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  • Mielikäinen, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 4.3.)
    Tämä tutkielma on kokoava tutkimus Raamatusta nousevista kuva-aiheista, joita esiintyy 1400-luvun lopun ja 1510-luvun henkilömaalauksissa Suomen keskiaikaisissa kivikirkoissa. Aikaisempi Suomen keskiaikaista kirkkotaidetta koskeva tutkimus on ollut pääosin taidehistoriallista. Tutkielma pyrkii vastaamaan kysymykseen, millaisena Raamattu näyttäytyy suomalaisissa keskiaikaisissa kirkkomaalauksissa. Tutkimuskohteena ovat 1470–1490 –luvuilla Suomessa työskennelleen Taivassalon maalariryhmän maalaamat kirkot sekä 1500-luvun alussa maalatut kuvasarjat Länsi-Uudellamaalla, Hattulassa, Raumalla ja Pyhtäällä. Vanhasta testamentista peräisin olevia kuva-aiheita on vain 1510-luvulla tehdyissä maalaussarjoissa, joissa ne toimivat Kristukseen liittyvänä vertauskuvina ja hänen toimintansa selittäjinä. Vanhasta testamentista Suomen keskiaikaisten kirkkojen seinille on päässyt vanhan liiton keskeisiä henkilöitä, kuten Mooses, Daniel, Iisak ja Simson. Pelastushistoriaan kiinteästi liittyvät luominen ja syntiinlankeemus esiintyvät maalaussarjoissa kirkkosalin seinällä. Sen sijaan Kristuksen esikuvat löytyvät kirkkojen kattoholveista. Neitsyt Mariaan liittyvistä kuva-aiheista valtaosa on peräisin muualta kuin Raamatusta. Maalauksissa, jotka pohjaavat Raamattuun, Maria liittyy kiinteästi poikaansa Jeesukseen. Maria on yhdistetty Jeesuksen elämän loppuun ja alkuun; syntymäkertomuksiin ja kärsimykseen, kuolemaan ja ylösnousemukseen. Maria-aiheita esiintyy sekä Taivassalon ryhmän maalauksissa että 1500-luvun maalaussarjoissa. Jeesuksen elämä on havainnollistettu kalkkimaalauksissa yksityiskohtaisesti, etenkin Jeesuksen kärsimyshistorian osalta. Vain harvassa kirkossa Jeesus ei ole päässyt lainkaan osaksi maalauskokonaisuutta. Maalauksista välittyy kuva Jeesuksesta, joka etsii aikuisen ihmisen uskoa. Niin ikään maalausten Jeesus on pikemminkin ihmiskuntaa pelastamaan tullut taivaallinen Kristus kuin mies Jeesus Nasaretilainen. Viimeistä tuomiota esittävät maalauskokonaisuudet sekä evankelistasymbolit poikkeavat hyvin vähän eri kirkoissa. Molempien aiheiden kuvaamistavat olivat siinä määrin vakiintuneet, että erot kirkkojen välillä selittyvät käytetyillä mallikirjoilla ja maalareiden taidoilla. Viimeinen tuomio ja evankelista-symbolit kuuluvat suosituimpien kuva-aiheiden joukkoon. Jeesuksen opetuslapset on useassa kirkossa esitetty niin sanottuna credo-sarjana sekä osana kirkon pyhimysjoukkoa. Käsitellyn aineiston pohjalta nousee kuva Raamatusta, joka on lyhennetty ja tiivistetty. Keskiaikaisiin kuvaraamattuihin ja hartauskirjoihin verrattuna suomalaisissa kalkkimaalauksissa pitäydytään pitkälle olennaisessa kertomuksessa, eikä Jeesuksen elämää turhan tähden lähdetä selostamaan vaikeaselkoisin typologioin. Kuvakertomukset ovat ajan hengen mukaisesti vahvasti Kristus-keskeisiä. Kuitenkin kokonaisuutena Vanha testamentti pääsee maalauksissa paremmin esille kuin Uusi testamentti, josta huomio kiinnittyy lähes yksinomaan evankeliumeihin.
