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  • D. 
    Puranen, Kaarina (1948)
  • Lehto, Susanna (2015)
    Dagumin jakauma on jatkuva todennäköisyysjakauma, joka on saanut nimensä Camilo Dagumin mukaan tämän esitellessä jakaumaa 1970-luvulla. Dagumin jakauman kehittäminen sai alkusysäyksen, kun Camilo Dagum ei ollut tyytyväinen jo olemassa oleviin todennäköisyysjakaumiin ja alkoi kehitellä vaatimuksiaan vastaavaa mallia. Tämän kehitystyön tuloksena syntyi kolme jakaumaa, joita kutsutaan Dagumin jakauman tyypeiksi I--III. Tyyppi I on kolme parametria sisältävä jakauma, kun taas tyypit II ja III ovat keskenään hyvin samankaltaisia, neljä parametria sisältäviä jakaumia. Dagumin jakauma tyypistä riippumatta kehitettiin kuvaamaan henkilökohtaisia tuloja, ja tämän vuoksi jakauma yhdistetään usein taloustieteen tulonjako-oppiin. Lisäksi Dagumin jakauman kolme tyyppiä voidaan luokitella tilastollisiksi kokojakaumiksi, joita usein hyödynnetään etenkin taloustieteessä ja vakuutusmatematiikassa. Luku 1 koostuu johdannosta, jossa esitellään pro gradu -tutkielman rakenne pääpiirteissään sekä valotetaan syitä, miksi juuri Dagumin jakauma valikoitui tutkielman aiheeksi. Luvussa 2 esitellään lyhyesti jatkuvien todennäköisyysjakaumien yleistä teoriaa siltä osin kuin sen tunteminen on vähintäänkin tarpeellista. Tässä yhteydessä esitellään myös tärkeitä merkintöjä erityisesti luvun 3 ymmärtämiseksi. Luku 3 alkaa Dagumin jakauman kehittäjän, Camilo Dagumin, henkilöhistorialla. Tästä päästään sujuvasti syihin, jotka motivoivat Dagumia entistä paremman mallin etsimiseen ja johtivat lopulta kokonaan uuden jakauman tai jakaumaperheen syntymiseen. Aivan tuulesta Dagumin jakaumaa ei kuitenkaan ole temmattu, vaan pohjalla on Dagumin laaja-alainen asiantuntemus ja useiden eri jakaumien ja mallien tutkiminen ja testaaminen. Vaikka Dagumin jakauma tyyppeineen on aivan oma jakaumansa, sillä on myös läheisiä yhteyksiä muihin jakaumiin ja näiden yhteyksien vuoksi siitä käytetään usein myös nimeä Burr III -jakauma. Luvussa 3 valotetaan lisäksi Dagumin jakauman perusominaisuuksia, joiden esittelyn myötä katse suunnataan jakauman käyttökelpoisuuteen sovelluksissa: jakauma osoittautuu hyödylliseksi tulonjaon tasa-arvoisuuden mittaamisessa, jossa myös estimoinnilla ja päätelmien tekemisellä on tärkeä rooli. Luvun lopussa käsitellään lyhyesti ja ytimekkäästi Dagumin jakauman käyttämistä tietokoneohjelmien avulla. Vaikka luvussa 3 viitataan monessa kohtaa Dagumin jakauman sovelluksiin, vasta luvussa 4 jakauman soveltaminen käytäntöön otetaan lähempään tarkasteluun. Viimeisessä luvussa kootaan päällimmäisiä ajatuksia ja mietteitä Dagumin jakaumasta sekä haasteista tutustua siihen: yhdessä pro gradussa pystytään vasta raapaisemaan pintaa, joten työsarkaa riittäisi muillekin jakaumasta kiinnostuneille.
