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  • Pijetlovic, Katarina (Springer, 2015)
    This dissertation analyses the legal problem posed by the clauses in UEFA Statutes that prevent clubs from unauthorised formation of alternative transnational structures in football. Unequivocally, these clauses constitute restrictions on economic activities of football clubs in their capacity as undertakings contrary to EU competition and internal market laws, in particular, Articles 101, 102 and 56 TFEU that form the core of EU sports law. More contentiously, however, the heart of the analysis lies in the question of justification and proportionality of the restrictions, which could possibly render the restrictive UEFA clauses legal and enforceable. Over the past 20 years, a solid body of case law, legislation and EU policy documents developed a distinct legal discipline that can be referred to as EU sports law and that can facilitate in resolving this question. The essence of EU sports law lies in the custom-tailored application of traditional economic provisions that takes account of the specificities of sport, a concept that has been given constitutional basis in Article 165 TFEU after the Lisbon Treaty amendments. Moreover, the approach to specificity of sport can be traced back to its origins in 1974 Walrave case, and it forms the basis of the crucial notion of sporting exception in the EU law. This study first highlights the problems in the governance of European football with particular reference to power struggles between UEFA and the elite football clubs and the threats of formation of alternative cross-border leagues by the clubs. Thereafter, the study sets out and discerns the principles underlying the application of EU freedom of movement and competition law to legal disputes in the sports sector, contributing several original interpretations of the key sports cases, such as Bosman, Meca-Medina, Bernard, and Murphy. Most prominent contribution of this thesis to the general study of EU sports law, however, is sketching a novel way of looking at the different categories of sporting exceptions through the prism of convergence between EU free movement law and competition law. The quest for convergence revealed a largely streamlined analytical framework in the sporting cases that involve organisational/regulatory rules and rely on public interest justifications. Finally, thus streamlined framework is applied to analyse the question of legality of the UEFA clauses restricting the formation of breakaway leagues. Some of the conclusions that emerge from this analytical process are surprising, in particular those pertaining to UEFA s power on the relevant market for organisational services for transnational club football in Europe.
  • Zeller, Wolfgang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Some argue that the territorial boundaries of African countries, having largely survived the transition to independence, are now like a poorly tailored suit: It does not fit in many places but African leaders have by and large accepted that they and their societies must somehow try to wear it. But has history stood still since independence? What is the everyday reality of those who live with these inherited colonial boundaries today? This dissertation investigates how competing claims of territory, authority and citizenship are negotiated between state representatives and residents in the Namibia-Zambia and Uganda-South Sudan borderlands. It asks: What kinds of governance regimes result from these negotiations? From considering these questions emerges the argument that borders do not only exist as an abstract construct, separate from or above the people and territories they are supposed to separate. Borderland actors in the study regions instead actively engage, challenge and thereby reshape the state, over time and repeatedly. They contribute to fine-tuning the state in ways that do not necessarily undermine or hollow it out. However, there are clear differences in how this happens between the more peaceful setting of the Namibia-Zambia borderland, with its annual rhythm of life patterned according to the seasonal rise and fall of the Zambezi river, and the Uganda-South Sudan borderland, where the memory of recent and fear of future large-scale organised violence strongly affect daily life. This dissertation consists of two articles published in peer-reviewed journals and two chapters published in peer-reviewed edited volumes in 2007-2013, and a synopsis which discusses these works comparatively and introduces their wider conceptual framework.
  • Shawesh, Amna Mohammed (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Indomethacin (IND) is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, acute gout and other disorders. IND is available worldwide mostly in the form of capsules and suppositories, however, these formulations usually create side effects. Consequently, an alternate route of administration to avoid or minimize side effects may be found in the form of semisolid dermatological formulations, now available in few countries. The specific goals of this study were: (I) to determine the solubility of IND using different co-solvents: hexylene glycol (HG), propylene glycol (PG), polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG), butylene glycols (1,2 BG; 1,3 BG and 1,4 BG) and ethanol (ETOH). 1% (w/w) Tween® 80 or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP-25) were used as enhancers; (II) to develop suitable topical gel preparations using 20% (w/w) Pluronic® (PF-127) or 1% (w/w) Carbopol ETD® 2001 (C2001) as gelling agents and HG or PEG 300 as solvents (1% (w/w) Tween® 80 and PVP-25 were added as excipients); (III) To evaluate the effect of composition of prepared gel formulations on the following parameters: appearance, crystallization, pH and rheological behaviour and (IV) to investigate the influence of storage time and storage conditions on the characteristics of the gels. These results indicate that all the solvents tested increased the solubility of IND to varying degrees. Tween® 80 and PVP-25 only slightly enhanced the solubility of IND. 1% (w/w) IND was able to form a structural gel with both PF-127 and C2001. Storing the INDPF-127 gels at 6°C resulted in the precipitation of IND. All gels stored at room temperature exhibited good stability. The gels stored at 45°C developed a dark yellow colour. Gels with C2001 and PF-127/PEG had slightly decreased viscosities with increasing storage time, while the gels with PF-127/HG showed increase in viscosities with time. In conclusion, the water solubility of IND was increased by the addition of co-solvents. 1% (w/w) IND gel can be suitable for using as a gel formulation and it is stable at room temperature. The search for suitable gels for IND topical formulation needs to be continued with more stability studies. Moreover, in-vitro and in-vivo experiments will be necessary for providing data on bioavailability.
