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  • W. 
    Similä, Marjatta (1954)
  • Appelqvist, Jukka (2007)
    The cost of involuntary job loss for displaced workers has been a focus of intensive study in recent years. A typical conclusion in these studies has been that displaced workers suffer large and persistent losses as a consequence of their dismissal. There are, however, considerable differences in the results of different studies. Despite active research elsewhere, little is known about the consequences of displacement in Finland. The purpose of this study is to use a linked employer-employee panel data, constructed from administrative records by Statistics Finland, to investigate the cost of job displacement for private sector workers displaced in Finland during the years 1992 and 1997. Both Ordinary Least Squares and Fixed Effects models are used to estimate the consequences of displacement. Our main goal is to measure the ways in which involuntary job loss at some point in time affects the subsequent annual earnings and monthly wages of displaced workers when compared to similar workers who were not displaced. Our first finding is that even re-employed workers displaced in 1992 suffer substantial and persistent losses in monthly wages: still five years after displacement their monthly wages are approximately 8 - 9.5 percent lower than in the control group. The same is not true for the workers who were displaced in 1997. In the 1997 group, the monthly wages of re-employed workers were not affected by displacement. The interpretation of the results on annual earnings is complicated by some technical difficulties and it should be done cautiously. Even so, our results make it clear that displacement has a sizeable negative effect on annual earnings and that the relative magnitude of the following losses is importantly related to the time of displacement. Even according to the lowest of our estimates, the annual earnings of displaced workers initially drop by approximately 41.9 percent in the 1992 group. A corresponding estimate for the 1997 group is 9.2 percent. Furthermore, in the 1992 group, the annual earnings of displaced workers are almost 23 percent lower than in the comparison group still five years after displacement even according to the lowest of the estimates. A corresponding estimate in the 1997 is less than 4 percent. The final section of the study discusses possible explanations for the estimated losses. These explanations include the loss of human capital, good job matches, deferred compensation, or privileged job market position. Special emphasis is given to analyzing how asymmetric information regarding productive ability may influence wage and earnings after displacement.
  • Appelqvist, Jukka (2007)
    Irtisanotuksi tulemisen aiheuttamat kustannukset irtisanotuille työntekijöille ovat olleet aktiivisen tutkimuksen kohteena viime vuosina. Tyypillisesti kustannukset on arvioitu suuriksi ja pitkäkestoisiksi. Eri tutkimuksissa saaduissa tuloksissa on kuitenkin huomattavia eroja ja vastaava Suomea koskeva tutkimus on toistaiseksi ollut vähäistä. Tässä tutkimuksessa pyritään selvittämään Tilastokeskuksen laatiman laajan henkilötasolla yhdistetyn työntekijä-työnantaja -paneeliaineiston avulla irtisanomisesta syntyvää kustannusta Suomessa vuosina 1992 ja 1997 irtisanotuille yksityisen sektorin työntekijöille. Sekä tavallista pienimmän neliösumman menetelmää että fixed effects -mallia käytetään kustannusten estimoimiseksi. Tutkimuksen pääasiallisena tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten irtisanominen tietyllä hetkellä vaikuttaa tuleviin palkkoihin ja ansiotuloihin, kun vertailuryhmänä käytetään vastaavia ei-irtisanottuja työntekijöitä. Tutkimuksen ensimmäinen keskeinen tulos on, että vuonna 1992 irtisanotut kokevat huomattavan kuukausipalkkojen laskun myös uudelleen työllistymisen jälkeen. Vielä viisi vuotta irtisanomisen jälkeen heidän kuukausipalkkojensa arvioitiin olevan noin 8 - 9,5 prosenttia alemmat kuin kontrolliryhmässä. Vastaavaa vaikutusta ei havaittu vuonna 1997 irtisanottujen keskuudessa. Vuosittaisissa ansiotuloissa tapahtuvien muutosten tulkinta ei ole aivan suoraviivaista tiettyjen teknisten haasteiden vuoksi. Silti niitä koskeva analyysi osoittaa selvästi, että irtisanotut kokevat huomattavan ansiotulojen menetyksen, jonka suuruus on oleellisesti sidoksissa irtisanomisen ajankohtaan. Vuonna 1992 lama-aikaan irtisanottujen ansiotulot tippuvat varovaisimpienkin estimaattien mukaan aluksi lähes 42 prosenttia ja ovat vielä viisi vuotta irtisanomisen jälkeen suhteellisesti lähes 23 prosenttia pienemmät kuin vertailuryhmässä. Vastaavat estimaattit vuonna 1997 irtisanotuille ovat noin 9,2 prosenttia ja hieman alle 4 prosenttia. Lopuksi työssä tarkastellaan mahdollisia selityksiä saaduille tuloksille. Tarkasteltuihin selityksiin kuuluvat henkisen pääoman tai lykätyn tehokkuuspalkan menetykset sekä kohtaanto-ongelman keskimääräistä paremmin ratkaisseiden työsuhteiden katkeaminen ja hyvän työmarkkina-aseman menettäminen. Erityisesti tarkastellaan myös työntekijän tuottavuutta koskevan epäsymmetrisen informaation mahdollista vaikutusta irtisanomisen jälkeiseen tilanteeseen.
