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  • Etongo Bau, Daniel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Tropical deforestation and forest degradation (DD) contribute approximately 15% of the annual global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, they are considered the main emissions sources in most developing countries. Despite the potentials of forest and tree plantations to mitigate the effects of climate change through carbon sequestration, DD still remains a challenge in Africa. Globally, the forests of Africa are the most depleted of all tropical regions, with only 30% of historical forest area still remaining. In addition, Africa s complexity in terms of its geography, politics, socioculture, economy, institutions etc. is an indication of why Africa has defied all simple solutions in addressing DD: a phenomenon considered location- and situation-specific. The biophysical setting of Burkina Faso exposes the central and northern region to drought and desertification. Such conditions have caused human migration to the southwestern regions, which offer better opportunities for rain-fed agriculture, but also experiences the highest rates of deforestation. On the other hand, the ongoing regreening process in the Sahel through tree planting and assisted natural regeneration of indigenous tree species is a signal for regrowth and revegetation. This study contributes to understanding the drivers of DD in four adjacent village communities in the Ziro province, southern Burkina Faso in the light of the forest transition theory. Specifically, this study assesses the drivers of DD at the farm/forest level and also identifies options for regrowth/revegetation. This dissertation consists of four articles (studies I, II, III, and IV). Studies I and II refer to stage two of the forest transition curve (forest frontier) while studies III and IV refer to stage four of the curve (forest/plantations/agricultural mosaics). Various methods were used during data collection, including interviews with key informants, focus group discussions (FGDs), two hundred household interviews (studies I, II, and III), gathering a list of local botanical knowledge from 48 participants (study IV), and a field survey. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in analyzing the data. Low agricultural production expressed in the sizes (areas) and ages of farms together with land tenure insecurity were found to lead to increased deforestation. Results suggested that a 10% increase in farm size would result in a 4% increase in annual deforestation (study I). Furthermore, results in study II indicated that non-poor and fairly poor farmers contributed more towards activities considered environmentally degrading, such as deforestation, overgrazing etc., than the poorest farmers. On the other hand, the adoption of sustainable land management practices was relatively low among the poorest farmers. Tree planters were mainly farmers who held large and old farm areas, were literate and relatively wealthy, held favorable attitudes towards tree planting, and had participated in a farmers group for several years (study III). Local knowledge of tree species was found to be unevenly distributed in relation to gender, age, ethnic group, and location. Plant species assigned relatively high use-values for livelihood include Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa, Vitellaria paradoxa, and Balanites aegyptiaca. On the other hand, Adansonia digitata, Tamarindus indica, and Ficus thonningii were considered more important for environmental protection (study IV). The dissertation concludes that tenure insecurity and low agricultural production contribute to DD at the farm/forest level on the one hand while tree plantations, land management practices, such as fallow, zai pits (a traditional soil and water conservation technique), and assisted natural regeneration of indigenous tree species are important activities promoting regrowth/revegetation.
  • Hart, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study is a sociological analysis of the establishment and recognition of family relations in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. How are close personal relations between adult couples and children and their parents recognised in the case law of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)? What kinds of combinations of biological, legal, social and gendered personal relations are regarded as family life in legal disputes between individual applicants and Member States of the Council of Europe? Following Nicola Lacey, the analysis develops a notion of relational subjects framed by perspectives from feminist legal theory, relational sociology and contemporary debates on the law and politics of family formation. It also offers a sociological reading of relevant ECHR case law. Relevant judgements from 1979 2014 act as primary data, supported by relevant inadmissibility decisions and reports from 1960 onwards (90 cases in total). In the data, a historical shift from emphasising status (married/unmarried, male/female) towards identity (sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic origins, genealogy) in recent case law may be identified. The notion of individual rights holders is examined from a relational perspective inspired by sociological and anthropological theory and gender studies in law, emphasising the importance of life-sustaining relations of care and dependency in the spirit of feminist relational (legal and political) theory that do not always follow preconceived structures of kinship recognition. Furthermore, it is enquired whether relations between legal subjects are more fruitfully viewed as transactional or transcendental from the point of view of two differing academic schools in the field of relational sociology, one among many other general theories on the constitution of society. It is argued that a process of divergence between alliance (marriage, civil unions, cohabitation) and filiation (legally recognised parent-child relations) has been intensified with the emergence of same-sex marriage and civil unions in the European legal arena in recent years. Politically and legally, alliance is simpler to transform into a gender-neutral legal relation than filiation. Both gender and physical sex, as social and biologico-legal dimensions of the dichotomy of masculine/feminine, provide critical perspectives to the establishment of relations of filiation. It is argued that from a human rights perspective, a gender-sensitive approach is required in relation to questions of corporeal maternity and paternity, as complex issues such as access to knowledge of one s genetic origins and the inalienability of the human body in processes of assisted reproduction crop up in many contexts of which ECHR case law is just one arena.
