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  • Krokfors, Linda Johanna (2005)
    Latinamerika demokratiserades i samband med den tredje demokratiseringsvågen. Efter demokratisering är det viktigt att landet bryter med ickedemokratiska procedurer och inkorporerar demokratiska principer istället. De latinamerikanska länderna har varken brutit med de tidigare procedurerna eller arbetat för att konsolidera de nyformade demokratiska institutionerna. Många länder har därför ickekonsoliderade demokratiska system. Organisationen för de amerikanska staterna (OAS) är en mellanstatlig regional organisation som främst har liberala karaktärsdrag. Arbetsfältet är brett och OAS arbetar bl.a. med fredlig konfliktlösning och för att hjälpa staterna forma gemensamma normer och principer. Noninterventionsprincipen har en stark ställning i OAS stadga, men efter det kalla krigets slut har den fått ge vika för demokratiprincipen. OAS medlemsländer har 1991 beslutat om att tillåta ett kollektivt ingripande i en medlemsstats interna angelägenheter när den konstitutionella demokratiska ordningen är allvarligt hotad eller bruten. Enligt resolution 1080 kan OAS permanenta råd sammankallas till möte för att diskutera hur OAS bäst kan ingripa för att hjälpa landet återgå till normal demokratisk ordning. Det permanenta rådet kan ta vissa kollektiva åtgärder och kan antingen sammankalla det konsulterande utrikesministermötet eller generalförsamlingen som fortsätter konfliktlösningen. I undersökningen granskas OAS ingripande vid konstitutionella kriser i de ickekonsoliderade latinamerikanska länderna åren 1991-2001. De ickekonsoliderade länderna påträffas genom att analysera kvantitativ data framställd av Cynthia McClintock, som baserar sig på Freedom House data och Latinobarometros opinionsundersökningar. Först identifieras alla konstitutionella kriser där den demokratiska ordningen varit hotad eller bruten genom litteraturstudier av Economist Intelligence Units analyser. Därefter presenteras de konstitutionella kriser som inträffat under den undersökta tidsperioden och OAS ingripande granskas kvalitativt. OAS har ingripit vid konstitutionella kriser enligt dess mandat med både lyckad och misslyckad framgång. Fyra ingripandena har skett i enlighet med resolution 1080 och ett ingrepp berättigades specifikt av OAS generalförsamling för att konsolidera demokratin. Vid en identifierad konstitutionell kris ingrep inte OAS. OAS insats kan vara viktig och organisationen kan försvara demokratin i medlemsländerna om kommunikationen löper, det permanenta rådet sammankallas snabbt och länderna är eniga om hur man bäst ska ingripa för att hjälpa landet återgå till demokratisk ordning.
  • Mustelin, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Background: Obesity is one of the leading causes of ill-health in the Western world, and physical inactivity is a known risk factor for obesity. Obesity as well as physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. However, whether they share the same genetic vs. environmental etiology has rarely been studied. Aims: To explore the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness, to explore whether physical activity modifies the relative contribution of genetic factors on BMI and waist circumference and to assess the effects of obesity on cardiorespiratory fitness and expression of genes of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in young adult twins. Subjects: 4,798 twins born in 1975 - 1979 (FinnTwin16 cohort) and followed up from the ages of 16 to 23 - 27 years; two subsamples of the FinnTwin16 cohort: one consisting of 24 monozygotic (MZ) pairs concordant and discordant for obesity and the other consisting of 152 MZ and DZ (dizygotic) twin pairs selected to represent a wide range of intra-pair differences in BMI; 1,294 twins born in 1983 - 1987 and followed up from the ages of 11 - 12 to 20 - 25 years (FinnTwin12 cohort). Measures: Cohorts: Self-reported height, weight and waist circumference, a physical activity index calculated from the product of self-reported physical activity intensity, duration and frequency, the Baecke physical activity questionnaire. Subsamples: Measured height, weight and waist circumference, measured body composition and insulin sensitivity, cardiorespiratory fitness, gene expression in adipose tissue. Results: Physical activity decreased the influence of genetic factors on BMI and waist circumference. The association between sports activity and obesity and of that between sports activity and cardiorespiratory fitness was largely due to genetic factors influencing both traits. Genetic factors contributed significantly to individual differences in physical activity, with genetic factors explaining between 41% and 64% of the variance in four physical activity indexes. Acquired obesity was associated with poor cardiorespiratory fitness and lowered transcript levels of genes involved in mitochondrial function in adipose tissue. Conclusions: The influence of genetic factors on obesity measures was smaller in physically active subjects as compared to inactive subjects indicating a geneenvironment association between physical activity and genes predisposing to obesity. This suggests that the individuals at greatest genetic risk for obesity would benefit most from physical activity. Genetic factors influence both would benefit most from physical activity. Genetic factors influence both physical activity and obesity traits and explain a major part of their relationships. Acquired obesity causes poor cardiorespiratory fitness, insulin resistance and downregulation of genes involved in mitochondrial function.
