Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 6384-6403 of 24494
  • Tian, Li (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Lüscher, Heidi (nykyisin Heidi Grahn) (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Ristimäki, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Aims: The recent conversations about disappearing family meals, mental problems of the youngsters and family meals´ protective effect on youngsters problems have been the base of this study. The main aim of this study is to find out, what kind of position family meals do have in the youngsters´lives. Study questions are: 1. What kind of conceptions youngsters have of family meals? 2. What kind of hands-on experience youngsters have about family meals? 3. How youngsters feel family meals on a emotional level? a. Are meals positive moments with the family or do they just limit timetables? b. Do the youngsters need family meals if they do not have those in their families? Why? Why not? Methods: The data was collected using stimulated recall -interviews and basic themed interviews. The data was collected from thirteen 8th graders from Pirkanmaa and Kanta-Häme. The interviews were analyzed with the qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusion: The youngsters´ consepts of the meals and the family meals were quite traditional, assuming that those are warm, varied and eaten with company. The situation of the family meals was good and those were eaten nearly every day in the most of the families. The youngsters thought that the family meals were important social moments with the family and they were able to talk about important things with the family during the meals. They also felt that the daily eating rythm was good and they did not felt that the meals would have been somehow restrictive. Even so that the pupils felt the family meals were important, the pupil whose family did not eat family meals did not long those meals. He felt that he was able to share his thoughts and experiences also in other ways. It is important that youngsters have this channel of communication.
  • Nordgren, Hanna (2013)
    Tämä tutkimus sai alkunsa kiinnostuksesta selvittää, eroavatko suomalaisten ja ruotsalaisten käsitykset hyvästä johtajuudesta toisistaan ja jos, miten eroavaisuudet näkyvät johtajien itsensä omaa johtajuuttaan koskevissa kuvauksissa. Aluksi tutkimuksessa keskitytään kartoittamaan, millaisia eroja suomalaisessa ja ruotsalaisessa johtajuudessa on olemassa olevan tutkimusperinteen nojalla. Kirjallisuuden perusteella käy ilmi, että kulttuuri, viestintä ja johtajuus kietoutuvat toisiinsa niin olennaisesti, ettei yhdestä voi puhua ilman toista. Suomalaisessa ja ruotsalaisessa kulttuurissa on paljon yhteistä kuten matala valtaetäisyys, tasa-arvoisuus ja korkea tarve välttää tulevaisuutta koskevaa epävarmuutta. Viestintä on molemmissa kulttuureissa luonteeltaan kaksisuuntaista ja sanallisella viestinnällä on suurempi painoarvo kuin nonverbaalilla viestinnällä. Erojakin kuitenkin on: suomalaiset ovat tyypillisesti suoraviivaisempia, kun taas ruotsalaiset korostavat keskustelun merkitystä. Johtajuuden kontekstissa kulttuurierot voivat johtaa ristiriitoihin, sillä suomalainen johtajuus on luonteeltaan autoritäärisempää kuin ruotsalainen. Ruotsalaiset painottavat suomalaisia enemmän muodollisten sääntöjen ja käytäntöjen noudattamista ja konsensuksen merkitystä. Suomalaisten päätöksenteossa tyypillistä taas on kirjoittamattomien sääntöjen noudattaminen ja se, että etenkin ristiriitatilanteissa johtajan sana on ”laki”. Empiirinen tutkimusaineisto koostuu 120 suomalaisen ja 120 ruotsalaisen keskijohdon tehtävissä toimivan henkilön LinkedIn-profiileista. LinkedIn on verkossa toimiva rekrytointi- ja ammatillinen verkostoitumispaikka. Aineiston