  • Vatanen, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Long-term ovarian function was retrospectively evaluated after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in childhood and adolescence. Cardiovascular risk factors, arterial morphology and stiffness, left ventricular (LV) mass and function, physical fitness and frailty were investigated in adult and adolescent survivors of high-risk neuroblastoma (HR NBL) after autologous HSCT in childhood. The first study population included a cohort of 92 female long-term survivors who were less than 20 years of age when treated at the Children s Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, or Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, between 1978 and 2000. The follow-up data included signs of spontaneous puberty, age at menarche, the use of hormone replacement therapy, pregnancies, and information about pubertal or postpubertal serum FSH levels. The second study population included the Finnish national cohort of 19 long-term HR NBL survivors treated between 1980 and 2000, and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Clinical examinations included 24h ambulatory blood pressure (BP), very-high-resolution vascular ultrasound, 3D echocardiography and Tissue Doppler Imaging ultrasounds, body composition, physical performance tests and interview. Older age at HSCT and total body irradiation and busulfan-based conditionings were risk factors for early ovarian aging. Leukemia survivors with previous cranial radiotherapy or transplanted after disease relapse were at high risk of premature ovarian failure. The HR NBL survivors showed increased carotid intima-media thickness, plaque formation and stiffness, increased radial artery intima thickness, and increased cardiovascular risk profile when compared to the controls. They had increased LV mass, decreased systolic and diastolic LV function when compared to the controls. Poor LV function associated with cardiac biomarkers, poor physical performance and increased BP. The survivors showed shorter telomere length and increased frequency of frailty phenotype when compared to the controls. The frailty phenotype associated with cardiovascular health and chronic inflammation. In conclusion, our study shows that the adult survivors after HSCT in young age are at risk of early reproductive and vascular aging and frailty. The survivors of pediatric HSCT require regular follow-up in adulthood and interventions for declining ovarian function, cardiovascular risk factors, high BP, subclinical signs of atherosclerosis and decreased cardiac function. Since lifestyle choices can influence cardiovascular health and frailty status, a healthy non-smoking lifestyle and physical activity should be advocated among all survivors who have received HSCT in childhood.
  • Leppilahti, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and especially MMP-8 is one of the most widely reported oral fluid biomarkers and a promising target candidate for periodontal point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Periodontitis is associated with increased oral fluid MMP-8 levels, which typically decrease after conventional periodontal treatments. Employing the measurement of oral fluid MMP-8 levels diagnostically, however, is complicated due to high variability. Chronic periodontal inflammation can induce MMP-8 expression in a wide array of cell types, although a great extent of the MMP-8 detected from the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) originates from polynuclear neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils). MMP-8 mediates periodontal tissue breakdown by processing extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with a wide substrate specificity. There is also increasing evidence that MMP-8 contributes to inflammatory signaling cascades and has a protective role in periodontitis and cancer. Thus, it is important to define and differentiate a (statistical) range of physiological fluctuations in the oral fluid MMP-8 POC diagnostics, from the pathologically high MMP-8 levels. The aim of this study was to study methodological and biological reasons for the large variability of GCF MMP-8 and further to evaluate the utility of GCF MMP-8 for POC diagnostics and its ability to predict the treatment outcome after the conventional scaling and root plaining (SRP) treatment and during the supportive maintenance period. Different laboratory and POC MMP-8 detecting methods were compared to study methodological reasons of variability in the GCF MMP-8 levels. In addition, correlations between different inflammatory GCF biomarkers and MMP-8 were compared. The MMP-8 levels measured with laboratory methods or POC tests/devices based on the same monoclonal antibody were clearly in agreement and correlated significantly. There was surprisingly large variability in MMP-8 levels, however, when measured with different assays based on different antibodies. The comparison of different GCF biomarkers revealed highly discriminating properties, especially for myeloperoxidase (MPO) and MMP-8, to differentiate both healthy and gingivitis sites from moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis sites. The longitudinal variability in GCF MMP-8 response patterns was explored and the prognostic utility of GCF MMP-8 was studied. Distinct response patterns during the maintenance period could be found via cluster analysis, especially among smoking patients. High MMP-8 levels at baseline and especially the high-responding pattern among smokers during the maintenance period predicted the compromised treatment outcome. The utility of the GCF MMP-8 levels in the prognostic POC diagnostics was further studied within a heterogenic population by combining different independent datasets. Continuously high MMP-8 levels, at baseline and during the maintenance period, predicted an increased risk for compromised treatment outcome for both non- smoking and smoking patients. Low MMP-8 levels decreased the risk respectively. Overall, the different MMP-8 antibodies can have a quite large difference in affinities to different MMP-8 isoforms, causing variability to the measured levels. If researchers fail to use the same detection methods in different studies, result comparisons may be complicated. GCF MMP-8, however, is a promising candidate as a prognostic biomarker to identify sites with an increased risk for compromised treatment outcome. This study also strongly supports the evidence that MMP-8 can diagnostically differentiate between periodontitis and healthy or gingivitis sites and can also be used for the quantitative, therapeutic monitoring of treatment outcome. Different GCF MMP-8 cutoff levels should be applied for smokers and non-smokers in the MMP-8 based POC diagnostics, however.