  • Chu, Steven (2009)
    I firstly examine the interactions among wage premium, knowledge transfer, and innovation in a North-South model in the absence of governments. I also briefly examine a wage optimal control problem faced by firms in the model. The Northern superior technology can spill over to the Southern region through FDI and informed workers. By focusing on the effect of wage premium on knowledge transfer occurring between multinational firms and local firms, I find that Nash equilibrium exists in the game. Both a multinational firm and a southern firm would choose the same optimal strategy, given a sufficient low wage premium and a sufficient high quality of technology transfer. Wage premium paid by a multinational and a southern firm also has a direct effect on the northern innovation. Following the process of the firm s wage decisions, I find that both wage premium and knowledge transfer occurring in the South have a close link to the innovative activities in the North. The former has positive relationship with innovation, and the latter is negatively related to innovation. Since intensity and the success of innovation are affected strongly by the abundance of human capital, and such abundance depends on investment financed by labor income, human capital formulation has a dynamical and straight relationship with the level of wage. A wage optimal control problem faced by firms is how to efficiently allocate its knowledge resource through wage control. By constructing a simple dynamical model, in which wage premium is treated as the control variable to qualify the state of human capital over time, I find that whether a dynamic steady state exists or not in the global economic system depends on the value of the wage elasticity ratio. If the ratio of the wage elasticity to the relative wage elasticity of profit is larger than the ratio of the wage elasticity to the relative wage elasticity of income, a saddle point exists in the system. Otherwise, the result is unstable focus equilibrium. The positive effect of wage premium on the human capital accumulation and therefore on innovation is ambiguous in terms of accounting an initial point of wage setting. For an employer of a multinational firm, successful protection of its superior technology through setting high wage premium depends on which starting point of the level of wage chosen by the firm. A too high or too low starting point can drive the firm s labor policy to or diverge from the equilibrium. Since constructing of the equilibrium system is based on solving the agents profit-maximization problems, thus satisfying of one s self-interest as the invisible hand will drive them to find an optimal time path for the evolution of their wealth. However, this does not mean that everyone has won the first prize without failing. In fact, both the poor and the rich, whose economic behaviors are forced by their self-interests, dependently and jointly maintain the stability of the system.
  • Kalliola, Ilona (2013)
    The thesis is about the landscape ideas of mountain guides on Mount Kenya in central Kenya. The aim of the thesis is to understand how the guides who walk the mountain for a living experience the landscape. The thesis explores theories of landscape as a view, as a way of seeing and phenomenological theories of experiencing landscape. These different perspectives shed light on how the mountain has been conceptualized at different times and by different groups, which all affect the ideas of the guides. The thesis also describes the occupational culture of the guides and trekking on Mount Kenya in detail. Walking as a way of experiencing the landscape is examined theoretically and through ethnographic material. The ethnographic material was gathered during a three-month fieldwork period from May to July 2010 in Kenya. The fieldwork included interviews with mountain guides and participant observation on two treks to the mountain. A phenomenological approach is used in analysing guides’ practices of moving in the landscape. The guides’ landscape ideas are affected by traditional Gikuyu ideas of Mount Kenya, western cultural ideas of climbing and the landscape, as well as their own experiences of moving in the landscape. The Gikuyu ethnic group traditionally saw Mount Kenya as a sacred landscape feature, but it was not traditionally climbed by them. The western appreciation of walking in the landscape and mountaineering has a cultural history that explorers and settlers brought with them, as they named places, formed trails and made maps of the mountain. Western landscape ideas also affected the formation of the national park. In mountaineering, the journey is often as important as arriving. Sacredness on Mount Kenya is today most relevant in the idea of pilgrimage that many tourists have, of a journey in search of transformation. The guides walk and carry for a living and perceive the landscape through constant movement. They have learned to know the routes and landscape in detail. Stories and memories of events on the mountain are tied to the landscape and shared among those who know the mountain. For a guide, Mount Kenya is often sentimentally significant. The mountain is able to encompass varying landscape ideas and the experience of climbing is not the same for everyone.