analyysimenetelmänä on käytetty etnografista sisällönanalyysiä, joka tähtää sekä kvantitatiivisiin että kuvaileviin tuloksiin. Vaikka aineiston koodaus pohjaa teoriasta nouseviin luokkiin kuten perinteisessäkin sisällönanalyysissä, etnografisessa lähestymistavassa olennaista on myös se, mikä jää etukäteen valittujen luokkien ulkopuolelle. Analyysin tuloksena syntyy siis myös uusia käsiteluokkia. Analyysin eoreettinen viitekehys perustuu GLOBE-tutkimusprojektin (House et al. 2004) mukaisiin kuuteen globaaliin johtajuuden ulottuvuuteen. Nämä ovat ulottuvuudet ovat 1. karismaattinen/arvopohjainen (charismatic/value-based) johtaminen, 2. tiimisuuntautunut (team oriented) johtaminen, 3. osallistava (participative) johtaminen, 4. ihmissuuntautunut (humane oriented) johtaminen, 5. autonominen (autonomous) johtaminen sekä 6. itsesuojeleva (self-protective) johtaminen. Teorian ulkopuolelta aineistosta hahmottuu myös neljä uutta johtajuuden ulottuvuutta. Nämä ovat monimuotoisuuteen suuntautunut (diversiteettisuuntautunut) johtajuus, valmentava johtajuus, muutosjohtajuus sekä käytäntökeskeinen (organisoiva) johtajuus. Yleisesti ottaen ruotsalaiset profiilit sisältävät enemmän kuvailua kuin suomalaiset. Myös kontakteja ja muiden antamia suosituksia on lukumääräisesti enemmän. Kuvien käytössä ei ole merkittävää eroa. Johtajuuden kuvailussa yhteistä molemmille on karismaattisen/arvopohjaisen johtajuuden sekä tiimisuuntautuneen johtamisen vahva korostaminen. Suurimmat eroavaisuudet liittyvät teoriapohjaisista ulottuvuuksista ihmissuuntautuneeseen johtamiseen ja teorian ulkopuolelta esiinnousseista kategorioista monimuotoisuuden johtamiseen, johtamiseen käytännöllisenä toimintana (organisointina), johtamiseen valmennuksena sekä johtajuuteen muutoksen liikkeelle panona ja hallitsemisena. Tulosten perusteella Suomessa ideaaleja johtajuuden ulottuvuuksia ovat karismaattinen/arvopohjainen johtajuus, tiimisuuntautunut johtajuus, monimuotoisuuden johtaminen sekä johtajuus mentorointina/valmennuksena. Johtajalta toivottuja ominaisuuksia ovat tehokkuus, suorituskeskeisyys, visionäärisyys ja päättäväisyys, kyky parantaa tiimin tehokkuutta ja tuloksia, kyky johtaa monimuotoisia, monikansallisia ja/tai maantieteellisesti hajanaisia tiimejä, kyky toimia alaisten valmentajana tai mentorina sekä taito hyödyntää muutosta organisaation kehittämisessä. Ruotsissa ideaaleja johtajuuden ulottuvuuksia taas ovat karismaattinen/arvopohjainen johtajuus, tiimisuuntautunut johtajuus, ihmissuuntautunut johtajuus sekä johtajuus käytännöllisenä toimintana. Hyvän johtajan ominaisuuksina pidetään innostavuutta, luovuutta, organisointitaitoa, visionäärisyyttä sekä ihmissuuntautuneisuutta ja hyviä sosiaalisia taitoja. Kaiken kaikkiaan empiiriset tutkimustulokset ovat linjassa aiemman tutkimusperinteen kanssa. Aineistossa kiehtovaa on se, että profiilit on tuotettu ”markkinointitarkoituksiin”. Aiemmin tällaiset tiedot olivat yksityisiä, ja lisäksi itsensä markkinoimista on perinteisesti pidetty erityisesti suomalaisille hankalana toimintana. Nyt tiedot ovat kenen tahansa helposti löydettävissä. Palvelun luonteen huomioiden voi olettaa, että profiilia kirjoittaessaan ainakin useimmat miettivät sisällön vetovoimaa työnantajan näkökulmasta, toisin sanoen markkinoivat itseään hyvinä työntekijöinä. Se, mitä ihmiset itsestään kertovat, kertonee jotain myös yhteiskunnallisista arvostuksista tai ainakin siitä, mitä ihmiset ajattelevat arvostettavan työelämässä. Mielenkiintoinen kysymys on myös se, mitä profiileissa jätetään sanomatta – esimerkiksi yli puolet suomalaisista ei tuonut millään tavoin esiin johtajan kykyjään eikä yhdessäkään analysoidussa profiilissa mainittu sanaa ”kunnianhimoinen”, vaikka kaikki tutkittavat henkilöt ovat ilmoittaneet olevansa kiinnostuneita uusista työtehtävistä.