  • Kaatrakoski, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    In the public sector, an emphasis on a customer approach has spread to a number of fields of work in Finland. This thesis investigates the conveyance and development of the concept of customer in four Finnish public organisations. The point of departure for the study is the marketisation of the public sector and the New Public Management (NPM) ideology, which emphasise the benefits of business models in public sector practices. The introduction of the concept of customer is an example of such benefits, and the development of the concept is examined in this particular cultural and historical context. Previous international studies have raised challenges related to customer thinking in the public sector and concerns over official discourses that seem to simplify the fundamental societal implications produced by the customer approach. The theoretical framework of my study is cultural-historical activity theory. The data comprises interviews (53) and documents (42) from each organisation. The studied organisations represent fields of elderly care, children s day care, road management, and academic library work. The findings in the document analysis suggest that in all the studied organisations, the use of the concept of customer has increased along with the introduction of the NPM doctrine. One interesting finding is the variety of conflicting situations which the interviewees experienced regularly in their service encounters. These conflicting situations are related to dominating old organisational structures and practices, which have not developed sufficiently with regard to customer thinking. In addition to these conflicting situations, another interesting finding was shared discourses which were related to the customer approach. My interpretation in this study is that at the core of the concept of the public sector customer are the opposing forces of the private sector s understanding of human beings as responsible individuals with free choice and the public sector s emphasis on collective citizenship and the public good. The opposing forces produce not only a variety of conflicting situations, but also possibilities for the development of the concept. This thesis theoretically opens up the background ideology behind the concept of customer in the public sector and thus increases the understanding of larger ongoing societal changes. The study provides new openings in regard to empirical studies on customer thinking from the perspective of employees. Such research objectives have been limited in number in the Finnish context. One important contribution of this study in regard to studies of working life is its explanation of the origin of conflicting situations from systemic tensions instead of trying to trace their origins to the behaviour of individuals.
  • Poutanen, Heikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ABSTRACT Heikki Poutanen: Mass with Choral Focus in the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church 1990─ 2004. Doctoral dissertation. In this investigation mass with choral focus is intended to signify choral mass and Gregorian high mass in which the choir plays a central role . Choral mass is a significant form of composition in the Western Church and in the entire cultural history of Europe. Amongst others the masses of G.P. da Palestrina, J.S.Bach and W.A. Mozart are cornerstones in the history of Western music. In this investigation I have studied the suitability of chorally focussed mass to church services and to concert life in the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church. All parishes (578) received a questionnaire to which 222 church musicians responded (38.4%). In the cross-section year 2002, 14.4% of parishes were active parishes where chorally focussed mass was performed liturgically. A survey was made of reasons influencing the performance of the masses. Church musicians reported the favourable attitude of the clergy as a positive factor (18.5%). One factor especially mentioned as obscuring the performance of the chorally focussed mass was a lack of education (33.3%). In the period 1990-2002 chorally focussed masses were used in one way or another in 121 parishes (54.5%). Thus it is possible to say that over a long interval of time they have been used quite extensively in the parishes which responded. The scale of the masses performed is wide ranging from Gregorian to modern. The work most performed was Franz Schubert s German Mass. Church musicians were asked how this mass was suited to church services and to concert life. Church musicians would prefer to allocate it to a concert (81.1%). 69.8% of church musicians supported Sunday evening liturgical performance. On the other hand only 31.1% supported the usage of chorally focussed mass in the morning service. Organists based their unfavourable stand on the fact that parishioners could not sufficiently take part in the service. Another part of this study was feedback from eight different mass performances in connection with which parishioners responded to questionnaires (N=546). In investigating the liturgical performance of chorally focussed mass one can state that respondents would rather allocate a mass with choral focus to a Sunday evening (79.3%). This positive stand was based particularly on variety and aesthetic factors. 63.9% would allocate it to the Sunday morning service. 69.0% of respondents supported the partial use of chorally focussed mass in the Sunday morning service. Rather surprising is the fact that only 71.1% would allocate mass to a concert in spite of the Finnish tradition of performing choral masses in concerts. The eight case-studies carried out in the Helsinki region act as direction-finders for the rest of the country.When combining the answers of church musicians and parishioners (N=768) it is to be noted that chorally focussed mass is best suited to be performed in concerts (76.1%). Its liturgical per¬formance on Sunday evening also gains a lot of support (74.6%). A little less than half support the performance of chorally focussed mass in the Sunday morning service (47.5%). 67.9% support the partial use of chorally focussed mass in the Sunday morning service. On the basis of this study one can state that chorally focussed mass is well suited to Finnish church services and to concert life. Respondents support its performance above all in concerts.
  • Eklund, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Protected areas are a key tool for conserving biodiversity and an increase in their coverage has long been the aim of international conventions and initiatives. With progress to achieve target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity of protecting 17 % of terrestrial areas, the focus has now shifted towards assessing the protected area effectiveness in maintaining species or avoiding land conversions. In my doctoral thesis I develop a novel way of assessing PA effectiveness, based on the counterfactual thinking, and use this to link it to different management and ecological factors. I link different aspects of PA effectiveness conceptually to the quality of governance and show how spatial prioritizations can change with the inclusion of these socio-political factors. Using Madagascar as a case study, and in line with other studies elsewhere, I find that the protected area network is effective to some extent in mitigating the pressure of deforestation. I show the importance of considering the temporal dimension of protected area effectiveness measures and how protected area effectiveness changes over time due to increasing or decreasing pressures. These results link directly to considerations of vulnerability and irreplaceability in Systematic conservation planning and I show that accounting for governance factors in a global spatial prioritization analysis change the identification of areas. My thesis shows the relative nature of protected area effectiveness measures and how important it is to get the assessments right, especially because of the massive focus on protected area effectiveness as a panacea to stopping biodiversity declines. Improving protected area effectiveness needs to be linked to governance factors affecting not only the management but also the drivers of threat, something that previous studies have overlooked. With my thesis I make an attempt to bridge the themes of protected area effectiveness, considerations of quality of governance, and how it all links to conservation prioritizations. Our methodology has been developed with the aim to be computationally efficient and conceptually more robust than existing matching methods, with the potential to be scaled up for larger studies. However, how the two methods perform needs to be tested in the future. My dissertation has clear practical implications for the conservation of Madagascar s biodiversity and the results are of potential interest for both NGOs and the Madagascar National Park administration. The conceptual contribution of this thesis should be incorporated into mainstream thinking and the discourse of setting global priorities for biodiversity conservation, such as by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the World Parks Congress (WPC) and ultimately the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