  • Kupari, Helena (2015)
    This study examines the lived religion of elderly Finnish Orthodox Christian women in present-day Finland. It discusses the women s everyday religious practice within the domestic environment. Furthermore, it also traces the ways in which their religion had been affected by their life histories, the changing status of the Orthodox community, and the modernization of Finnish society in the course of the 20th century. The primary research material for this study consists of interviews of 24 women. Finland is a Lutheran-dominated country; today, about one percent of Finns belong to the Orthodox Church. Traditionally, most of the Orthodox resided in Finnish Karelia. After the Second World War, Finland had to cede large areas of Karelia to the Soviet Union. In the process, two thirds of the Finnish Orthodox lost their homelands. All the interviewees, or their parents, had been among the evacuees from Karelia. The theoretical-methodological approach made use of in the study is based on practice theory. In particular, the concept of habitus as developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu is applied to analyze the women s interview accounts. The concept captures Bourdieu s understanding of the reciprocal dynamic between practice, subjectivity, and structures of power. The analysis demonstrates that the interviewees religion was characterized by a movement between routine and reflexive action. Judging from the material, they mostly did religion in a habitual fashion. Nevertheless, they could also perform their practices more intentionally, to reinforce their identity against specific others. These two aspects of the women s religion are traced, respectively, to their childhood religious socialization and their social trajectories as minority religious practitioners in Finnish society. Ultimately, the analysis forms an account of the women s religion as habitus. The informants religious habitus constituted an embodied and practical sense of religion, which informed both their routine religious practices and more conscious and creative religious actions. This study provides a description and a theoretical representation of one particular style of contemporary religiosity: the lifelong religion of older lay women. Within recent scholarship on religion, the religion of women of the inter-war generation has not received much attention. This study, moreover, offers a reading of Bourdieuan social theory as applied to the lived religion of minority practitioners. As such, it illustrates the explanatory potential that a Bourdieuan approach can bring to analyses of relatively stable religion.
  • Broberg, Martin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The interactions between phytopathogenic bacteria and their host plants can be characterized as an intricate web of signals and appropriate responses. Phytopathogenic soft rot bacteria occur globally, causing disease in Solanum tuberosum (potato) and other tubular staple foods in both the field and storage. One widely studied soft rot bacterium is Pectobacterium wasabiae, which has been identified in Eutrema wasabi (wasabi) plants in Japan and in potatoes in Finland. Generally, the interactions between this type of bacterium and host plants are characterized by maceration of plant tissue, due to the actions of secreted plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE), and the induction of phytohormone dependent defenses in the plants. The maceration of plant tissue involves the release of pectic oligogalacturonides (OGs) from plant cell walls. OGs have been identified as important signaling compounds, inducing the expression of a variety of defense-related genes. As the bacterial infection advances, the bacteria coordinate the production of virulence factors by utilizing regulatory proteins that modulate the transcriptome. Transcriptomic analyses have been used extensively in past studies to identify regulatory networks and signaling pathways, and these studies have provided insights into the processes underlying plant-pathogen interactions. The novel scientific results of this dissertation are derived from a combination of transcriptomic, genomic, genetic, and phenotypic analyses. This study analyzed various aspects of plant-pathogen interactions. The central bacterial model used was P. wasabiae, and the model plant of interest was Arabidopsis thaliana. This study characterized the genome of P. wasabiae via sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Various virulence associated genes and operons, such as two distinct type 6 secretion systems, were identified and annotated. The bacterium was found to in fact be more related to P. wasabiae than Pectobacterium carotovorum, which the strain originally had been named after. Furthermore, a combination of functional genetics and transcriptomic methods, such as reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and microarrays, were used to determine the regulons controlled by the proteins ExpA and RsmA in P. wasabiae. These two proteins have been identified as important for the virulence of several γ-proteobacterial pathogens. This study analyzed the regulons via the use of three mutants: expA, rsmA, and an expA rsmA double mutant (DM). Overlapping and independently regulated targets were identified between ExpA and RsmA. Phenotypic assays for motility, growth, PCWDE activity, and virulence confirmed the transcriptomic data for the mutant strains. Novel findings included reduction of swimming motility in agar medium for P. wasabiae expA and rsmA mutants. In addition, the DM exhibited enhanced virulence and fitness in planta compared to either single mutant. Via analysis of transcriptomic data, a subset of genes was identified as affected in expression by an expA mutation independently of the presence of rsmA. The relatively unexplored role of short OGs (with a degree of polymerization (DP) less than 10) in damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling in A. thaliana was characterized in this study. Comparative gene expression profiling based on RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR was performed on RNA harvested from plants treated with short OGs or with a mock suspension. Phenotypic assays confirmed the gene expression data. In a meta-data analysis, the resulting RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR data were compared with gene expression data from previous studies, in which long OGs (DP more than 10) were used to treat plants. This work demonstrated that short and long OGs induce genes and genesets associated with pathogen defense and phytohormone signaling, whereas reducing plant growth and development. The transcriptomic data of this study suggests that plant treatment with a mixture of short or long OGs yields a more pronounced and varied modulation of global gene expression, compared to treatment with only trimeric OGs. The regulation of the virulence of P. wasabiae, and the DAMP signaling triggered by plant cell wall damage in A. thaliana, are elements of the interactions between the plant and pathogen. The studies presented in this dissertation provide novel information about these two biological processes and highlights their connection.
  • Turja, Raisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Biomarkers measured in organisms are sensitive molecular, cellular or individual level biological effects, which can be applied as early-warning signals of environmental contamination before damage occurs at population, community or ecosystem levels. In this thesis, a suite of biomarkers and tissue concentrations of chemicals were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) as indicators of environmental pollution. The mussels were transplanted in specially made cages in coastal areas of the northern Baltic Sea influenced by different types of contamination and environmental factors. The aims of the research were to apply the biomarker approach to (1) assess the impact of contaminants on the health status of mussels, (2) investigate the effects of seasonal variability in biotic and abiotic factors, and low salinity, and (3) validate the usefulness of the mussel caging method for biomonitoring of chemical contamination in the northern Baltic Sea. The results showed marked biomarker responses coinciding with higher concentrations of contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organotins and trace metals, in mussels caged at the most contaminated study sites. At the contaminated sites, for example the enzymatic biomark¬ers of the antioxidant defense system indicated higher stress level, which was closely linked to elevated level of DNA-damage, increased biotransformation activity and decreased general health status of the cells. Biomarker responses and tissue contaminant concentrations were also related to the seasonal variability in growth and especially in soft tissue weight of the mussels. In the northern Baltic Sea the mussels almost fully deplete their energy stores during the winter; in the spring mussels efficiently feed on the fresh phytoplankton, which forms the main source of energy for their reproduction, energy metabolism and growth. Natural environmental factors caused less variation in the biomarker responses in the late summer and autumn suggesting that this time period is the most suitable for studying contaminant induced effects in mussels. More pronounced effects were observed in mussels exposed jointly to low salinity and chemical contamination, indicating that increased environmental stress reduces the tolerance of mussels towards anthropogenic pressures. This work showed that the mussel caging approach is an efficient biomonitoring method to assess biological effects and tissue accumulation of complex mixtures of contaminants as long as the effects of seasonal variability and low salinity are taken into account.
  • Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a globally important grain crop. The composition and structure of barley grain is under genotypic and environmental control during grain development, when storage compounds (mainly starch and protein), are accumulated. Grain structure plays a significant role in malting and feed- and food-processing quality of barley. Hordeins, the major storage proteins in barley grains, are centrally located in the endosperm forming a matrix surrounding starch granules, but their role in the structural properties of barley grain is not completely understood. Thus, the main aim of the current study was to demonstrate the role of hordeins in barley grain structure. The dependence of the grain structure on the growth environment, in particular with respect to day-length and sulphur application relevant to northern growing conditions, was studied. The effects of the grain structure on end use properties in milling as well as in hydration and modification during malting were characterized. The longer photoperiod typical to latitudes in Southern Finland resulted in a C hordein fraction, entrapped by aggregated B and D hordeins, being more deeply located in the endosperm of barley cultivar Barke. Thus the impact of the growing environment on hordein deposition during grain filling was observed both at the tissue and subcellular level. However, the mechanism behind the differential accumulation of C hordein remains unclear. The deeper localization of entrapped C hordein was linked to improved hydration of grains during malting in three barley cultivars. Thus, the role of the subaleurone region in barley grain was found to be significant with respect to end use quality. Moreover, the results suggest that the growing environment affects the end-use properties of barley and that especially the northern growing conditions have a positive impact on barley processing quality. The influence of sulphur application on hordein composition in the Northern European growing conditions was demonstrated for the first time. Asparagine and C hordein served as nitrogen storage pools when the S application rate was lower than 20 mg S / kg soil, whereas total hordein and B hordein contents increased with higher S application rates. The current study also showed that even when sulphur is sufficiently available in field conditions, the hordein composition may react to sulphur application. The observed sulphur responses were in accordance with those reported earlier for hordein composition. This indicates that the more intensive growth rhythm induced in northern growing conditions does not alter greatly the effect of sulphur on grain composition. The current study confirmed that the main grain components: starch, protein and β-glucan, influence grain processing properties including milling, hydration and endosperm modification. However, their influence on endosperm texture (hardness or steeliness), which also affects the performance of barley grains in these processes, cannot be directly derived or estimated on the basis of the grain composition. The results obtained suggest that hordeins should also be taken into account in the evaluation of the processing behaviour of barley grains.
  • Klenberg, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Executive functions (EFs) are essential for coordination and controlling of other cognitive functions and behavior. EFs are involved in all purposeful activity, and for children, they are important for learning and functioning in school environments. Difficulties in EFs are common in school-age children with developmental disabilities, such as attention deficit disorder (ADHD). This thesis consists of three studies addressing EFs in school-age children. The first study employed neuropsychological tests from the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment NEPSY to examine age-related differences in EFs in a sample of 400 children. The second study investigated the methodological factors related to EF measures in a sample of 340 children using response inhibition tasks from the NEPSY-II, the second edition of the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. The third study aimed at constructing a new instrument, the Attention and Executive Function Rating Inventory ATTEX, for the clinical assessment of EFs and verifying the psychometric properties of the rating scale in a sample of 916 children. Age-related improvement in EF task performance continued throughout the school-age period, proceeding from inhibition to attention control, and further to fluency of actions. A closer examination of response inhibition showed developmental variation even within this EF domain. The developmental change was apparent at school age, but different outcome measures and the cognitive requirements of tasks had an effect on how the development of response inhibition was depicted. In the assessment of everyday EF behaviors, the ATTEX rating scale demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and good criterion and discriminant validity for ADHD. The EF profiles were different for the ADHD subtypes, and children with predominantly inattentive symptoms showed more wide-ranging difficulties in EFs than children with combined symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Carefully examined, reliable, and valid measures are essential for both the scientific research and clinical assessment of EFs. Factors related to the measures, e.g., materials, stimuli, and the selected outcome measure, and the cognitive processes involved in tasks have effect on how development of EFs is depicted. Close examination of these factors can help to attain a more consisted account on EF development. In the clinical assessment of EF difficulties, the measures need to be sensitive to the actual difficulties that arise in every-day situations. These are best assessed with standardized rating scales. The new rating scale presented in this thesis proved to be a suitable measure both for screening and examining the detailed EF profiles of children in school situations.
  • Kohonen, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Clustering is a central task in computational statistics. Its aim is to divide observed data into groups of items, based on the similarity of their features. Among various approaches to clustering, Bayesian model-based clustering has recently gained popularity. Many existing works are based on stochastic sampling methods. This work is concerned with exact, exponential-time algorithms for the Bayesian model-based clustering task. In particular, we consider the exact computation of two summary statistics: the number of clusters, and pairwise incidence of items in the same cluster. We present an implemented algorithm for computing these statistics substantially faster than would be achieved by direct enumeration of the possible partitions. The method is practically applicable to data sets of up to approximately 25 items. We apply a variant of the exact inference method into graphical models where a given variable may have up to four parent variables. The parent variables can then have up to 16 value combinations, and the task is to cluster them and find combinations that lead to similar conditional probability tables. Further contributions of this work are related to number theory. We show that a novel combination of addition chains and additive bases provides the optimal arrangement of multiplications, when the task is to use repeated multiplication starting from a given number or entity, but only a certain kind of function of the successive powers is required. This arrangement speeds up the computation of the posterior distribution for the number of clusters. The same arrangement method can be applied to other multiplicative tasks, for example, in matrix multiplication. We also present new algorithmic results related to finding extremal additive bases. Before this work, the extremal additive bases were known up to length 23. We have computed them up to length 24 in the unrestricted case, and up to length 41 in the restricted case.