  • Westerholm, Jarno (2003)
    Tutkimus käsittelee WAP-innovaation diffuusiota, joka tarkoittaa uutuustuotteen leviämistä sosiaalisessa yhteisössä. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, niitä tekijöitä, jotka estivät WAPin haltuunoton odotetulla tavalla. WAP on ensimmäinen laajan julkisuuden saanut mobiilipalvelu, jonka uskotiin rikastuttavan matkapuhelimien käyttömahdollisuuksia aivan kuin tekstiviestit olivat rikastuttaneet muutamaa vuotta aiemmin.Tutkimuksessa jaetaan WAP, teknologisena tuotteena, teknisiin osiin ja tarkastellaan jokaista osuutta erillään muista. Edellä mainittuja osia ovat esimerkiksi WAP-puhelimen näyttö, näppäimistö, WAP-palvelimet ja palvelut, samoin kuin standardoiminen. Aluksi tarkastellaan WAPia osana matkapuhelin innovaatiota ja pohditaan sen merkitystä tuleville mobiilipalveluille. Näistä lähtökohdista rakennetaan innovaation diffuusioteorian pohjalta ei-diffusioitumisen tarkasteluun soveltuva viitekehys. Tutkimuksen empiirisessä osassa viitekehyksen mukaista tutkimusasetelmaa sovelletaan WAPin diffusioitumiseen. Aikaisempi teknologioiden leviämisen tutkimus on perustunut paljolti yksisuuntaiselle innovaation leviämismallille. Tätä mallia ryhdyttiin kuitenkin arvostelemaan 1980-luvulla ja sen rinnalle on noussut vuorovaikutukseen perustuva innovaatiomalli. Tämän tutkimuksen lähtökohtana on, että innovaatioiden leviämisessä on kysymys vuorovaikutuksesta yhteiskunnan teknologisten ja sosioinstitutionaalisten alajärjestelmien välillä. Tätä suhdetta on kuvattu mahdollisen uutuuden omaksujan näkökulmasta niin, että WAPin tarjoamaa etua aikaisempaan on tarkasteltu mielipidejohtajien, eli innovaation ensimmäisinä omaksuneiden, ja lehdistön antamien mielipiteiden valossa.Empiirisessä osassa on käytetty kahta aineistoa. Toinen aineisto on muodostettu Tietoviikossa ja Talouselämässä vuosina 1999 – 2001 olleista WAP-artikkeleista ja aineiston toinen osa koostuu keväällä 2001 kerätyistä neljästätoista haastatelusta. Artikkeliaineistot luovat pohjan WAPin diffuusion ajalliselle tarkastelulle samalla, kun sen avulla esitellään diffuusion edetessä vaikuttaneita mielipiteitä. Haastatteluaineistolla luodaan kuvaa siitä miten WAPin käyttöönsä ottaneet henkilöt ovat suhtautuneet innovaatioon sen käyttöönoton jälkeen ja minkälaista kuvaa he antavat uutuudesta heidän jälkeensä innovaation omaksuville. Ensimmäiset käyttöönottajat ja lehtiartikkelit ovat näin muuttaneet odotettua leviämisnopeutta. Tutkimuksen tärkeimmät lähteet koostuvat matkapuhelinalan viimeisimmistä tutkimuksista ja WAP-keskusteluista. Innovaation diffuusiomallin tärkeimmät ainekset ovat antaneet Everett M. Rogersin kirja Diffusion of Innovations sekä Everett M. Rogersin ja F. Floyd Shoemakerin teos Communication of Innovations.
  • Broemer, Marlene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Important modernists in their own countries, Anna Akhmatova and Edith Södergran are compared in this dissertation as poets whose poetry reflects the climactic events of the early twentieth century in Finland and Russia. A comparatist, biographical and historical approach is used to uncover the circumstances surrounding these events. First the poets’ early works are reviewed and their contemporaries are mentioned to provide a poetic context. Then a brief review of Finnish and Russian history situates them historically. Next, the rich literary diversity of St. Petersburg’s Silver Age is presented and the work of the poets is viewed in context before their poetry is compared, as the First World War, October Revolution and subsequent Finnish Civil War impact their writing. While biography is not the primary focus, it becomes important as inevitably the writers’ lives are changed by cataclysmic events and the textual analysis of the poems in Swedish, Russian and English shows the impact of war on their poetry. These two poets have not been compared before in a critical review in English and this work contributes to needed work in English. They share certain common modernist traits: attention to the word, an intimate, unconventional voice, and a concern with audience. In addition, they both reject formal traditions while they adopt new forms and use modern, outside influences such as art, architecture and philosophy as subject matter and a lens through which to focus their poetry. While it may seem that Anna Akhmatova was the most socially aware poet, because of the censorship she endured under Stalin, my research has revealed that actually Edith Södergran showed the most social consciousness. Thus, a contrast of the poets’ themes reveals these differences in their approaches. Both poets articulated a vibrant response to war and revolution becoming modernists in the process. In their final works created in the years before their deaths, they reveal the solace they found in nature as well as final mentions of the violent events of their youth. Keywords: St. Petersburg, Modernism, Symbolism, Acmeism, Silver Age, Finland-Swedish literature
  • Keaney, Michael (2012)
    This collection of articles examines aspects of the evolution of the capitalist state following the global crisis of the 1970s up to the Great Recession beginning in 2008. Drawing from the theoretical work of James O'Connor, Nicos Poulantzas and the "Amsterdam School" of global political economy in particular, the articles deal in turnwith key episodes charting the transnationalisation of the state. Precursors to the neoliberal era are explored in detail, with particular reference to the post-1945 history of the United Kingdom, whose economic and geopolitical importance in many ways made it a pivotal actor on the world stage, as both a standard bearer and a laboratory of neoliberal reform. The global hegemony of the United States, which has acted as the main promoter and enforcer of neoliberalism, is examined with particular emphasis on its financial and economic aspects. The key role of the international financial institutions following the Second World War is discussed. The commodification of health care is treated as a case study of how neoliberal transformation has worked in a particular sector. The evolution of the European Union from potential economic "fortress" to neoliberal standard bearer is also scrutinised. As an introductory overview concludes, following the global financial crisis of 2007 onwards the developmental path charted by neoliberalism has reached an impasse, marked by both the exhaustion of neoliberalism as a policy agenda and orthodox economics as its ideological ballast. Given the continuities of institutions and personnel, however, there is as yet little sign of a significant change of direction.
