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  • Pyrhönen, Niko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    At the beginning of the millennium, a concern for the future of the welfare state in the globalized era was widely shared across the Finnish political spectrum. Further politicizing the question of immigration, neo-populist advocates mobilized a markedly heterogeneous constituency to support the right-wing populist Perussuomalaiset party, establishing the previously minor party among the three largest ones in the parliament. Employing a wide range of narratives, specifically tailored to different arenas of public debate, neo-populism soon acquired a chameleonic character that allowed front-line politicians and grassroots level advocates to secure support from constituencies in the blue-collared working-class, the middle classes and the generation. Instrumental in the expansion of the Perussuomalaiset voter base was the neo-populists ability to consistently facilitate exposure in the media for a welfare nationalist political agenda that framed their exclusionary immigration critique as part of a mundane socio-political debate aimed at saving our welfare state. In order to examine the consolidation of neo-populism into a resonant collective identity, the present study operationalizes theoretical contributions from critical nationalism studies a compound body of literature in sociology, political science and media studies into three analytical lenses. Triangulating between these lenses, the empirical analysis focuses on the narrative agency of neo-populist advocates, uncovering how the seedbed of favorable political opportunity structures was harnessed in their political mobilization. The collection of narrative data from a variety of arenas of public debate, and its subsequent analysis, is structured by a historical reconstruction of three critical turning points taking place before, during and right after the electoral victory of the Perussuomalaiset in 2011. The results of this doctoral study point to a conclusion that neo-populist mobilization was first advanced through narratives of exclusionary boundary-work, employed for the purpose of justifying a welfare nationalist focus on immigration politics as the panacea for the ailing welfare state. Constructing an idealized legacy of an empowering welfare state and harmoniously homogeneous civil society, neo-populists proliferated public stories that place the blame for the welfare state s globalized challenges on immigration. Moreover, through strategic social action in various online arenas of contested media space, the neo-populists sought to further personalize and emotionalize the debate on immigration. This served to consolidate a collective identity based on victimized self-understanding, whereby their political opponents and public critics were positioned into distinct enemy categories, such as the elite controlled media, irresponsible Green Khmers and detached ladies with flowery hats.
  • Laurila (os. Heikkilä), Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a chronic interstitial lung disease of unknown origin mainly affecting West Highland white terriers (WHWT). No curative treatment exists. Differentiating CIPF from other chronic respiratory diseases is difficult. Therefore, a measurable biomarker would be helpful. CIPF shares clinical features with human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but the histopathological resemblance of the two diseases has been unclear. We described the clinicopathological and diagnostic imaging findings in dogs with CIPF and compared them with those of healthy WHWTs. The most typical clinical signs were cough and exercise intolerance. Inspiratory Velcro crackles were characteristic and an abdominal breathing pattern was often present. Many dogs were hypoxemic. Bronchointerstitial opacity was the most common radiographic finding. In high resolution computed tomography, ground glass opacity was a consistent feature, whereas honeycombing and traction bronchiectasis were less common. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total cell count was elevated in CIPF and bronchial changes were common. We investigated the serum and BALF concentrations of two potential fibrosis biomarkers, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and procollagen type III amino terminal propeptide (PIIINP) in dogs with CIPF, chronic bronchitis (CB), eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP) and healthy dogs. Serum ET-1 was higher in dogs with CIPF than in other groups. BALF ET-1 was measurable only in dogs with CIPF. BALF PIIINP was higher in dogs with CIPF than in dogs with CB or healthy dogs, but not different from dogs with EBP. Serum PIIINP was not useful. We defined the histopathological lesions and their distribution in WHWTs with CIPF and compared them with those of human usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), which is the histopathological pattern of human IPF, and human nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), which is an important differential diagnosis of human IPF. A diffuse mature interstitial fibrosis of varying severity, resembling human NSIP, was seen in the lungs of all CIPF dogs. The majority of CIPF dogs also had multifocal areas of accentuated subpleural and peribronchiolar fibrosis with occasional honeycombing and profound alveolar epithelial changes, reminiscent of human UIP. Interstitial fibroblastic foci, characteristic of UIP, were not seen in WHWTs. In this thesis we provide a detailed description of the clinicopathologic and diagnostic imaging features of CIPF and present quantitative values for arterial blood gases and BALF cytology. Serum ET-1 and BALF PIIINP are elevated in dogs with CIPF and could differentiate CIPF from CB. Histopathologically, CIPF is characterised by two types of interstitial fibrosis and shares features of both human UIP and NSIP.
  • Avchaciov, Konstantin (2015)
    Rapid technological development motivates the research community to find out new processing technologies for producing materials with unique properties. Production of new materials or improving the existing ones requires development of new methods, which sometimes involves processing under far-from-equilibrium conditions. Usually underlying physical processes, taking place during such processing, are not well known. Understanding them is the key to the enhancement of processing methods. This thesis covers only a tiny part of a huge number of problems existing in the material science. The studies done here could be useful for solving the problem of metallic glass brittleness and for further development of the ion beam technology for controlling magnetic properties of thin films. Discussion on the pathway of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis in multilayer metallic films was also included in the thesis We studied the effect of ion irradiation on Cu64Zr36 metallic glass by means of molecular dynamics (MD). Low-energy ion irradiation of metallic glass produces damage zones, where the local structure of glass differs from the structure of pristine glass. These changes are independent on ion energy and flux due to the possibility of partial recovery during cascade relaxation. However, the size of the damage zones could be controlled by varying the dose of ions. This makes possible the production of either isolated damaged regions or homogeneously damaged glass. We showed that mechanical properties of the glass strongly depend on the local structure. In damage zones, the specific arrangement of the structural units is destroyed. This promotes the formation of many shear transformation zones in the damaged area, when a mechanical load is applied. It results in enhanced plasticity of the irradiated glass. Our research indicates that ion irradiation could be used for the softening of brittle metallic glasses for preventing formation of cracks in them. Atomistic studies of the reaction pathway in the multilayer Ru/Al films were done to interpret the results from X-ray diffraction measurements. The MD simulations covered the first nanoseconds; at this timescale, no information about the reaction pathway could be obtained from the experimental methods. The MD simulations demonstrated simultaneous Ru dissolution into liquid Al and $B2$ RuAl phase nucleation at the Ru/Al interface. Our results agreed well with experimental observations, and, moreover, helped to refine understanding of the X-Ray diffractograms. We also studied structural modifications of Pt/Co/Pt trilayer films, which could explain appearance of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) after irradiation with Ga+ ions. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo (MD-MC) simulations were performed to find changes in the long range order and short range order, associated with ion irradiation. The results of our simulations showed that the separated metal layers containing Pt and Co were intermixed and formed the new solid solution. This solution was chemically disordered at the nanosecond time scale. With combined MD-MC simulations, we showed that the transition between chemically ordered and disordered phases was possible. The fractions of the ordered phases grew monotonously with an ion dose due to the ongoing process of ion-beam mixing. However, assuming the correlation between the magnetic properties of the film and the fraction of the chemically ordered CoPt phase in it, this result cannot explain the disappearance of PMA at the high doses. The strain analysis showed that the Co layer exhibited tensile strain in the lateral direction at the moderate doses, where the PMA was detected. We explained the appearance of strains by changing of the thickness of the hcp-Co layer right inside the trilayer Pt/Co/Pt structure, which was possible due to its partial transformation to the fcc structure. Below the critical size of the hcp layer, the strain inside it appears, which, in our opinion, could cause the appearance of PMA at the moderate doses and the disappearance of PMA at the high doses.