  • Lahelma, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This study examines the dynamics of the self and art in the context of the Symbolist art and aesthetics of the fin-de-siècle. The purpose is to open new perspectives into how the self and its relationship with the world were understood and experienced, and to explore how these conceptions of selfhood suggest parallels with questions of art and creativity in ways that continue to affect our perceptions of these issues even today. The decades around the turn of the twentieth century were a period of intensifying preoccupation with questions of subjectivity as the coherence and autonomy of the self were constantly being threatened in the rapidly modernizing world. This issue is examined through an analysis and discussions of artworks by the Finnish artists Pekka Halonen and Ellen Thesleff, the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, the Swedish author and artist August Strindberg, and the Danish artist Jens Ferdinand Willumsen. The artworks are considered as active participants in the discourses of the period and as sites of intellectual and artistic reflection. Self-portraits are the most obvious products of artistic self-examination, but the highly subjective attitude towards art indicates that in a way every work of art can be perceived as a self-portrait. Symbolism, therefore, constitutes a point in art history where old definitions of self-portraiture were no longer sufficient. Art came to be understood as a form of knowledge and a source of truth. Hence, the creative process turned into a method of self-exploration motivated by an attempt to transcend beyond everyday consciousness in order to achieve a heightened perception of the self and the world. At the same time, the focus of the artwork shifted towards an immaterial space of imagination. Hence, the work of art was no longer understood as a finite material object but rather as a revelation of an idea. The constant need for self-exploration was also related to an ever increasing questioning of traditional religiosity and a subsequent interest in religious syncretism, as well as in various mystical, spiritual, and occultist ideologies, which affected both the form and content of art. Subjectivity is often perceived as one of the defining features of Symbolist art. However, due to the content-oriented approach, which until recent years has dominated art historical research on Symbolism, the meaning of this subjective tendency has not been properly analysed. Although the emphasis on subjectivity obviously had a great impact on the content of the new art, which became increasingly concerned with mythological and fantastic material, it also worked on a more abstract level affecting the ways that the meaning and status of art were understood. The approach taken in this study is based on an idea of the interconnectedness of form and content. Through this critical perspective, this study takes part in an international current of research which seeks to redefine Symbolism and its relation to modernism.
  • Liikkanen, Karri-Jaakko (2013)
    Ideal observer theory is an attempt to solve the meta-ethical question: What does it mean that “x is right” or “x is good”? The starting point for the ideal observer theory can be dated to 1950s and to Roderick Firth’s article “Ethical Absolutism and the Ideal Observer”. For example Adam Smith and David Hume can be seen as predecessors for this theory, but Firth was the first to address this theory fully. The answer to the meta-ethical question stated above is the following. We define a being that is omniscient with respect to non-ethical facts, he is omnipercipient, he is disinterested, he is dispassionate, he is consistent, and he is in other respects normal. Then we call this being the ideal observer. The ideal observer’s reactions or dispositions determine whether the ethical situation is right or wrong. My interpretation of the ideal observer is that it constitutes a thought experiment. As Firth states, it is not necessary for the ideal observer to actually exist. It is enough that we imagine him. A lot of the critique on Firth’s theory seems to have missed this point. For example Richard Brandt, Thomas Carson, and Jonathan Harrison put a lot of effort into trying to fix the problem that is caused by the impossibility of the existence of such a being as the ideal observer. Another part of the theory, which caused a lot of the critique to sound an alarm, was the claim that the ideal observer is normal. Normality is, of course, hard to define as anything else than as a statistical tendency. Simply put, the ideal observer is normal in other respects, meaning that he possesses superhuman characteristics, but is still otherwise a regular person. In a meta-ethical thesis one must also attend to epistemological issues. In this thesis I claim that the ideal observer needs what I call “high level intuitionism”. This means that the “moral skills” the ideal observer possesses are analogous to the skills possessed by highly trained professional in their fields of work. I use as an example the Japanese chicken sexers. They train for years to acquire a very specific skill: to be able to identify the sex of a chick when it is only one day old. Expert chicken sexers are extremely good at this, but they cannot tell how they do it. This is high level intuitionism. The ideal observer must possess something similar to this. And this is not something one acquires automatically. Therefore I added reason as one crucial element of the ideal observer’s characteristics. High level intuitionism can be acquired with the help of reason. In addition to the more ambitious part of my thesis that I just described, I also studied basics of ethics. One of my main observations is that meta-ethics needs to deal with epistemology and therefore the line between ethics and epistemology wavers. This is clear if we take another look at the main question of this thesis: What does it mean that “x is right”? It is both ethical and epistemological question.