  • Mainio, Aleksi (Omakustanne, 2015)
    The October Revolution in 1917 led to Europe being divided into two camps. The turmoil in Russia also affected Finland, the territory of which became a safe haven for different counterrevolutionary organisations. It is possible to even talk about an invisible war between Finland and the Soviet Union although officially the countries had reached a peace agreement in 1920. This doctoral thesis examines how different White Russian intelligence and military organisations used the territory of Finland for counterrevolutionary activities between 1918 and 1939. It also discusses the relations of the Finnish Security Police and the Military Intelligence of the General Staff with the underground organisations and the attitude of Finnish authorities towards their illegal activities. No comprehensive research has previously been made on these activities. Nor have the groups operating in Finland been formerly examined in a broader international context. Research on these movements and their operations in Finland has therefore remained fragmented and unconnected with the broader picture of the anti-Bolshevistic activity in Russia and the whole of Europe. One of the main conclusions of this thesis is that the territory of Finland served as a significant base for counterrevolutionary operations. Between 1918 and 1939, White Russian emigrants organised intelligence operations and even terrorist attacks against the Soviet Union from the territory of Finland. These events resulted from the previous history of the country and its geopolitical location close to Leningrad and Moscow as well as from the traditions of Finnish activism. This thesis also shows that the White Russian emigrant organisations were closely linked with Finnish security authorities. Arranging terrorist and intelligence operations against the Soviet Union would have been almost impossible without their active or at least passive support. The General Staff, in particular, and the Finnish Security Police to a certain extent, were ready to tolerate and even support the secret activities of White Russian emigrants under certain conditions. This resulted from their desire to affect the developments in the Soviet Union but also from the great demand for intelligence on the neighbouring country. Without close cooperation with the emigrant organisations this would have been difficult to achieve. Such cooperation was a major risk for Finland and its relations with the Soviet Union. From time to time it might even have brought the countries onto the verge of a military conflict. Soviet propaganda used the support of Finnish authorities to emigrant activists involved in terrorist attack plans to harm the reputation of Finland and to justify the shift towards an increasingly totalitarian system.
  • Airila, Auli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In today´s work life, employees are expected not only to be reasonably healthy, but also to be highly engaged and work efficiently. However, at the same time, the prevalence of mental health disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal systems is high. Therefore, understanding and enhancing employee well-being as a whole is essential. This study examined the longitudinal effects of work characteristics, personal resources, and lifestyle on employee well-being by applying three theoretical frameworks Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, and Broaden-and-Build (BaB) theory. Employee well-being was understood as a multidimensional construct covering affective, cognitive, and health-related components. The data was collected with questionnaires among Finnish firefighters during a 13-year period with three measurement points (i.e., 1996, 1999, and 2009). Two slightly different datasets were used in the four sub-studies (dataset 1: n = 403; dataset 2: n = 360). The study showed that a positive state of work engagement was significantly associated with work ability even after adjusting for various individual and work characteristics. Secondly, job and personal resources had long-term effects on work engagement, and consequently on work ability, thus expanding the potential positive outcomes of the motivational process included in the JD-R model. Thus, the dual role of work ability both as a predictor (i.e., health-related resource) that may foster engagement, and as an outcome of the motivational process was found. Moreover, this study showed that different developmental paths in positive (i.e., vigor) and negative (i.e., fatigue) affective states are possible and these paths differently predicted well-being. Although both vigor and fatigue were rather stable over time, some changes occurred over the 13-year follow-up period. The results suggest both the possibility and need to foster positive developmental paths in affective states in order to maintain and improve employee well-being. Similarly, different developmental paths in multisite musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms were observed, and changes over time proved to be possible. Job demands, job and personal resources as well as lifestyle were partly differently related to pain-depression trajectories. This needs to be acknowledged when planning interventions for preventing musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms. To conclude, the beneficial role of job resources and personal resources, and similarly the detrimental effects of job demands in explaining employee well-being were shown, and thus, proving further support for the assumptions of the JD-R model, COR theory, and BaB theory. Evidently, a motivated and energetic worker, who has a resourceful job and not too high mental and physical demands has better well-being than a co-worker who is less engaged and experiences a more unfavourable situation in terms of demands and resources. Moreover, a good level of self-esteem, an optimistic view of the future and healthy lifestyle habits may increase the likelihood of being healthy and happy. As such, work organizations have good opportunities to reinforce and maintain well-being of their employees, and consequently prevent ill-health and promote long work careers.
  • Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and is characterized by disturbances in lipid metabolism. High blood LDL cholesterol is the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis, a pathological state in which the circulating lipid molecules accumulate in the blood vessel wall. Blood levels of HDL cholesterol are inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, and low HDL-cholesterol is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this thesis, new genes predisposing to low HDL-cholesterol level were searched using genome-wide association analysis in Finnish individuals with extremely low or high HDL-cholesterol. Several new genes predisposing to low HDL-cholesterol were discovered, of which many were known to be associated with immune system and inflammatory reaction of the body, but their role in cholesterol metabolism has not previously been characterized. Some of the subjects appeared to be genetically more prone to inflammation than others, especially in the blood and adipose tissue. The more inflammation inducing genetic variants one had, the stronger was the inflammatory state of the body, especially in blood and adipose tissue, and the lower the HDL-cholesterol level. The inflammation may block the transport of cholesterol from vessel walls to circulation leading to lower HDL-cholesterol levels in the circulation. This thesis also examined the composition of HDL particles by determining the concentration of all know lipid species in HDL particles. The quality of HDL particles appeared to vary considerably. In individuals, whose HDL-cholesterol levels were low, the quality of HDL particles was also impaired; they contained smaller amounts of plasmalogens which are fat molecules known to be antioxidant and thus protective to arteries. In individuals with high HDL-cholesterol levels in the circulation, the lipid composition of the HDL particle was more beneficial regarding heart disease risk. This thesis further demonstrates that not only the quantity but also the quality of HDL particles is genetically regulated. The genetic variants regulating the level of HDL-cholesterol also govern its quality, highlighted by inflammation-increasing genetic variants also impairing HDL quality. This thesis work provides novel insights about the molecular background of HDL cholesterol and validates the strong link between inflammation and low HDL-cholesterol levels. The studies show how genetically induced inflammation reduces blood HDL-cholesterol levels and impairs HDL particle quality, potentially predisposing to cardiovascular disease.