  • Sahlstedt, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Fluid evolution in fractured bedrock at the Olkiluoto site in Finland was investigated by examining the stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of secondary calcite and sulfur isotope composition of secondary sulfide minerals. The study site, located on the western coast of Finland, is the planned site for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Therefore, hydrogeochemical conditions in the deep bedrock are of special interest. The aim of this study was to characterize the latest fracture fillings and use the isotope composition of these fillings as a proxy of past geochemical conditions. In addition to traditional stable isotope analyses, sulfur and carbon isotope variations in the samples were analysed in situ using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results demonstrated a high variability in isotopic composition of mineral grains within a few tens of micrometers. The study material consists of drill core sections hosting fracture infills, obtained from water conducting fractures in hydrologically active zones in the bedrock. Fracture filling calcites were grouped into five groups according to calcite morphology, mineral associations and their relative position in the fracture sequence. The latest fracture fillings were identified from the surfaces of open fractures as clear, platy or euhedral fillings (Group 1) which occasionally contained minor amount of silicate inclusions (Group 2). Massive, older calcite fillings were separated into three groups (Groups 3-5) representing high temperature fluid circulation. Group 3 fillings preceded the late-stage calcite fillings and are interpreted to be associated with a Paleozoic (541-252 Ma) thermal event. Group 5 and Group 4 fillings represent the earliest hydrothermal events in the bedrock, likely related to the rapakivi granite and diabase intrusions of Mesoproterozoic (1600-1000 Ma) age. A characteristic feature of the late-stage fillings (Group 1, 2) is small-scale variations in stable isotope compositions, indicating the influence of microbial processes on groundwater conditions. Furthermore, a comparison with the groundwater data showed that the late-stage fillings are generally not in isotopic equilibrium with the current groundwaters. Based on the results obtained in this work, the following characteristics of the paleogroundwaters representing Group 1-2 mineralizations can be identified: Transitions between geochemically distinct environments can be identified in the shallow bedrock, at depths < 100 m. The upper ca. 30 m were characterized by bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and depths < 54 m characterized by methanogenetic activity. A narrow zone existed at the depths of ~34-54 m, where BSR was accompanied by minor methanotrophic activity. After the precipitation of calcite in Groups 1-2, the methanic environment in the depth range of ~60-300 m has been replaced by sulfidic conditions. Changes to this environment were most likely associated with the infiltration events related to deglaciation events and glacioisostatic land movements, which have occurred repeatedly during the Quaternary period (< 2.58 Ma).
  • Lusa, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    129I, 79Se and 135Cs are among the most important radionuclides in the biosphere safety assessments of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The sorption, retention and migration of these nuclides in the surface environment is of importance when the radiation doses for humans and other organisms in the future is considered. In this doctoral thesis the abiotic and biotic factors affecting the retention of iodide (I-), selenite (SeO32-) and cesium (Cs+) in a nutrient-poor boreal bog environment were investigated. Batch sorption experiments were used both for the bog layer samples from the surface moss, subsurface peat, gyttja and clay layers of the bog and for bacteria isolated from the bog. The bacteria isolates belonged to four different phyla: Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Burkholderia and Paenibacillus commonly found in the various environments. I- and SeO32- retention in the surface moss, peat, gyttja and clay was found to be strongly linked to the microbial activity found in this bog. Sterilization of the surface moss, peat, gyttja and clay samples significantly reduced the retention of both I- and SeO32- and anoxic conditions reduced the sorption of I-. These results supported the hypothesis that viable microbiota (bacteria/fungi) are necessary for the incorporation of I- into the organic matter and for the retention of SeO32- through microbiotically mediated reduction in the acidic bog environment and that I- is oxidized into I2 and/or HIO prior to its incorporation into the organic matter. In the case of SeO32- the removal from the solution phase presumably takes place via reduction of SeO32- into insoluble Se0 (and possible further reduction to Se2-, which reacts with iron). Some proportion of abiotic reduction of SeO32- in association with sulfide oxidation is possible, but the majority of the reduction is assumed to occur microbiotically. This is supported by the observation that SeO32- removal from the solution was at the same level both under oxic and anoxic conditions, but was decreased as samples were sterilized and incubated under oxic conditions. In addition the bacteria isolated from the bog were found to remove both I- and SeO32- from the solution, although the removal was considerably higher for SeO32-. The behaviour of Cs+ was affected by both abiotic and biotic factors (i.e. pH, clay minerals and bacteria) in the acidic nutrient-poor boreal bog investigated in this thesis. Increase in the pH, increased the sorption of Cs+ in all studied bog layers and highest sorption was observed in the bottom layer of the bog. In this layer, clay minerals, especially illite, were found. Sterilization of the samples decreased the sorption of Cs+, but the difference between sterilized and unsterilized samples was not statistically significant. However the bacteria isolated from the bog were found to remove Cs+ from the solution, though the extend of the removal was significantly lower than that observed for SeO32-. In addition implications on the importance of plant uptake and rhizoidosphere effects of Sphagnum moss on the Cs+ retention in the surface layer of the bog were observed.