  • Richter-Vapaatalo, Ulrike (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Da hatte das Pferd die Nüstern voll. Gebrauch und Funktion von Phraseologie im Kinderbuch. Untersuchungen zu Erich Kästner und anderen Autoren. [Da hatte das Pferd die Nüstern voll. Use and Function of Phraseology in Children’s Literature. Studies in the Works of Erich Kästner and Other Authors.] Idioms are widely believed to be difficult for children to understand. Nevertheless, children’s literature shows abundant use of phraseological units in a wide variety of different functions. This study investigates the use and functions of idiomatic phraseology in German children’s literature starting with Erich Kästner (1899-1976) up until the present. On the basis of three different corpora (905 instances of idiom use from six Kästner children’s books, 333 examples of the use of idioms from two of Kästner’s novels for adults, and 580 idioms extracted from six German children’s books by different authors), and using the methodology and concepts of text linguistics, this study attempts to answer the following questions: How many and what kind of phraseological units are used in the texts? By what means are they embedded into the context, what kind of contextual relations do they form? What are the differences in the use of idioms between the different children’s books by one author (Kästner), between the children’s books and the adult novels by Kästner and between the different authors of children’s books? The analysis indicates that the use of phraseology in children’s literature is primarily a feature of the individual authors – different ‘phraseological profiles’ can be constructed. For example, Kästner not only uses idioms frequently, but also conspicuously, in plays on words, modifications, and contextual relations of all kinds. It can be stated that the extensive use of paraphrases to the idioms is common to more or less all of the children’s books that were analyzed for this study. For Kästner a noticeable difference between the use of paraphrases in the children’s books and in the novels can be discerned. Thus a consideration of the children’s (phraseological) competence seems to be an inherent constituent of children’s literature.
  • Alila-Johansson, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This thesis examined the effect of daily and annual lighting conditions on the blood levels of the hormones melatonin, cortisol and leptin and the lipid metabolism of free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol in female goats. The blood levels of these substances were also measured in long-term total darkness (endogenous rhythm). The duration of melatonin secretion in goats closely follows the length of the dark phase of the day, except in winter, when the duration is significantly shorter. In total darkness, the goats display two types of endogenous melatonin patterns: a "winter pattern" in winter, early spring, early fall and late fall, and a "summer pattern" in late spring and summer. The results showed that in addition to the light-adjusted overt melatonin rhythm, the endogenous melatonin secretion can be modulated by circannual clock mechanisms and/or long-term photoperiodic history. Serum cortisol levels had no significant daily rhythm at any time of the year, nor are there any differences in the profiles between annual lighting conditions and total darkness. In winter the overall concentrations were higher than in any other season. The results suggest that any/the circadian variation of cortisol secretion is masked by external factors, probably by the feeding schedule, and that the seasonal variation in the overall cortisol levels is likely to be related to the changes in photoperiod. The lipid metabolism of goats seems to be regulated by light; no significant contribution of leptin levels could be shown. Concentrations of plasma FFAs and glycerol exhibit significant daily and seasonal variations. The photoperiod was found to trigger a nocturnal fall and morning rise of FFAs levels, while low levels of glycerol were associated with feeding. In total darkness, FFA and glycerol rhythms were unstable. The close relationships between the daily variations of melatonin and FFAs levels result from both variables being controlled by light-dependent mechanisms. The results do not rule out a possible effect of melatonin on the daily FFAs profiles, but they show that melatonin secretion alone could not completely explain the daily FFAs profiles.
  • Bontas, Marilena (2012)
    The present paper explores the phenomenon of aggressive evil debated through different, disciplinary perspectives and its understanding by connection to the inner psychology of the person and criminal behavior. The main theoretical sources of the present thesis come from the studies of P. Zimbardo on the good nature versus the evil nature of people, S. Milgram’s work on obedience to authority, H. Arendt’s report on the ‘banality of evil’, T. Bran’s case of a lethal exorcism at Tanacu in Romania and the essay on the social psychology of evil comprised by A. Miller. The idea that initiated an interest to study the criminal nature of ordinary people and the delimitations of aggressive evil between a causal, emotional rupture in the psychology of the person and a contextual explanation was triggered by the beautiful work of Philip Zimbardo, ‘The Lucifer effect’ where he recounts the conditions, processes and results of his Stanford Prison Experiment in 1971. Hannah Arendt’s ‘banality of evil’ is also debated thoroughly in the paper because it contains solid evidence to explaining extreme evil acts, as seen in the conduct of Eichmann, Mengele or Himmler during the Holocaust. The analytical method utilized in order to make the connection between aggressive evil, the psychology of the individual and crime is Content Analysis. This method was used in order to analyze five interviews conducted in Romania that involved participants in different professions: a prison psychologist, a psychiatrist, a legal doctor and two priests. The results confirm partly the hypothesis, however, due to the relativity of the term, certain limitations have been also drawn. This study offers a different view on aggressive evil, trying to focus mostly on the extreme acts, thus, avoiding confusion or biased opinions that a simple take on ‘evil’ would entail. However, there is still room for further improvement, and, as the results shown, the study could be extended and applied to future research on the psychology of evil, a discipline that is, unfortunately non-existent in the academic world.