  • Buysse, Manon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Clause linking, or the incorporation of multiple predications within a complex linguistic unit, is an essential component of efficient language use, but also a major hurdle in the language learning process. Although discrete aspects of clause linking and its development in second language acquisition (SLA) have been studied before, a comprehensive and theoretically unified approach to the phenomenon in SLA is still lacking. To redress this gap, the study presented in this doctoral dissertation proposes a model of clause linking and its development in SLA based on the theoretical framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG; Van Valin and LaPolla 1997, Van Valin 2005) and its application to first language acquisition (Van Valin 2001). It provides a detailed account of clause linking, formalized in the Interclausal Relations Hierarchy (IRH; Van Valin 2005), which takes into account various structural levels of language and considers both the syntactic and the semantic aspects of clause linking. Oral narratives in L2 French and English were transcribed and divided into four groups based on their overall proficiency level in the L2, resulting in a total of 100 (4 x 25) samples per L2. Matched narrative production data from 25 native speakers of each target language served as a benchmark for our analyses. Results provide evidence for the universality of RRG s hypotheses in the sense that L2 learners seem to be guided by the same principles as L1 acquirers; forms of linkage characterized by similar syntactic and semantic strength are acquired more easily (as predicted by the IRH), and syntactic junctures at particular structural levels are associated with particular semantic relations between events. However, our L2 productions were also found to develop differently from those of Van Valin s (2001) young L1 acquirers in various respects: our L2 learners produce complex clauses from early stages of development onwards, as the hurdles they encounter in mastering the various L2 linking devices are unrelated to the development of their cognitive abilities or discourse organization capacities. In addition, we observed that the learners of L2 French and those of L2 English behave rather similarly in how they establish clause linking at various stages of development, but also deviate from one another in non-trivial ways which merit further research.
  • Granberg, Fredric (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The need for energy and electricity in the modern society places large interest in producing power in more efficient and environmentally friendly ways. Most of the new concepts also need new or improved materials. One key component of the power plants is the structural materials. Both current and future power plants are and will be built from some kinds of steel, which has shown very good properties. Alloying and choice of manufacturing technique have been shown to change the properties of steel and even better materials have been obtained. Conventionally, these improvements have been studied by conducting experiments on the possible materials, but recently computer simulations have started to be an essential tool in the search for better materials. The mechanical properties of materials are known to be determined by the movement of dislocations. If the dislocation movement is hindered, the material will become harder, but also more brittle. Previous computational studies have investigated the effect of voids, bubbles and other dislocation structures on the movement of dislocations. However, the effect of non-coherent obstacles, man-made or irradiation induced, have received much less attention. To address this lack of data, we have investigated the effect of carbides, to represent non-coherent obstacles, on the dislocation movement. In this study we investigated different carbides and compared them with other defect structures, voids and fixed atoms. The effect of size and temperature were also determined. We obtained two parameters for each obstacle, the needed unpinning stress and the unpinning mechanism, that can be used in other simulation methods to be able to investigate larger systems. We found that the nanostructure of the obstacle can drastically change the needed unpinning stress. We also found that the obstacles with same unpinning mechanism showed similar unpinning stresses, but to obtain the subtle differences we need to consider the nanostructure. A comparison of spherical and rod shaped obstacles showed that the surface curvature will be an important factor in the unpinning event. Recently, a new class of metal alloys have been found, where the concentrations of the alloying elements are in large or equal fractions. We wanted to investigate the possibility to use these equiatomic multicomponent alloys in environments where radiation is present. These alloys have been shown to have very promising properties, but there were no data on the irradiation response of these alloys. We studied two equiatomic multicomponent alloys, two-element and three-element alloys, and compared them with the single element specimen. We found a major reduction of defect build-up in the alloys compared to the single element sample, in agreement with experiments. We found one of the key mechanisms of this reduction to be the reduced dislocation mobility in the alloys.
  • Korhonen, Jaana (2016)
    International industrial competitiveness depends on many aspects. It can be based on cost advantages over international competitors, which are realized as higher market shares and increased trade flows in global markets. Competitiveness can also be improved by creating higher value through increased product quality and by means of sustainability. This places increasing strategic importance on scarcening natural resources and on how proactively environmental responsibility is perceived in the international forest sector in the future; as an additional cost or more as an opportunity of a high road to competitiveness? The goal of this dissertation is to analyze international competitiveness and its drivers from five different perspectives at the regional, country, and firm levels, with an emphasis on the pulp and paper industry. The empirical research problems of five individual research articles are approached by combining quantitative and qualitative data analyses. The time period from 1990 to 2030 was covered in the analyses. The results highlight the importance of forests, markets, and regulation in creating competitive advantages at different levels in the sector. The traditional forest sector factors such as resource availability and traditional economic factors such price competitiveness are going to play an important role also in the future. However, sustainability will become increasingly important for the value creation opportunities of industries. It is an opportunity for companies in their global value chains if the global environmental awareness and societal demand for sustainability continue to increase. Therefore, more responsible use of global forest resources can offer solutions to global sustainability challenges, and in the transition to a bioeconomy in which the forest industry plays a key role.