  • Hassinen, Seija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    This research is based on the problems in secondary school algebra I have noticed in my own work as a teacher of mathematics. Algebra does not touch the pupil, it remains knowledge that is not used or tested. Furthermore the performance level in algebra is quite low. This study presents a model for 7th grade algebra instruction in order to make algebra more natural and useful to students. I refer to the instruction model as the Idea-based Algebra (IDEAA). The basic ideas of this IDEAA model are 1) to combine children's own informal mathematics with scientific mathematics ("math math") and 2) to structure algebra content as a "map of big ideas", not as a traditional sequence of powers, polynomials, equations, and word problems. This research project is a kind of design process or design research. As such, this project has three, intertwined goals: research, design and pedagogical practice. I also assume three roles. As a researcher, I want to learn about learning and school algebra, its problems and possibilities. As a designer, I use research in the intervention to develop a shared artefact, the instruction model. In addition, I want to improve the practice through intervention and research. A design research like this is quite challenging. Its goals and means are intertwined and change in the research process. Theory emerges from the inquiry; it is not given a priori. The aim to improve instruction is normative, as one should take into account what "good" means in school algebra. An important part of my study is to work out these paradigmatic questions. The result of the study is threefold. The main result is the instruction model designed in the study. The second result is the theory that is developed of the teaching, learning and algebra. The third result is knowledge of the design process. The instruction model (IDEAA) is connected to four main features of good algebra education: 1) the situationality of learning, 2) learning as knowledge building, in which natural language and intuitive thinking work as "intermediaries", 3) the emergence and diversity of algebra, and 4) the development of high performance skills at any stage of instruction.
  • Niinivaara, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
    Tutkielmassa esitellään idean kontekstin kuvaaminen keinona tehostaa ideoiden välittymistä. Kontekstitieto kuvataan dokumentteihin liittyvänä metatietona, jota hallitaan dokumenteista riippumattomissa metatietokannoissa. Päämääränä pidetään sellaista idean kontekstin kuvausta, joka on riittävän ilmaisuvoimainen, mutta jonka luominen ei aseta järjestelmän käyttäjille ylivoimaista työtaakkaa. Tiedon välittyminen nähdään prosessina, johon perustuen idean konteksti jaetaan tuottokontekstiin, julkaisukontekstiin ja käyttökontekstiin. Tähän jakoon perustuen käsitellään metatiedon muodostaminen ja sisältö yksityiskohtaisesti yksittäisten metatietotietueen attribuuttien tasolla. Kontekstitiedon käyttökohteista tarkastellaan kontekstin visualisointia informaation visualisoinnin tekniikoihin perustuen, idean arvon mittaamista bibliometrisiä menetelmiä kehittämällä ja automaattista ideoiden valintaa tiedon suodatuksen menetelmien ja digitaalisten assistenttien avulla.