  • Koivisto, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The growing number of x-ray examinations being routinely performed on patients using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) devices have led to an emerging risk of and concern about radiation exposure. Typical CBCT absorbed doses range between 1 7 mGy, and thus values less than 1 mGy can be considered as low dose values. To date, most studies concerning effective dose assessment in the maxillofacial region use anthropomorphic phantoms in combination with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Recently, MOSFET dosimeters have been considered as a possible alternative to TLDs for in vitro dose assessment. The major benefit of MOSFET dosimeters is their real-time dose measurement capabilities. All 20 MOSFET dosimeters were characterized for CBCT photon energy ranges, dose properties, and organ dose measurements using TLD dosimeters (I). The MOSFET dosimeter energy dependencies were evaluated for two photon energy ranges in order to encompass the typical mean photon energies used in dental radiology. Furthermore, the MOSFET dosimeter uncertainty was assessed by repetitive measurements at different doses. The MOSFET angular sensitivity was investigated using dental photon energies and soft tissue equivalent backscatter material. After MOSFET characterization, a dose measurement setup was developed. The setup comprised 20 MOSFET dosimeters that were placed into the allocated grid holes of an anthropomorphic RANDO phantom. The MOSFET dose measurement setup was validated using two different methods: Monte Carlo simulations and TLD dosimeters. The setup was used for organ and effective dose assessments resulting from supine, prone, and oblique phantom positions in the maxillofacial region using a novel cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) device and from two conventional dental CBCTs and one multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) device. All MOSFET dosimeters demonstrated a statistically insignificant energy dependency when using typical dental photon energies. Furthermore, the MOSFETs demonstrated excellent dose linearity and resulted in similar absorbed organ doses to those attained in the TLD measurements. The required low dose limit was achieved by averaging the values attained using eight MOSFET exposures. The MOSFET dosimeter angular dependency demonstrated a 5% standard deviation from the mean sensitivity value. The MOSFET dose assessment setup demonstrated similar effective doses to those attained using the Monte Carlo simulations and TLD measurements. Effective dose was strongly dependent on the vertical phantom positioning and minor vertical changes resulted in dose increases of up to 16%. The dose measurements acquired using the same FOV on all CBCT and MSCT devices 3 resulted in the following values: Planmed Verity CBCT scanner 247 μSv in supine, 192 μSv in prone, and 134 μSv in oblique position, the ProMax 3D MAX CBCT 168 μSv, i-CAT Next Generation 170 μSv, Philips Brilliance 64 MSCT 781 μSv. The results of this study demonstrate that the mean photon energy dose dependency corrections are not required in typical dental energy ranges. Furthermore, averaging eight MOSFET exposures attained typical TLD low dose values. Due to their variation in angular sensitivity, MOSFET dosimeters should always be calibrated in clinical settings for beam geometry and the angular range of the CBCT exposure. Based on the results of the Monte Carlo simulations and TLD measurements, the MOSFET measurement setup constitutes a feasible method for low dose assessment in CBCT and MSCT devices in the maxillofacial region. When using the same FOV and exposure parameters, the effective doses obtained in the supine position were 29% higher (247 μSv) than those obtained in the prone position (192 μSv). When the prone and oblique positions were compared, the observed effective dose in the oblique position was 30% lower. Thus, optimal patient positioning can reduce the dose and subsequently minimize the radiation risks. In summary, the fast and dependable low- dose measurement setup presented in this thesis provides an effective means of CBCT dose assessment using a variety of exposure parameters, patient positioning, and FOVs. Further, the setup presented in this study can be used to test and develop CBCT devices that would subsequently produce lower effective doses. Since radiologists commonly only have access to the radiation output of different devices, they lack the possibility to assess the actual effective dose. Therefore, the setup developed in this thesis can also be utilized to increase the awareness of the lifetime radiation risks amongst radiologists leading to dose reduction
  • Demir, And (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of non-invasive sampling and assay of urinary gonadotropins for clinical evaluation of pubertal development. In the first study, the concentrations of LH and FSH in concurrent serum and first-morning-voided (FMV) urine samples of 820 children (486 boys and 334 girls, age 0-17 years) were determined with time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (IFMA). The detection limit of IFMA was 0.018 IU/L for FSH, 0.015 IU/L for LH and 0.012 IU/L for LHspec. It was possible to measure the low prepubertal LH and FSH concentrations reliably in these samples due to the high sensitivity and low detection limits of IFMA. The correlation between serum and urinary gonadotropin values was high (r=0.751; p < 0.001 for FSH and r=0.720; p < 0.001 for LH), and the urinary and serum concentrations were close to each other. Correcting urinary gonadotropin concentrations on the basis of urinary density or creatinine did not improve the correlation. Age-related changes in urinary LH and FSH (U-LH and U-FSH) were examined. The concentrations of U-LH and U-FSH decreased from birth until the child was a few months old, after which the upper range of the U-LH levels of girls remained stable at below 0.5 IU/L until age 9 years and of boys below 1.0 IU/L until age 11 years. The upper range of the U-FSH levels of girls remained below 3.0 IU/L until age 10 years and of boys below the same concentration until age 12 years. The median U-LH concentration during the prepubertal period was about 0.06 for girls and 0.07 for boys. For the boys, this figure rose 10-fold by age 11, 40-fold by age 12 and 50-fold by age 13-14. The overall increase in the median U-LH concentrations was 75-fold from 5 to 15 years and 35-fold from Tanner stage G1 to G5. The corresponding figures for girls were 30-fold by age 11, 70-fold by age 12 and 90-fold by age 14; the overall increase in median U-LH concentrations was 90-fold from 5 to 15 years and 40-fold from Tanner stage B1 to B5 times. These finding indicate that the U-LH concentrations of FMV samples obtained from clinically prepubertal children reflect pubertal levels. The age-related changes in U-FSH concentrations were similar for boys and girls; the only difference was that the levels were generally higher for girls, in particular between ages 2 8 years. U-FSH reached a 5-fold level compared to prepubertal levels by the end of the puberty in both sexes. FMV U-LH, U-FSH and their ratios correlated well with the corresponding basal and GnRH-stimulated serum concentrations (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses of urinary and serum LH and FSH concentrations showed that FMV U-LH and U-LH/U-FSH performed equally well as the GnRH test for differentiating early puberty (Tanner 2) from prepuberty (Tanner 1) [area under the curve (AUC) 0.768-0.890 vs. 0.712-0.858]. FMV U-LH and U-LH/U-FSH performed equally well as basal S-LH for predicting a pubertal GnRH test result (AUCs 0.90 0.93). Among the tests studied, only FMV U-LH differentiated the transitions from Tanner stage 1 to 2 and Tanner stage 2 to 3 (p < 0.001 for boys and p-0.003 for girls). Again, this corroborates that FMV U-LH is the most reliable tool for evaluation of pubertal development. Therefore, FMV urinary LH determinations, which are non-invasive and, at most, minimally stressful for the child patient, can be used for preliminary diagnostic evaluation of pubertal development. It reduces the need for S-LH determinations and the GnRH stimulation tests, both invasive procedures.