  • Luisto, Rami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    In this dissertation we study the theory of quasiregular- and BLD-mappings. The unifying theme of the dissertation is how results and techniques used in the study of one of these classes gives rise to ideas in the theory of the other. The first paper in the thesis concerns the theory of quasiregular mappings, which are non-homeomorphic generalizations of quasiconformal mappings; heuristically quasiregular mappings can be defined as mappings that map infinitesimal balls to infinitesimal ellipsoids with a bound on the eccentricity of the ellipsoid. The first article is especially focused on quasiregularly elliptic manifolds, i.e. those closed Riemannian manifolds for which there exists a non-constant quasiregular mapping from the euclidean space of same dimension to the manifold. The classes of quasiregularly elliptic 2- and 3-manifolds are classified up to a quasiconformal homeomorphism. In higher dimensions it is still a widely open question which closed manifolds are quasiregularly elliptic, but even though a complete classification of quasiregularly elliptic manifolds is hard, there are results restricting the structure of quasiregulary elliptic manifolds. One of the basic results is the Varopoulos theorem that gives an upper bound to the growth rate of the fundamental group of a quasiregularly elliptic manifold. The main result of the first paper is that if the growth rate of the fundamental group of a quasiregularly elliptic manifold is as large as possible, then the manifold is in fact a finite quotient of a torus. Mappings of bounded length distorion, BLD-mappings for short, were first defined by Martio and Väisälä in 1988 in euclidean domains as a subclass of quasiregular mappings. Even though the original defintion of BLD-mappings was analytical, Martio and Väisälä showed that there exists also a definition with a more metric flavor. Indeed, BLD-mappings can be defined as those open, continuous and discrete mappings that preserve the length of all paths up to a uniform multiplicative constant. This definition lends itself to all (path-)metric spaces, and in the latter two articles of the thesis we study which classical results of euclidean BLD- or quasiregular mappings can be proven in the setting of locally compact and complete path-metric spaces.
  • Gross, Oskar (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    In order to analyse natural language and gain a better understanding of documents, a common approach is to produce a language model which creates a structured representation of language which could then be used further for analysis or generation. This thesis will focus on a fairly simple language model which looks at word associations which appear together in the same sentence. We will revisit a classic idea of analysing word co-occurrences statistically and propose a simple parameter-free method for extracting common word associations, i.e. associations between words that are often used in the same context (e.g., Batman and Robin). Additionally we propose a method for extracting associations which are specific to a document or a set of documents. The idea behind the method is to take into account the common word associations and highlight such word associations which co-occur in the document unexpectedly often. We will empirically show that these models can be used in practice at least for three tasks: generation of creative combinations of related words, document summarization, and creating poetry. First the common word association language model is used for solving tests of creativity -- the Remote Associates test. Then observations of the properties of the model are used further to generate creative combinations of words -- sets of words which are mutually not related, but do share a common related concept. Document summarization is a task where a system has to produce a short summary of the text with a limited number of words. In this thesis, we will propose a method which will utilise the document-specific associations and basic graph algorithms to produce summaries which give competitive performance on various languages. Also, the document-specific associations are used in order to produce poetry which is related to a certain document or a set of documents. The idea is to use documents as inspiration for generating poems which could potentially be used as commentary to news stories. Empirical results indicate that both, the common and the document-specific associations, can be used effectively for different applications. This provides us with a simple language model which could be used for different languages.
  • Latva-Äijö, Salla-Maaria (2016)
    Optimization of contrast enhanced CT (computed tomography) of the intra-abdominal lymphatic system in the case of a chylous leakage is the subject of the study. The chylous leakage means a pathologic condition, where the lymphatic liquid (chyle) leaks out from the vessels of the lymphatic system in intra-abdominal space. The diagnose is rare. CT imaging is based on a different attenuation of the X-rays when they are penetrating through tissues of different kind. Tissues with greater density, like iodine, make the attenuation stronger and they can be used to improve the contrast in the image. Iodinated contrast enhancing agent Lipiodol was chosen for this study for increasing contrast in the CT images of the intestines. The right ratio of the Lipiodol–oil mixing was searched so that the agent would end up in the lymphatic system. The idea was to visualize the lymphatic system and spot the leakage point. This could be useful information when thinking about the follow-up treatment, especially in the case of surgical operation. The examinations were implemented by imaging plastic phantoms with CT device. The CT images were taken with head and torso phantoms, including different mixing ratios of Lipiodol–oil mixtures. The most suitable mixing ratio of Lipiodol and oil was then estimated from the taken phantom pictures. After that, the results were taken in use with two chylous leakage patients, a 70-yearold male patient and a pediatric patient. The CT images of the patients were analysed with ImageJ program. The contrast enhancement when using the Lipiodol contrast enhancing agent was excellent, about 300-400 HU with 120 kV tube voltage. The suitable mixing ratio of the Lipiodol–oil mixture was estimated to be 1:8 with the adult patient and 1:10 with the pediatric patient. The leakage point could not be localized from the CT images. Reason for that might have been the image timing with the pediatric patient. She might have an exceptional rate of fat metabolism, because of her inborn malformations of the intestines. The biokinetical variations and variability of the mixing ratio in the different parts of the intestines also increase the uncertainty of the results of the study. The basic principle of Lipiodol as the contrast enhancing agent has now been tested and the properties of it have been found suitable for similar visualization examinations. The protocol for chylous leakage imaging can be developed and tested further when suitable patients will appear.