  • Kubi, Thompson (2004)
    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Ghanaians decode The Bold and the Beautiful. An essentially American cultural product. The study is based on the assumption that when people watch programmes like The Bold and the Beautiful, they enter a cultural terrain where they are apt to make meanings and interpretations of their involvements based as it were on their cultural dispositions. The focus is on the type of response The Bold and the Beautiful evokes in a cross-section of Ghanaian viewers and the repertoire with which they frame their watching experiences. The assumption therefore is that people's television consumption can be made sense of through an empirical study. This study begins with overviews of paradig a shift in audience reception and Katz and Liebes previous study of Dallas with ethnic groups in Israel. The impetus of such reviews for the current study is also discussed. Soap opera, the subject matter is defined alongside a brief description of the study area, the people, and some aspects of their cultural rules. Transformation in the communication infrastructure of Ghana and its impact on Ghanaians is also discussed. The study task involved Ghanaians based in Finland and the main homeland, Ghana. A qualitative instrument of individual in-depth interview was used in the study involving the Ghanaian respondents in Finland. Focus Group Discussions were also held in Accra, Nsawam and Kumasi to assess an episode of The Bold and the Beautiful programme. The data collected from the individual in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, before and after informal discussions as well as observations during the fieldwork are embodied in chapter 5. The findings did answer the main questions of the thesis: How do Ghanaians decode The Bold and the Beautiful? With what repertoire would they frame their involvements and interpretations? And why do they even watch the programme? The study conclusively found that, these Ghanaians appropriated norms and values from their culture to make sense of the programme. They made normative and moral judgemental statements that suggest a stance to defend their group norms and values against the programme. Such display of involvement also suggest that these Ghanaians are not passive or held captive by the programme, rather they enjoy to appropriate themes and issues from the programme as agenda setting for discussions. Such acts that elicit gratifications and release of catharsis can be therapeutically beneficial. Given the potentiality of the Ghanaian critical abilities, skills to enable Ghanaians use such discussions as consciousness raising devices be introduced in school curriculum using programmes like The Bold and the Beautiful as resource material.
  • Jaeschke, Eric (2014)
    The pocosins of the North Carolina Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) region play a vital role in controlling hydrologic patterns and determine wetland development and ecosystem structure and function. However, these low-lying, shallow water table forested watersheds have received little research attention due to the relative scarcity of long-term monitoring data, watershed delineation challenges and scarcity of unmanaged sites. Without holding anthropogenic activities constant, specific hydrological processes such as runoff generation, are difficult to describe because of drainage network influence on soil water storage. The principal goal of this study was to develop and test a water balance framework for investigating runoff characteristics and the active watershed area contributing to runoff of a managed pocosin watershed in the ACP. Using a water balance approach, the first objective was to calculate monthly and annual water balances with particular emphasis on deriving, mathematically, the area contributing to runoff. The second objective was to explore the concept of variable contributing area by converting discharge measured at the outlet to runoff using a watershed area. The watershed area needed to produce runoff values that result in closure of the water balance equation represents the variable runoff contributing area. The calculation was done for different temporal periods: monthly, seasonal, and annual and runoff contributing area values compared to the topographically defined watershed area. The results of the study indicated that water balance components were generally in good agreement and closure tended to occur at longer time scales, decreasing for shorter periods. Lack of system closure at shorter temporal scales suggested that the contributing area to runoff varied and differed from the topographically defined watershed area. Active contributing area clearly varies temporally but on average is estimated to be approximately 600 hectares. Regression predicted watershed size was smaller than expected which could have been due to the difference between measured and predicted streamflow. The extent at which the active contributing area fluctuates depends on the compounding uncertainty of water balance components.