  • Tuunainen, Pekka (Talentum Oyj, 2015)
    The thesis Inheritance, testaments and debts covers both inheritance law and debt recovery law. The investigation method is based on law. It serves the interpretation and systematization of current legislation. The thesis constitutes an investigation of several branches of law. Recommendations for interpretation have been considered and evaluated in the light of general principles in various branches of law. A central theme of investigation is the compromise between the conflicting interests of an indebted heir and his/her creditors. For an excessively indebted person an inheritance evidently constitutes an increase of property, which could be used for satisfying the creditors. However, an indebted heir might wish to dispose of his/her inheritance in such a way that it is not used for satisfying the creditors interests. At the present time inheritances are economically important, because annually property to a value of approximately four billion euro is transferred in this way. Approximately 140 000 persons annually receive inheritances and it is evident that among them there are excessively indebted persons who receive inheritances of considerable economic value. I have examined the question how to dispose effectively of a future inheritance in relation to the creditors and after the decedent s death of a heir s share of the estate and how and at what stage his/her creditors can intervene in in this process. Another more extensive question from both the debtor s and the creditors point of view concerns the more advanced situation where the debtor s rights to the estate are subject to distraint, i.e. when his/her share of the estate has already been distrained. Private persons bankruptcies are rare in Finland and therefor I have left bankruptcy procedures outside the scope of this thesis. My examination concerns mainly situations where no partition of the estate has been made, i.e. the property is still subject to joint administration by the heirs and by the beneficiaries of the testament. In relation to a debtor s creditors he/she can in an effective way waive his/her right of inheritance and accept the decedent s testament. However, this has to be made in the proper and correct form. The debtor does not enjoy any period of protection for the waiver. The question is who reacts faster; the debtor by waiving his/her right of inheritance or the distraint officer by distraining the share of the estate. But on the other hand, a debtor can accept a testament that violates his/her right of inheritance without any time limit. This competition in the waiver of an inheritance may lead to problems of interpretation when the salient question is whether or not a heir has received his/her inheritance before waiving it. After the reception no waiver is possible and in that case the creditors can intervene in a disposal in the form of a donation and to revoke it by means of recovery. This demonstrates that although it is possible to waive an inheritance in an effective way in relation to the creditors, the general rules of property law otherwise apply to an inheritance, for example in relation to the creditors. In this respect the distinction is very strict, because the donation of an inheritance, where the creditors can intervene, from the parties point of view seems to be practically the same thing as a waiver of the inheritance, which is valid in relation to the creditors. My thesis demonstrates that a testament is an effective way of organizing an inheritance in such a way that the creditors cannot benefit from its value. The effectiveness of a testament is further emphasized by the circumstance that the separation in a testament of the rights of possession and of ownership in practice prevents the use of the inheritance to satisfy the claims of the creditors of both the owner and the possession holder. Also the fact that the debts of private persons are definitely time barred after a certain period (depending on the case either 15 years after a court payment order, or at the latest 25 years after the due date), makes testamentary arrangements a very effective way of protection against the creditors claims. It is also possible by a testament to separate possession and ownership for a certain period of time, or to postpone the time of transfer of ownership until the claims are time barred, in which case no effective recovery is possible any more. This is evidence of the conflicting objectives of different branches of law. The purpose of the legislator is naturally to protect the will of the testator in relation to other interested parties. My thesis also demonstrates that the distraint of the rights of one co-heir of the estate has extensive consequences for its administration. This constitutes a problem for the other co-heirs, who are external third parties in relation to the indebtedness of one of them. In the consideration of the legal consequences of the distraint of a share of an estate, the rights of the co-heirs of the debtor must also be taken into account. All in all, the use of property acquired by inheritance for the payment of a heir s personal debts seems to constitute a multidimensional whole and to require compromises between conflicting interests. Mostly compromises have been successful, but the problems of interpretation become more complicated and they affect more numerous interested parties when a part of an estate is distrained. These problems of interpretation can be solved by argumentation based on solid and reliable knowledge of several branches of law. The purpose of this thesis is to satisfy that need.
  • Ketola, Tarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    ABSTRACT Western democracy is based on civil society and on the non-governmental organizations and social movements that operate at its core, offering opportunities for people to act, influence and network. Although interest in civil society has increased of late and research on the topic has become more active, the management and communications of non-governmental organizations remains a scantily researched area. This study examines the strategic management and related communications of a non-governmental organization from the point of view of management, members and clerical workers. Strategy, vision and other strategic management concepts and planning models have spread from companies to non-governmental organizations. Transferring the concepts and schemes of thought developed for companies to a non-governmental organization without alteration is, however, problematic, because of the different context and the related differences in values and ideologies. The premises of operation for a non-governmental organization are the pursuit of common good, volunteer agents, democratic decision making and administrative independence from external parties. The research data were generated in different phases of The Finnish Association for Nature Conservation s strategic working process during 1998 2010. The study is ethnographic and combines case study and (participative) action research methods. The method of analysis is content analysis. The theoretical background is formed of the theories related to organizations social, cultural and political reality, different models and theories of communication and the theory of communicative action. Of the various schools of strategic management studies, the framework especially leans toward examining culture, incremental learning, power and politics, and discursive and social practices. The study also contributes in part to critical management studies by offering a critical point of view on conceptions about organizations and management that have been considered self-evident. Citizenship and non-governmental organizations are examined especially through the concept of identity. The results of the study challenge the transfer of corporate language, concepts and planning models as such into non-governmental organizations and clearly highlight the meaning of context in an organization s strategy work and its success. The results are crystallized as a model of the future work and communications of a proactively operating non-governmental organization, taking into account the characteristics of such an organization as a social and administrative unit. The model is based on openness, extensive participation and equal treatment of the organization s members, and on dialogic communications. The model pays special attention to concepts; for instance, it proposes the concepts of future work, a dynamic view of the future and dreams as replacements for the corporate concepts of strategy and vision. The ritual and community-creating functions of communication and its facility to produce common meanings are emphasized in a non-governmental organization and ascend to greater import than formal structures and processes. Common discussions and negotiations about the direction and content of operations and emotional commitment enable the strengthening of collective identity and thus maintain the motivation of volunteers and other agents. As a practical contribution, the study also brings out factors that should be taken into account when constructing future work processes at non-governmental organizations. Keywords: community communications, non-governmental organization, strategy, future work
  • Rossow, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. Recurrent outbreaks with hundreds of cases are reported in Finland and Sweden every few years. In other European countries the disease is quite rare, but sporadic outbreaks have been reported from various countries. Specific risk factors associated with ulceroglandular and pneumonic tularemia were investigated in a population-based case-control study presented in this thesis (study I). In addition, the public health impact of tularemia in Finland was analyzed and information on clinical features of the disease and patient characteristics was collected. Reported mosquito bites and farming activities were independently associated with ulceroglandular tularemia, whereas exposure to hay dust was associated with pneumonic tularemia. Spatial and temporal epidemiology of tularemia in Finland was investigated based on notifications to the National Infectious Disease Register (study IV). The prevalence of F. tularensis antibodies in the adult general population was studied using serum samples from a nationwide population-based health survey (study IV). A serologic response to F. tularensis was found in 2% of the population. Occurrence of F. tularensis in wild rodents was studied by screening a total of 547 wild small mammals from 14 locations around Finland for the presence of F. tularensis DNA by PCR analysis (study II). High copy numbers of F. tularensis-specific DNA were detected in tissue samples of only 5 field voles originating from one location. The pathogenesis of F. tularensis infection in wild voles was studied in an experimental infection (study III). A rapid lethal clinical course, bacteremia and tissue necrosis were observed in the infected field voles and bank voles. The correlation between vole population cycles and human tularemia outbreaks was assessed using surveillance data from 1995-2013 (study IV). Vole population peaks clearly preceded subsequent tularemia outbreaks one year later. In conclusion, this thesis describes risk factors for tularemia as well as the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of the disease in Finland. Moreover, the kinetics of F. tularensis infection in voles and the occurrence of F. tularensis in wildlife in Finland are represented. Since 1995, more than 5000 cases of tularemia have been reported. About 2% of the adult population has antibodies against F. tularensis. Incidence and seroprevalence are highest in Northern Ostrobothnia. Ulceroglandular and pneumonic tularemia have different risk factors. In rodents, F. tularensis infection is rare and mostly fatal. Rodents act as amplification hosts of F. tularensis, and high rodent densities predict tularemia outbreaks in humans in the following year.