  • Hohti, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The subject of this thesis is everyday life in the school classroom with a focus on what matters to the children. The classroom is understood as a more-than-human context consisting of combinations and gatherings of material things, bodies, time, space and ideas. The study is located at the intersection of education, interdisciplinary childhood studies, narrative and ethnographic studies, and informed by the "material turn" of social sciences. The empirical part took place in a third- and fourth-grade class where the researcher was the class teacher. An approach called "classroom diaries" was developed in which the 10-year-old pupils wrote their observations, thoughts and stories freely. The nomadic analysis departed from the question, "What is happening in the classroom?" and proceeded through repeated readings and retellings, working with writing as inquiry. The fragmented, controversial and messy writings of the children challenged the teacher/researcher to find non-representational ways of engaging with data. The study consists of a summary part and four research articles. First, the analysis focuses on children's voices in stories that intertwine in classroom interactions. By defining three inter-related analytical spaces, the study illustrates how children s voices are not unitary or "authentic" , but emergent, constructed in reciprocal processes of telling and listening, and contingent on their social, discursive, material and physical environments and power relations. Second, the study presents the narrative approach of Children writing ethnography ("classroom diaries") as a way of engaging with children' s lives in the classroom and in research. Nomadic thinking serves to enable one to see the children's writings as emergent knowledge and to embrace the connectivity among the writings, the classroom reality, the child-ethnographers and the research, which are seen as mutually producing one another. Third, the thesis examines time and children in the classroom. The concept of entanglement is activated to bring time into connection with matter and space. The analysis concentrates on a music lesson and the musical instrument the recorder about which two children write. The recorder is seen as organising actions in the classroom, producing intense moments of now and various enactments of children and adults. The notion of time as a neutral, "outside" parameter is unsettled and both children and time are seen as hybrid. Fourth, the study develops the idea of research with children as an entangled practice. It presents a post-qualitative analysis that attempts to center children's views throughout the research and seeks to do so in ways other than through representation. The study draws attention to classroom assemblages involving time and things, as well as to temporality and materiality as parts of the research process. The study suggests engaging with children's open-ended narration by retelling and responding. These engagements highlight particular situations, the unpredictable and strange qualities of children's lives, and the significance of "tiny" things in educational environments. The study suggests that an open-ended narrative space allows children to produce rich and thought-provoking knowledge about what matters to them in the school classroom. The idea of entanglement can be employed to engage with that knowledge in ways that do not reduce the complexities of children's lives. Keywords: classroom, Children writing ethnography, voice, matter, time, space, entanglement, nomadic
  • Nissel, Tzvika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    State responsibility is the doctrine that regulates international enforcement actions. Among international lawyers, there is a shared sense of mystery about State responsibility. While the doctrine clearly guarantees the enforceability of international law, its practice consistently languishes from a lack of international policemen. History is one lens through which to view this paradox. In this study, I describe the three most influential efforts to establish a legal standard for international enforcement actions: U.S. diplomatic practice, German legal theory and U.N. codification. In the late nineteenth century, lawyers in the U.S. State Department turned to international tribunals to redress alien injuries. These lawyers relied on international law to justify their legal intervention. Latin Americans, who were frequently the respondents of such claims, disputed the relevance of international law to its treatment of aliens; to them, alien protection was essentially a domestic affair. However, by the twentieth century, a U.S. practice of arbitration had established that States could be held responsible for breaching their international duties to protect aliens. The resulting awards were professional but haphazard. States were ordered to pay reparations for alien injuries, but why and how much they had to pay remained largely unarticulated. The first systematic treatment of State responsibility surfaced in late-nineteenth century Germany. These early writings were extrapolations from domestic principles of law rather than inductions of international awards. German lawyers viewed the U.S. practice of international arbitration as ad hoc settlements of private disputes rather than as the adjudication of public disputes. Thus, the German approach to State responsibility was not restricted to the field of alien protection in particular; it provide for the preconditions of international liability in general. When the U.N. undertook to codify the field, it chose to base its efforts on German theory rather than on the U.S. practice. This strategy divided State responsibility into general and specific parts. Generally, enforcement actions were subject to the U.N. doctrine. Exceptionally, a specific practice (e.g., alien protection) was permitted to continue as lex specialis. Contrary to many commentators, I see no crisis in this result. No singular doctrine has ever encapsulated the practice of international enforcement. Since the 1870s, international lawyers have employed State responsibility as a pliable concept to suit particular ends. By providing these perspectives, I hope to illustrate how three groups of lawyers practitioners, theorists and doctrinalists have been able to cope with the enduring mystery of State responsibility.
