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  • Sallinen, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease among the elderly. Its etiology is unknown and no disease-modifying drugs are available. Thus, more information concerning its pathogenesis is needed. Among other genes, mutated PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) has been linked to early-onset and sporadic PD, but its mode of action is poorly understood. Most animal models of PD are based on the use of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). MPTP is metabolized to MPP+ by monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) and causes cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in mammals. Zebrafish has been a widely used model organism in developmental biology, but is now emerging as a model for human diseases due to its ideal combination of properties. Zebrafish are inexpensive and easy to maintain, develop rapidly, breed in large quantities producing transparent embryos, and are readily manipulated by various methods, particularly genetic ones. In addition, zebrafish are vertebrate animals and results derived from zebrafish may be more applicable to mammals than results from invertebrate genetic models such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the similarity cannot be taken for granted. The aim of this study was to establish and test a PD model using larval zebrafish. The developing monoaminergic neuronal systems of larval zebrafish were investigated. We identified and classified 17 catecholaminergic and 9 serotonergic neuron populations in the zebrafish brain. A 3-dimensional atlas was created to facilitate future research. Only one gene encoding MAO was found in the zebrafish genome. Zebrafish MAO showed MAO A-type substrate specificity, but non-A-non-B inhibitor specificity. Distribution of MAO in larval and adult zebrafish brains was both diffuse and distinctly cellular. Inhibition of MAO during larval development led to markedly elevated 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) levels, which decreased the locomotion of the fish. MPTP exposure caused a transient loss of cells in specific aminergic cell populations and decreased locomotion. MPTP-induced changes could be rescued by the MAO B inhibitor deprenyl, suggesting a role for MAO in MPTP toxicity. MPP+ affected only one catecholaminergic cell population; thus, the action of MPP+ was more selective than that of MPTP. The zebrafish PINK1 gene was cloned in zebrafish, and morpholino oligonucleotides were used to suppress its expression in larval zebrafish. The functional domains and expression pattern of zebrafish PINK1 resembled those of other vertebrates, suggesting that zebrafish is a feasible model for studying PINK1. Translation inhibition resulted in cell loss of the same catecholaminergic cell populations as MPTP and MPP+. Inactivation of PINK1 sensitized larval zebrafish to subefficacious doses of MPTP, causing a decrease in locomotion and cell loss in one dopaminergic cell population. Zebrafish appears to be a feasible model for studying PD, since its aminergic systems, mode of action of MPTP, and functions of PINK1 resemble those of mammalians. However, the functions of zebrafish MAO differ from the two forms of MAO found in mammals. Future studies using zebrafish PD models should utilize the advantages specific to zebrafish, such as the ability to execute large-scale genetic or drug screens.
  • Yli-Rantala, Anni (2014)
    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate model organism. It is suited for many phases of drug development process like toxicological studies. The major advantage of using zebrafish is the possibility to conduct high-throughput screens on a whole vertebrate animal. However, there is not as much knowledge about zebrafish as there is about other model organisms. Therefore there might be differences between zebrafish and humans that affect the use of zebrafish as a model in the drug development process. The purpose of this thesis was to characterize the structure of the zebrafish oxytocin system and assess the role of oxytocin on zebrafish behaviour. In humans defects in the oxytocin system have been linked to many psychiatric disorders like autism. If the mammalian and zebrafish oxytocin systems resembled each other functionally and structurally, it would enable the use of zebrafish as a model when studying the role of oxytocin in pathophysiology of diseases and also in oxytocin system related drug development. The structure and development of zebrafish oxytocin system was studied by staining adult zebrafish brain cryosections and larval brains with antibodies made against mammalian oxytocin. The specificity of the antibodies to recognize zebrafish oxytocin was determined by absorption and cross-reactivity controls. The role of oxytocin on zebrafish locomotion was studied by inhibiting the splicing of oxytocin messenger RNA with morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs). The MOs were used to address the relevance of the model in pharmacology, since the zebrafish oxytocin receptors have not been expressed and pharmacologically characterized. In zebrafish oxytocin was produced in the cells of the preoptic nucleus. There were thick oxytocin fibers towards the pituitary and also thinner fibers into areas in the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon. One of the MOs was able to inhibit the production of oxytocin with a dose that did not cause morphological abnormalities. The MO reduced the locomotor activity of the fish, but the specificity of the MO has to be determined. The structure of the zebrafish oxytocin system resembles mammalian oxytocin system in terms of the location of oxytocin cells and fiber projections. Therefore zebrafish seems a suitable model organism for oxytocin research. However, the structure of the zebrafish oxytocin receptor system and the effect of oxytocin on other behavioural aspects have to be determined in order to further evaluate the applicability of zebrafish for oxytocin research.