  • Lienemann, Taru (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Salmonella is one of the most commonly reported foodborne pathogens and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the most dangerous. They both spread by zoonotic and person-to-person transmission routes. Most Salmonella infections are characterized by mild-to-moderate self-limited diarrhea but also serious disease resulting in death has been reported.Bloody diarrhea is a common symptom of human EHEC infection and the infection may lead to severe post-infection disease such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and even death. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the diversity of Salmonella and EHEC strains isolated from domestically acquired infections using several pheno- and genotyping methods for surveillance and outbreak investigation purposes as well as evaluate certain epidemiological typing methods in Finland. All Salmonella and EHEC isolates of domestic origin during 2007-2014 in Finland were studied. Serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phenotype microarray, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were applied as epidemiological typing tools for Salmonella isolates. EHEC isolates were analyzed using serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, virulence gene detection (stx1, stx2, eae, hlyA and saa) and PFGE. During the study period, the number of domestically acquired Salmonella infections has decreased about one fifth compared to the previous decade whereas the number of domestic EHEC infections have increased about one third.Th e incidence of Salmonella infections was highest in 2012 (7.5/100,000 population) and lowest in 2014 (5.4/100,000 population). The incidence of EHEC infections was highest in 2013 (0.33/100,000 population) and lowest in 2008 (0.07/100,000 population). 15% of all Salmonella strains and 70% of all EHEC strains were considered domestically acquired. A total of 131 different Salmonella serovars were detected. The most common serovars were Typhimurium (32%), Enteritidis (15%) and group B (6%). Among Typhimurium strains, phage types DT1 (37%), RDNC (18%) and DT104 (9%) were the most common ones. The most frequently detected phage types among the domestically acquired S. Enteritidis infections were PT8 (17%), PT1B (14%) and PT4 (13%). Th e majority of domestic Typhimurium and Enteritidis (60%) strains were susceptible to tested antimicrobials. During the study period, a total of 188 infections caused by EHEC were detected. Most of them were caused by serotype O157:H7 (60%). The majority of O157 strains (63%) were unable to ferment sorbitol. PT8 was the most common phage type among the sorbitol-negative and PT88 among sorbitol positive O157 strains. Among non-O157, 22 distinct O:H serotypes were detected. The most common ones were O26:H11, O103:H2 and O145:H-. The majority of domestic EHEC strains (81%) were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials: 96% of O157:H7/H- and 60% of non-O157 strains. All O157 strains carried stx2 (40% in combination with stx1), eae and hlyA genes. In contrast, 55% of non-O157 stains had stx1 gene and 76% carried eae and hlyA genes. The MLVA method was found to be a powerful epidemiological tool for S. Typhimurium with discriminatory power similar to PFGE. In addition, MLVA was faster, cheaper and the results were easier to compare between laboratories. The domestic S. Typhimurium strains were divided into 170 distinct MLVA types (diversity index 0.891). In MLVA, the three most common profiles (3-16-NA-NA-0311, 3-15-NA-NA-0311 and 3-17-NA-NA-0311) counted for 47% of the strains showing that the lack of locus STTR6 and locus STTR10p was characteristic for domestic S. Typhimurium. However, XbaI-PFGE remains a useful genotyping method for investigations of other Salmonella serovars and EHEC strains. The interpretation of XbaI-PFGE profiles can be challenging as demonstrated by a Finnish nationwide outbreak caused by S. Newport and S. Reading -contaminated iceberg lettuce. The S. Reading strains had four diff erent XbaI-PFGE profiles. Based on epidemiological information, all these different variants of the outbreak causing strains were considered as outbreak-related. The sources of the most EHEC outbreaks remained undetermined. In one out four EHEC O157 outbreaks, unpasteurized milk was found as the source of the infections. Although 40% of the domestic EHEC strains were non-O157, only strains of serogroup O157 caused outbreaks in Finland. However, non-O157 strains caused several family clusters and were linked with HUS. In 2009, a sorbitol-fermenting EHEC O78:H-:stx1c:hlyA was detected in blood and fecal samples of a neonate. This EHEC serotype had not been seen in Finland prior to this family-related outbreak and bacteremia caused by EHEC is exceptionally rare. Taken together, Salmonella and EHEC infections are a major public health concern. This thesis provides new information about the characteristics of Salmonella and EHEC strains isolated from domestically acquired infections in Finland and evidence that effective surveillance is needed for early detection and prevention of the spread of Salmonella and EHEC infections. In particular, typing methods used should be internationally harmonized and the results made comparable.