  • Schatz, Monika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation is a multi-faceted case study producing qualitative insights into Finland s education export policies. Drawing on education, anthropology, and critical intercultural studies, the dissertation is embedded in an interdisciplinary theoretical framework. The major contribution of this research is a critical approach that enhances understanding of Finland s newly emerging education export sector. The dissertation consists of a research summary and three original refereed studies (Schatz, 2015 and Schatz, et al., 2015, and Schatz, 2016). Conceptually and empirically, the research responds to the following research questions: RQ1: What is the context for the emergence of Finnish education export? RQ2: What are the motives and objectives of Finnish education export policies? RQ3: What is the Finnish education export product? RQ4: How do Finnish higher education institutions perceive their role as education exporters? RQ5: What kinds of ideologies underpin Finnish education export policies? The scope of the research concentrates on the Finnish education export context. In focus are two Finnish education export policy documents, published by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture in 2010 and 2013. The Finnish national education brand and empirical data gathered through questionnaires serve as supporting research data. The applied data analysis methods include Anderson s associative network memory model and Mayring s qualitative content analysis. Research literature on education export in other contexts is used to conceptually grasp the developments in Finland and to highlight differences and similarities between Finland and the international education export sector. Taken together, the findings suggest that Finland s education export ambitions are embedded in international tendencies towards the commodification of education. It is demonstrated that current Finnish education export policies are closely intertwined with public discourses on PISA rankings, Finland s national education brand, and structural changes in the Finnish higher education landscape. The data reveals a large gap between the education export policy goals and their implementation. Based on the findings, several challenges relating to the Finnish education export product and the role of Finnish higher education institutions as education exporters are highlighted. The dissertation problematizes the sustainability of Finland s education export sector and emphasizes the need for a critical debate on education export policy and practice. ________________________________________ Keywords: Education export, Finnish education, education policy dynamics, education branding, commodification of education
  • Alves Antunes Soares, Joana Soares (2016)
    Atmospheric aerosols are subject to extensive research, due to their effect on air quality, human health and ecosystems, and hold a pivotal role in the Earth s climate. The first focus of this study is to improve the modelling of aerosol emissions and its dispersion in the atmosphere in both spatial and temporal scales and secondly, to integrate the dispersion modelling with population activity data that leads to exposure metrics. The mathematical models used in this study are fully or partially developed by the Finnish Meteorological Institute: a global-to -mesoscale chemical transport model, SILAM; a local-scale point/line-source dispersion model, UDM/CAR-FMI; and a human exposure and intake fraction assessment model, EXPAND. One of the outcomes of this work was the refinement of the emissions modelling for global-to-mesoscale dispersion model. Firstly, a new parameterisation for bubble-mediated sea salt emissions has been developed by combining and re-assessing widely used formulations and datasets. This parameterisation takes into account the effects of wind speed and seawater salinity and temperature, and can be applicable to particles with dry diameters raging between 0.01 and 10 µm. The parameterization is valid for low-to-moderate wind speed, seawater salinity ranging between 0 and 33 and seawater temperature ranging between -2 and 25 °C. Secondly, the near-real time fire estimation system, IS4FIRES, based on Fire Radiative Power (FRP) data from MODIS, was refined to reduce the overestimation of particulate matter (PM) emissions by including more vegetation types, improving the diurnal variation, removing highly-energetic sources and recalibrating the emission factors. Applying dynamic emission modelling brought more insight to the spatial distribution of these emissions, their contribution to the atmospheric budget, and possible impact on air quality and climate. The modelling shows that sea salt aerosol (SSA) can be transported far over land and contribute up to 6 µg m-3 to PM10 (at annual level), and indicate that the Mediterranean has sharp gradients of concentrations, becoming an interesting area to analyse for climate considerations. For fire, the simulations show the importance of meteorology and vegetation type for the intensity of the emissions. The simulations also show that MODIS FRP is accounting for highly energetic sources as a wildland fire, bringing up to an 80% overestimation in AOD, close to the misattributed sources. The second outcome is related to urban-scale modelling. The emissions for Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) were revised to bring up-to-date the emissions for traffic and energy sectors in use for urban-scale modelling. The EXPAND model was revised to combine concentrations and activity data in order to compute parameters such as population exposure or intake fraction. EXPAND includes improvements of the associated urban emission and dispersion modelling system, time use of population, and infiltration coefficients from outdoor to indoor air. This refinement showed that PM2.5 in HMA is mainly originated from long-range transport, with the largest local contributors being vehicular emissions and shipping (at harbours and its vicinity). At annual level, the population living mostly indoors (home and work) is mainly exposed to PM2.5 with an acutely increased exposure while commuting.