  • Calleja, Marianela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This thesis proposes temporal conceptions that stem from philosophical inquiry, such as linear time, cyclical time and branching time, to then find a connection with the way music is structured and with musical meaning. I consider ontological and phenomenological approaches to the problem of time and music in order to demonstrate this. The central aim of this investigation is to build bridges and dissolve the opposition between time taken (clock time) vs. time evoked (conceptual time) in studies on time and music. Lewis Rowell, Jonathan Kramer, Jos Kunst and Alan Marsden s contributions are going to be taken as the main references. I consider the ontological approach as extremely literal since linearity, circularity and branching time are not explored there as concepts defining the meaning of music, but as abstract orders in time for music being processed, viewed from an exclusively technical point of view. In turn, the phenomenological approach does not generally link music to philosophical developments, it just describes general cultural conceptions of time. This thesis interprets the temporal modes of the phenomenological approach as highly coincident with the temporal ontologies in the ontological approach, as seen through developments in temporal logic. Temporal logic, a branch of the classical logic, is used as a methodological trigger. Here the work of Arthur Prior is going to be taken as reference. Temporal logic first formalises, then clarifies, and finally validates assertions expressing temporal beliefs. The hypothesis of this thesis, that temporal conceptions are expressed through music, having in this case the power to explain at least its primary meaning, uses temporal logic as a bridging symbolism. In this sense, a comparison between music and language within a broader analysis is undertaken, before developing ideas of logic and temporal logic within musical practice. In particular, in my study of some works by the Argentinian composer Alberto Ginastera (1916 1983), I illustrate the idea of a multi-temporality, i.e. the same composer works with several time structures already available by a cumulative process in the history of ideas. The thesis finds there is a special type of time in music─neither an exclusive musical time as a totally separate time species; nor Time in music, in an abstract de-subjectified view. Thus, a cooperative, synthetic position is defended. Secondly, music represents by means of its distinct elements something inherent to itself, which links with concepts of time (ideas), and by using these elements in certain conventional ways, displays culturally conditioned temporal meanings. Thirdly, music displays a kind of temporal logic, although an extended view comparing it with the exclusively linear logic of music as conceived by the formalist tradition in musicology. It is also an aesthetically oriented approach different from the temporal logic as applied in literal representations of music in computing areas. Finally, I argue for a new musical temporal mode, the actual branched time in music (in the sense of parallel times), through the addition of a theoretical background for this mode in musicological studies.
  • Telivuo, Julius (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The thesis discusses the concept of the idea and the problem of the ground of experience in Gilles Deleuze s (1925-1995) Difference and Repetition and Immanuel Kant s (1724-1804) Critique of Pure Reason. Deleuze develops Kant s notion of problematic ideas further and formulates a critique of the Kantian conditions of the possibility of experience. The method of the work is a critical and comparative study of the source literature. The research interest is systematic: the historico-exegetical remarks serve to motivate Deleuze s theory and the interpretations implied by it. They are not to be understood as partaking in an interpretive discussion concerning the philosophical canon as such. The principal object of interest in the thesis is Deleuze s theory of ideas. Deleuze adopts Kant s definition of ideas as problems or problematic principles and he constructs his theory in close connection with the conceptual apparatus of the Critique of Pure Reason. The thesis begins with a short survey of Plato s concept of ideas, to which both Deleuze and Kant refer. Through a critical study, the thesis seeks to support Deleuze s claim of the ideas as concrete problems and as the genetic principles of the objects of experience. Deleuze criticises the Kantian conditions of the possibility of experience for their externality with regard to real experience: Kant s conceptual and sensible conditions of experience are the internal conditions only of possible experience. On the other hand, transcending all possible experience, the ideas are for Kant fundamentally problematic concepts, which preclude all concrete interpretations. However, they too lend themselves to a legitimate employment as regulative principles of knowledge and experience. According to Deleuze, the Kantian conceptual structures determine experience only externally and do not constitute the ground for real experience. He maintains that this ground is to be conceived as a problematic, genetic structure. He elaborates this problematic nature of the idea with the mathematical concept of the differential, which paves the way to the formulation of ideas as problematic, yet internally determined in differential relations and immanent in relation to objects of experience. Thus for Deleuze, ideas are concrete, completely determined problems, which experience manifests only in its partial solutions.