  • Mutanen, Anu (2015)
    This dissertation analyses state sovereignty from the point of view of national constitutions in the context of the constitutional pluralism of the EU. The research questions of the study are threefold. 1. What changes has the European Union caused in the conceptions and theories of state sovereignty? 2. How do the constitutions of the EU Member States regulate sovereignty? 3. How have these sovereignty provisions been interpreted in Finland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Estonia in a selection of EU-related national treaty processes? These questions are examined with a combination of theoretical and genealogical methods as well as contextual legal dogmatics and legal comparison. The dissertation demonstrates that the EU, and European constitutionalism in general, has profoundly affected state sovereignty as a matter of national constitutional law. The concept of state sovereignty has met with increasing criticism. Particularly the idea of absolute sovereignty has faced its demise in the EU Member States. Nevertheless, the general scholarly take within constitutional law still holds on to the concept, but provides it with increasingly relative content expressed in different theories of delegated or shared sovereignty. The texts of the EU Member State constitutions, however, still hold on to rather absolute formulations of state sovereignty and are still silent on the EU despite its far-reaching effects on sovereignty. As a result the constitutional provisions on sovereignty have been subject to dynamic interpretation in order to enable the domestic ratification of the EU treaties and their amendments without jeopardising the EU s development. Germany belongs to the group of states whose constitutions do not contain a sovereignty clause and which have well-established empowerment clauses. The interpretations provided by the German Constitutional Court in regard to the EU treaties have at times been very EU critical, and influential: Sweden, for example, has clearly developed its EU regulation through the model provided by Germany. Sweden does not mention state sovereignty in its Constitutions, and its constitutional interpretation has been integration friendly. Denmark has an EU-minimalist Constitution, the rigidity and the strong built-in referendum institution of which has enabled it to negotiate opt-outs to the EU treaties, allowing it to escape certain significant consequences for sovereignty. Estonia is situated at the apex of sovereignty protectionist constitutions, but on the other hand its Supreme Court has adopted a very pro-EU manner of interpretation. Finland used to have one of the most sovereignty-oriented constitutions in the EU. However, during the country s EU membership the constitutional interpretation has shifted from a rigid and formalistic approach to state sovereignty towards emphasising and easing Finland s EU activities and other international cooperation. This development was codified in 2012 in the Constitution of Finland in the form of an EU clause and empowerment clauses. When considering both the textual level of sovereignty regulation and its interpretation in connection to the national EU treaty ratification procedures, the current Finnish constitutional understanding of sovereignty is more integration friendly than that of Germany, Denmark, Sweden, or Estonia. This dissertation argues in favour of a pluralistic understanding of state sovereignty for resolution of the problems related to sovereignty within the EU. In the new pluralistic understanding of state sovereignty, national conceptions of sovereignty are recognised in that they also contain within themselves the possibilities for international cooperation and EU membership, with the accompanying transfer of powers and widening of competences, in order to engender truly pluralistic interaction between the EU and its Member States.
  • Soininen, Riikka (2015)
    The aim of this licentiate thesis is to assess by literature the potential exposure of humans to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) through food and drinking water in Finland and Minnesota, USA and to represent the prevalence (the total number of cases of a disease at a specific time) of Johne’s disease and the prevalence and incidence (the number of new cases of a disease during a certain period of time) Crohn’s disease in the United States, Minnesota and Finland. Johne’s disease (JD), also known as paratuberculosis, is a globally important chronic intestinal disease of cattle and other ruminants such as goats and sheep caused by MAP. Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal disease of humans. The etiology of CD is unknown but in addition to genetic susceptibility, environmental factors have been found to have an impact on the onset of the disease. It has been suggested that MAP could be one of the etiologic agents of CD. In the United States, JD is more common in dairy cattle than in beef cattle. The apparent cow-level prevalence is 6% and apparent herd-level prevalence is 68% in dairy cattle. In Minnesota the apparent prevalence of JD in dairy cattle at the cow-level is 3% and at the herd-level 46%. In beef cattle the prevalence at the cow-level is only 0.3% in Minnesota. The prevalence of CD in the United States is 241/100,000 and the annual incidence 20/100,000. The prevalence of CD in Minnesota is 222/100,000 and the annual incidence 13/100,000. In Finland, JD has been diagnosed in five beef cattle herds since 1992. The disease has not been diagnosed in dairy cattle or sheep or goats in Finland. The prevalence of CD in Finland is 124/100,000 and the annual incidence 9/100,000. The prevalence of MAP in food and drinking water in Finland has not been studied. Despite this, it is unlikely that people are exposed to MAP through drinking water or by eating foods of Finnish origin because the prevalence of JD in Finland is very low. However, exposure to the bacterium is possible by eating imported beef and dairy products such as cheese and yogurt. The share of imported foods within these food groups is relatively large in Finland. Dairy products and beef are imported for example from Germany and Denmark where the prevalence of JD at the herd-level is about 50–80%. In the United States the occurrence of MAP in foods and drinking water has been studied quite much. It appears that the bacterium is found in foods and drinking water of U.S. origin. Because JD is so common in the United States and Minnesota, it is likely that people are exposed to the bacterium in Minnesota even though not all the food eaten is produced in the state. It is likely that people in areas of high prevalence of JD are exposed more to MAP than people in areas of low prevalence of JD. Comparing subsets of CD patients with high exposure to MAP to healthy controls with and without exposure to MAP could reveal the possible role of MAP in the complex etiology of CD. Based on this literature review it can be assumed that in Finland CD is caused by some other environmental agent than MAP. This licentiate thesis sets up further research needs to estimate the true human exposure to MAP.