  • Juurinen, Iina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Water-ethanol mixtures are commonly used in industry and house holds. However, quite surprisingly their molecular-level structure is still not completely understood. In particular, there is evidence that the local intermolecular geometries depend significantly on the concentration. The aim of this study was to gain information on the molecular-level structures of water-ethanol mixtures by two computational methods. The methods are classical molecular dynamics (MD), where the movement of molecules can be studied, and x-ray Compton scattering, in which the scattering cross section is sensitive to the electron momentum density. Firstly, the water-ethanol mixtures were studied with MD simulations, with the mixture concentration ranging from 0 to 100%. For the simulations well-established force fields were used for the water and ethanol molecules (TIP4P and OPLS-AA, respectively). Moreover, two models were used for ethanol, rigid and non-rigid. In the rigid model the intramolecular bond lengths are fixed, whereas in the non-rigid model the lengths are determined by harmonic potentials. Secondly, mixtures with three different concentrations employing both ethanol models were studied by calculating the experimentally observable x-ray quantity, the Compton profile. In the MD simulations a slight underestimation in the density was observed as compared to experiment. Furthermore, a positive excess of hydrogen bonding with water molecules and a negative one with ethanol was quantified. Also, the mixture was found more structured when the ethanol concentration was higher. Negligible differences in the results were found between the two ethanol models. In contrast, in the Compton scattering results a notable difference between the ethanol models was observed. For the rigid model the Compton profiles were similar for all the concentrations, but for the non-rigid model they were distinct. This leads to two possibilities of how the mixing occurs. Either the mixing is similar in all concentrations (as suggested by the rigid model) or the mixing changes for different concentrations (as suggested by the non-rigid model). Either way, this study shows that the choice of the force field is essential in the microscopic structure formation in the MD simulations. When the sources of uncertainty in the calculated Compton profiles were analyzed, it was found that more statistics needs to be collected to reduce the statistical uncertainty in the final results. The obtained Compton scattering results can be considered somewhat preliminary, but clearly indicative of the behaviour of the water-ethanol mixtures when the force field is modified. The next step is to collect more statistics and compare the results with experimental data to decide which ethanol model describes the mixture better. This way, valuable information on the microscopic structure of water-ethanol mixtures can be found. In addition, information on the force fields in the MD simulations and on the ability of the MD simulations to reproduce the microscopic structure of binary liquids is obtained.
  • Rutanen, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    In line with cultural psychology and developmental theory, a single case approach is applied to construct knowledge on how children s interaction emerge interlinked to historical, social, cultural, and material context. The study focuses on the negotiation of constraints and meaning construction among 2-to 3-year-old children, a preschool teacher, and the researcher in settings with water. Water as an element offers a special case of cultural canalization: adults selectively monitor and guide children s access to it. The work follows the socio-cultural tradition in psychology, particularly the co-constructivist theory of human development and the Network of Meanings perspective developed at the University of São Paulo. Valsiner s concepts of Zone of Free Movement and Zone of Promoted Action are applied together with studies where interactions are seen as spaces of construction where negotiation of constraints for actions, emotions, and conceptions occur. The corpus was derived at a Finnish municipal day care centre. During a seven months period, children s actions were video recorded in small groups twice a month. The teacher and the researcher were present. Four sessions with two children were chosen for qualitative microanalysis; the analysis also addressed the transformations during the months covered by the study. Moreover, the data derivation was analyzed reflectively. The narrowed down arenas for actions were continuously negotiated among the participants both nonverbally and verbally. The adults expectations and intentions were materialized in the arrangements of the setting canalizing the possibilities for actions. Children s co-regulated actions emerged in relation to the adults presence, re-structuring attempts, and the constraints of the setting. Children co-constructed novel movements and meanings in relation to the initiatives and objects offered. Gestures, postures, and verbalizations emerged from the initially random movements and became constructed to have specific meanings and functions; meaning construction became abbreviated. The participants attempted to make sense of the ambiguous (explicit and implicit) intentions and fuzzy boundaries of promoted and possible actions: individualized yet overlapping features were continuously negotiated by all the participants. Throughout the months, children s actions increasingly corresponded adults (re-defined) conceptions of water researchers as an emerging group culture. Water became an instrument and a context for co-regulations. The study contributes to discussions on children as participants in cultural canalization and emphasizes the need for analysis in early childhood education practices on the implicit and explicit constraint structures for actions.