  • Vatanen, Heini (2014)
    Kiinan omat energiavarat eivät tyydytä teollisuuden kasvavia tarpeita, varsinkaan öljyn ja kaasun osalta. Tutkimuksessa selvitetään, miten Kiina turvaa energiaresurssien saantiaan tulevaisuudessa ja toimii kansainvälisessä yhteisössä. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan, pohjautuuko Kiinan politiikka materialistisiin tavoitteisiin vai noudattaako se ideologisia lähtökohtia. Viitekehyksenä ovat materialistiset ja ideatiiviset teoriakokonaisuudet. Aineistona on Kiinan vapaakauppa- ja investointisopimukset Chilen ja Myanmarin kanssa. Mailla on samanlainen suhde Kiinaan sillä erotuksella, että Myanmarilla on keskeinen rooli energiaturvallisuuden varmistamisessa. Sopimuksilla tutkitaan, kuinka energian tarve heijastuu Kiinan talous- ja ulkopolitiikkaan. Menetelmänä on teorialähtöinen sisällönanalyysi, jossa hyödynnetään teorian pohjalta laadittuja kriteerejä. Tulokset osoittavat, että Kiinan politiikka on materialistista niissä sopimuksissa, jotka ovat keskeisiä energiaturvallisuuden varmistamisessa. Selkeimmin tämä näkyy Kiinan ja Myanmarin investointisopimuksessa. Kiinan politiikka oli ideatiivista niissä sopimuksissa, jotka eivät ole keskeisiä energiaturvallisuuden varmistamisessa. Selkeimmin tämä näkyy Kiinan ja Chilen vapaakauppasopimuksessa. Kuitenkin kaikissa sopimuksissa on sekä materialistisia että ideatiivisia puolia. Ideatiiviset puolet luovat kehykset maiden väliselle suhteelle ja korostavat Kiinan anti-hegemoniatavoitetta. Materialistiset ja rationaalista energiaturvallisuuspolitiikkaa korostavat puolet varmistavat Kiinan teollisuuden ja talouskasvun intressit. Ideatiiviset ja materialistiset puolet muodostavat yhdessä tilanteen, joka tukee Kiinan intressejä energiaresurssien saannissa mutta myös antihegemoniatavoitteessa. Siten Kiina liittää sopimuksiinsa sekä materialistisia että ideatiivisia puolia, mutta painottaa niitä sopimuskohtaisesti omien tavoitteidensa pohjalta.
  • Gustafsson, Emilia (2011)
    Bakgrunden till denna undersökning utgörs av arbetslivets förändring och dess konsekvenser för konstrueringen av självidentiteten; hur avväger unga konsulter i början av sin karriär mellan olika diskurser för att skapa en förhandlad självidentitet som styrs av idén om en karriär och såvida är hållbar även i ett långtidsperspektiv? Undersökningen tar avstamp i de sociologiska diskussionerna om informationssamhällets framväxt och dess inverkan på arbetets karaktär. Undersökningen utgår från begreppet kunskapsarbete (Alvesson 2001; Blom, Melin & Pyöriä 2001) eftersom konsultyrket kan anses representera denna typ av arbete. Ett genomgående tema är flexibiliteten och det höga tempot som å ena sidan möjliggör självförverkligande men å andra sidan försvårar skapandet av en sammanhängande självidentitet (Sennett 2002). Denna problematik är viktigt att ta i beaktande då förlängandet av arbetskarriärerna och ökandet av arbetslivets attraktivitet blivit centrala mål för den finska samhällspolitiken (Julkunen & Pärnänen 2005) samtidigt som ett generationsskifte håller på att ske på den finländska arbetsmarknaden. Undersökningen utgår från idén om karriären som ett manuskript som ger upphov för identitetsförhandlingar och sammanbinder livets olika domäner till ett personligt liv inte bara i nuläget utan även i ett långtidsperspektiv. Enligt Alvesson & Willmot (2002) framkallas identitetsförhandlingar genom både samhälleliga och organisationsspecifika identitetsreglerande praktiker. Jag utgår från antagandet att självidentiteten fungerar som den sammanbindande knytpunkten mellan karriären och det övriga livet, vilket gör det intressant att koncentrera sig på de identitetsförhandlingar som informanterna utsätts för i förhållande till sitt arbete och idén om en karriär. Begreppet personligt liv ger utrymme för individuell aktivitet och personliga betydelser men behåller ändå