  • Kauppi, Jutta (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 2014)
    Dairy cow behaviour in relation to health, welfare and milking Animal welfare includes both physiological and mental health and is affected by several external and internal factors. In dairy cows, human care and the ability of the cows to cope with daily challenges are the most significant factors. The research presented in this dissertation focused on cow behaviour and aspects impacting on behavioural changes during mastitis and milking. To deepen knowledge of the relationship between the behaviour and health of cows and associated detection methods, we experimentally manipulated the health status of dairy cows through mastitis induction. Moreover, we tested and validated a thermal infrared camera for recording the udder skin temperature, which could be helpful in the case of early mastitis detection. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between cow behaviour and milking in herringbone and automatic milking systems. We established that cow behaviour changed during mastitis. The most apparent changes were in lying, eating and stepping behaviour. It was shown that inflammation affected the cow health status, which changed the behavioural priorities. In contrast to our expectations, visual signs in the udder and changes in milk composition occurred only 2 hours post-challenge, while clinical and behavioural changes were first recorded 4 hours post-challenge. However, changes in lying and restlessness behaviours were promising indicators for detecting signs in cows exposed to mastitis. The transient increase in body temperature of cows with experimentally-induced clinical mastitis was successfully detected by udder skin temperature detection with the help of a thermal camera. The udder skin temperature rose simultaneously with the rectal temperature. However, local inflammatory changes in the udder, appearing earlier than the rectal temperature increase, were not detected with udder skin temperature measurement by using the thermal infrared camera. Regarding cow behaviour as an indicator of the success and quality of the milking process, we found that half of the deviations occurring during automatic milking originated from cow behaviour, such as cows kicking, lifting their legs and moving during milking, and had their origins in machine failures. To conclude, cow behaviour can be used as an indicator for detection of mastitis and (un)successful milking. However, effectively functioning human animal technology interactions should be studied more in the future in order to enhance husbandry practices that can improve animal welfare.
  • Fernström, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    THE TRADITION AND INNOVATION OF DAMASK The work of textile artist Dora Jung with a focus on her damask textiles Abstract The focus of the study is the artisanal and industrial activity of textile artist Dora Jung, 1906 1980, and the developmental cycle of her damask textiles. Dora Jung has been described by her contemporaries as the reformer of damask and her weaving as the renaissance of the damask art. Her method of damask weaving has been called the Dora Jung technique. The study discusses the gradual migration of the tradition of damask weaving from southern Europe to the Nordic countries and presents the influences on damask in Finland. In the work of Dora Jung I focus on the factors that have contributed to the changes in and the significance of hand weaving in the national context while contrasting this against the continuum of European damask art. Dora Jung studied at the textile department of the Helsinki Central School of Art (Taideteollisuuskeskuskoulu) in the years 1929 1932. Prior to her studies of textile art, she trained at the weaving school of the association Finnish Friends of Handicraft. In 1932, the year of her graduation, she set up her own weaving atelier under the name Dora Jung Textil. The weaving shop produced interior textiles, church textiles and, from the 1950s onwards, unique works of textile art for public spaces and some other art textiles. Jung had already been designing industrially fabricated damask textiles for Oy Tampella Ab in the 1930s, but she made a formal design contract with Tampella as late as the 1950s. The research strategy is the case study. The research focuses on Dora Jung within the historical context of European damask. Within the field of craft science, the research focuses on the type of handicraft where the designer and the fabricators are different actors. The source material of the research includes original documented material from the Dora Jung weaving atelier: weaving cards, sample folders, sketches, scrap books, concrete textile works as well as the memories of the informants. In addition, the inheritance of the sister of Dora Jung, Kristiina Jung, revealed new material in 2007, which shed more light on Jung´s work. The study also includes previously unpublished photographic material. The research opens a multifaceted picture of the damask and works of Dora Jung as a textile artist. Dora Jung examined the art of damask weaving and developed her own methods through developing the working methods, tools and the surface structure of the damask. Jung s artistic innovation focused especially on art textiles, but she used a new kind of damask also in some of her interior textiles. The study of industrial textiles reveals that domestic artists were used as designers and arbiters of taste in the design of Finnish damask already in the 19th century. Dora Jung transferred part of the damask designs of her atelier in an almost unaltered form to industrial production. Keywords: damask, craft, design, textile art, Dora Jung, case study