  • Kärki, Ilari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examined the values of education and the teaching aims of the education policy concerning Finnish basic education. In Finland, political decision-makers and civil servants are responsible for education policy. The most important documents governing basic education are the Basic Education Act, the Basic Education Decree, the Government Decree on the General National Objectives and Distribution of Lesson Hours in Basic Education, the National Core Curriculum for Basic Education, the Government Programme, and the Development Plan for Education and Research. These documents, formulated during the research time period, composed one part of the research data. Many national and international actors strive to influence the objectives and definitions of education policy. In Finland, the most influential actors are the Confederation of Finnish Industries EK (earlier the Union of Industries and Employers TT), the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions SAK, the Finnish Confederation of Salaried Employees STTK, the Trade Union of Education in Finland OAJ, and the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities. The political target programmes and reports of these actors concerning basic education were included in the research data. One of the most influential international actors is the European Union, whose political target programmes concerning basic education, as well as reports of the administration of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland concerning basic education, were also included in the research data. The research method used was content analysis. With this method, all education and teaching aims concerning basic education presented in the research data were classified according to the value types of the value theory of Shalom Schwartz (1992). On the basis of the analysis, models were designed describing the relations of the values. These models enabled examining how the objectives were divided between different value types and value dimensions. The values in the data were illustrated with specific value maps that enabled comparing values and observing changes in them. Furthermore, the values in the data were compared with the values in different periods of society and education policy, and with the values prevalent among Finnish people. Over the long term values have shifted in Finnish society towards the strengthening of individualistic values and the weakening of collectivistic values. The ideological basis for this shift has been liberalism. Neoliberalism, which strongly emphasizes individualistic values and targets a market-led society, has been seen to have achieved a firm foothold in education policy and in society as a whole, determining their goals and methods. One of the objectives of this study was to examine how the values in the research data correlate with the values of neoliberalism, which emphasizes individualistic values, and with the values of communitarianism, Christianity and Christian ethics, which emphasize collectivistic values. The majority of the analyzed political documents, target programmes and reports exemplified more collectivistic than individualistic values in their objectives. The collectivistic values were emphasized most strongly in the reports of the administration of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Correspondingly, the individualistic values were emphasized most strongly in the target programmes and reports of the Confederation of Finnish Industries EK and its predecessor, the Union of Industries and Employers TT, as well as of the European Union. The study results do not support the views presented in research literature that values typical of neoliberalism are emphasized in Finnish education policy. On the other hand, by focusing on the original national core curriculums for basic education 1994 and 2004 before insertions and modifications to the latter document, values typical of neoliberalism are seen to have been emphasized in the education policy concerning basic education. However, the results of this study reveal a trend of changes in values in the documents governing basic education, with the emphasis shifting from individualistic values towards more collectivistic values. Keywords: values, education policy, neoliberalism, basic education, education and teaching aims, Christian values, communitarianism
  • Mäkelä, Minja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The focus of this thesis is on observations of star-forming globules that have cometary morphologies and are associated with or located in HII regions. Our study presents a sample of globules at different size-scales and investigates their structure, formation mechanism, and star formation using observations made at infrared (IR) and millimeter (mm)-wave wavelengths. The studied globules offer examples of associated low-mass star formation triggered by the influence of an HII region. Infrared, mm, and radio observations are fundamental in detecting signs of on-going star formation embedded inside dusty, dense globules. The embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) are detected directly in the IR and indirectly via jets and outflows in shocked H2 and mm-wave CO observations. This thesis is a case study of different types of globules. Cometary globules (CGs) represent the classical globules with sizes of ~0.1-1 pc and masses of ~10 M_sun, and the so-called globulettes are an order of magnitude smaller than CGs. We observe on-going low-mass star formation in both types of globules. Compression associated with radiation from the hot central star (via so-called radiation driven implosion, RDI) is suggested as the cause. The star formation in the globulettes may result in low-mass stars and/or possibly in free-floating planetary-mass objects. Five publications are included, two of which discuss two cometary globules, CG 1 and CG 2, in the Gum Nebula. Earlier studies have discovered a pre-main sequence star outside the head of CG 1, and we find second generation star formation in the head of CG 1 which contains an embedded object and a large outflow cavity. Two near-IR (NIR)-excess objects are seen in the direction of CG 1 tail and one in the head of CG 2. Our original goal was to study if the CG formation mechanism is triggered by supernovae shocks or by RDI, but based on the observations, we cannot fully determine between the two. The next two papers discuss mm-wave and NIR observations of small globulettes in the Rosette Nebula. Globulettes have not been studied in the NIR before this. The globulettes are dense and they are irradiated by ultraviolet radiation from the central Rosette cluster which causes bright fluorescent H2 rims in the globulettes in the NIR. The globulettes are observed along with long pillars of gas extending toward the central cluster, so-called elephant trunks. These together form a system that expands at the same velocity from the central cluster. Star formation is on-going in the largest Rosette globulette observed in this study and in the tip of one elephant trunk. The final paper reports NIR observations of two globules on the inner molecular shell of the Rosette Nebula. They have fluorescent H2 rims similar to the globulettes. A NIR-excess object is located in the direction of one globule and the other contains an embedded YSO. The YSO drives an outflow seen in shocked H2. Imaging in the optical and NIR suggest that the outflow is parsec-scaled and interacts with the shell of the Rosette Nebula. The globules we observed are subject to ionizing radiation from OB stars, which photo-erodes the globules and drives the RDI process. Star formation takes place in all globule types we observed, and the second generation star in the head of CG 1 is indicative of triggered star formation. The first detailed NIR and mm-wave observations of the Rosette Nebula globulettes are presented here. Star formation is detected in one globulette and in one of the associated elephant trunks, but we cannot determine if the globulettes can collapse to directly form brown dwarfs or planetary-mass objects. Future observations using ALMA and other high-resolution instruments are needed in determining the physical and chemical structure of the globulettes.
  • Manninen, Juho-Matti (2015)
    Suuntaviivat lukion matematiikan opetukselle antaa opetussuunnitelma. Lukion uudessa opetussuunnitelmassa, joka astuu voimaan syksyllä 2016, tulee korostumaan teknisten apuvälineiden rooli matematiikan opetuksessa ja oppimisessa. Näihin teknisiin apuvälineisiin sisältyy myös symbolisen laskennan ohjelmistot. Tämän vuoksi on ajankohtaista selvittää, millaisilla tavoilla symbolista laskentaa voidaan hyödyntää matematiikan lukio-opetuksessa. Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena oli löytää konkreettinen tapa symbolisen laskimen hyödyntämiselle lukion pitkän matematiikan integraalilaskennan opetuksessa. Tutkielman alussa esitellään symbolisen laskimen taustaa ja aiheesta aikaisemmin tehtyjä opinnäytetöitä. Tämän jälkeen tuodaan esille tutkielmassa käytettävät teoreettiset viitekehykset: instrumentaalinen lähestymistapa, pedagogisen kartan taksonomia ja Zimmermannin matematiikan kahdeksan aktiviteettia. Näiden viitekehysten lisäksi esitellään proseduraalisen ja konseptuaalisen tiedon moderni tulkinta. Tutkielmassa tutustutaan myös siihen, millaista integraalilaskentaa symbolisilla laskimilla ja GeoGebra-ohjelmistolla voi tehdä. Näiden taustatietojen ja teoriaosan viitekehyksien avulla suunniteltiin opetuskokeilu, joka toteutettiin yleislukion pitkän matematiikan integraalilaskennan kurssilla. Tutkielmassa kuvaillaan opetuskokeilun sisältö ja raportoidaan siitä tehdyt havainnot ja opiskelijoilta saatu palaute. Opetuskokeilusta havaittiin, että symbolisen laskimen avulla voidaan luoda opetustilanteita, joissa opiskelijat saavat toimia aktiivisemmin oman matemaattisen tietonsa rakentajina. Havaintojen ja opiskelijoilta saadun palautteen perusteella tämä koettiin mielekkääksi tavaksi opiskella matematiikkaa. Symbolinen laskin on siis mahdollista yhdistää osaksi matematiikan opetusta ja sen avulla voidaan luoda uudenlaisia oppimisympäristöjä. Opetuksen suunnittelutyön ja oman opetuksen reflektoimisen tukena voidaan käyttää pedagogista karttaa.