  • Hansen, Petteri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Over the past 30 years, the political steering of the Finnish education system has gradually shifted from being under the direct supervision of the state to adopting a development and evaluation policy based on networks and projects. Development projects, often funded by ministries, and based on governmental programmes, have also become a more common form of steering in the Finnish teacher education system. In this case study, I examine the opportunities and limits of project-based steering in the light of two development projects based on a Finnish governmental programmes. The theoretical framework of my research is grounded in Niklas Luhmann`s systems theory and especially in its application within organisational research. In order to characterise the research problem, I have applied the concepts and research methodology particularly developed by Niels Åkerstøm-Andersen. I describe projects as second-order organisations, which are placed in the overlapping area of various function and organisation systems and the purpose of which is to change the ways that organisations related to teacher education regard themselves and their environment. As the main conclusion, I argue that, instead of the realisation of predefined objectives, teacher development projects appear to respond to changing expectations. Projects as second-order organisations are constantly seeking opportunities for inter-organisational collaboration and they also render the opportunities and limits for change in teacher education more visible. Indeed, owing to the temporary nature of projects, organisations are able to use them as a means of demonstrating their responsiveness to different audiences. The projects examined in this study can also be said to play a diagnostic, cautionary, and confessional role for social education, the status of which inside teacher education has, in contrast to its psychological and didactical contents, been somewhat marginalised. Nevertheless, as a form of political steering, development projects within teacher education are associated with several serious problems with them. First and foremost, project-based steering transfers some political and administrative services to temporary organisations and, in doing so, the opportunities and limits for steering are only observable insofar as the project(s) in question continues to exist. Furthermore, projects can be seen to blur the role definition of various actors, as well as the delineations between the areas in which scientific, economic, and educational data is applied.
  • Ilander, Mette (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is caused by a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. As a result of the translocation Philadelphia chromosome that contains a malignant oncogene is born. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) target the malignant oncokinase that is produced from the oncogene and drives the development of CML. The prognosis of CML patients has improved significantly after the emergence of the TKIs. Some patients can even stop the treatment without imminent disease relapse. However, it has been shown that patients who stay in remission without any treatment still have leukemic cells left. We hypothesized that the immune system is able to keep these cells under control and studied the mechanisms behind immune surveillance by analysing the immune cell phenotype and function in CML patients. The results of this thesis show that the immune system plays a role in the successful discontinuation of the treatment. The results from 3 separate studies suggested that natural killer cells are important in successful treatment discontinuation in CML, and that they might be capable of activating T cells and adaptive immunity to keep leukaemia under control. We further studied the effects of 2nd generation TKI dasatinib, known to have immunomodulatory effects. We observed that dasatinib treatment increased the number of Granzyme B expressing memory CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, which were highly active by secreting interferon γ (IFN-γ). We hypothesized that these cells may have a role in the anti-leukaemia activity, as IFN-γ is known to be important in tumour control. The dasatinib induced antitumour immune effects were confirmed in a B16.OVA mouse melanoma model. We were able to demonstrate that dasatinib treatment increases the amount of tumour-infiltrating CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and induces a tumour size reduction dependent on the presence of functional T cells. Taken together, this thesis work illustrates the significance of an active immune system in successful treatment discontinuation in CML. Based on our results it would be important to combine immune activating agents in the future treatment strategies of CML in order to increase the number of patients who are able to successfully discontinue the treatment and be cured.