föreställningen om individen som inbäddad och sammanbunden i och med det sociala och kulturella (Smart 2007). I bakgrunden finns teorierna om den nya form som makten antagit i organisationer (Foucault; Rose 1999; Grey 1994, Casey 1995) och förvandlat individen till en ett självstyrande subjekt som arbetar som en entreprenör (Rose 1999). Jag poängterar den subjektiva aspekten av karriären som någonting som individen själv konstruerar (Hughes 1997; Barley 1989) och uppfattar i likhet med Julkunen (2003) och Acker (1990; 2006) ålder och kön som sociala kategorier i organisationsstrukturen. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur unga personer utför identitetsförhandlingar i förhållande till arbetet och idén om en karriär i nuläget, samt sammanbinder karriären, framtiden och livet över lag med sin självidentitet i ett karriärperspektiv. Jag har valt unga konsulter som forskningsobjekt, eftersom endast en liten del av den sociologiska arbetslivsforskningen intresserat sig för just unga. Konsultbranschen är ett intressant forskningsobjekt av samma orsak – denna bransch har behandlats i mycket liten skala i finländsk forskning. Det empiriska materialet består av kvalitativa intervjuer med unga, högutbildade män och kvinnor i konsultbranschen. Som analysmetod har jag använt mig av tema-analys inspirerad av diskursanalys. Genom att undersöka individers identitetsförhandlingar i ett karriärperspektiv hoppas jag kunna bidra med nya synpunkter och infallsvinklar samt bättre förståelse för det postindustriella arbetslivet som karakteriseras av kunskapsintensifiering och snabba förändringar i organisationer. Studien visar att idén om en karriär fungerar som ett medel för designandet av det postmoderna självet på samma sätt som till exempel konsumtionen av vissa varumärken. Enligt studien har den flexibla kapitalismen olika inverkan på män och kvinnors idéer om en karriär och betjänar den manliga karriären betydligt bättre än den kvinnliga, åtminstone så länge traditionella könskonstruktioner dominerar. För männen är det naturligt att totalt utesluta faderskapet från karriärkonstruktionen, vilket får dem att kapitulera inför organisationens krav. För kvinnorna är det lika naturligt att justera idén om den framtida karriären enligt möjliga barn i framtiden. Möjligheten att bejaka moderskapets krav verkar beskydda den kvinnliga självidentiteten från att totalt ge efter för organisationens försök att kontrollera subjektiviteten. De unga informanterna konstruerar sitt arbete i mycket annorlunda termer än vad som traditionellt förknippas med arbete; konsultarbetets projektbaserade karaktär konstrueras som äventyrligt, roligt, intressant och omväxlande. Eftersom avsaknad av långsiktighet och rutiner förknippas med den tid i livet då man är ung, underlättades sammanförandet av konsultarbetet med självidentiteten. Samtidigt visar studien hur svårt individen, som fungerar likt en entreprenör i förhållande till sin arbetsgivare, har att skilja mellan arbete och övrigt liv samtidigt som diskursen om balans mellan arbete och fritid dominerar i samhället. Detta ger upphov till en konstruktion av självet som en lycklig och autonom individ som är nöjd över sitt val av start på karriären och tycker om att jobba, medan de långa arbetsdagarna och kraven på ständig effektivitet och prestationer konstrueras som något naturligt. Slutligen efterlyser studien en omdefiniering av begreppet kunskapsarbete. Arbetssociologin i sin helhet har utgått från tanken om arbete som något ofrivilligt eller som tvång, medan informanterna i denna undersökning tvärtom konstruerar sitt arbete i termer som traditionellt förknippas med fritid och frivillighet . Man kan fråga sig ifall kunskapsarbetet håller på att slita sig loss från den traditionella uppfattningen om arbete och skapa en allt skarpare kontrast till det arbete som utförs i traditionell bemärkelse?