  • Muukkonen, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    In Cambodia, water has a special purpose as a source of life and livelihoods. Along with agriculture, fishing and forest use, industry, hydropower, navigation and tourism compete for the water resources. When rights and responsibilities related to essential and movable water are unclear, conflicts emerge easily. Therefore, water management is needed in order to plan and control the use of water resources. The international context is characterized by the Mekong River that flows through six countries. All of the countries by the river have very different roles and interests already depending on their geographical location. At the same time, water is also a tool for cooperation and peace. Locally, the water resources and related livelihoods create base for well-being, for economical and human resources in particular. They in turn are essential for the local people to participate and defend their rights to water use. They also help to construct the resource base of the state administration. Cambodia is highly dependent on the Mekong River. However, Cambodia has a volatile history whose effects can be seen for example in population structure, once suspended public institutions and weakened trust in the society. Relatively stable conditions came to the country as late as in the 1990s, therefore Cambodia for example has a weak status within the Mekong countries. This Master s thesis forms international, national and local interest groups of water use and analyzes their power relations and resources to affect water management. The state is seen as the salient actor as it has the formal responsibility of the water resources and of the coordination between the actions of different levels. In terms of water use this study focuses on production, in management on planning and in power relations on the resources. Water resources of Cambodia are seen consisting of the Mekong River and Tonle Sap Lake and the time span of the study is between the years 1991 and 2006. The material consists of semi-structured interviews collected during summer 2006 in Finland and in Cambodia as well as of literature and earlier studies. The results of the study show that the central state has difficulties to coordinate the actions of different actors because of its resource deficit and internal conflicts. The lessons of history and the vested interests of the actors of the state make it difficult to plan and to strengthen legislation. It seems that the most needed resources at the central state level are intangible as at the village level instead, the tangible resources (fulfilling the basic needs) are primarily important. The local decision-making bodies, NGOs and private sector mainly require legislation and legitimacy to support their role. However, the civil society and the international supporters are active and there are possibilities for new cooperation networks. Keywords: Water management, resources, participation, Cambodia, Mekong
  • Pathan, Alina (2010)
    The study examines India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change and in particular its National Water Mission (NWM) draft. The objective is to examine how climate policy has been formulated, what kind of water-related climate change governance exists in India and how different actors are engaged in water-related climate policy-making. The objectives are examined especially through the NWM, as water is one of the sectors highly vulnerable to climate change in India. Environmental governance in general and in the context of water and climate change governance forms the theoretical framework for the thesis. The study is based on qualitative methodology and the main data collection methods were thematic interviews, literature review and content analysis of newspaper and web articles. Goals of the NWM were considered to include both positive and negative objectives. Issues related to more research on climate impacts, improving water quality, rainwater harvesting, and groundwater recharge were considered in principle as positive steps. In addition, regulation of water consumption, efficient use of water and waste water treatment were considered positive aspects. On the other hand, there were several issues in the NWM, which were considered business as usual plans, which would be implemented despite the NWM such the emphasis of surface water storages. The study concludes that there are several long-term, unsolved water governance issues hindering the potentials of the NWM to succeed, such as an overall governance crisis, inadequate involvement of actors, groundwater governance problems, disputes between different actors and stakeholders, and poor policy and law enforcement. Future actions on dealing with these aspects and the challenges ahead depend on the pathways; the Indian government wants to take.
  • Stuart, Elliot (2013)
    The primary characteristic of urbanisation is the addition of hard surfaces to catchments, which affects water and habitat quality in urban streams and alters natural hydrological processes by reducing infiltration, evapotranpiration and efficiently conveying storm runoff to streams, gathering a variety of urban polluants along the way. This is typical of the ‘urban stream syndrome’. Catchment imperviousness (especially Effective Impervious Area or percent connectivity) can be used as one of the primary indicators of the severity of this phenomenon. This research was initiated through a collaboration between the City of Helsinki and the University of Helsinki to determine the baseline water quality of Hakuninmaanoja, a small urban stream in Helsinki, Finland, and the imperviousness of its catchment, where a pilot ecological housing development ‘Kuninkaantammi’ (KUNTA) will be built beginning in 2013. The purpose of the project is to assess the current characteristics of the catchment prior to the development in the headwaters of the stream. An automatic water quality monitoring station was built on the lower part of the stream approximately 200m upstream of its junction with Mätäjoki, the second largest river of Helsinki. Water Sensitive Urban Design can be used as part of a holistic stormwater treatment train to limit newly created imperviousness, and minimise the connectivity of the necessary remainder, allowing stormwater runoff to be reused, infiltrated and treated through soil media, or slowed down enough to attenuate the urban hydrograph. Some of these features such as raingardens, green roofs and detention ponds will be included in the KUNTA development for this purpose. A detailed calculation of catchment imperviousness was completed via field survey and land use categorization methods. Total Impervious Area (TIA) was determined to be 22%, Effective Impervious Area 15% and catchment wide runoff coefficient given by land use categorisation method to be 0.32. TIA is expected to increase to 30% following development of KUNTA, however EIA is not expected to increase in proportion with TIA due to planned Water Sensitive Urban Design features. Yearly runoff volumes based on each method of calculating imperviousness were estimated, as well as for the future following KUNTA development. Water quality in the stream currently is quite satisfactory in relation to other streams in Helsinki, however the urban stream syndrome is already evident with particular concern regarding temperature, sediment and peak flow fluctuations. Effective Impervious Area should be used in urban planning of new and existing developments rather than TIA because it will give much greater accuracy of runoff volumes and infiltration rates by taking into account unconnected impervious surfaces. Strengthening local solutions to reduce connectivity should be a municipal priority. Water quality monitoring will continue at the site until after KUNTA has been built, and further research should focus on determining the technical performance of stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) at the site.