  • Saarni, Suoma (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Overweight and obesity have become more prevalent during the last decades; more than half of the western population is now overweight and a fifth obese. Especially among adolescents has the increase in overweight prevalence been rapid. Overweight combined with a large waist circumference (i.e. abdominal obesity) and smoking increase the morbidity of cardiovascular disease, metabolic diseases, like diabetes, and many cancers. Obesity and smoking are two leading causes of preventable death in developed countries. Paralleling the escalating trends in obesity, dieting and especially health compromising dieting methods, including smoking motivated by weight control reasons, are becoming more prevalent. Dieting for rapid weight loss usually leads to weight regain with possible extra pounds and detrimental effects in fat distribution or other health measures. Three quarters of those with intentional weight loss more than 5 kg reports regaining it all. Smoking and dieting seem to be intertwined with the way that they affect the development of overweight and obesity. In this study the effects of recurrent dieting and smoking on body weight were examined. In addition the effect of smoking on the development of abdominal obesity was studied. A further aim was to clarify how strongly smoking and recurrent dieting are associated among Finnish men and women at different ages. Three different data sets were used in this study. FinnTwin16 consists of virtually all twins born between 1975 and 1979 (N=5563), surveyed at ages 16, 17, 18.5 and 24 years. The Finnish Twin Cohort includes 12 793 same-sex twins born between 1930 and 1957 surveyed in 1990. The Cohort of male elite athletes consists of 1838 athletes and 834 matched referents surveyed at 1985, 1995 and 2001. Self-reported height, weight and smoking are included in all questionnaires. Dieting behaviour was self-reported in twin data and based on sport among athletes. It is known that recurrent dieting with regains is common among sportsmen in sports with weight classes like boxing and wrestling. Smoking in adolescence predicted later abdominal obesity in both sexes and overweight among women. Recurrent dieting among men was found to predispose for later weight gain and obesity. Smoking was associated with recurrent dieting among young men and women, but among older men the association was the opposite. Smoking prevention and discouragement of unnecessary dieting might be more effective tools against later morbidity associated with obesity and abdominal obesity than previously thought.
  • Roos, Eira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Obesity and overweight are common among working aged population. Obesity is associated with a number of long-term illnesses as well as increased mortality. Previous studies have found that obesity is also associated with some forms of work disability. However, longitudinal studies with register-based large data sets are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between working conditions and subsequent weight gain as well as the associations between body weight, weight change and subsequent work disability in a cohort setting among middle-aged employees. This study is part of Helsinki Health Study (HHS), a cohort study on employees of the City of Helsinki. The data consists of a baseline mail questionnaire survey sent in 2000-2002 to 40-, 45-, 50-, 55- and 60-year old employees (respondents n=8960) and a follow-up questionnaire survey sent to the respondents of the baseline survey in 2007 (respondents n=7332). Questionnaire surveys yielded data on a wide range of factors such as socio-economic determinants, health and working conditions. The data from the surveys were combined with data from health check-ups that were carried out among the employees of the City of Helsinki during 2000-2002. The data were additionally linked with register data on employees sickness absence spells and disability retirements from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Logistic regression analyses, the Cox proportional hazards model and Poisson regression analyses were used as statistical methods. A number of confounding factors were controlled for the analysis, including working conditions, health behaviours, previous health, and physical and mental functioning. Weight gain was common as one in four employees experienced major weight gain during the 5-7 year follow-up. For most of the studied working conditions, no association with weight gain was observed. Night shift work, work that was characterized as having hazardous exposures, passive work, and work where facing physical violence or threats was common were weakly associated with major weight gain. Both obesity and weight change (even among normal-weight employees) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. Obesity increased the risk of long spells of sickness absence in particular, but also elevated the risk of short spells. Weight loss, weight gain and stable obesity increased the risk of sickness absence spells of all lengths. Obesity was strongly associated with disability retirement due to musculoskeletal diseases, and to a lesser degree to mental disorders and other causes. Following adjustment for earlier health, working conditions and functioning, the association between obesity and long sickness absence spells and disability retirement was somewhat attenuated. The results of this study show that weight gain is common among middle-aged employees and that the studied working conditions are weakly or not at all associated with weight gain. The findings also indicate that weight gain and obesity are clearly and consistently associated with both temporary and permanent work disability. Obesity is thus not only a public health issue but also affects occupational health and work ability. Prevention of obesity and weight gain is increasingly important in primary health care as well as in occupational health care.
