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  • Damerau, Annelie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The consumption of whole grain foods high in fibre is of interest because of the health-promoting effects associated with dietary fibre. Therefore, there is interest in developing new fibre-rich cereal foods. However, these kinds of foods also contain polyunsaturated lipids, which are prone to oxidation. Further, lipids are dispersed in a heterogeneous matrix of starch, proteins and fibre, which increases their tendency to oxidize because of a large surface area and possible contact with prooxidants. The oxidation of lipids decreases nutritional quality and causes the formation of undesirable flavours. Knowledge of the oxidation behaviour of dispersed lipids in solid cereal foods, and of how factors like process parameters, structural features of the products and storage conditions affect lipid oxidation, is limited. In this thesis, the oxidative behaviour of foods with dispersed lipids was studied using two model systems. The first model system was a spray-dried emulsion containing sunflower oil encapsulated in a Na-caseinate-maltodextrin matrix, with either non-cross-linked or cross-linked proteins. The stability of the total and surface lipid fractions was determined during storage under different relative humidities (RHs). Further, the effect of RH on the amount of volatiles released from oxidized spray-dried emulsions was studied. The second model system consisted of extruded cereals produced from either whole grain oats or rye bran (coarse or fine) using different extrusion parameters. Their oxidative stability was studied during storage at 40 ºC, after milling and standardization to RH 33%. The primary oxidation was measured by peroxide values in the spray-dried emulsions and by losses of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the spray-dried emulsions and rye bran extrudates. Secondary oxidation was determined based on volatile secondary lipid oxidation products analysed by static head space (SHS-GC-FID) in the spray-dried emulsions and by head space solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS) in the extruded cereals. In addition to the oxidation parameters, enzymatic hydrolysis of lipids in the oat extrudates and the fatty acid composition of all models were studied by measuring the neutral lipid and fatty acid profiles, respectively. Increasing the RH improved the oxidative stability of both the total and surface lipid fractions of the stored spray-dried emulsions. This behaviour was mainly linked to the loss of individual powder particles upon caking and collapsing of the matrix at RH 75%. In addition, excess protein may have delayed oxidation via its radical scavenging activity. At RH 54%, cross-linking of the protein slightly improved the oxidative stability. The profiles of the volatile oxidation products from the spray-dried emulsions analysed by HS-SPME were also influenced by the RH. The effect was related to water-induced changes in hydrophilicity, structure and binding ability of the matrix, and to partitioning and solubility of the volatiles. The highest overall amount of volatiles released was obtained at water contents of 3.1% and 5.2% (RH 11% and 33%). The enzymatic hydrolysis of lipids in oats was effectively prevented by extrusion, even at the lowest temperature of 70 °C. The extrusion temperature could be increased to 110 °C without subjecting the lipids to non-enzymatic oxidation. However, by increasing the temperature to 130 °C, lipid oxidation was promoted, which also yielded losses of neutral lipids over time. In the case of the rye bran, the low water content (13% or 16%) in the extrusion of coarse or fine bran led to the most stable lipids during storage. The improved oxidative stability at low water contents in extrusion was connected with the higher formation of Maillard reaction products, which could have acted as antioxidants. The grinding of rye bran prior to extrusion caused a loss of tocols and increased the amounts of Maillard reaction products formed. The oxidative stability of the dispersed lipids was shown to be highly related to water induced physical changes in the matrix structure, which makes controlling the RH in the surrounding atmosphere an important factor in storage. Further, the RH affected the amount of volatile lipid oxidation products released, and this needs to be considered in determining lipid oxidation by HS-SPME. Extrusion was shown to inactivate lipases in oats. For the lipid stability in cereal extrudates, low temperature and low water content during extrusion were shown to be beneficial.
  • Outinen, Sami (Into Kustannus Oy, 2015)
    Abstract The study puts into historical context the continuities and discontinuities of the employment concepts and policies of leading social democrats in Finland from 1975 to 1998. It concentrates on the decision-making of the most influential political party in Finland at that time, the Social Democratic Party (SDP). The study applies the methods of social science history and conceptual history by researching both the strategic decision-making and public argumentation of the social democrats. The framework of the analysis is based on regulation theory, which distinguishes five fundamental institutional forms in capitalist societies: (1) the nature of the state (economic, employment and unemployment security policy), (2) the wage-labour nexus (labour market policy),(3) the monetary regime (monetary policy and the regulation of capital markets), (4) the forms of competition (state company, privatisation and competition policy) and (5) international interconnectedness (European integration, economic globalisation as well as the impact of Sweden and international organisations). Finnish social democrats moved towards emphasising private sector-led employment, approached the middle class, adopted monetarist ideas, accepted the market economy and favoured controlled restructuring over counter-cyclical measures in a series of steps in 1975 1998. Export sector competitiveness in global markets, European integration, active labour market policy and R and D investment were the cornerstones of social democratic employment policy in Finland at the time. Finnish social democrats also partly adopted neoliberal practices such as activation, privatisation, financial market deregulation and labour market flexibility. The deregulation of financial markets meant a shifting of the basis of social democratic employment policy from steering the capitalist economy to seeking market acceptance of the party s politics. This did not manage to guarantee full employment in Finland during the period, and exacerbated the poverty of the unemployed. Furthermore, Finnish social democrats practised a third way type of Bad Sillanpää policy long before its adherents such as Tony Blair in the UK. After the mid-1970s, the Finnish social democrat-led governments implemented many reforms which also resembled the premises of the Swedish social democrats Third Way Programme in the 1980s.