  • Hynninen, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    In bacteria resistance to heavy metals is mainly achieved through active efflux, but also sequestration with proteins or as insoluble compounds is used. Although numerous studies have dealt with zinc, cadmium and lead resistance mechanisms in bacteria, it has still remained unclear how different transporters are integrated into an effective homeostasis/resistance network and whether specific mechanisms for lead sequestration exist. Furthermore, since metals are toxic not only to bacteria but to higher organisms as well, it is important to be able to estimate possible biological effects of heavy metals in the environment. This could be done by determining the bioavailable amount of the metals in the environment with bacterial bioreporters. That is, one can employ bacteria that respond to metal contamination by a measurable signal to assess the property of metals to cross biological membranes and to cause harmful effects in a possibly polluted environment. In this thesis a new lead resistance mechanism is described, interplay between CBA transporters and P-type ATPases in zinc and cadmium resistance is presented and finally the acquired knowledge is used to construct bacterial bioreporters for heavy metals with increased sensitivity and specificity. The new lead resistance model employs a P-type ATPase that removes Pb2+ ions from the cytoplasm and a phosphatase that produces inorganic phosphate for lead sequestration in the periplasm. This was the first study where the molecular mechanism of lead sequestration has been described. Characterization of two P-type ATPases and two CBA transporters showed that resistance mechanisms for Zn2+ and Cd2+ are somewhat different than for Pb2+ as these metals cannot be sequestered as insoluble compounds as easily. Resistance to Zn2+ was conferred merely by the CBA transporter that could export both cytoplasmic and periplasmic ions; whereas, full resistance to Cd2+ required interplay of a P-type ATPase that exported cytoplasmic ions to periplasm and a CBA transporter that further exported periplasmic ions to the outside. The knowledge on functionality of the transporters and metal-inducible promoters was exploited in bioreporter technology. A transporter-deficient bioreporter strain that lacked exporters for Zn2+/Cd2+/Pb2+ could detect up to 45-fold lower metal concentrations than its wild type counterpart due to the accumulation of metals in the cell. The broad specificity issue of bioreporters was overcome by using Zn-specific promoter as a sensor element, thus achieving Zn-specific bioreporter.