  • Linnakaari, Markus (2015)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan vuotuista kokonaisvahinkomäärää vuoden aikana jossakin tietyssä vakuutuslajissa. Tätä kokonaisvahinkomäärää mallinnetaan yhdistettynä muuttujana, missä sekä vahinkojen lukumäärä että yksittäisten vahinkojen suuruudet ovat satunnaismuuttujia. Yhdistetyn muuttujan teoria on tutkielman keskeisin osa-alue ja sitä taustoitetaan tutkielman alussa soveltuvilla todennäköisyysteorian käsitteillä ja tuloksilla. Vahinkojen lukumäärää mallinnetaan Poissonin prosessilla, mutta vahinkojen suuruksien sallitaan noudattavan hyvinkin erilaisia jakaumia. Tällaista yhdistettyä muuttujaa kutsutaan yhdistetyksi Poisson-muuttujaksi. Erityisen tarkastelun kohteena on tutkia todennäköisyyttä, että kokonaisvahinkomäärä ylittää jonkin ennalta asetetun rajan. Lisäksi tutkitaan millaista kertaluokkaa tämän todennäköisyyden asymptoottisen esitys on, eli kun rajaa kasvatetaan kohti ääretöntä. Kertaluokka vaihtelee oleellisesti sen mukaan, millaista jakaumaa yksittäiset vahingot noudattavat. Erilaisia asymptoottisia tuloksia esitetään, kun vahinkojen suurusjakauma kuuluu alieksponentiaaliseen jakaumaperheeseen, joka on eräs paksuhäntäisten jakaumien alaluokka. Erilaisissa simulointeihin perustuvissa sovellusongelmissa tutkitaan, miten hyvin simulointien tulokset yhtenevät teorian kanssa. Lisäksi kahdesta eri vakuutuslajista mallinnetaan aineiston perusteella lajeihin sopivat yhdistetyt muuttujat. Lajit eroavat toisistaan oleellisesti siten, että toisessa lajissa hajontaa aiheuttavat yksittäiset suuret vahingot ja toisessa vahinkojen lukumäärän suuri hajonta. Lopuksi molempien lajien kohdalla tarkastellaan, miten vuotuiset vahinkosuhteet käyttäytyvät vaihtelemalla vakuutusmaksujen varmuuslisiä.
  • Détry, Nicolas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Oxidoreductases are found in all living organisms and play essential roles in housekeeping, perception of environmental stress, plant-pathogen interactions, defense reactions, and pathogenicity. In particular, laccase, peroxidases and NADPH oxidase, have been implicated in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi in pathogenicity. Despite its relevance towards plant microbe interaction, the identification and comparative analysis of fungal peroxidase-encoding genes at the genomic level have been limited by the lack of a bioinformatics platform as well as paucity of information on transcript profiling of potential candidate oxidoreductase genes. In this project, one of the primary tasks addressed was the construction and development of a new fungal peroxidase database (fPoxDB). The availability of fPoxDB platform facilitated comparative and evolutionary studies of fungal peroxidases at the genomic level. The database contains 6,113 peroxidase genes of 25 gene families from 331 genomes. The archived genes were subjected to pre-computational analyses using eight different bioinformatic tools: SignalP 3.0, SecretomeP 1.0f, TargetP 1.1b, predictNLS, ChloroP 1.1, TMHMM 2.0c, PSortII, and InterPro Scan. Similarity search tools including HMMER, ClustalW, Blast, and BlastMatrix are provided on the platform. A web interface enables researchers to browse the database via either species or class . Graphics support the work and enhance user-friendliness. Retrieved data can be exported to other family web-systems including the comparative fungal genomics platform (CFGP). In parallel to the above study, the second project was focused on in silico comparative analysis fungal NADPH oxidase (Nox) genes sequences. Nox proteins are transmembrane enzymes found in most eukaryotic organisms and influence many biological processes by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). In fungi, Nox enzymes play roles in pathogenicity, such as the weakening of plant cell walls by ROS. The enzymes exhibit high sequence similarities to the ferric-reductases (Fre) and ferric-chelate reductases (FRO) proteins, which are involved in reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ for iron uptake. A total of 34 eukaryotic genomes, covering 28 fungal, one Oomycota, three animal and two plant species, were subjected to bioinformatic analysis. The results indicate that the properties of fungal Nox genes differ from those of the human and plants, providing novel insights that will enable more accurate identification and characterization of the fungal genes. In the third project, as not much is known is about precise role of oxidoreductase encoding genes in pathogenesis, we explored expression profiling of a typical oxidoreductase gene, laccase, in Heterobasidion conifer pathosystem. Laccases are multi-copper oxidoreductases catalyzing the oxidation of phenolic substrates, and they play diverse roles in plants and fungi. In fungi, laccase have been shown to be involved in pathogenicity, as well as in lignin degradation. To understand the potential roles of laccases of the forest pathogen Heterobasidion annosum, a total of 18 laccase genes was identified in this fungus and phylogenetically analyzed. The expression levels of the genes, and laccase activities, during growth of H. annosum on its host in the presence or absence of additional carbon source, such as glucose and sucrose, were investigated. Based on increased transcript expression levels eight laccases were considered to be potentially involved in H. annosum virulence. In summary, we provide the research community with a database dedicated to fungal peroxidases, and our in silico analysis affords new insights in the structure of fungal NADPH oxidases. Lastly, we present experimental evidence that some H. annosum laccases might be involved in virulence during infection of non-suberized Scots pine seedlings.