  • Niemelä, Reko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Doctoral dissertation Inclusionary practices in a Finnish pre-primary school context has been made in the context of the five-year EU project Includ-Ed (2006¬ 2011), which has 14 European universities as partners. The aim of the research was to find out the most supportive practices and the most unsupportive practices from a perspective of inclusion experienced by agents (persons). Agents are children, parents, teachers and administration and organisation members who were interviewed by communicative open interview. There were a total of 54 interviews. Inclusion is examined through perspectives of transformation and critical communication. Critical communicative methodology assumes that people can interpret their own behaviour and modify their actions based on that. To be able to analyse interviews, theory-based categories were used. After this, clusters were created using open categorisation. Of the results, when answering types are separated, 212 quotations were from professionals (teachers, administrators, members of organisations) whilst 88 quotations were from family and children. Professionals did make their voices heard more often than parents and children. Professionals gave over four times more transformative quotations than parents/children. Parents/children gave slightly more exclusionary quotations than professionals. In the light of research findings, parents and children are still unable to make their voices heard as well as they could, and parents attitude and preconceptions are unsupportive of inclusion. Lack of resources was the most unsupportive practice to inclusion according to the professionals. For all the agents, the most supportive practice to inclusion was co-operation. Keywords: inclusion, educational science, critical communicative methodology, content analysis, agents, ATLAS.ti
  • Valaste, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In sample surveys, the uncertainty of parameter estimates comes from two main sources: sampling and measuring the study units. Some aspects of survey errors are quite well understood (e.g. sampling errors, nonresponse errors) and reported but others, like measurement errors, are often neglected. This thesis studies measurement uncertainty in covariates. Focus is on the adjustment for covariate measurement errors in logistic regression for cluster-correlated data. Three methods for adjustment for covariate measurement errors in surveys are studied. The methods are Maximum Likelihood, Multiple Imputation and Regression Calibration. These methods require information obtained from validation study. The thesis consists of a theoretical part and extensive Monte Carlo simulation experiments. At the first simulation experiment, the simulation study is conducted with artificial data and with independent observations to test and have experience of the three methods: MI, ML and RC. The second and third simulation study is performed with cluster-correlated data. In these simulation studies, the first simulation uses artificial data and the latter uses real data. In both simulations regression calibration and multiple imputation approaches are examined in various simulation designs. The quality of the methods is assessed by the bias and accuracy. The bias is measured by absolute relative bias percentages (ARB%) and the accuracy by relative root mean-squared error percentages (RRMSE%). The results suggest that additional information from validation (calibration) data enables more accurate estimates in terms of bias percentages.
  • Özcan-Ketola, Nergiz (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In this thesis, structural effects on magnetic response properties: magnetically induced ring currents, the ESR g-tensor and hyperfine coupling tensor, and NMR chemical shifts, are investigated computationally with DFT methods, using various exchange-correlation functionals and basis sets. Magnetically induced currents are calculated for thieno-bridged porphyrins with the emphasis on the aromatic character of the systems, the degree of which is investigated for varying molecular modifications. The ESR g-tensor, as well as the hyperfine coupling tensors for Sn and O nuclei in the vicinity of a positively charged oxygen vacancy in solid tin dioxide, are reported with finite cluster methods using different cluster embedding techniques to define the structural environment. The NMR spectral trends for increasing-size nanoflakes of graphenic materials are predicted as functions of the size and boundary geometry of the flakes. Finally, a number of dye molecules are subjected to NMR chemical shift calculations where the intermolecular interaction effects present in liquid solution are studied with dynamic simulation techniques. The magnetically induced currents calculated for thieno-bridged porphyrins show that the changes in the molecular structure such as the direction of the thiophene ring or the substitution by Zn^2+ do not change the aromatic character of the molecule. It is possible to confirm the experimental assignment of the ESR signal with the g-factor around 2.00 to the positively charged vacancy in tin dioxide, whereas the other experimental assignment of a signal at g=1.89 is not supported by our calculations. Distinct characteristic NMR spectral patterns are found for graphene nanoflakes reflecting the effects of increasing size and different boundary geometries on the NMR shifts. Solvent effects on the NMR of dye molecules are found to be location-specific: nuclei from different regions of the systems display distinct response to solvation.