  • Holopainen, Tanja (Unigrafia, 2016)
    Angiopoietins (Angs) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) regulate angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, and lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels. Angiogenesis is important in cancer, because for continuous growth a primary tumor needs a supply of oxygen and nutrients delivered via blood vessels. In physiological conditions, the lymphatic vasculature serves to collect interstitial fluid as well as to absorb lipid particles. In the context of cancer, lymphatic vessels serve as a route for the metastatic dissemination of tumor cells. This dissertation aimed to explore the role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) in cancer progression. In particular, the roles of these proteins in the context of tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as metastasis were investigated in two separate studies. In addition, the effects of the photodynamic ablation of intralymphatic cancer cells and lymphatic vessels on the development of metastases were explored. Furthermore, the effect of the endothelial bone marrow tyrosine kinase in chromosome X (Bmx) on tumor angiogenesis was investigated. We found that the inhibition of VEGFR3 reduces tumor blood vasculature and primary tumor growth. In the second study we found that in-transit tumor cells can be targeted with verteporfin-induced photodynamic therapy. The photodynamic ablation of lymphatic vessels was improved by combining this strategy with anti-lymphangiogenic therapies via the adenovirally mediated soluble expression of the VEGF-C/D trap. Bmx, a member of the Tec non-receptor tyrosine kinase family, was previously shown to promote tumor cell survival, but relatively little is known about the effect of this kinase on tumor biology. Here, we studied the effects of Bmx tumor angiogenesis by using Bmx gene-deleted mice. Some reduction of primary tumor growth in Bmx-/- mice was detected in several isogenic and oncogenic tumor models, along with some attenuation of tumor angiogenesis. Conversely, overexpression of Bmx resulted in increased tumor progression and angiogenesis. Ang2 is known to be a context-dependent agonist of the tyrosine kinase of the Tie2 receptor. Here, we analyzed the effect of Ang2 on metastatic dissemination into the lungs, finding that the overexpression of Ang2 enhanced lung metastasis. In contrast, Ang2 inhibition decreased the occurrence of lung metastases. In the ultrastructural analysis of the metastatic lungs using transmission electron microscopy, anti-Ang2 treatment attenuated tumor-associated changes in metastasis-associated lung capillaries. This dissertation demonstrates that the blockade of VEGFR3 inhibits tumor angiogenesis, and that the inhibition of Ang2 inhibits lymphatic and lung metastasis and improves endothelial integrity. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability of photodynamic therapy to eradicate lymphatic vessels and intralymphatic cancer cells. These data provide a rationale for developing new cancer therapies targeting the lymphatics in order to reduce metastasis and tumor progression. Taken together, these results provide new insights into endothelial tyrosine kinase-mediated angiogenesis, tumor lymphangiogenesis, and vascular-based therapeutic strategies in cancer.