  • Kallio, Kari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    In lake-rich regions, the gathering of information about water quality is challenging because only a small proportion of the lakes can be assessed each year by conventional methods. One of the techniques for improving the spatial and temporal representativeness of lake monitoring is remote sensing from satellites and aircrafts. The experimental material included detailed optical measurements in 11 lakes, air- and spaceborne remote sensing measurements with concurrent field sampling, automatic raft measurements and a national dataset of routine water quality measurements from over 1100 lakes. The analyses of the spatially high-resolution airborne remote sensing data from eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes showed that one or a few discrete water quality observations using conventional monitoring can yield a clear over- or underestimation of the overall water quality in a lake. The use of TM-type satellite instruments in addition to routine monitoring results substantially increases the number of lakes for which water quality information can be obtained. The preliminary results indicated that coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be estimated with TM-type satellite instruments, which could possibly be utilised as an aid in estimating the role of lakes in global carbon budgets. Based on the results of reflectance modelling and experimental data, MERIS satellite instrument has optimal or near-optimal channels for the estimation of turbidity, chlorophyll a and CDOM in Finnish lakes. MERIS images with a 300 m spatial resolution can provide water quality information in different parts of large and medium-sized lakes, and in filling in the gaps resulting from conventional monitoring. Algorithms that would not require simultaneous field data for algorithm training would increase the amount of remote sensing-based information available for lake monitoring. The MERIS Boreal Lakes processor, trained with the optical data and concentration ranges provided by this study, enabled turbidity estimations with good accuracy without the need for algorithm correction with field measurements, while chlorophyll a and CDOM estimations require further development of the processor. The accuracy of interpreting chlorophyll a via semi empirical algorithms can be improved by classifying lakes prior to interpretation according to their CDOM level and trophic status. Optical modelling indicated that the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient can be estimated with reasonable accuracy from the measured water quality concentrations. This provides more detailed information on light attenuation from routine monitoring measurements than is available through the Secchi disk transparency. The results of this study improve the interpretation of lake water quality by remote sensing and encourage the use of remote sensing in lake monitoring.
  • Nurminen, Tiina (2013)
    Hannukainen on Länsi-Lapissa, Kolarin kunnassa sijaitseva vanha kaivosalue. Rautaruukki Oy ja Outokumpu Oy louhivat alueelta rautaa, kuparia ja kultaa vuosina1978 - 1990. Alue liittyy Pajala-Kolari hiertovyöhykkeeseen, jolla on käynnissä myös Kaunisvaaran kaivosprojekti Ruotsin puolella rajaa. Northland Mines Finland Oy suunnittelee IOCG-tyyppisen malmin louhinnan uudelleen aloittamista Hannukaisissa lähivuosina. Alueen maaperästä ja vesivaroista ei ole olemassa tarkkaa tutkimus- tietoa. Tulevaa kaivosaluetta ympäröi kolme jokea, idässä Valkeajoki, lännessä Kuerjoki ja etelässä Äkäsjoki. Hannukaisen alueen maaperän stratigrafiset ja hydrostratigrafiset kenttätutkimukset tehtiin kesällä 2011. Maaperän kerrosjärjestystä havainnoitiin Laurinojan avolouhoksen leikkausten ja alueelle kai- vettujen koekuoppien avulla. Sedimenttiyksiköiden vedenjohtavuutta tutkittiin sekä paikanpäällä tehtä- villä rengasimeytyskokeilla, että laskennallisin menetelmin sedimenttinäytteistä tehtyjen raekokoana- lyysien perusteella. Pohjavesien tutkimusmenetelminä käytettiin pohjavesiputkien laadun ja edusta- vuuden arviointia, pohjavedenpinnan mittauksia sekä pääionien, hivenaineiden ja vedyn ja hapen isotooppien analyysejä. Kemianäytteiden oton lisäksi joista ja louhoslammista tehtiin sähkönjohta- vuuden, pH:n, lämpötilan ja happipitoisuuden mittauksia YSI moniparametrilaitteella. Pohjaveden ja pintaveden vuorovaikutusta havainnoitiin ottamalla kemiallisia näytteitä, mittaamalla jokien pohja- sedimentin lämpötilaa ja asentamalla minipiezometrejä. Alueen maaperä koostuu moreenien sijasta jäätikön sulamisvesi-virtojen kasaamista hiekoista ja sorista. Nykyisten jokien laaksoista löytyy lisäksi lajittuneita hiekkoja, jotka liittyvät Muonion jääjärven purkuvesivirtojen muodostamien palmikoivien jokien kasaamiin kerrostumiin. Hiekka- ja sorakerrostu- mien vedenjohtavuus on verrattain hyvä ja ne sisältävät huomattavia määriä vettä. Hienoaines- yksiköt ovat ohuita ja epäjatkuvina kerroksina ne pidättävät vettä muodostaen orsivesiä ja paineellisia pohjavesiä. Alueen havainnoiduista 23 pohjavesiputkesta vain kolme edustaa varsinaista pohjavesi- muodostumaa ja yhteensä kuusi putkea oli muuten käyttökelpoisia. Huomattavimmat ongelmat olivat putkien asennustietojen puuttuminen ja putkien lyhyys verrattuna alueen paksuihin sedimenttikerrostu- miin. Hoitamattomien vanhojen avolouhosten