  • Leino, Marina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Exposure to water-damaged buildings and the associated health problems have evoked concern and created confusion during the past 20 years. Individuals exposed to moisture problem buildings report adverse health effects such as non-specific respiratory symptoms. Microbes, especially fungi, growing on the damp material have been considered as potential sources of the health problems encountered in these buildings. Fungi and their airborne fungal spores contain allergens and secondary metabolites which may trigger allergic as well as inflammatory types of responses in the eyes and airways. Although epidemiological studies have revealed an association between damp buildings and health problems, no direct cause-and-effect relationship has been established. Further knowledge is needed about the epidemiology and the mechanisms leading to the symptoms associated with exposure to fungi. Two different approaches have been used in this thesis in order to investigate the diverse health effects associated with exposure to moulds. In the first part, sensitization to moulds was evaluated and potential cross-reactivity studied in patients attending a hospital for suspected allergy. In the second part, one typical mould known to be found in water-damaged buildings and to produce toxic secondary metabolites was used to study the airway responses in an experimental model. Exposure studies were performed on both naive and allergen sensitized mice. The first part of the study showed that mould allergy is rare and highly dependent on the atopic status of the examined individual. The prevalence of sensitization was 2.7% to Cladosporium herbarum and 2.8% to Alternaria alternata in patients, the majority of whom were atopic subjects. Some of the patients sensitized to mould suffered from atopic eczema. Frequently the patients were observed to possess specific serum IgE antibodies to a yeast present in the normal skin flora, Pityrosporum ovale. In some of these patients, the IgE binding was partly found to be due to binding to shared glycoproteins in the mould and yeast allergen extracts. The second part of the study revealed that exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum spores induced an airway inflammation in the lungs of mice. The inflammation was characterized by an influx of inflammatory cells, mainly neutrophils and lymphocytes, into the lungs but with almost no differences in airway responses seen between the satratoxin producing and non-satratoxin producing strain. On the other hand, when mice were exposed to S. chartarum and sensitized/challenged with ovalbumin the extent of the inflammation was markedly enhanced. A synergistic increase in the numbers of inflammatory cells was seen in BAL and severe inflammation was observed in the histological lung sections. In conclusion, the results in this thesis imply that exposure to moulds in water damaged buildings may trigger health effects in susceptible individuals. The symptoms can rarely be explained by IgE mediated allergy to moulds. Other non-allergic mechanisms seem to be involved. Stachybotrys chartarum is one of the moulds potentially responsible for health problems. In this thesis, new reaction models for the airway inflammation induced by S. chartarum have been found using experimental approaches. The immunological status played an important role in the airway inflammation, enhancing the effects of mould exposure. The results imply that sensitized individuals may be more susceptible to exposure to moulds than non-sensitized individuals.
  • Chua, Joey (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This qualitative study examined the culture-specific forms of dance talent development. Due to the scant and uneven literature in the field of dance talent development, this study firstly aimed at exploring the various theories and research methodologies underpinning current dance talent development literature. The other aims were to better understand how various catalysts and processes enhanced dancers development at different stages and helped guide students in actualizing their potential. Hence, mapping the Finnish and Singaporean dancers and dance students talent trajectories later became the focus of this study. This dissertation consists of three sections or (dance) Acts , which are based on three sole-authored publications. Act I introduces the compilation and synthesis of empirically based articles published between 2000 2012 that dealt with the critical issues of developing dance talents across the lifespan of children, adolescents, and adults. Data from 37 accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: (a) abilities and traits, (b) creativity, (c) motivation, and (d) social support. Findings and recommendations about future research were useful in clarifying the ontological, epis- temological, and methodological lenses adopted in subsequent studies in this dissertation. In particular, definition of dance talents should be addressed using talent development theories, and more retrospective research about successful dancers and more prospective longitudinal research about talented students should be conducted. Act II presents, via retrospective interviews, the key factors that impacted the talent development of the award-winning Singaporean (n = 4) and Finnish (n = 4) ballet and contemporary dancers. Integral to all the eight dancers success were a high level of abilities, developed psychosocial skills, supportive and knowledgeable people, optimal learning opportunities, and chance. Four dancers stories titled Nonconformist, Exemplary Dancer, Go-Getter, and Trailblazer revolving around the themes and developmental stages illustrate the markedly different pathways for achiev- ing success. The talent-development mega-model framed the discussions in Acts I and II. The perspectives of students (n = 4), parents (n = 2), teachers (n = 6), and a sibling were analyzed in Act III in order to clarify how well significant individuals have supported the exceptionally talented dance students across the different stages of their talent development. The four exceptionally talented students were enrolled in their national dance institutions the Finnish National Opera Ballet School and the Singapore Dance Theatre. Common themes that emerged from this prospective, two-year study were being there, sharing, and knowing that illustrated the types of support instrumental, emotional, and informational from families, peers, and teachers that contributed to the students development. A result of this dissertation is the creation of a conceptual framework of dance talent develop- ment that can be useful for future research. The framework describes abilities, motivational beliefs, supportive and knowledgeable people, learning opportunities, and social skills that are crucial for dance talent development across four stages budding, blossoming, maturing, and seasoned.  The author has already utilized this framework in a longitudinal study involving male dance students. While this model emphasizes talent development in dance, it is hoped that this model is applicable in other domains.