  • Tiilikainen, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The research explores loneliness in old age from a sociological life course perspective. Acknowledging that individual experiences are always embedded in not just the present everyday life but also the past life events and the wider social surroundings in which people are linked during their course of life. The research answers to questions such as: what kind of social pathways, life situations and life phases can be found behind loneliness in older age and how does loneliness change during one's life course. Using a qualitative longitudinal approach the research aims to grasp the temporal nature of loneliness and its individual meanings in relation to different transitions, events and social relations during the life course. The research data builds on one to three interviews with ten older persons during a five year period. The interviewees have participated in a ten year cohort study Good Ageing in Lahti Region (GOAL) conducted in southern Finland. The survey data is also used when looking at changes in loneliness. Qualitative longitudinal research has been scarcely used among older people, there for the research offers new methodological findings and implications. In the analysis loneliness is described through lost and unfulfilled social roles and weakening social convoy. The first involves life changes and situations such as widowhood, being without a partner, childlessness and grandchildlessness and retirement, due to which loneliness has been present in the lives of the interviewees. The weakening social convey has meant lack of a good friend, experiences of a foreign and strange culture and friction with children or one's own parents. Due to the weakening social convoy hopes toward social relationships have been unfulfilled and the possibilities of social inclusion have declined. Also trajectories of childhood experiences such as war time or loss of one's own mother were connected to loneliness. Some of them have meant loneliness that has been present nearly for a lifetime but for others these trajectories have had an impact on loneliness only in old age. Both in the interviews and survey data loneliness appears as a life situational or as a lifelong experience. Only for a minority of the research participants loneliness has been present for a long time. For others loneliness has been a new experience encountered in old age, but for most loneliness has fluctuated during the life course. It has been present in different life situations and life phases. Also during the research period there has been changes both ways: loneliness has both decreased and increased. The research reveals the dynamic nature of loneliness and the different ways in which loneliness is rooted in the individual life stories and life courses of older people. Even though the interviewees have reported being lonely often or all the time, it has not meant they had been experiencing continuous loneliness in their everyday life. Meaningful relationships have also been present. Throughout the research loneliness appears as a processual and relational experience which offers more understanding on the reasons behind loneliness and interventions to reduce it. Loneliness is always experienced in relation to something: personal relationships and social bonds, communities or more widely to the surrounding society. Hence loneliness is not only connected to relationships but also to the everyday life infrastructure and social environment through which a person is connected or unconnected to other people. Using a life course perspective the research opens windows to the social worlds of older people and more broadly to loneliness experienced in different live phases and situations during life course. By revealing reasons behind loneliness the research also gives an important input on discussions of loneliness interventions. Key words: loneliness, life course, ageing, older people, social pathways, social convoy, social roles, qualitative longitudinal research, interview
  • Ojanen, Silja (2016)
    Matematiikan kielentämisellä tarkoitetaan matemaattisen ajattelun esittämistä sanallisesti tai symbolien ja kuvien avulla. Aiemmissa tutkimuksissa on havaittu, että opiskelijat kokevat kielentämisharjoittelun auttavan oman ajatteluprosessin jäsentämisessä sekä sen esittämisessä muille, ja pitävät sitä hyödyllisenä. Tässä tutkimuksessa käsitellään kielentämisharjoittelua matematiikan yliopisto-opintojen alkuvaiheessa erityisesti joukko-opin osalta. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään sitä, miten opiskelijat suhtautuvat kielentämiseen työtapana ja sitä, millaisia joukko-opin kielentämiseen liittyviä ongelmia opiskelijoilla voidaan havaita. Lisäksi tutkittiin kielentämistehtävissä menestymisen yhteyttä opiskelijoiden kurssi-menestykseen. Tutkimus toteutettiin Helsingin yliopiston Johdatus yliopistomatematiikkaan -kurssilla keväällä 2015. Kurssin osanottajista suurin osa oli matematiikan sivuaineopiskelijoita. Kurssin opiskelijat tekivät las-kuharjoitusten yhteydessä yhteensä neljä kielentämistehtävää, jotka pisteytettiin ja joiden avulla tutkit-tiin kielentämiseen liittyviä ongelmia. Opiskelijoiden mielipiteitä kielentämisestä ja matematiikasta kartoitettiin kyselylomakkeella. Aineiston kvantitatiivinen analyysi toteutettiin Excel-ohjelman tilasto-työkaluilla. Opiskelijat suhtautuivat luonnollisen kielen käyttöön matematiikassa pääosin positiivisesti ja kokivat siitä olevan hyötyä. Selkeimpiä ongelmia tutkittaville aiheuttivat joukko-opin merkinnät ja niiden kään-täminen luonnolliselle kielelle. Kielentämistehtävistä saatujen pisteiden ja koepisteiden välillä havaittiin selvä positiivinen korrelaatio, mutta tarvitaan lisätutkimusta selvittämään, miten kielentämisharjoittelu vaikuttaa osaamiseen. Kielentäminen vaikuttaa kuitenkin käyttökelpoiselta työkalulta matematiikan oppimisen tueksi.
  • Nykänen, Annika (2016)
    Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena on käydä läpi Riemannin integraali sekä Riemann-Stieltjesin integraali määritelmineen ja perusominaisuuksineen. Tutkielma on rakennettu siten, että ensimmäinen luku on johdantoluku, jossa lukija johdatetaan aiheeseen ja esitellään tutkielmassa käytetyt lähteet. Toisessa luvussa muistutetaan lukijaa Riemannin integraalin määritelmästä, jonka jälkeen esitellään Riemannin integraaliin liittyviä muutamia perusominaisuuksia. Tutkielman ensimmäinen pääluku on kolmas luku, jossa määritellään Riemann-Stieltjesin integraali Riemann-tyyppisten summien avulla. Lisäksi kolmannessa luvussa esitellään lineaariominaisuuksia summille sekä Riemann-Stieltjesin integraalin kaksi hyödyllistä laskumenetelmää; osittaisintegrointi sekä muuttujanvaihto. Neljännessä luvussa esitellään yksi keskeisimmistä funktioiden luokista, kun on kyse RiemannStieltjesin integraalista, nimittäin porrasfunktiot. Porrasfunktioihin liittyy läheisesti Eulerin summalause, joka käydään myös läpi luvussa. Tutkielman viidennessä luvussa palataan taas Riemann-Stieltjesin integraalin vaihtoehtoisiin määritelmiin, mutta tällä kertaa ylä- ja alaintegraalien avulla. Tässä luvussa käsitellään myös Riemann-Stieltjesin integraalin erikoistapaus, joka lopulta johtaa reduktioon Riemannin integraaliin. Luvun lopussa käsitellään funktioiden rajoitettua heilahtelevuutta ja sen yhteyttä Riemann-Stieltjesin integraaliin. Kuudennessa luvussa esitellään riittävät ja välttämättömät ehdot Riemann-Stieltjesin integraalin olemassaololle. Tutkielman viimeisessä luvussa esitellään muutamia esimerkkejä Riemannin integraalin käytöstä ja esimerkkejä funktioista, joissa Riemannin integraalia ei voida käyttää, mutta Riemann-Stieltjesin integraalia voi. Tällaisia funktioita ovat muun muassa neljännessä luvussa esitellyt porrasfunktiot.