ja sivukivikasan sekä malmion sulfaattireaktioista synty- neet happamat vedet eli hapan kaivosvaikutus (AMD) näkyy vanhan kaivosalueen pohjavesiputkissa sekä Äkäsjokeen purkautuvassa pohjavedessä. Isotooppianalyysit, joen pohjan lämpötilamittaukset ja minipiezometreistä mitatut hydrauliset gradientit osoittavat, että pohjavettä virtaa kaivosalueelta sitä ympäröiviin jokiin. Hannukaisen alue on haastava ympäristö kaivostoimintojen sijoittamiselle. Alueen hydrostratigrafia on monimutkainen, maaperän vedenjohtavuus on hyvä, pohjavettä voi olla useassa kerroksessa ja aluetta ympäröivät joet saavat huomattavan osan vedestään alueella muodostuvasta pohjavedestä. Suuri osa nykyisistä pohjavesiputkista on käyttökelvottomia, joten uusia pohjavesiputkia tulisi asentaa jotta pohjavettä voidaan tarkkailla luotettavasti. Pohja- ja pintaveden päävirtaussuunnat ovat tulevan suunnitellun kaivosalueen keskeltä kohti sitä ympäröiviä jokia. Alueen luokitellut pohjavesialueet tulisi rajata uudelleen, sillä nykyiset rajaukset eivät perustu todellisiin pohjavesimuodostumiin. Tutkimukses- sa saatujen tulosten perusteella kaivosalueelle suunnitellun rikastushiekkaalueen sijoitusta on päätetty harkita uudelleen.
  • Korkiakoski, Mika (2014)
    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy is a laser absorption technique based on the principle of measuring the rate of exponential decay of light intensity inside the ring-down cavity. When the absorption spectrum of a gas is known, it is possible to determine the mole fraction of this gas by measuring the height of the absorption peak, which can be acquired from the rate of decay of light. This technique is used in G1301, G2301 and G2401 (Picarro Inc.) gas analyzers which measure carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapor. However, measured gas mole fractions are diluted from their actual value; mostly due to variations in atmospheric water vapor. This effect causes large errors and it has to be corrected either by drying the sample or applying a water vapor correction. A default water vapor correction is included in Picarro gas analyzers, but it might not be accurate enough for use in some measurements. In this study, determination of water vapor correction coefficients was carried out by doing several droplet tests for seven different gas analyzers, which included one G2401, two G1301, four G2301gas analyzers. Mean correction functions determined for the analyzers were compared to the Picarro default correction. In addition, the comparison was made with time series data for one of the analyzers. Also, the water vapor measurement of the gas analyzers was calibrated to acquire the actual water vapor mole fraction. As a result, the factory correction for CO2 was proved sufficient for high accuracy measurements only up to 0.7 % water vapor mole fraction. For CH4, the factory coefficient was enough up to 2.0 %, which corresponds to dew point temperature of 18 °C. In conclusion, neither of factory corrections is enough for use all year round. So, the water vapor correction should be made for each gas analyzer when making high accuracy measurements. Due to cyclic drift of water vapor measurement, the correction should remain stable over time, but this needs further verification. Currently, the correction should be made at least once per year.
  • Pettersson, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Kankaanniemi, Marko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Google Wave is a real-time communication and collaboration system introduced in 2009. The Wave system allows multiple users to view and modify hosted conversations called waves simultaneously. A wave conversation consists of a tree-like structure of messages. The messages can contain rich text, images and other attachments. Concurrency control is handled using a technique called operational transformation. It enables users to modify a wave simultaneously without acquiring any locks. Google has released Wave protocol descriptions and other technical documentation about the implementation of Wave. Google has also released a large portion of Wave source code under an open source license. Google ended the development of Google Wave in the late 2010 but the development of Wave is continued by the Apache Software Foundation. The open source version of Wave is called Wave in a Box. Wave in a Box contains the implementations of a web-based client and a Wave server. Wave is based on a federated client-server architecture. Although the Wave client is connected only to the user's own Wave service provider, the user can still communicate with users of other service providers. Wave servers are connected to each other and communicate with each other transparently to the user. In this sense the Wave architecture resembles email architecture. In this thesis we present the design for a new peer-to-peer-based Wave system called P2P-Wave. P2P-Wave was designed to be much like the original Wave. Operational transformation is used in both systems and the same functionality is available to the user in both systems. However, the systems are very different with respect to network communication. P2P-Wave has no centralized servers; all communication happens between users' own computers through the Pastry routing system. P2P-Wave also uses the Scribe multicast system and the distributed file system Past.