  • Vesterinen, Marjaana (2007)
    The main aim of the study is to create a many-sided view of dancing in Roman Egypt (1st - early 4th centuries AD) and especially of the dancers who earned their living by dancing as hired performers. Even though dancers and other performers played a central part in many kinds of festivities throughout the ancient world, research on ancient professional dancers is rare and tends to rest on the ancient literature, which reflects the opinions of the elite. Documentary written sources (i.e., papyri, ostraka) the core of the present study are mentioned rather superficially, easily resulting in a stereotypical view of the dancers. This study will balance the picture of professional dancers in antiquity and of ancient dancing in a more general sense. The second aim characterizes this study as basic research: to provide a corpus of written sources from Greco-Roman Egypt on dancing and to discuss pictorial sources contemporary with the texts. The study also takes into account the theoretical discussion that centres on dancing as a nonverbal communicative mode. Dancers are seen as significant conveyors of social and cultural matters. This study shows that dancers were hired to perform especially in religious contexts, where the local associations on the village level also played an important part as the employers of the performers. These performers had a better standard of living in economic terms than the average hired worker, and dancers were better paid than other performers. In the Egyptian villages and towns, where the dancers performed and lived, the dancers do not seem to have been marginal because they were professionals or because of some ethnic or social background. However, their possible marginality may have occurred for reasons related to the practicalities of their profession (e.g., the itinerant life style). The oriental background of performers was a literary topos reflecting partly the situation in the centres of the empire, especially Rome, where many performers were of other than Roman origin. The connection of dancing, prostitution and slavery reflects the essential link between dance, body and gender: dancers are equated with such professions or socio-legal statuses where the body is the focus of attention, a commodity and a source of sensual pleasure; this dimension is clearly observable in ancient literature. According to the Egyptian documentary sources, there is no watertight evidence that professional dancers would have been engaged in prostitution and very little, if any, evidence that the disapproval of the professional dancers expressed by the ancient authors was shared by the Egyptians. From the 4th century onwards the dancers almost disappear from the documentary sources, reflecting the political and religious changes in the Mediterranean east.
  • Virtanen, Raimo (1956)
  • Pirjola, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Dark and bright sides of human rights. Towards pragmatic evaluation Human rights are interplay between theory and practice. On the one hand human rights are conventions, rules and standards on the other hand these same conventions and standards receive their meaning in professional practice. An agreement of human rights in abstract level does not provide us with guidance as to what is needed for their implementation in practice. Human rights do not only set limits as they also create opportunities. Thus, in the service of practice, human rights can start to produce good and bad practical consequences depending on the perspective to the matter. My thesis consists of 7 articles and an introduction that complements them theoretically. The seven articles that form the substance of my thesis discuss human rights both from theoretical as well as from practical perspective. The articles can be divided into two different groups, even though they have many common themes. The first two articles analyse, on a rather theoretical level, the operation of human rights in a multicultural world. The second group of articles (3,4,5,6 and 7) discuss the use of human rights in different practical contexts. My study has two levels. On one level each individual article addresses particular research questions and provides conclusions on them (article level). In the introduction (introduction level) the articles are discussed from the theory practice perspective. The seven articles use different legal strategies and writing techniques in discussing human rights as a theory and practice. There are many ways to explore human rights, as different professional or academic contexts and situations require different strategies and languages. I use concepts, techniques and approaches that draw on traditional legal writing and legal analysis, approaches that are affected by more critical legal writing as well as concepts and approaches that are affected by discussions and methodologies in cultural anthropology. The general aim of my research is to discuss dynamics of the interaction between abstract rights and their practical realisation. The operation of rights is also examined from pragmatic perspective. The pragmatic approach to rights is concerned with the practical operation and concrete results of human rights in concrete situations, not with what human rights are claimed to be in the abstract. Pragmatic approach is interested in what kind difference do human rights make in practice, which purpose does human rights language serve and who are included and who are excluded from the protection of rights. From pragmatic perspective the abstract idea of promoting and respecting human rights emerges as overly simplistic, even clichéd, demand as in practice human rights can be invoked in support of almost any purpose or goal.