  • Eriksson, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, typified by a high metastatic tendency and refractoriness to treatments. Identification of the molecular mechanisms behind the development and progression of melanomas could provide new insights into treating this challenging disease. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize genes and proteins associated with melanoma development and progression by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles from different stages of melanoma, and to evaluate their potential as diagnostic and prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. A further aim was to develop sensitive RT-PCR and immunohistochemical assays for the detection of melanoma micrometastases. We found the outgrowth of melanoma metastases to be associated with the activation of stromal fibroblasts, increased TGFβ/Smad2 signaling, and an up-regulation of TGFβ-target genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, collagen-I, periostin, and versican. These proteins were found to form around tumor cells fibrillar networks, which, suggested by our functional studies, promote the growth and migration of tumor cells as well as stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells. In addition, periostin and cellular fibronectin were found to be specifically up-regulated in newly-formed tumor blood vessels. We further found a common up-regulation of collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) and cysteine cathepsin B and L1 proteases during melanoma progression. Our analyses suggest that CTHRC1 is, together with fibronectin and integrin β3, part of the pro-invasive and pro-angiogenic transcriptional program induced by the NFATC2 (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2) transcription factor. Cathepsins B and L1 (and TGFβ signaling), in turn, were found to play essential roles in the co-invasive process of melanoma cells and activated fibroblasts. Further, our results suggest that high expression of CTHRC1, fibronectin, and cathepsin B in primary melanomas may serve as prognostic factors predicting poor survival. Combined, these results suggest that TGFβ receptors, fibronectin, periostin, and CTHRC1, as well as cathepsins B and L1 are attractive therapeutic targets against advanced melanomas. In addition, we identified the best gene expression markers for the detection of melanoma lymph node metastases. Of the identified genes, melan-A (MLANA), tyrosinase (TYR), melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME), and osteopontin (SPP1) were tested as potential melanoma micrometastasis markers by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Graded MLANA- and TYR-RT-PCR analyses were found to detected clinically significant metastases better than IHC, suggesting that quantifiable RT-PCR analyses should be used to confirm and complement histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Further, the melanoma-specific genes, PRAME and SPP1, may be used to differentiate melanoma cells from benign nevus cells occasionally residing in lymph nodes.
  • Salmikangas, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
  • Nakari, Ulla-Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    C. jejuni constitutes the majority of Campylobacter strains isolated from patients in Finland, and C. coli strains are also reported. To improve the species identification, a combination of phenotype- and genotype-based methods was applied. Standardising the cell suspension turbidity in the hippurate hydrolysis test enabled the reliable identification of hippurate-positive Campylobacter strains as C. jejuni. The detection of species-specific genes by PCR showed that about 30% of the hippurate-negative strains were C. jejuni. Three typing methods, serotyping, PCR-RFLP analysis of LOS biosynthesis genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were evaluated as epidemiological typing tools for C. jejuni. The high number of non-typeable strains lowered the discriminatory ability of serotyping. PCR-RFLP typing offered high discrimination for both serotypeable and non-typeable strains, but the correlation between serotypes and RFLP-types was not high enough to enable its use for molecular serotyping of non-typeable strains. PFGE was a highly discriminative typing method. Although the use of two restriction enzymes generally increases the discriminatory ability, KpnI alone offered almost as high discrimination as the use of SmaI and KpnI. The characteristic seasonal distribution of Campylobacter infections with a peak in summer and low incidence in winter was mainly due to domestically acquired infections. Of the C. jejuni strains, 41% were of domestic origin compared to only 17% of the C. coli strains. Serotypes Pen 12, Pen 6,7 and Pen 27 were significantly associated with domestic C. jejuni infections, Pen 1,44, Pen 3 and Pen 37 with travel-related infections. Pen 2 and Pen 4-complex were common both in domestic and travel-related infections. Serotype Pen 2 was less common among patients 60 years or older than in younger patients, more prevalent in Western Finland than in other parts of the country and more prevalent than other serotypes in winter. The source of Pen 2 infections may be related to cattle, since Pen 2 is the most common serotype in isolates from Finnish cattle. PFGE subtypes among isolates from patients and chickens during the summer 2003 and from cattle during the whole year were compared. The analysis of indistinguishable SmaI/KpnI subtypes suggested that up to 31% of the human infections may have been mediated by chickens and 19% by cattle. Human strains isolated during two one-year sampling periods were studied by PFGE. Of the domestic strains, 69% belonged to SmaI subtypes found during both sampling periods. Four SmaI subtypes accounted for 45% of the domestic strains, further typing of these subtypes by KpnI revealed six temporally persistent SmaI/KpnI subtypes. They were only occasionally identified in travel-related strains, and therefore, can be considered to be national subtypes. Each subtype was associated with a serotype: Pen 2, Pen 12, Pen 27, Pen 4-complex, Pen 41, and Pen 57. Five of these subtypes were identified in cattle (S5/K27, S7/K1, S7/K2, S7/K5 and S64/K19), and two in chickens (S7/K1 and S64/K19) with a temporal association with human infections in 2003. Cattle are more likely potential sources of these persistent subtypes, since long-term excretion of Campylobacter strains by cattle has been reported.
  • Mätzke, Sorjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)