  • Sahlstedt, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study is to introduce how basic education works in Finland with the new comprehensive school form, in which all pupils from grades 1 9 study in the same school building. The school is specially designed and constructed for this purpose. The view point of this research is school pedagogy. This study describes the development of normal institutional school guidance towards the newest school form with a focus on the vertical and coherence development in the Finnish school system. The study examines experiences of unified comprehensive school practice from the view point of teachers, pupils and guardians. It investigates the diverse diversity of opinions between teachers, pupils and guardians and what things should be considered in the future when new schools like this are built. The research involved a case study of a new unified comprehensive school built in a capital region of Finland in 2006. The research data were collected in five different phases between 2005 and 2010. The data consist of answers from 275 guardians, 871 pupils and 64 teachers. The study used mixed methods, and the data were collected with Quest-MM according to closed and open questions. The qualitative data were analysed with the content analysis. The quantitative material was analysed by using the Kruskall-Wallis test and cross tables. According to the results, the teachers, pupils and guardians showed significant statistical differences in their opinions about the school. Altogether 83 % of the guardians and 71 % of pupils were satisfied with the unified comprehensive school. In fact, 70 % of the guardians and 60 % of the pupils wanted to see the construction of more unified comprehensive schools. The guardians focused on the safety of their own child in the school. They appreciated that in the new school form, their child did not have to change schools between grades 6 and 7, a transition that the parents usually found to be undesirable. The students tended to highlight the informal elements, such as friendship, the school environment and school rules; they also showed marked age-related differences in their views. The teens thought that the unified comprehensive school was suited mainly for the younger primary school pupils. The teachers were the most critical of the new school form; 53 % of them were satisfied with it, and only 29 % wanted to see more of them. The teachers considered the matter primarily from the point of view of their own work. They thought the unified comprehensive school was a rich working environment, but disliked it as an organization. According to the teachers, the unified comprehensive schools are built too large to function effectively. The action of a large school organization must be divided, so that the risk of the parts is to divide such action too much. Horizontal coherence did not work. Also, the guardians, like the teachers were skeptical of the number of pupils in the unified comprehensive school. According the guardians, large size of the school units reduced the safety of the pupils. The result show that one can see the need to reduce the size of the unified comprehensive school for the benefit of the pupils and teachers. Additionally, school ergonomics, school culture and pedagogy also deserve careful consideration. The school must to realise that pupils studying between the ages of 6 and 16 have different needs. The unified comprehensive school seems to require more resources or help from outside of the school in establishing their pedagogy and school culture from the beginning. ________________________________________ Keywords: basic education, comprehensive school, unified comprehensive school, school pedagogy
  • Lithovius, Raija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    As health care resources are limited, it is crucial to identify potential subgroups of patients with different resource needs and the major cost drivers in order to improve understanding of the cost structure of diabetes care. About one-third of the patients with type 1 diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is the most burdensome diabetic complication and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. Pharmaceutical interventions play an important role not only in controlling glycaemia, but also in preventing and treating related co-morbidities. The aim was to evaluate the use and costs of prescription medication in a large nationwide cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes, stratified by severity stages of diabetic kidney disease, and to study to what extent target values of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines were met in normal clinical settings and how achievement of the most relevant targets predicts the prognosis of the patients. All sub-studies are part of the ongoing, multicentre Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane). Studies I (N=3,717), II (N=1,905), III (N=330) and V (N=3,151) have longitudinal and Study IV (N=3,678) a cross-sectional design. To obtain information on purchases of prescription medications, co-morbidities and mortality, the FinnDiane data were linked with several national registers. In patients with ESRD, the 11-year cumulative costs increased fourfold or even 15-fold, when diabetes medications were excluded compared to those without severe complications. The cost of diabetes medications remained quite stable irrespective of the presence of complications and duration of diabetes. The costs were significantly higher in patients with macroalbuminuria than in those with earlier stages of DN, and the gap continued to increase until the end of follow-up. A large gap exists between evidence-based guidelines and clinical practice since only a minority of all patients reached the targets for HbA1C, blood pressure (BP) and LDL cholesterol proposed by the ADA. Failure to reach the targets was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. One of the novel findings was the high prevalence of treatment-resistant hypertension (RH) which increased in parallel with the worsening of DN in patients with type 1 diabetes. Progression to a more severe stage of DN has a substantial impact on prescription medication costs, highlighting the importance of early intervention to prevent or delay the onset of diabetic kidney disease. The treatment targets of HbA1C, BP and LDL cholesterol have not been achieved. Successful implementation of these targets would be a key for the optimal prevention of CVD and mortality.