  • Koivunen, Niko (2015)
    Flavour violating processes have never been observed for charged leptons, electron, muon and tau. The existence of charged lepton flavour violating (CLFV) processes is however expected, since flavour is violated by all the other fermions of the standard model (SM). In the standard model the neutrinos are massless, which forbids the mixing of neutrino flavour and also the violation of lepton flavour. The zero mass of the neutrinos in the SM is in conflict with the experimentally observed neutrino oscillations. The standard model has to be extended to include massive neutrinos. The easiest way to explain the neutrino mass is to assume that they acquire masses in the same way as the rest of the SM fermions: in the Higgs mechanism. This way however leads to problems with the naturality of the neutrino Yukawa coupling. One of the most popular methods of generating the neutrino mass is the so called seesaw mechanism (type-I). The standard model, extended with the neutrino masses, allows the charged lepton flavour to be violated. This leads to unobservably small transition rates however. Therefore an observation of charged lepton flavour violating process would be a clear evidence of the existence of new physics beyond the standard model and it's trivial extensions. To have hope of ever observing charged lepton flavour violating processes, there must be an extension of the standard model which produces observable, though small, rates for CLFV processes. One of the most popular extensions of the standard model is the so called minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). The neutrinos are massless in the MSSM, as they are in SM, and therefore CLFV processes are forbidden in the MSSM. Luckily the neutrino masses can be generated via seesaw mechanism in the MSSM as well as in the SM. The MSSM contains more potential sources for CLFV processes than the SM. The extra sources are the soft mass parameters of the sleptons. In supersymmetric models the sleptons couple to the leptons through the slepton-lepton-gaugino-vertices. These generate the CLFV processes at the loop-level. Often the off-diagonal soft terms are assumed zero in the MSSM at the input scale, where the supersymmetry breaks. Experiments are done at much lower electroweak scale. The soft SUSY-breaking terms acquire large radiative corrections as they are run from the input scale down to the electroweak scale. Here the seesaw mechanism kicks in. The seesaw mechanism brings with it the off-diagonal neutrino Yukawa coupling matrices. This allows the off-diagonal slepton mass terms to evolve non-zero at the electroweak scale. In this thesis the charged lepton flavour violation is discussed first in the context of the standard model. Then the CLFV processes, l(i) → l(j) γ, l(i) → l(j)l(k)l(l) ja l(i) ↔ l(j), are studied in the most general way: in the effective theories. Finally the charged lepton flavour violation is studied in the supersymmetric theories in general and more specifically in the minimal supersymmetric standard model extended with the seesaw mechanism (type-I).
  • Vanhanen, Saara (2015)
    Erilaisia lääkehoidon arviointimenetelmiä on kehitetty monissa maissa parantamaan lääkehoitoa. Suomessa lääkehoidon kokonaisarviointi kehitettiin 2000-luvulla. Tutkimuksia lääkehoidon kokonaisarvioinnin vaikuttavuudesta on tehty Suomessa vain muutamia, mutta maailmalta tutkimuksia löytyy enemmän. Tämän pro gradu -tutkielman kirjallisuusosion tarkoituksena oli tutkia, minkälaisia mittareita on käytetty lääkehoidon arvioinnin tutkimuksissa ja millaisia tuloksia niistä on saatu. Mittareina on usein käytetty lääkityksen tarkoituksenmukaisuuteen liittyviä mittareita, kuten lääkitykseen liittyviä ongelmia (Drug Related Problems, DRP), lääkityksen tarkoituksenmukaisuusindeksiä (Medication Appropriateness Index, MAI) ja mahdollisesti iäkkäille sopimattomien lääkkeiden tietokantoja. Näihin mittareihin, kuten lääkitykseen liittyviin ongelmiin, lääkehoidon arvioinneilla on ollut positiivinen vaikutus. Elämänlaatumittareihin lääkehoidon arvioinneilla ei ole tutkimusten mukaan ole saatu vaikutusta. Toimintakykyä mittaavia mittareita ei ole paljon käytetty lääkehoidon arviointien tutkimuksissa ja niistä saadut tulokset ovat olleet ristiriitaisia. Omahoitosuunnitelma 2100 (OMA21) -tutkimushanke, joka tutkii lääkehoidon kokonaisarvioinnin vaikuttavuutta suomalaisessa terveydenhuollossa, voisi mahdollisesti pitkän seuranta-aikansa puolesta tuottaa tuloksia myös elämänlaatu- ja toimintakykymittareihin. Tutkielman kokeellisessa osiossa tarkoituksena oli arvioida Omahoitosuunnitelma 2100 (OMA21) -tutkimushankkeen lääkehoidon kokonaisarviointien tasalaatuisuutta tekemällä neljälle interventiopotilaalle rinnakkaisarvioinnit ja katsoa, kuinka paljon esiin nostetuista ongelmista oli samoja eri arvioijilla. Arvioinneista esille nostetuista ongelmissa oli paljon hajontaa. Yhteensä 40 eri ongelmasta vain 17,5 % oli samoja kaikilla arvioijilla. Lisäksi 12 potilaan lääkehoidon kokonaisarvioinneista havaituille ongelmille tehtiin lääkitykseen liittyvien ongelmien luokitus PCNE V6.2 -luokituksen mukaan. Tapauksista havaittiin yhteensä 69 ongelmaa, joista PCNE V6.2 -luokituksen mukaan yleisin ongelmaluokka oli hoidon teho (P1) (37,7 %). Ongelmille löydettiin yhteensä 92 syytä, joista yleisin oli lääkkeen valinta (C1) (39,1 %). Lisäksi kokeellisessa osiossa arvioitiin Kustannus Oy Duodecimin kehittämää lääkityksen kokonaisarviointityökalun (EBMeDS) käytettävyyttä OMA21-tutkimushankkeessa. Työkalun käytettävyys arvioinneissa todettiin olevan rajallinen potilastietojärjestelmässä olevien kirjaamismerkintöjen, kuten lääkelistan ja indikaatioiden, puutteen vuoksi. Vain noin 30 % (vaihteluväli 0-57 %) lääkkeistä oli ilmoitettu indikaatio. Työkalu voisi kuitenkin jatkossa nopeuttaa lääkitykseen liittyvien ongelmien määrittämistä vuosikontrollien yhteydessä OMA21-tutkimushankkeessa, jos potilaiden tiedot saadaan kirjattua potilastietojärjestelmiin oikein, koska työkalu pitää sisällään monenlaisia tietokantoja, joita arvioinneissa usein käytetään.