  • Olander, Anni (2008)
    Tutkielmassani tarkastelen lasten harjoittamaa vaihtoa kulttuurisena käytäntönä, jolla rakennetaan ja ylläpidetään sosiaalisia suhteita vertaisryhmän sisällä. Käsitän lasten suhtautumisen tavaroihin esimerkkinä lasten omista, jäsentyneistä merkitysjärjestelmistä, jotka kyllä heijastelevat aikuisten luomia merkityksiä, mutta eivät ole palautettavissa niihin. Vaikka kiinnostukseni kohteena onkin ensisijaisesti lasten harjoittama vaihto, kiinnitän huomiota myös sukupolvien väliseen suhteeseen ja tarkastelen lasten toimintaa aikuisten toiminnan kontekstissa. Tutkielmani perustuu etnografiseen havaintoaineistoon, joka on kerätty seuraamalla helsinkiläisten 8-vuotiaiden poikien muodostaman poikaporukan elämää kolmen kuukauden ajan. Työssäni käytän antropologista teoriaa vaihdosta metodologisena työkaluna, joka auttaa jäsentämään havaintojani ja esittämään aineistolle oikeanlaisia kysymyksiä. Erityisesti hyödykkeen ja lahjan välistä eroa koskeva keskustelu on työni kannalta hedelmällinen, sillä sen avulla on mahdollista hahmottaa lasten ja aikuisten toiminnan välisiä jännitteitä. Lasten vaihtosuhteiden analyysin kautta kommentoin antropologisen lapsitutkimuksen esiin nostamaa kysymystä lasten ja aikuisten luomien merkitysten, "maailmojen", välisestä suhteesta. Aineistoni perusteella tavaroiden vaihdolla, antamisella ja lainaamisella on merkittävä osa lasten keskinäisessä toiminnassa. Henkilö muodostuu sosiaalisten suhteidensa kautta, ja tässä vaihdolla on tärkeä rooli: vaihdannan kautta asemoidutaan suhteessa muihin. Vaihtoon osallistumisen myötä määrittyy sosiaalinen osallisuus, joten vaihtaminen ei liity liittyvän ensisijaisesti haluun saada joku tietty tavara, vaan haluun laajentaa sosiaalisia suhteita. Lasten kannalta keskeistä on ylipäätään vaihtosuhteisiin osallistuminen, ei vaihdettavien asioiden materiaalinen vastaavuus. Esineiden merkitys liittyy niiden suhteisiin henkilöihin. Havaintojeni mukaan aikuiset pyrkivät aktiivisesti rajoittamaan lasten tavaran vaihtoa. Aikuisten väliintuloissa erottuu kolme keskeistä pyrkimystä: tavaroiden tulisi pysyä alkuperäisellä omistajalla, tavarassa keskeistä on sen taloudellinen arvo, joten tavaroita pitäisi vaihtaa vain taloudellisesti samanarvoisiin, eikä sosiaalisten suhteiden tai kaveruuden hankkiminen tavaroiden avulla ole hyväksyttävää. Aikuisten puheessa käy ilmi huoli tavaroiden katoamisesta, harmi lasten välinpitämättömyydestä tavaroita kohtaan sekä epäsuorasti huoli lapsen hyväksikäytöstä tavaroiden kautta. Lapsille nämä huolenaiheet eivät ole keskeisiä, eivätkä aineistoni valossa mielekkäitä. Hyödykkeen ja lahjan käsitteiden välinen jaottelu selventää aikuisten ja lasten käsitysten yhteensopimattomuutta. Aikuisille vaihdossa on kyse taloudellisesta toiminnasta, lapsille sosiaalisista suhteista: aikuiset painottavat esineiden hyödykeluonnetta, kun taas lapsille keskeistä tavaroissa on se, mitä niillä voi sosiaalisissa suhteissa tehdä.