  • Stanikic, Teija (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2015)
    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the process in which the court assesses what kind of evidential value eyewitness identification should have in an individual criminal case in court. The attention is on special features of national procedural law and on witness psychological research connected to this process. Since the stages of the criminal proceeding preceding the evaluation of evidence also have an impact on this process, the following questions have been set for this research: (1) on which factors should the evidence be gathered in cases in which an identification is made; (2) which special features are connected with the process of presenting evidence that applies to the reliability of the identification in court; and (3) how should the reliability of the eyewitness identification be analyzed in the court. The first question is partly discussed in the form of a literature review. The results of witness psychological studies conducted on the sources of errors affecting identification as the crime occurs (estimator variables) are discussed, and conclusions are made of the applicability of those experimental rules in legal settings. For instance, observation distance, exposure time, the perpetrator of the crime having masked themselves, eyewitness age and ethnic origin can influence the reliability of the identification. Secondly, the factors affecting the reliability of the identification in the police investigation (system variables) are discussed. These include, for instance, the possible use of a show-up or a lineup with fillers or the presentation of the suspect to the eyewitness in person or in a photograph. Experimental rules for the system variables have also been included into the Finnish procedural regulation of police investigations. The focus of this research is also to study that regulation using the research method of the interpretation and systematization of legal rules. In addition to this, propositions for the developing of legislation de lege ferenda are made based on witness psychological research and practical points. An important result in this part of the study is that the valid regulation mainly corresponds to the results of witness psychological research. However, development needs have been detected. The regulation is partially contradictory and insufficient, and the terminology used in it is partly unsettled and not accurate. Another problem is that the rules have been deconcentrated in different levels of legal regulation. For this reason the regulation includes overlapping rules and several rules that refer to other rules. How to interpret the latter is questionable. For instance, the legal rules for the method of identification in which a single suspect is shown to a witness by the police remain unclear. Thus, through the interpretation of the regulation this study also clarifies which procedural regulation should be followed when identification is put into practice in different ways for example, as a show-up, a lineup or a photograph or video identification. In addition, the experimental results of witness psychological research support some specific new procedural rules being included into the legislation. These are also presented in this study. In answer to the first research question, the objective of gathering the evidence in its entirety is the error sources in identification and the other factors affecting reliability. In addition to this, collecting evidence of the eyewitness confidence and the time used for identification is recommended. When evaluating evidence, the level of confidence, however, should be taken into consideration only under specific conditions mentioned in the research. The second question is considered in the light of the rules and principles for the legal procedure of the presentation of evidence. Interpretation and systematization is used as the method, and witness psychological research results are considered. The study showed that the rules and other principles for the legal procedure together with the principle of the free presentation of evidence facilitate the presentation of the evidence applying to the identification error sources per se. Procedural principles, however, must be interpreted in a way that allows the use of the police identification report and police identification video as evidence in the trial. When gathering and presenting the evidence, the objectivity principle has an essential importance as well as the witness psychological expertise of the prosecutor and suspect's assistant. Further, the court should find out, on the basis of its duty to lead the process and with specific preconditions that have been specified in this study, what factors have influenced the reliability of the identification. For the most part, the use of expert witnesses is advisable only in connection with the identification of criminals suspected of serious crimes. The third question focuses on the evaluation of eyewitness identification evidence on the basis of the argumentation presented in the theories of evaluating evidence. The analysis model of identification reliability is represented as a solution to the question of how the reliability of eyewitness identification should be analyzed in court. It is essential in this model that when the principle of the free evaluation of evidence is dominant, the reliability of the identification is analyzed utilizing witness psychological rules by specifying them, yet always considering their probable value. When applying experimental rules in a single case, the circumstances and characteristics of the case must be taken into consideration, as well. The frequency-based theories of juror decision-making are rejected as not suitable for the analysis. Certain preconditions are also set for the use of the Story Model and the method based on falsification of hypotheses by Christian Diesen. The importance of a sufficient account for the factors affecting the reliability of the identification is emphasized as a part of the analysis, and evaluating the sufficiency separately is recommended. Categorization of the identification error sources is suggested for helping the analyzing process. This categorization should be made of the factors affecting the reliability before and during the investigation. The research also outlines how evidence relating to the identity of the perpetrator other than eyewitness identification and the gravity of the crime affect the analysis. In its entirety the analysis is different in each case, and the judge's intuition has a significant importance in applying the experimental rules of witness psychological research, especially in assessing the joint influence of the different factors affecting the reliability of the identification. Case material is also utilized in the study. Practical information based on the material is provided about the evaluation of eyewitness identification evidence in court a few points are also made about the identification procedures of the police. In the future, it is of great importance that the results of witness psychological studies are taken into consideration in the regulation of identification proceedings and in its interpretation as well as in the development of the quality of the analysis in individual cases in court.
  • Niemi, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines conceding as a social practice in Finnish conversation as well as the linguistic structures that are used to implement it, such as "voihan se olla" it may (well) be . The four case studies that are analysed are connected by a concessive sequence of turns at talk. In this sequence, the concessor concedes the prior speaker s point of view as (potentially) correct and either implies reserve or subsequently asserts a contrastive point of view. The data consist of telephone calls and video-recorded conversations between acquaintances and family members, as well as conversations from internet forums and a chat room. This study applies the method of Conversation Analysis and adopts the orientation of Construction Grammar on linguistic structures as holistic combinations of form and function. The central research questions of this analysis are 1) what gets done with the linguistic structures that the study examines, 2) what are the social, interactional, and sequential factors involved in the choice of a specific format, and 3) what is the relationship between linguistic constructions and social interaction. The functions of the linguistic structures analysed in this study differ in several ways. The concessor may comment on the truthfulness of the prior speaker s statement or its implied consequences. He or she may modify the prior speaker s statement or assert agreement without modification. In addition, concession can imply either independent knowledge about the subject at hand, or a lack of that knowledge. In the data, the more minimal concessive structures (such as "voi olla" may be and "se voi olla" it may be ) are crystallized so that even a small difference in form results in a difference in function. By contrast, more elaborated clausal concessions allow for variation in their lexical form while retaining their function. This study reveals the two faces of conceding in interaction. While conceding may advance the speakers agreement and mutual understanding, it also may serve as a resource to express disagreement and to represent the other speaker s point of view as rather foolish. In addition, this study demonstrates that concessive structures carry a frame semantic meaning of a larger concessive sequence. The recipients of a concession can therefore anticipate disagreement on the basis of the concessive move. As a result, constructions are to be understood as established practices through which speakers perform and interpret social actions as well as projections of upcoming actions.