  • Nikanne, Urpo (1991)
  • Tynkkynen, Lottaliina (2005)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan arvokongruenssin ja samastumisen yhteyksiä sekä toisiinsa että järjestötyytyväisyyteen, jäsenyysaikaan, osallistumisaktiivisuuteen ja eroamisaikomuksiin. Tutkimuksen kontekstina on Zonta-järjestö, ja yhtenä tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, millä tavoin nämä tyypillisesti työelämässä tutkitut ilmiöt toimivat järjestökontekstissa. Samastumisen ja arvokongruenssin oletetaan olevan merkittäviä tekijöitä järjestökontekstissa, johon osallistuminen on vapaaehtoista ja josta ei saa rahallista korvausta. Aineisto (N = 390) on kerätty sähköisenä kyselytutkimuksena kesällä 2003. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan ensin järjestötoimintaa yleisellä tasolla ja perehdytään lähemmin Zonta-järjestöön. Tämän jälkeen syvennytään samastumisen, arvojen ja arvokongruenssin teoriataustaan. Samastumista mitattiin Rubert Brownin (1986) kymmenkohtaisella samastumismittarilla. Arvokongruenssia taas mitattiin tätä tutkimusta varten kehitetyllä mittarilla, jossa Zonta-järjestön jäseniä pyydettiin arvioimaan, missä määrin luetellut Zonta-järjestön arvot toteutuvat järjestön toiminnassa, ja kuinka tärkeänä he itse pitävät kyseisiä arvoja (= latentti arvokongruenssi). Arvomittarista muodostettiin yksilön ja organisaation samankaltaisuutta kuvastava indeksi. Arvokongruenssi-indeksin lisäksi yksilön ja organisaation arvojen yhteyksiä muihin muuttujiin tarkasteltiin sekä erikseen että yksittäisten arvojen osalta. Jäsenyysaikaa, järjestötyytyväisyyttä, eroamisaikomuksia ja ystävyyssuhteita mitattiin kutakin vain yhdellä kysymyksellä. Menetelmänä vaikutussuhteiden tarkastelussa käytettiin lineaarista regressioanalyysia. Saadut tulokset olivat samastumisen osalta asetettujen hypoteesien mukaisia. Samastuminen oli yhteydessä kaikkiin muihin muuttujiin. Erityisen voimakasta yhteys oli ystävyyssuhteiden, järjestötyytyväisyyden ja eroamisaikomuksien kanssa. Samastuminen myös välitti ystävyyssuhteiden ja järjestötyytyväisyyden, ja ystävyyssuhteiden ja eroamisaikomuksien välistä suhdetta. Samastuminen on tämän tutkimuksen perusteella keskeinen tekijä Zonta-järjestössä. Arvokongruenssin yhteydet muihin muuttujiin olivat oletettua heikompia; arvokongruenssi oli yhteydessä vain samastumiseen ja järjestötyytyväisyyteen ja niihinkin melko heikosti. Arvojen päävaikutusten osalta organisaation arvojen toteutuminen oli hieman voimakkaampaa samastumisen ja järjestötyytyväisyyden kohdalla. Kaiken kaikkiaan arvokongruenssin ja arvojen päävaikutusten tulokset jäivät aikaisemman tutkimuksen valossa melko heikoiksi. Yhtenä syynä heikkoihin tutkimustuloksiin voi olla vain latentin, eli epäsuoran arvokongruenssin mittaaminen, sen sijaan että jäseniltä olisi kysytty heidän omaa käsitystään arvokongruenssista. Myös se, että arvoulottuvuuksia oli mittauksessa mukana vain yksi, saattoi heikentää kokonaiskuvaa arvokongruenssin vaikutuksista. Arvokongruenssin tutkiminen järjestökontekstissa jää siis tämän tutkimuksen pohjalta yhä haasteeksi. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin lähteitä monipuolisesti niin arvokongruenssin kuin samastumistutkimuksen osalta. Lähteet olivat suurimmaksi osaksi tuoreita, alan kansainvälisissä aikakauslehdissä julkaistuja artikkeleita.
