect of environmental variation on environmental opportunist dynamics, and (iiii) how environmental variation enables invasions of emerging opportunist pathogen strains. The modelling approach has enabled identification of factors such as alleviation of competitive pressure and certain kinds of environmental variation as outside-host environmental factors that promote outbreaks. Additionally, modelling results can be used to suggest control strategies to reduce the probability of environmental opportunist pathogen outbreaks.
  • Korkka, Heli (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2015)
    The proceeds of crime shall be ordered forfeit to the State (Penal Code Chapter 10 Section 2 subsection 1). Crime shall not pay. Therefore, the offender or another person or entity that benefited from the offence must be ordered to forfeit the illegal proceeds. This doctoral thesis establishes a theoretically justified model on how the amount of the illegal proceeds should be quantified (the Theoretical Model). The doctoral thesis also demonstrates how the Theoretical Model functions in practice. The thesis analyses forfeiture in the context of corporate crime. A corporate offence is defined as an offence committed within legitimate business operations or in a business environment, for example, in the securities market. Forfeiture plays an important role as a consequence of a corporate offence, as the offence type typically generates considerable economic benefit. An activity qualifying as a corporate offence often produces both legal and illegal benefit. The Theoretical Model adopted in the doctoral thesis separates legal and illegal benefit and, thus, enables limiting the forfeiture to the illegal benefit only. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part (Presentation of the Research Problem) sets out the regulatory basis of the Theoretical Model. Chapter 1 considers relevant regulation and the related main rules of interpretation. Chapter 2 analyses the nature of forfeiture as sanction by comparing forfeiture and punishment. The comparison is useful as, under the Finnish law, forfeiture cannot be used as a punishment. Chapter 3 establishes an interpretation method applied in the thesis. The provision on forfeiture entails an interpretative tension. On the other hand, forfeiture must not be used as a punishment (forfeiture must be limited to the benefit generated by an offence and not by other factors related to an offence), but, on the other hand, the crime cannot pay (forfeiture must cover all benefit an offence has generated, including indirect benefit). This tension between restrictive and expansive interpretation is managed in the thesis by forming two principles of interpretation: the prohibition of enrichment and the prohibition of punishment. The balance of the principles is relevant throughout the thesis, as it helps to calibrate the set of differing arguments applicable in a concrete situation. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the construction of the Theoretical Model. The model consists of four criteria: the causality requirement between an offense and benefit (Chapter 5), deductibility of expenses resulting from an offence (Chapter 6), estimation of the amount of the illegal proceeds (Chapter 7) and adjustment of forfeiture (Chapter 8). Amongst the criterion, the causality requirement is the most essential, as the causation criteria defines the subject of the forfeiture, i.e. the property a priori considered illegal proceeds to be ordered forfeit. The doctoral thesis adopts a two-phase causality model. At the first phase, the factual causality analyses empirically observable events. The aim is to establish what has happened and which factor in the surrounding world has had such a strong impact for the resulting event (here, illegal proceeds) that the factor can be considered a cause to the consequence. The latter phase analyses to what extent the factual causal connection established at the first phase is judicially relevant (the judicial relevance of the factual causality). At the second phase, the factual causal connection between the offence and the benefit is assessed against the objectives of the provision on forfeiture in order to establish whether the factual causal connection is relevant and, thus, whether the benefit qualifies as illegal proceeds under the Penal Code and, therefore, can be ordered forfeit. The third part of the thesis contextualises the Theoretical Model to the connection of selected corporate offences, i.e. abuse of insider information (Chapter 10) and environmental offences (Chapter 11). The aforementioned offences are selected due to their distinct nature as corporate offences. Abuse of insider information is committed in the business environment, i.e. in the securities market, whereas the environmental offences are most often committed within legal business operations. The contextualisation demonstrates the functionality of the Theoretical Model in practice. The different operational environment of the offences also entails diverging mechanisms of profit generation, which enables an analysis on how the theoretical model works in context of different types of offences. Through the Theoretical Model and its contextualisation, the doctoral thesis establishes that the forfeiture of proceeds of crime can and should be applied in accordance with certain general principles that are neutral as to the type of offence in question however, taking into account the diverging mechanisms of profit generation in different types of offences. The thesis guides the expedient and efficient application of the forfeiture of criminal proceeds, as well as furthers the consistency of legal practice in this respect.
  • Vastamäki, Heidi Anita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    ABSTRACT Vastamäki, Heidi Anita The long-term outcome of frozen shoulder Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2015, 77 p. Publications of the ORTON Research Institute, A:39 The purpose of the current study was to assess and report the long-term outcome of frozen shoulder. The 234 patients with 257 frozen shoulders were clinically followed up for a mean 9.7 years (range, 2-30). The study includes five peer-reviewed articles. The specific aims of this project were to study: 1) the long-term outcome of the natural course of idiopathic frozen shoulder, 2) the very long-term outcome of manipulation under anesthesia (MUA), 3) the incidence and long-term outcome of postoperative frozen shoulder, 4) any influence of timing on the outcome of MUA, and 5) the long-term outcome of diabetic frozen shoulder. In general, patients with frozen shoulder recovered spontaneously over a mean duration of 15 months. After 9 year follow-up, 94% of shoulders showed a range of motion (ROM) similar to that of the contralateral, non-affected shoulder; 51% were totally pain-free, and 43% had pain ≤3/10 on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). In the long-term follow-up, diabetic patients shoulder ROM remained inferior to that of non-diabetic individuals. However, diabetic individuals frozen shoulders recovered to the patients own contralateral level. The very long-term outcome of manipulation under anesthesia was slightly inferior to the outcome of spontaneous recovery i.e. the natural course. After a mean 23 years follow-up of MUA, 47% of the shoulders had no pain at all. Even though ROM deteriorated between the last two follow-ups (7 vs. 23 years after MUA) the once-manipulated shoulder did reach the ROM level of the contralateral shoulder. Timing of MUA was statistically significantly associated with the outcome after manipulation of the idiopathic frozen shoulder. Optimal timing for MUA may be between 6 and 9 months from the beginning of symptoms. However, this finding may not be clinically significant. Concerning postoperative frozen shoulder after an open rotator cuff repair (RCR), the incidence was 20%. Compared to patients with no postoperative stiffness in their shoulders, the delay to postoperative healing was 3-6 months. The external rotation resolved first. One year after the surgery, the abduction and the flexion corresponded to that of the control patients shoulders. Patient age during RCR and the condition of the biceps tendon were related to the postoperative stiffness. In conclusion, the long-term outcome of frozen shoulder is good.