  • Wang, Liang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In-network caching aims at improving content delivery and alleviating pressures on network bandwidth by leveraging universally networked caches. This thesis studies the design of cooperative in-network caching strategy from three perspectives: content, topology and cooperation, specifically focuses on the mechanisms of content delivery and cooperation policy and their impacts on the performance of cache networks. The main contributions of this thesis are twofold. From measurement perspective, we show that the conventional metric hit rate is not sufficient in evaluating a caching strategy on non-trivial topologies, therefore we introduce footprint reduction and coupling factor, which contain richer information. We show cooperation policy is the key in balancing various tradeoffs in caching strategy design, and further investigate the performance impact from content per se via different chunking schemes. From design perspective, we first show different caching heuristics and smart routing schemes can significantly improve the caching performance and facilitate content delivery. We then incorporate well-defined fairness metric into design and derive the unique optimal caching solution on the Pareto boundary with bargaining game framework. In addition, our study on the functional relationship between cooperation overhead and neighborhood size indicates collaboration should be constrained in a small neighborhood due to its cost growing exponentially on general network topologies.
  • Pijetlovic, Katarina (Springer, 2015)
    This dissertation analyses the legal problem posed by the clauses in UEFA Statutes that prevent clubs from unauthorised formation of alternative transnational structures in football. Unequivocally, these clauses constitute restrictions on economic activities of football clubs in their capacity as undertakings contrary to EU competition and internal market laws, in particular, Articles 101, 102 and 56 TFEU that form the core of EU sports law. More contentiously, however, the heart of the analysis lies in the question of justification and proportionality of the restrictions, which could possibly render the restrictive UEFA clauses legal and enforceable. Over the past 20 years, a solid body of case law, legislation and EU policy documents developed a distinct legal discipline that can be referred to as EU sports law and that can facilitate in resolving this question. The essence of EU sports law lies in the custom-tailored application of traditional economic provisions that takes account of the specificities of sport, a concept that has been given constitutional basis in Article 165 TFEU after the Lisbon Treaty amendments. Moreover, the approach to specificity of sport can be traced back to its origins in 1974 Walrave case, and it forms the basis of the crucial notion of sporting exception in the EU law. This study first highlights the problems in the governance of European football with particular reference to power struggles between UEFA and the elite football clubs and the threats of formation of alternative cross-border leagues by the clubs. Thereafter, the study sets out and discerns the principles underlying the application of EU freedom of movement and competition law to legal disputes in the sports sector, contributing several original interpretations of the key sports cases, such as Bosman, Meca-Medina, Bernard, and Murphy. Most prominent contribution of this thesis to the general study of EU sports law, however, is sketching a novel way of looking at the different categories of sporting exceptions through the prism of convergence between EU free movement law and competition law. The quest for convergence revealed a largely streamlined analytical framework in the sporting cases that involve organisational/regulatory rules and rely on public interest justifications. Finally, thus streamlined framework is applied to analyse the question of legality of the UEFA clauses restricting the formation of breakaway leagues. Some of the conclusions that emerge from this analytical process are surprising, in particular those pertaining to UEFA s power on the relevant market for organisational services for transnational club football in Europe.
  • Zeller, Wolfgang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Some argue that the territorial boundaries of African countries, having largely survived the transition to independence, are now like a poorly tailored suit: It does not fit in many places but African leaders have by and large accepted that they and their societies must somehow try to wear it. But has history stood still since independence? What is the everyday reality of those who live with these inherited colonial boundaries today? This dissertation investigates how competing claims of territory, authority and citizenship are negotiated between state representatives and residents in the Namibia-Zambia and Uganda-South Sudan borderlands. It asks: What kinds of governance regimes result from these negotiations? From considering these questions emerges the argument that borders do not only exist as an abstract construct, separate from or above the people and territories they are supposed to separate. Borderland actors in the study regions instead actively engage, challenge and thereby reshape the state, over time and repeatedly. They contribute to fine-tuning the state in ways that do not necessarily undermine or hollow it out. However, there are clear differences in how this happens between the more peaceful setting of the Namibia-Zambia borderland, with its annual rhythm of life patterned according to the seasonal rise and fall of the Zambezi river, and the Uganda-South Sudan borderland, where the memory of recent and fear of future large-scale organised violence strongly affect daily life. This dissertation consists of two articles published in peer-reviewed journals and two chapters published in peer-reviewed edited volumes in 2007-2013, and a synopsis which discusses these works comparatively and introduces their wider conceptual framework.
  • Kupari, Helena (2015)
    This study examines the lived religion of elderly Finnish Orthodox Christian women in present-day Finland. It discusses the women s everyday religious practice within the domestic environment. Furthermore, it also traces the ways in which their religion had been affected by their life histories, the changing status of the Orthodox community, and the modernization of Finnish society in the course of the 20th century. The primary research material for this study consists of interviews of 24 women. Finland is a Lutheran-dominated country; today, about one percent of Finns belong to the Orthodox Church. Traditionally, most of the Orthodox resided in Finnish Karelia. After the Second World War, Finland had to cede large areas of Karelia to the Soviet Union. In the process, two thirds of the Finnish Orthodox lost their homelands. All the interviewees, or their parents, had been among the evacuees from Karelia. The theoretical-methodological approach made use of in the study is based on practice theory. In particular, the concept of habitus as developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu is applied to analyze the women s interview accounts. The concept captures Bourdieu s understanding of the reciprocal dynamic between practice, subjectivity, and structures of power. The analysis demonstrates that the interviewees religion was characterized by a movement between routine and reflexive action. Judging from the material, they mostly did religion in a habitual fashion. Nevertheless, they could also perform their practices more intentionally, to reinforce their identity against specific others. These two aspects of the women s religion are traced, respectively, to their childhood religious socialization and their social trajectories as minority religious practitioners in Finnish society. Ultimately, the analysis forms an account of the women s religion as habitus. The informants religious habitus constituted an embodied and practical sense of religion, which informed both their routine religious practices and more conscious and creative religious actions. This study provides a description and a theoretical representation of one particular style of contemporary religiosity: the lifelong religion of older lay women. Within recent scholarship on religion, the religion of women of the inter-war generation has not received much attention. This study, moreover, offers a reading of Bourdieuan social theory as applied to the lived religion of minority practitioners. As such, it illustrates the explanatory potential that a Bourdieuan approach can bring to analyses of relatively stable religion.