  • Sireni, Jukka (2015)
    Tutkielmassa esitetään ja todistetaan joitain pallojen homotopiaryhmiä koskevia tuloksia. Avaruuden $X$ $n$:s homotopiaryhmä $\pi_n(X)$ määritellään kuvausten $S^n\to X$ homotopialuokkien joukkona. Ensimmäistä homotopiaryhmää voisi havainnollistaa kuminauhalenkillä avaruuden pinnalla. Kaksi lenkkiä on homotooppiset, jos ne voidaan pintaa pitkin liu'uttamalla muuttaa toisikseen. Tutkielman alussa esitetään tarvittavat homotopiateorian määritelmät ja lauseet. Tämän jälkeen tutkitaan ympyrän homotopiaryhmiä. Ympyrän ensimmäinen homotopiaryhmä, eli perusryhmä, on isomorfinen kokonaislukujen ryhmän kanssa, kun taas korkeampiulotteiset homotopiaryhmät ovat nollaryhmiä. Osoitetaan myös, että korkeampiulotteisten pallojen ensimmäinen homotopiaryhmä on nollaryhmä. Ensimmäinen päätulos on Freudenthalin suspensiolause palloille. Avaruuden $X$ suspensio määritellään olemaan avaruus $SX$, kun avaruuden $X$ ''ylä- ja alapuolille'' liitetään kartiot, joiden pohja on $X$. Erityisesti siis pallon suspensio on yhtä astetta korkeampiulotteinen pallo, Tämän avulla saadaan määriteltyä kuvaus $S:\pi_i(X)\to \pi_{i+1}(SX)$. Kun $X$ on pallo ja näitä kuvauksia laitetaan peräkkäin, saadaan kuvausten jono, jossa sekä pallon ulottuvuus, että homotopiaryhmän järjestysluku kasvavat aina yhdellä. Freudenthalin suspensiolauseen nojalla tässä jonossa ryhmät ovat tietystä ryhmästä alkaen isomorfisia, joten ryhmien laskemiseksi riittää laskea alkupään tyhmät. Tämän avulla osoitetaan, että $n$-ulotteisen pallon $n$:s homotopiaryhmä on kokonaislukujen ryhmä, ja että tätä alempiasteiset ryhmät ovat nollaryhmiä. Toinen päätulos on osoittaa Hopfin kuvauksen $p:S^3\to S^2$ avulla, että $\pi_3(S^2)$ on isomorfinen kokonaislukujen ryhmän kanssa. Tämä ryhmä voidaan ajatella olemaan Hopfin kuvauksen virittämä. Tämä Heinz Hopfin vuonna 1931 löytämä kuvaus oli ensimmäinen kuvaus korkeampiulotteiselta pallolta matalampiulotteiselle, joka ei ole homotooppinen vakiokuvauksen kanssa, eli sitä ei voida liu'uttaa pois pallon $S^2$ päältä. Tämä kumosi siis oletuksen, että ryhmät $\pi_i(S^n)$ ovat nollaryhmiä, kun $i>n$.
  • Sandoval Zárate, América Andrea (2015)
    Personalised medicine involves the use of individual information to determine the best medical treatment. Such information include the historical health records of the patient. In this thesis, the records used are part of the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. This information is utilized to identify disease trajectories for individuals for the FINRISK cohorts. The techniques usually implemented to analyse longitudinal register data use Markov chains because of their capability to capture temporal relations. In this thesis a first order Markov chain is used to feed the MCL algorithm that identifies disease trajectories. These trajectories highlight the most prevalent diseases in the Finnish population: circulatory diseases, neoplasms and musculoskeletal disorders. Also, they defined high level interactions between other diseases, some of them showing an agreement with physiological interactions widely studied. For example, circulatory diseases and their thoroughly studied association with symptoms from the metabolic syndrome.
  • Karpansalo, Aleksi (2015)
    Tutkielmassa esitetään kuvailevan vaativuusteorian tulos inflatorisen kiintopistelogiikan ja polynomisen ajan vaativuusluokan yhteydestä. Tuloksen todistamiseen tarvittavat logiikan ja vaativuusteorian pohjatiedot käydään tutkielmassa läpi. Joukko-opin perusteet ja yleiset merkinnät toivotaan lukijalle entuudesta tutuiksi. Inflatorinen kiintopistelogiikka on ensimmäisen kertaluvun logiikan laajennus, johon on lisätty inflatoriseksi kiintopistekvantifioinniksi kutsuttu kaavanmuodostussääntö. Inflatorinen kiintopistekvantifiointi määrittelee relaation induktiivisesti ja sopii hyvin kuvailemaan tietokoneiden iteratiivisia ja rekursiivisia toimenpiteitä. Rajoittumalla äärellisiin järjestettyihin malleihin saadaan inflatorisen kiintopistelogiikan ilmaisuvoima vastaamaan vaativuusteorian polynomisen ajan vaativuusluokkaa. Vaativuusteoriassa käytetään Turingin koneita työkaluna ongelmien ratkaisemiseen tarvittavia resursseja arvioitaessa. Resurssivaativuuksiltaan samankaltaisia ongelmia luokitellaan vaativuusluokkiin. Polynomisen ajan vaativuusluokka on luokka kaikille ongelmille, jotka voidaan ratkaista syötteen pituudesta polynomisesti riippuvassa määrässä Turingin koneen laskennan askelia. Inflatorisen kiintopistelogiikan ja polynomisen ajan vaativuusluokan yhteyden osoittamiseksi tutkielmassa esitetään, kuinka kuvailla logiikan malleja Turingin koneilla ja Turingin koneita logiikan kaavoilla. Tarvittavien työkalujen esittelyjä seuraa tutkielman päätulos: inflatorinen kiintopistelogiikka karakterisoi polynomisen ajan vaativuusluokan. Lopuksi käydään läpi järjestyksen olettamisen tarpeellisuutta.
  • Luukkonen, Petri Samuel (2015)
    In this thesis, a theoretical background of algorithms called NLS-BB-NMF and K-SVD for computing the image dictionary have been introduced. The NLS-BB-NMF algorithm computes the matrix factorization V ≈ WH of the training data matrix V (in our case the set of image patches from training image) using gradient descent methods by applying non-negative constraint on matrices W and H. The K-SVD in turn computes the matrix factorization WH applying sparsity constraint on the coefficient matrix H using Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). In the factorization, matrix W is the so called dictionary and it contains features, also called atoms, of the data V . The atoms serve as a building blocks of the original data, and they are also assumed to represent data that is similar to the training data V . The testing of the methods were carried in two phases. Initially, in the so called training phase, the dictionary was learned by the algorithms from a training image. The visual structure of the atoms learned by the algorithms were notably different although the approximations WH made by both dictionaries were visually very close to the original image. The visual difference between the learned dictionaries was seen as a consequence of the sparsity constraint that was forced for the coefficient matrix in K-SVD but not in NLS-BB-NMF. Secondly, in the test phase, a test image with various noise levels was approximated using the learned dictionary. The algorithms were able to produce approximations that were closer to the clean test image than the noisy test image. This was seen as the effect of dictionaries whose atoms were representing only the features of clean images. This observation led to a second test where the algorithms were tested to compute the denoised reconstructions of the test image with varying noise levels by using an extended dictionary contai- ning additionally atoms learned from a noise sample. The qualities of the reconstructions were evaluated by using the Frobenius matrix norm and Struc- tural Similarity (ssim) index that has been observed to adapt better the visual perception of human eyes.