  • Godenhjelm, Sebastian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Under de senaste decennierna har samhälleliga problem och krav från både lokala och supra-nationella nivåer ökat. Till följd av detta har den moderna offentliga förvaltningen och governance systemen genomgått stora förändringar. Entydiga lösningar för hur man ska överkomma dessa problem och krav är sällsynta. Problem som berör den offentliga förvaltningen faller sällan entydigt in under enskilda jurisdiktioners eller myndigheters kompetensområden. Staten har till en allt större grad blivit beroende av en mängd riktlinjer och nya arrangemang genom vilka tjänster inom den offentliga sektorn snabbt ska produceras, och resultat ska uppnås inom snäva tidsramar. Governance mekanismer och organisationsformer som möjliggör kollaborativa, dynamiska och flexibla arrangemang i implementering av offentlig politik har därför fått allt större betydelse. Denna studie analyserar den ökade användningen av temporära projektorganisationer vid implementeringen av offentligt beslutad verksamhet samt vilka konsekvenser detta kan ha. Huvudargumentet i denna studie är att projektorganisationer kan leda till signifikanta fördelar och spela en väsentlig roll som sammanlänkande mekanismer på både horisontellt och vertikalt plan genom att koppla ihop olika administrativa nivåer och sektorer. Användningen av projektorganisationer kan däremot också medföra flera utmaningar, vars konsekvenser man ännu inte har förstått fullständigt. Det övergripandet målet i denna studie är att konceptualisera och förstå fördelarna och nackdelarna av den ökade mängden temporära governance mekanismer i form av projektorganisationer inom den offentliga sektorn. Konsekvenserna av och fördelarna med projektifieringen inom den offentliga sektorn analyseras i fyra artiklar och denna sammanfattande artikel. Vilka är drivkrafterna bakom projektifieringen ur den Europeiska unionens (EU) perspektiv och inom den offentliga sektorn som helhet? Studien tar i beaktande projektorganisationers långtidseffekter och till vilken utsträckning mervärdet, som projekten förväntas producera, kan utnyttjas. Vilka deltagare är det fördelaktigt att inkludera i projekt och vilka kollaborativa arrangemang och handlingstyper behövs för att innovationer ska uppnås inom EU-finansierade strukturfondsprojekt? De mångfacetterade karaktärsdragen i projektforskningen inom den offentliga sektorn, det unika i de involverade aktörernas preferenser, intressen och förfaranden, samt förvaltningen av projekt förutsätter en bred teoretisk förankring och olika analysmetoder. Tre besläktade forskningsinriktningar är i detta avseende speciellt relevanta, nämligen diskursen kring ny offentlig förvaltning (NPM), Governance teorier, samt projektledningsideal och projektgovernance (GoP). Inriktningarna representerar en blandning av gammalt och nytt, som är nödvändig för att förstå hur projekt och projektifiering fungerar och hur de är förankrade i den offentliga sektorns miljö. Studien utgår ifrån ett empiriskt informerat interpretivt perspektiv och använder blandade metoder. Metoderna som används i de individuella artiklarna är meta-analys, kvalitativ innehållsanalys, logistisk regressions-analys samt social nätverksanalys. Studiens resultat belyser bristen på konceptualiseringar som berör förhållandet mellan temporära och permanenta strukturer, och framhäver att den ökande temporaliteten inom offentliga sektorns processer kan utgöra utmaningar för fundamentala värden inom administrationen, till exempel transparens och demokratisk ansvarsutkrävning. Resultaten ifrågasätter det ofta överbetonade värdet av att använda projekt i stället för permanenta mekanismer inom den offentliga sektorn. Skillnaderna mellan projektens bakomliggande operationella logik och de rådande projektutvärderings-systemen inom den offentliga sektorn är betydande. Projekt kan visserligen fungera som nervcentrum där värdefull information produceras, intressentnätverk skapas och diverse kollaborativa satsningar ingår. Resultaten visar även att dessa har betydelse för att man ska kunna förutse innovationer, men också att tron på de kollaborativa arrangemangens betydelse vid skapandet av innovationer inom projekt är överoptimistiska. Man kan därmed ifrågasätta det ofta förekommande antagandet om att samverkan inom projekt skulle fungera som ett botemedel för innovationsbristen. Studiens slutledningar är att ökad användning av projektorganisationer inom den offentliga sektorn kan ha betydande konsekvenser. Slutledningarna visar att de förväntade fördelarna av att använda projektorganisationer står i relation till rationalistiska ideal, men också att temporalitet som sådan kan innebära utmaningar för permanenta administrativa strukturer. Även om projekt kan vara klart bättre än permanenta organisationer på att åstadkomma snabba resultat kan deras bakomliggande rationella logik leda till att resultaten förblir outnyttjade. Studien bidrar med en teoretisk förståelse av projektifiering, vilka de bakomliggande drivkrafterna är, såväl som vilka specifika särdrag som måste tas i beaktande inom en projektifierad offentlig sektor. Studiens slutsats är att kontextuellt känsliga sammanlänkande mekanismer mellan temporära och permanenta organisationer är väsentliga för att man ska kunna förklara utfallen av temporära organisationer i en politisk-administrativ kontext.