  • Nissinen, Antti (2016)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastelen avoimia matemaattisia tehtäviä sekä matematiikan opettamista ja arviointia peruskoulun yläluokilla avoimia tehtäviä käyttämällä. Tehtävä on avoin, kun sen alku- tai lopputilanne ei ole tarkasti määritelty. Ratkaisija joutuu tekemään prosessin aikana valintoja saadakseen tehtävän ratkaistua. Avoimella ongelmatehtävällä voi olla useita oikeita ratkaisuja. Tutkielman alussa kerron avoimista tehtävistä ja esittelen erilaisia avoimia tehtävätyyppejä. Seuraavaksi esittelen oppimiskäsitysten teoriaa ja perustelen avoimien ongelmien käyttöä peruskoulun matematiikan opetuksen osana. Avoimen ongelman ratkaisija käyttää hyväkseen aiemmin oppimaansa tietoa ja kokemuksiaan samantyyppisistä ongelmista. Ratkaisut ovat tekijän näkökulmasta ainutlaatuisia. Avoimet ongelmat mahdollistavat oivaltamisen hetkiä, ja niiden tekeminen tukee oppijan matemaattista minäkuvaa ja kokemusta hyväksynnästä. Neljäs luku sisältää teoriaa ja pohdintaa ongelmanratkaisun ja avoimilla ongelmilla opettamisen keinoista sekä ohjeita avoimien tehtävien laatimiseen. Ongelmanratkaisu on käytännön taito, jossa kehittyminen vaatii runsasta harjoittelua. Opettajan rooli monimutkaistuu avointa ongelmanratkaisua opetettaessa, koska oikeita ratkaisuja ja ratkaisukeinoja on useita. Opetustilanteista tulee vähemmän ennustettavia. Lisäksi kerron opetuskokemuksistani avoimien ongelmien parissa. Lopuksi pohdin oppimisen arviointia muun muassa avoimien ongelmien näkökulmasta ja Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014 huomioiden. Kuvailen myös joitakin tutkielman aiheeseen liittyviä haasteita.
  • Hatakka, Emmi (2016)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa käsitellään ongelmanratkaisua osana matematiikan opettamista. Aihe on tärkeä, sillä ongelmanratkaisu on taito, jota yksilö tarvitsee elämänsä kaikilla eri osa-alueilla aina arkipäivän ongelmatilanteista työelämän haasteisiin. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on antaa matematiikan opettajille eväitä ongelmalähtöisen oppimateriaalin kehittämiseen ja ongelmalähtöisen opetuksen toteuttamiseen. Tutkimuksessa pyritään kehittämään ratkaisu opettajien kokemaan ongelmaan ongelmanratkaisun ja matematiikan sisältöjen opettamisen irrallisuudesta vastaamalla kysymyksiin ”Miten opettaja voi tukea ongelmanratkaisun oppimista?” ja ”Minkälainen oppimateriaali tukee sekä käsitteen oppimista että kehittää oppilaiden ongelmanratkaisukykyä?”. Tutkimusmetodina käytetään kehittämistutkimusta, jossa teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin perusteella kehitetään käyttökelpoinen opetusmateriaali. Tutkimuksen teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin tavoitteena on myös kehittää syvällinen ymmärrys tutkittavasta aihepiiristä. Teoreettisen osion merkittävinä lähteinä ovat toimineet Haapasalon (2011) ja Pehkosen (1991) teokset ja se koostuu ongelmanratkaisun teoriasta sekä ongelmanratkaisun ja funktiokäsitteen oppimisen teoriasta. Teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin perusteella kehitettyä opetusmateriaalia testataan opetuskokeilulla ja sen jatkokehitysmahdollisuuksia pohditaan. Opetuskokeilun tutkimusmenetelmänä on osallistuva havainnointi. Teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin pohjalta oppimistehtävän ensisijaisiksi tavoitteeksi asetettiin oppilaiden ajattelutaitojen kehittäminen sekä opetettavan uuden käsitteen kytkeminen käytännönläheiseen kontekstiin. Oppimistehtävän empiirisessä testauksessa havaittiin tehtävän toteuttavan sille asetetut tavoitteet, mutta lisäksi havaittiin myös mahdollisia jatkokehitystarpeita. Tehtävä onnistui tavoitteessaan käytännönläheisenä johdantona funktioihin, mutta sen muotoiluun avoimuuden osalta voi olla syytä kiinnittää huomiota riippuen oppilasryhmän tasosta. Kirjallisuuskatsauksen perusteella opettajan näkökulmasta ongelmanratkaisun opetus on nähtävissä pitkäaikaisena prosessina, jossa opettajan rooli muuttuu oppilaiden kehittyessä. Aluksi oppilaat tarvitsevat malliesimerkkiä kun he vasta omaksuvat uusia ajatusmalleja. Oppilaiden ongelmanratkaisutaitojen karttuessa opetusta voi muuttaa yhä ongelmalähtöisempään suuntaan ja lopulta heuristiikkojen automatisoiduttua pitkäjänteisen harjoittelun tuloksena, ne voidaan tehdä oppilaille tietoisiksi. Ongelmanratkaisu nähdään yleisesti hyväksyttynä keinona oppilaiden matemaattisen ja kriittisen ajattelun kehityksessä ja sen tulisi olla osa matematiikan opetusta.