  • Soini, Esa-Matti (2015)
    Silmän takaosan sairaudet, kuten silmänpohjan ikärappeuma ja diabeettinen retinopatia ovat vakavia verkkokalvoa vaurioittavia sairauksia, jotka voivat johtaa näkövaurioihin ja sokeutumiseen. Silmän etuosan sairauksia voidaan hoitaa silmän pinnalle annosteltavilla silmätipoilla, mutta silmän takaosan kudoksiin niiden avulla ei ole mahdollista saada riittävän suuria lääkeainepitoisuuksia. Tällä hetkellä silmän takaosan sairauksien lääkehoidossa käytetäänkin pääasiassa lasiaisen sisäisiä injektioita ja implantteja. Intravitreaaliseen annosteluun liittyy kuitenkin huomattavia riskejä, kuten verkkokalvon irtauma ja endoftalmiitti, minkä lisäksi toimenpide on potilaalle epämiellyttävä. Turvallisemmalle ja potilasystävällisemmälle annosmuodolle olisi siis tarvetta. Systeemisen annon jälkeen veriverkkokalvoeste ja veri-kammioneste-este rajoittavat lääkeaineiden pääsyä verenkierrosta silmän sisäosiin. Erikoistyön tavoitteena oli rakentaa farmakokineettinen simulaatiomalli, jolla ennustetaan silmäsairauksien hoidossa käytettävien lääkeaineiden jakautumista silmään systeemisen annon jälkeen. Tällainen malli olisi erittäin hyödyllinen lääkekehityksen apuvälineenä ennustamaan uusien tutkittavien lääkeaineiden farmakokinetikkaa ja jakautumista silmään systeemisestä verenkierrosta. Mallin ennustekykyä testattiin kymmenellä lääkeaineella, joille on julkaistu pitoisuudet lasiaisessa ja verenkierrossa kaneilla systeemisen annon jälkeen. Keskimäärin simulaatiomallin ennustetarkkuus oli varsin hyvä, sillä simuloitu lasiaisen lääkeainepitoisuuden AUC oli 125 % mitatusta ja Cmax 117 % mitatusta. Mallin ennustetarkkuudessa oli kuitenkin huomattavaa vaihtelua lääkeaineiden välillä, sillä pienimmillään mallin ennustama silmän AUC oli 15 % vertailuarvosta ja suurimmillaan 403 %. Tällaisenaan malli ei siis ole riittävän hyvä käytettäväksi lääkekehityksen apuvälineenä. Simulaatiomallin toimivuutta voisi olla mahdollista parantaa lisäämällä siihen aktiivisen kuljetuksen vaikutus ja käyttämällä 2-tilamallia systeemikinetiikan mallinnuksessa.
  • Salo, Aija (2015)
    Tutkielma kuuluu työelämän tutkimuksen alaan. Se käsittelee seksuaaliseen suuntautumiseen ja sukupuoleen työyhteisössä liitettyjä normeja sekä keinoja edistää sukupuoleen ja seksuaaliseen suuntautumiseen liittyvää tasa-arvoa ja yhdenvertaisuutta työyhteisössä ottaen huomioon myös sukupuolen moninaisuuden. Tutkielman kontekstina ovat seksuaalisen suuntautumisen ja sukupuolen moninaisuutta koskevan yhteiskunnallisen keskustelun aktivoituminen 2000-luvulla sekä työelämää säätelevän lainsäädännön muutokset, jotka asettavat työnantajille muodollisia velvoitteita edistää yhdenvertaisuutta. Kyseessä on laadullinen tutkimus, jonka aineistona on viisi haastattelua. Haastateltavat ovat seksuaalivähemmistöön kuuluvia naisia, joista kukin työskenteli haastatteluhetkellä tai sitä aiemmin suorittavassa työssä. Haastateltavien koulutustaso on matala. Haastateltavien valinta koulutustaustan ja työtehtävien laadun perusteella perustuu pyrkimykseen tehdä työelämän tutkimuksessa näkyväksi seksuaali- ja sukupuolivähemmistöjen kokemuksia ei-akateemisissa ammateissa. Tutkielmassa hyödynnetään myös kirjoittajan pitämän Sukupuolen moninaisuus näkyväksi työelämässä – konkreettisia keinoja etsimässä -työpajan tuloksia. Tutkielma kuvaa sitä, miten seksuaaliseen suuntautumiseen ja sukupuoleen liittyvät normit ilmenevät työyhteisön sosiaalisessa vuorovaikutuksessa sekä millä tavoin sukupuoleen ja seksuaaliseen suuntautumiseen liittyvät normit ovat yhteydessä toisiinsa. Sukupuoliodotukset ovat usein seksualisoituja, ja seksuaalisuuden sääntelyyn liittyy sukupuolinormeja. Seksuaaliseen suuntautumiseen liittyvät normit ja sosiaaliset rakenteet ovat kytköksissä työntekijöiden hyvinvointiin ja työssä jaksamiseen sukupuolinormien tavoin. Avoimuuteen ja salaamiseen usein liittyvä stressi ja paine tuovat seksuaalivähemmistöjen työhyvinvointiin ja koettuun työilmapiiriin oman ulottuvuutensa. Seksuaaliseen suuntautumiseen tai sukupuoli-identiteettiin liittyvien kokemusten vaikutukset työssä jaksamiseen ja terveyteen ovat melko tutkimaton alue Suomessa. Aineisto osoittaa, että työyhteisön arjessa sukupuolta tuotetaan ja sukupuolten kulttuurisia rajoja määritellään monissa sellaisissa käytännöissä, joita ei perinteisesti ole säädelty virallisesti ja joiden normatiivista merkitystä ei ole aina havaittu työorganisaatioissa. Tällaisia käytäntöjä ovat esimerkiksi työntekijöiden väliset sosiaaliset suhteet ja työyhteisön epäviralliset puhetavat. Jotta työelämänbsukupuolittuneita ja heteronormatiivisia rakenteita voidaan purkaa ja työelämän yhdenvertaisuutta edistää, on kiinnitettävä huomiota myös näihin epävirallisiin ja joskus vaikeasti hahmotettaviin kulttuurisiin käytänteisiin, ei ainoastaan työelämän viralliseen säätelyyn. Johtopäätöksissä eritellään konkreettisia keinoja hetero- ja sukupuolinormien purkamiseksi työyhteisöissä sekä pohditaan 1.1.2015 voimaan tulleiden yhdenvertaisuus- ja tasa-arvolakien muutosten merkitystä yhdenvertaisuuden ja tasa-arvon edistämiselle tulevaisuuden työelämässä. Tasa-arvolaki kieltää muun muassa sukupuoli-identiteettiin ja sukupuolen ilmaisuun perustuvan syrjinnän ja velvoittaa työnantajat, viranomaiset ja koulutuksen järjestäjät ennaltaehkäisemään tällaista syrjintää. Yhdenvertaisuuslaki kieltää syrjinnän muilla kuin sukupuoleen liittyvillä perusteilla ja velvoittaa työnantajat, viranomaiset ja koulutuksen järjestäjät edistämään yhdenvertaisuutta muun muassa seksuaaliseen suuntautumiseen liittyen.