  • Kohonen, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Clustering is a central task in computational statistics. Its aim is to divide observed data into groups of items, based on the similarity of their features. Among various approaches to clustering, Bayesian model-based clustering has recently gained popularity. Many existing works are based on stochastic sampling methods. This work is concerned with exact, exponential-time algorithms for the Bayesian model-based clustering task. In particular, we consider the exact computation of two summary statistics: the number of clusters, and pairwise incidence of items in the same cluster. We present an implemented algorithm for computing these statistics substantially faster than would be achieved by direct enumeration of the possible partitions. The method is practically applicable to data sets of up to approximately 25 items. We apply a variant of the exact inference method into graphical models where a given variable may have up to four parent variables. The parent variables can then have up to 16 value combinations, and the task is to cluster them and find combinations that lead to similar conditional probability tables. Further contributions of this work are related to number theory. We show that a novel combination of addition chains and additive bases provides the optimal arrangement of multiplications, when the task is to use repeated multiplication starting from a given number or entity, but only a certain kind of function of the successive powers is required. This arrangement speeds up the computation of the posterior distribution for the number of clusters. The same arrangement method can be applied to other multiplicative tasks, for example, in matrix multiplication. We also present new algorithmic results related to finding extremal additive bases. Before this work, the extremal additive bases were known up to length 23. We have computed them up to length 24 in the unrestricted case, and up to length 41 in the restricted case.
  • Mainio, Aleksi (Omakustanne, 2015)
    The October Revolution in 1917 led to Europe being divided into two camps. The turmoil in Russia also affected Finland, the territory of which became a safe haven for different counterrevolutionary organisations. It is possible to even talk about an invisible war between Finland and the Soviet Union although officially the countries had reached a peace agreement in 1920. This doctoral thesis examines how different White Russian intelligence and military organisations used the territory of Finland for counterrevolutionary activities between 1918 and 1939. It also discusses the relations of the Finnish Security Police and the Military Intelligence of the General Staff with the underground organisations and the attitude of Finnish authorities towards their illegal activities. No comprehensive research has previously been made on these activities. Nor have the groups operating in Finland been formerly examined in a broader international context. Research on these movements and their operations in Finland has therefore remained fragmented and unconnected with the broader picture of the anti-Bolshevistic activity in Russia and the whole of Europe. One of the main conclusions of this thesis is that the territory of Finland served as a significant base for counterrevolutionary operations. Between 1918 and 1939, White Russian emigrants organised intelligence operations and even terrorist attacks against the Soviet Union from the territory of Finland. These events resulted from the previous history of the country and its geopolitical location close to Leningrad and Moscow as well as from the traditions of Finnish activism. This thesis also shows that the White Russian emigrant organisations were closely linked with Finnish security authorities. Arranging terrorist and intelligence operations against the Soviet Union would have been almost impossible without their active or at least passive support. The General Staff, in particular, and the Finnish Security Police to a certain extent, were ready to tolerate and even support the secret activities of White Russian emigrants under certain conditions. This resulted from their desire to affect the developments in the Soviet Union but also from the great demand for intelligence on the neighbouring country. Without close cooperation with the emigrant organisations this would have been difficult to achieve. Such cooperation was a major risk for Finland and its relations with the Soviet Union. From time to time it might even have brought the countries onto the verge of a military conflict. Soviet propaganda used the support of Finnish authorities to emigrant activists involved in terrorist attack plans to harm the reputation of Finland and to justify the shift towards an increasingly totalitarian system.