  • Kyrklund, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aims – To perform a detailed evaluation of the bowel functional outcomes of anorectal malformations (ARMs) after standardized treatment and systematic follow-up in relation to matched controls. To study the bowel habits of a large cohort of individuals from the general population to obtain a baseline for comparison to patients. Methods – A single-institution, cross-sectional study of all patients treated between 1983-2006 for anterior anus (AA, conservative or anal dilatations), perineal fistula (PF) males (anoplasty and/or dilatations) vestibular fistula (VF) or PF females (anterior sagittal anorectoplasty - ASARP) rectourethral fistula (RUF; posterior sagittal anorectoplasty – PSARP). Patients with significant cognitive impairment, total sacral agenesis/caudal regression syndrome, Currarino syndrome, or meningomyelocele were excluded. Participants answered a detailed questionnaire on bowel function by post. Parents of children <16 years assisted in responses. Case details were obtained from records. Patients were matched by age and gender to 3 individuals from the general population who had answered identical questionnaires. Ethical approval was obtained. Results – Our study of 594 individuals from the general population identified that minor aberrations in bowel function, especially soiling prevail in healthy individuals in an age-dependent manner. A total of 159 patients (72%; median age 12.5 (4-29) years) participated in the study on outcomes for ARMs (79 females: 45 AA and 34 VF/PF and 80 males: 46 PF/low ARM and 34 RUF males (35% bulbar, 53% prostatic, 12% bladder neck fistula). Fecal control in AA females and low ARM males was not significantly different from controls in the long-term (p=NS). In VF/PF in females, 68% of patients attained a functional outcome comparable to controls and 85% were socially continent (vs 100% of controls; p<0.001) Among RUF males, 76% of patients were social continent (vs 95% of controls; p<0.002). Despite some improvement in symptoms with increasing age, both soiling and fecal accidents among patients with VF/PF (65% and 24% respectively) and RUF (59% and 37% respectively) remained significantly higher than in controls in the long-term (18-26% for soiling and 4-6% for fecal accidents; p≤0.006 vs patients).The median BFS, the proportion with voluntary bowel movements and total continence decreased with increasing level of fistula in RUF. Constipation was an important sequel in all types of ARMs, affecting 31-44% of patients vs 2-13% of controls (p≤0.003 vs patients). Social restrictions affected a 15-36% of patients with severe ARMs (vs ≤5% of controls; p≤0.01). Conclusions - Our results support the appropriateness of sagittal repair methods for the treatment of VF/PF in females and RUF, and minor perineal procedures for mild ARMs. Patients with mild ARMs can generally be expected to develop bowel functional outcomes comparable to matched peers. In females with VF/PF and males with RUF, problems with fecal control persist at higher levels than controls into adulthood. However, the majority can be expected to achieve social continence with appropriate aftercare and effective management of constipation.
  • Akinrinade, Oyediran (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide the potential for developing high-throughput and low-cost platforms for medical research and diagnostics, which is expected to accelerate the findings of root causes and treatments of human diseases. In addition to short read lengths of NGS technology; another limiting factor to clinical applications of genomic NGS is downstream bioinformatics analysis. Several challenging computation problems have to be solved before we realize the full potential of NGS technology. These include management of large quantities of data, efficient analyses, fusion of data from various sources, and interpretation of identified variants. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is a hallmark of several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Loss of functional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) leads to EC dysfunction, and development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the role of PPARγ in angiogenesis in the development of PAH is unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing and bioinformatic strategies were used to quantify and reveal global gene expression changes associated with loss of PPARγ, in a bid to unravel the mechanisms by which PPARγ modulates endothelial homeostasis, regulates angiogenic response, and could contribute to the pathobiology of human cardiovascular diseases. This study reveals, for the first time in an animal model, that loss of PPARγ leads to attenuated ECs migratory capacity and decreased angiogenic potential. Implemented bioinformatics approach revealed a novel molecular mechanism and novel downstream target gene for PPARγ. Furthermore, this study reports the first genetic analysis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients in Finland; evaluates the efficacy of NGS in genetic diagnostics of DCM patients, and demonstrates the need for a rigorous and clinically oriented bioinformatics variant assessment and interpretation strategy. In addition, bioinformatics data mining approach was used to evaluate the significance of titin (TTN) truncating variants (TTNtv) in the pathogenesis of DCM. Mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins are the leading cause of DCM, with TTNtv accounting for ~21% of DCM cases. Clinical significance of variants in cardiomyopathy-associated genes is difficult to assess due to population genetic variation, and diagnostic yield of genetic testing is not well understood among DCM patients. Moreover, the genetic profile of DCM in Finnish population is poorly understood. In this study, a novel targeted resequencing approach, oligonucleotide-selective sequencing (OS-Seq), was used to investigate the genetic landscape of DCM among Finnish patients, and the approach enabled genetic diagnosis for 35.2% of the patients. Notably, 17.2% of Finnish DCM patients had TTNtv predicted to cause loss of function. Truncating TTN mutations, especially in A-band region, represent the most common cause of DCM. Clinical interpretation of these variants can be challenging, as these variants are also present in reference populations. Meta analyses of TTNtv reported in largest available reference population database, and those identified in accumulated DCM cohorts showed that 50 - 53% of TTNtv in the reference population were located in low transcript count regions, thus, possessing low likelihood of being disease-causing. On this basis, a variant assessment strategy that prioritizes TTNtv affecting at least five transcripts of the gene was developed.