  • Erämaja, Elias (2015)
    Migration has been increasing steadily during the past decades and it has become an important phenomenon around the globe. It affects both the developed and the developing world and most of the migration still happens from a poorer country to a richer one (South-North migration). Migration can have both positive and negative effects for the source country’s economy. On one hand, the so-called “brain drain”, where the much-needed talent flows away, can be considered as a bad phenomenon. On the other hand, this negative effect can be mitigated i.e. by the resulting intra-family remittances that contribute to the economy of the source country. Nowadays, the amount of remittances is over three times the amount of the Official Development Aid (ODA). The possibility for migration could also potentially build an incentive for the source country’s individuals to gain education. The purpose of this thesis is to explain these effects in the context of the Least Developed Countries. In this thesis, a model is being built, which explains both the education investments and the remittance decision-making in among the families in the LDCs. The starting point is a two-sided altruistic OLG-model between the parent and the child. It explains the parent’s incentive to invest in her child’s education and also her child’s incentive for remitting money to his parent. The model is first derived in a closed country after which it is compared to a model that is open for migration. It is assumed that both the educated and non-educated worker’s can migrate. When the wage ratio between the educated and non-educated workers’ is smaller in the country of destination than in the source country, the educational attainment level doesn’t increase. Another important issue is the fact that the poor families are liquidity constrained. These assumptions, together with the symmetric information of the true ability of the migrants, are found to decrease the educational attainment level in the source country. Hence, migration seems to benefit the economies of the LDCs only from remittances. If the model assumes asymmetric information between the employer of the destination country and the migrant worker, it is possible to derive a result where the educational attainment level of the source country increases. This is because the workers with lower productivity can benefit from the higher output of the high-productivity workers. The effect is, however, temporary and if the workers are able to signal their true ability with low enough costs, the effect is also relatively small. Asymmetric information might, however, explain the discrimination that the higher than average ability migrants face and thus also explain the high proportion of entrepreneurs among the migrants compared to the destination country’s population. This thesis doesn’t take into account the effects of remittances to the economic growth. The results of the model, however, suggest that at least the LDCs may suffer from the migration due to the decreased attainment level of education and thus the resulting lower per capita output. Migration can hence deepen the poverty trap that the poor countries already face. If, however, the received remittances are used in education or other investments that helps the economy grow, the migration can still be positive also for the poor countries. The remittances may at least help to reduce the poverty of the LDCs in absolute terms.
  • Peth, Alexandra (2015)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin miten kulttuurin arvo ja arvottaminen ovat muuttuneet luovan talouden viitekehyksessä. Tarkoituksena oli ensin tarkastella muutosta teoreettisesti ja sitten verrata teoriasta nousseita kategorisointeja empiiriseen aineistoon, joka muodostui opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriön selvityksistä luovasta taloudesta. Miten kulttuuria arvotetaan ja miksi sitä pidetään arvokkaana? Millaisia arvodiskursseja kulttuuriin liitetään? Aiheen valintaan vaikutti se, että kulttuurin tarkasteleminen luovan talouden kautta vaikutti ajankohtaiselta ja tärkeältä, koska selvityksillä on vaikutusta päätöksentekoon. Onko kulttuuri sulautumassa osaksi taloutta vai onko sillä oikeutuksensa yhtenä yhteiskunnan erillisenä sfäärinä? Tutkimuksessa kysyttiin, miten kulttuurin arvodiskurssit asettuvat suhteessa kirjallisuuteen ja miten arvot näyttäytyvät opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriön teettämissä selvityksissä luovan talouden viitekehyksessä. Aihetta lähestyttiin nimenomaan luovan talouden kautta ja arvojen diskursseja etsien. Lähtöoletuksena oli, että kulttuuri on mahdollisesti kaupallistunut luovan talouden aikakaudella. Tutkimuksessa metodina käytettiin kriittistä diskurssianalyysiä, jonka eri alametodeista valittiin muoto, joka sopii hyvin historiallisten kokonaisuuksien tutkimiseen. Myös kategorisointia sovellettiin tutkimuksessa. Teoria muodostui kolmesta osasta: historiaosiosta sekä Williamsin kulttuurimaterialismista ja McGuiganin ”coolista” kapitalismista. Nämä olivat myös keskeisiä lähteitä. Teorian pohjalta tehtiin kategorisoimalla synteesi, jota lopuksi verrattiin diskurssianalyysistä nousseihin diskursseihin. Tutkimukseni tuloksena syntyi kaksi erilaista ”ajan hengen” kokonaisuutta, joita vertaillessa näkyi sekä samankaltaisuuksia että eroavaisuuksia empirian ja teorian välillä. Sekä teoriasta että opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriön selvityksistä nousi esiin kulttuurin kaupallistumisen suunta ja sen arvottaminen kaupallisuuden kautta. Teoriassa ilmiöstä oli puhuttu jo pidemmän aikaa ja aineisto osoitti, että ajattelukehikko pätee tietyin ehdoin myös empiriassa. Toisaalta tutkimuksesta kävi myös ilmi, että opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriön selvitysten perusteella, että vallalla on hyvin kaksijakoinen suhtautuminen kulttuuriin ja sen arvoon. Osittain kulttuurin odotetaan oikeuttavan itsensä tuottamalla kaupallista arvoa ja toisaalta kulttuurilla koetaan olevan ihmisille tärkeä yhteiskunnallinen ja henkinen rooli, jonka takia kaikille pitää taata pääsy kulttuurin piiriin. Lisäksi tutkimuksen lopussa vertailtiin teoreettisia ja empiirisiä näkökulmia.