  • Airila, Auli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In today´s work life, employees are expected not only to be reasonably healthy, but also to be highly engaged and work efficiently. However, at the same time, the prevalence of mental health disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal systems is high. Therefore, understanding and enhancing employee well-being as a whole is essential. This study examined the longitudinal effects of work characteristics, personal resources, and lifestyle on employee well-being by applying three theoretical frameworks Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, and Broaden-and-Build (BaB) theory. Employee well-being was understood as a multidimensional construct covering affective, cognitive, and health-related components. The data was collected with questionnaires among Finnish firefighters during a 13-year period with three measurement points (i.e., 1996, 1999, and 2009). Two slightly different datasets were used in the four sub-studies (dataset 1: n = 403; dataset 2: n = 360). The study showed that a positive state of work engagement was significantly associated with work ability even after adjusting for various individual and work characteristics. Secondly, job and personal resources had long-term effects on work engagement, and consequently on work ability, thus expanding the potential positive outcomes of the motivational process included in the JD-R model. Thus, the dual role of work ability both as a predictor (i.e., health-related resource) that may foster engagement, and as an outcome of the motivational process was found. Moreover, this study showed that different developmental paths in positive (i.e., vigor) and negative (i.e., fatigue) affective states are possible and these paths differently predicted well-being. Although both vigor and fatigue were rather stable over time, some changes occurred over the 13-year follow-up period. The results suggest both the possibility and need to foster positive developmental paths in affective states in order to maintain and improve employee well-being. Similarly, different developmental paths in multisite musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms were observed, and changes over time proved to be possible. Job demands, job and personal resources as well as lifestyle were partly differently related to pain-depression trajectories. This needs to be acknowledged when planning interventions for preventing musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms. To conclude, the beneficial role of job resources and personal resources, and similarly the detrimental effects of job demands in explaining employee well-being were shown, and thus, proving further support for the assumptions of the JD-R model, COR theory, and BaB theory. Evidently, a motivated and energetic worker, who has a resourceful job and not too high mental and physical demands has better well-being than a co-worker who is less engaged and experiences a more unfavourable situation in terms of demands and resources. Moreover, a good level of self-esteem, an optimistic view of the future and healthy lifestyle habits may increase the likelihood of being healthy and happy. As such, work organizations have good opportunities to reinforce and maintain well-being of their employees, and consequently prevent ill-health and promote long work careers.
  • Turja, Raisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Biomarkers measured in organisms are sensitive molecular, cellular or individual level biological effects, which can be applied as early-warning signals of environmental contamination before damage occurs at population, community or ecosystem levels. In this thesis, a suite of biomarkers and tissue concentrations of chemicals were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) as indicators of environmental pollution. The mussels were transplanted in specially made cages in coastal areas of the northern Baltic Sea influenced by different types of contamination and environmental factors. The aims of the research were to apply the biomarker approach to (1) assess the impact of contaminants on the health status of mussels, (2) investigate the effects of seasonal variability in biotic and abiotic factors, and low salinity, and (3) validate the usefulness of the mussel caging method for biomonitoring of chemical contamination in the northern Baltic Sea. The results showed marked biomarker responses coinciding with higher concentrations of contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organotins and trace metals, in mussels caged at the most contaminated study sites. At the contaminated sites, for example the enzymatic biomark¬ers of the antioxidant defense system indicated higher stress level, which was closely linked to elevated level of DNA-damage, increased biotransformation activity and decreased general health status of the cells. Biomarker responses and tissue contaminant concentrations were also related to the seasonal variability in growth and especially in soft tissue weight of the mussels. In the northern Baltic Sea the mussels almost fully deplete their energy stores during the winter; in the spring mussels efficiently feed on the fresh phytoplankton, which forms the main source of energy for their reproduction, energy metabolism and growth. Natural environmental factors caused less variation in the biomarker responses in the late summer and autumn suggesting that this time period is the most suitable for studying contaminant induced effects in mussels. More pronounced effects were observed in mussels exposed jointly to low salinity and chemical contamination, indicating that increased environmental stress reduces the tolerance of mussels towards anthropogenic pressures. This work showed that the mussel caging approach is an efficient biomonitoring method to assess biological effects and tissue accumulation of complex mixtures of contaminants as long as the effects of seasonal variability and low salinity are taken into account.
  • Klenberg, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Executive functions (EFs) are essential for coordination and controlling of other cognitive functions and behavior. EFs are involved in all purposeful activity, and for children, they are important for learning and functioning in school environments. Difficulties in EFs are common in school-age children with developmental disabilities, such as attention deficit disorder (ADHD). This thesis consists of three studies addressing EFs in school-age children. The first study employed neuropsychological tests from the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment NEPSY to examine age-related differences in EFs in a sample of 400 children. The second study investigated the methodological factors related to EF measures in a sample of 340 children using response inhibition tasks from the NEPSY-II, the second edition of the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. The third study aimed at constructing a new instrument, the Attention and Executive Function Rating Inventory ATTEX, for the clinical assessment of EFs and verifying the psychometric properties of the rating scale in a sample of 916 children. Age-related improvement in EF task performance continued throughout the school-age period, proceeding from inhibition to attention control, and further to fluency of actions. A closer examination of response inhibition showed developmental variation even within this EF domain. The developmental change was apparent at school age, but different outcome measures and the cognitive requirements of tasks had an effect on how the development of response inhibition was depicted. In the assessment of everyday EF behaviors, the ATTEX rating scale demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and good criterion and discriminant validity for ADHD. The EF profiles were different for the ADHD subtypes, and children with predominantly inattentive symptoms showed more wide-ranging difficulties in EFs than children with combined symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Carefully examined, reliable, and valid measures are essential for both the scientific research and clinical assessment of EFs. Factors related to the measures, e.g., materials, stimuli, and the selected outcome measure, and the cognitive processes involved in tasks have effect on how development of EFs is depicted. Close examination of these factors can help to attain a more consisted account on EF development. In the clinical assessment of EF difficulties, the measures need to be sensitive to the actual difficulties that arise in every-day situations. These are best assessed with standardized rating scales. The new rating scale presented in this thesis proved to be a suitable measure both for screening and examining the detailed EF profiles of children in school situations.
  • Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a globally important grain crop. The composition and structure of barley grain is under genotypic and environmental control during grain development, when storage compounds (mainly starch and protein), are accumulated. Grain structure plays a significant role in malting and feed- and food-processing quality of barley. Hordeins, the major storage proteins in barley grains, are centrally located in the endosperm forming a matrix surrounding starch granules, but their role in the structural properties of barley grain is not completely understood. Thus, the main aim of the current study was to demonstrate the role of hordeins in barley grain structure. The dependence of the grain structure on the growth environment, in particular with respect to day-length and sulphur application relevant to northern growing conditions, was studied. The effects of the grain structure on end use properties in milling as well as in hydration and modification during malting were characterized. The longer photoperiod typical to latitudes in Southern Finland resulted in a C hordein fraction, entrapped by aggregated B and D hordeins, being more deeply located in the endosperm of barley cultivar Barke. Thus the impact of the growing environment on hordein deposition during grain filling was observed both at the tissue and subcellular level. However, the mechanism behind the differential accumulation of C hordein remains unclear. The deeper localization of entrapped C hordein was linked to improved hydration of grains during malting in three barley cultivars. Thus, the role of the subaleurone region in barley grain was found to be significant with respect to end use quality. Moreover, the results suggest that the growing environment affects the end-use properties of barley and that especially the northern growing conditions have a positive impact on barley processing quality. The influence of sulphur application on hordein composition in the Northern European growing conditions was demonstrated for the first time. Asparagine and C hordein served as nitrogen storage pools when the S application rate was lower than 20 mg S / kg soil, whereas total hordein and B hordein contents increased with higher S application rates. The current study also showed that even when sulphur is sufficiently available in field conditions, the hordein composition may react to sulphur application. The observed sulphur responses were in accordance with those reported earlier for hordein composition. This indicates that the more intensive growth rhythm induced in northern growing conditions does not alter greatly the effect of sulphur on grain composition. The current study confirmed that the main grain components: starch, protein and β-glucan, influence grain processing properties including milling, hydration and endosperm modification. However, their influence on endosperm texture (hardness or steeliness), which also affects the performance of barley grains in these processes, cannot be directly derived or estimated on the basis of the grain composition. The results obtained suggest that hordeins should also be taken into account in the evaluation of the processing behaviour of barley grains.
  • Mutanen, Anu (2015)
    This dissertation analyses state sovereignty from the point of view of national constitutions in the context of the constitutional pluralism of the EU. The research questions of the study are threefold. 1. What changes has the European Union caused in the conceptions and theories of state sovereignty? 2. How do the constitutions of the EU Member States regulate sovereignty? 3. How have these sovereignty provisions been interpreted in Finland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Estonia in a selection of EU-related national treaty processes? These questions are examined with a combination of theoretical and genealogical methods as well as contextual legal dogmatics and legal comparison. The dissertation demonstrates that the EU, and European constitutionalism in general, has profoundly affected state sovereignty as a matter of national constitutional law. The concept of state sovereignty has met with increasing criticism. Particularly the idea of absolute sovereignty has faced its demise in the EU Member States. Nevertheless, the general scholarly take within constitutional law still holds on to the concept, but provides it with increasingly relative content expressed in different theories of delegated or shared sovereignty. The texts of the EU Member State constitutions, however, still hold on to rather absolute formulations of state sovereignty and are still silent on the EU despite its far-reaching effects on sovereignty. As a result the constitutional provisions on sovereignty have been subject to dynamic interpretation in order to enable the domestic ratification of the EU treaties and their amendments without jeopardising the EU s development. Germany belongs to the group of states whose constitutions do not contain a sovereignty clause and which have well-established empowerment clauses. The interpretations provided by the German Constitutional Court in regard to the EU treaties have at times been very EU critical, and influential: Sweden, for example, has clearly developed its EU regulation through the model provided by Germany. Sweden does not mention state sovereignty in its Constitutions, and its constitutional interpretation has been integration friendly. Denmark has an EU-minimalist Constitution, the rigidity and the strong built-in referendum institution of which has enabled it to negotiate opt-outs to the EU treaties, allowing it to escape certain significant consequences for sovereignty. Estonia is situated at the apex of sovereignty protectionist constitutions, but on the other hand its Supreme Court has adopted a very pro-EU manner of interpretation. Finland used to have one of the most sovereignty-oriented constitutions in the EU. However, during the country s EU membership the constitutional interpretation has shifted from a rigid and formalistic approach to state sovereignty towards emphasising and easing Finland s EU activities and other international cooperation. This development was codified in 2012 in the Constitution of Finland in the form of an EU clause and empowerment clauses. When considering both the textual level of sovereignty regulation and its interpretation in connection to the national EU treaty ratification procedures, the current Finnish constitutional understanding of sovereignty is more integration friendly than that of Germany, Denmark, Sweden, or Estonia. This dissertation argues in favour of a pluralistic understanding of state sovereignty for resolution of the problems related to sovereignty within the EU. In the new pluralistic understanding of state sovereignty, national conceptions of sovereignty are recognised in that they also contain within themselves the possibilities for international cooperation and EU membership, with the accompanying transfer of powers and widening of competences, in order to engender truly pluralistic interaction between the EU and its Member States.