  • Hämäläinen, Inger (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Avhandlingens syfte är att belysa hur porträtten av jagberättaren Arvid och hans mor växer fram i Per Pettersons roman Jeg forbanner tidens elv. Det paradigm jag utgår ifrån är det psykoanalytiska. Förutom texter av Sigmund Freud och Jacques Lacan stöder jag mig på texter av Peter Brooks och Terry Eagleton. För en tolkning av Arvids sätt att berätta sin historia använder jag mig av James Phelans tankar kring den opålitliga berättaren . Analysen bygger på en närläsning av romanen och några av de intertexter som förekommer i den. Av dessa är särskilt myten om kung Oidipus samt berättelsen om Zorro centrala för förståelsen av Arvids personlighet och hur den manliga identiteten byggs. Andra centrala intertexter som granskas närmare är Erich Maria Remarques roman Triumfbågen och Somerset Maughams roman Den vassa eggen. Porträttet av mor belyses indirekt via den funktion hon har i Arvids berättelse. Arvids porträtt analyseras ur två olika perspektiv. I uppsatsens första del, Romanbygget , undersöker jag hur romanen är uppbyggd och hur bilden av Arvid formas genom vad han berättar om sin mor, sitt liv, sin bakgrund och sina uppväxtår. Det perspektiv som Konung Oidipus i Freuds tolkning av det antika dramat ger, lyfter, som en nyckel in i romanen, fram dynamiken mellan Arvid, mor och den övriga familjen. I romanen dödas far i psykisk bemärkelse, han blir medvetet föraktad och förbisedd som manlig förebild och identifikationsobjekt. Arvids fixering vid mor gör att han ser sig själv med hennes ögon. Också bröderna får sin gestalt som rivaler i kampen om mor. I ljuset av den oidipala problematiken framhåller jag Arvids olösta relation till familjemedlemmarna som den avgörande orsaken till Arvids misslyckanden i livet och hans oförmåga att forma en fungerande och stabil vuxenidentitet. Men jag föreslår också en tidig, omedveten fadersidentifikation, symboliserad av Zorro och Zorros magiska märke, som i sublimeringen eventuellt finner sin lösning i en dröm om att bli författare. I uppsatsens andra del Berättarrösten undersöker jag Arvids sätt att berätta utgående ifrån Phelans tankar kring den opålitliga berättaren . Jag analyserar några centrala avsnitt i romanen med avseende på hur berättarröstens och den implicita författarens framställningar överensstämmer eller skiljer sig ifrån varandra. I min läsning är Arvid en komplext pålitlig och opålitlig berättare. Arvid framhåller i sin berättelse och i sina återblickar ett tillrättalagt och i någon mån förskönat porträtt av sig själv, en livslögn vars upplösning enligt min mening antyds i de avslutande kapitlen. För min förståelse av psykoanalysens teori och hur den kan tillämpas i litteraturforskningen är Ludwig Wittgensteins tankar om bildens användning centrala. I avsnittet om Zorro tar jag kortfattat upp frågan hur psykoanalytisk litteraturtolkning kan leda vilse i form av övertolkning, det vill säga att analysen övergår i fantasi. En annan möjlig felkälla som jag lyfter fram i analysen är att romanen tolkas av en svenskspråkig läsare som eventuellt läser in andra nyanser i den norska texten, än vad författaren avsett. Jag tar också upp frågan om Arvid i Pettersons tidigare produktion och huruvida det är frågan om en fortgående berättelse om Arvid Jansen under olika livsbetingelser. Mitt intryck är att det inte är fråga om ett enhetligt personporträtt utan olika frågeställningar som modelleras ur samma material.
  • Gondolph, Nadia (Peter Lang Verlag, 2011)
    The main objects of the investigation were the syntactic functions of adjectives. The reason for the interest in these functions are the different modes of use, in which an adjective can occur. All together an adjective can take three different modes of use: attributive (e. g. a fast car), predicative (e. g. the car is fast) and adverbial (e. g. the car drives fast). Since an adjective cannot always take every function, some dictionaries (esp. learner s dictionaries) deliver information within the lexical entry about any restrictions. The purpose of the research consisted of a comparison in relation to the lexical entries of adjectives, which were investigated within four selected monolingual German-speaking dictionaries. The comparison of the syntactical data of adjectives were done to work out the differences and the common characteristics of the lexical entries concerning the different modes of use and to analyse respective to assess them. In the foreground, however, were the differences of the syntactical information. Concerning those differences it had to be worked out, which entry is the grammatically right one respective if one entry is in fact wrong. To find that out an empirical analysis was needed, which based on the question in which way an adjective is used within a context as far as there are no conforming data within the dictionaries. The delivery of the correctness and the homogeneity of lexical entries of German-speaking dictionaries are very important to support people who are learning the German language and to ensure the user friendliness of dictionaries. Throughout the investigations it became clear that in almost half of the cases (over 40 %) syntactical information of adjectives differ from each other within the dictionaries. These differences make it for non-native speakers of course very difficult to understand the correct usage of an adjective. Thus the main aim of the doctoral thesis was it to deliver and to demonstrate the clear syntactical usage of a certain amount of adjectives.
  • Karjalainen, K. F. (1904)