  • Tuovinen, Antti-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Nurmi, Timo (2008)
    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee kaupallisen organisaation kolmea erityyppistä markkinointiviestinnällistä keinoa lähestyä toimittajia ja sitä kautta saada viestinsä joukkotiedotusvälineiden kautta julkisuuteen. Käytetyt keinot ovat tilastotiedon tuottaminen ja jakaminen, lehdistötilaisuuksien järjestäminen ja tuotteiden esittely sekä tuotteita esittelevien lehdistötiedotteiden laatiminen ja jakaminen. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan, käsitelläänkö eri keinoin tuotettua materiaalia lehdistössä eri tavoin. Tapausorganisaatioksi on valittu kodintekniikka-alan yhteistyöfoorumi Kotek. Tutkielman teoreettisen viitekehyksen muodostavat sekä organisaatioviestintä markkinointiviestinnän näkökulmasta että joukkoviestintä uutisvalinnan näkökulmasta. Tutkielman aineistona on käytetty Kotekin vuosina 2004-2005 tuottamaa lehdistömateriaalia sekä samana ajankohtana julkaistuja, Kotekin aiheista kirjoitettuja lehtijuttuja. Tutkimusmenetelmänä käytettiin sisällön erittelyä. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena pohjana käytettiin uutisvalintaan sekä markkinointiviestintään liittyviä teorioita. Keskeisiä lähdeteoksia olivat Thumberin (1999) News A Reader, Molotochin ja Lesterin (1974) News As Purposive Behavior: On the Strategic Use of Routine Events, Accidents, and Scandals sekä Vuokon (1997) Markkinointiviestintä - merkitys, vaikutus ja keinot. Kotekin eri keinoin tuottaman materiaalin käsittelyssä lehdistössä oli eroja. Tuotetun tilastotiedon pohjalta kirjoitettiin suhteessa eniten juttuja, mutta jutut olivat lyhyitä. Lähes 90 prosenttia jutuista oli alle puolen sivun mittaisia. Juttuja julkaisseiden lehtien keskilevikki oli myös hieman pienempi kuin lehdistötilaisuuksien ja -tiedotteiden pohjalta kirjoitettujen. Toisaalta yli 70 prosenttia jutuista on kirjoitettu käytännössä materiaalia sellaisenaan kopioiden. Tuotteita esitelleiden lehdistötilaisuuksien pohjalta syntyneitä juttuja kirjoitettiin määrällä mitattuna yli kolmannes vähemmän kuin tilastotiedon pohjalta syntyneitä. Jutut olivat kuitenkin keskimäärin huomattavasti pidempiä kuin tilastoaiheiset. Yli puolet niistä on kirjoitettu Kotekin materiaalia ainoastaan apuna käyttäen, mikä on huomattavasti suurempi osuus kuin tilastoaiheisten juttujen kohdalla. Tutkielman tulokset osoittavat, että organisaatio saa viestinsä julkaistua mahdollisimman monessa lehdessä mahdollisimman muuttumattomana tuottamalla ja jakelemalla tilastotietoa. Pidempiä ja aihetta laajemmin käsitteleviä lehtijuttuja taas saadaan syntymään esittelemällä fyysisiä tuotteita henkilökohtaisesti toimittajille. Tällöin kirjoitettujen juttujen sisältöön voidaan vaikuttaa vähemmän. Tutkielmassa pohditaan toimittajien kiirettä ja taloudellisia paineita juttuja tehtäessä. Kaupallisilla organisaatioilla, jotka pystyvät tuottamaan toimittajien tarvitsemaa aineistoa nopeasti ja ilmaiseksi, on mahdollisuus saada omia viestejään julkisuuteen. Toimittajan saattaa olla vaikea erottaa informaatiota markkinoinnista. Tämä korostui erityisesti tuotetun tilastotiedon perusteella kirjoitetuissa lehtijutuissa.
  • Askonen, Ebba (2001)
  • Hertzen, Erik V. (1958)
  • Laine, Merja (1981)