  • Tapiola, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Different dyadic techniques are an inseparable part of modern-day harmonic analysis both in the Euclidean space and in metric spaces. In this dissertation, we improve adjacent and random dyadic techniques in metric spaces and apply these and previously known techniques for questions related to metric, Euclidean and vector-valued analysis. The dissertation consists of an introductory part and four research articles. In the first article, we present a general randomization procedure for dyadic systems in metric spaces which can be used for constructing both random and adjacent dyadic systems. As an application of the new random systems, we improve the continuity properties of metric wavelets of P. Auscher and T. Hytönen by exploiting the improved ``smallness of boundary'' property of our random cubes. In the third article, we prove some additional properties for our adjacent dyadic systems to prove a decomposition result for dyadic systems in metric spaces. With its help, we give an alternative proof for the quantitative bound of the Lp norm of shift operators acting on vector-valued functions in metric spaces. In the second article, we explore certain properties of the Muckenhoupt weight classes, the class of Reverse Hölder weights and their weakened versions in spaces of homogeneous type. In the Euclidean setting, the Muckenhoupt weight classes have numerous different equivalent definitions but in spaces of homogeneous type some of those equivalences break down. We show that although certain definitions are no longer equivalent in this context, their weakened versions still define the same weight classes. We also show that every weak Reverse Hölder weight has a self-improving property. In the literature, these types of weak weights appear especially in the theory of partial differential equations. In the fourth article, we prove quantitative weighted bounds for so called rough homogeneous singular integrals by combining older techniques with a quantitative version of M. Lacey's recent extension of the A2 theorem. The proof of this extension is based on a domination technique which provides a way to dominate Calderón-Zygmund operators pointwise with the help of a finite number of simple sparse operators associated with adjacent dyadic systems.
  • Bofah, Emmanuel Adu-tutu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The aim of the present set of studies in this dissertation was to examine the psychometric properties of measures of mathematics-related affect developed and normalized in one culture for use in another, how these properties transcend cross-culturally in an African context, and the methodological challenges associated with the process. Further aims were to examine the relationships between these constructs on a cross-cultural level, and to explore any associations be-tween students background variables and mathematics achievement. With these aims in mind, we conducted four original empirical studies based on different types of structural equation modeling. Studies I and II explored the problems of importing an instrument from one culture into another, and the associated methodological challenges. More specifically, Study I gives a detailed account of the processes involved in applying structural equation modeling to validate mathematics-related affective measures developed in one culture (Finland) for use in another (Ghana). Reliability estimates and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the Ghanaian data set did not fit the original hypothesized model (seven-factor structure). A series of factor and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a four-factor structure for the Ghanaian sample. Study II examined the possible causes of the differences in the factor structures from a cross-cultural perspective. The results indicate that measurement artifacts, cultural differences, and construct validity and adaptability were possible causes of the observed differences in factor structure between the Ghanaian and the theoretical model. In conclusion, it is suggested that re-searchers should be aware of construct importation and adaptation, and of the fact that measurement errors, question order, negatively worded item, translation, and content overlap may influence the reliability and validity of survey measures. Moreover, it is necessary to consider cultural variation and the methodological approaches involved in the theoretical settings in order to make any meaningful comparative assessment. Researchers focusing on cross-cultural mathematics-related affect are recommended to acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to address these issues using appropriate tools such as structural equation modeling. Study III investigated the psychometric properties (factor structure, reliabilities, method effect, and measurement invariance country and gender) of the mathematics-related affective constructs used in the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 2011) across the five participating African countries. It also examined the relationship between these mathematically related affective constructs, as well as the associations amongst the constructs, and between the students background variables and mathematics achievement cross-culturally. The results empirically support the multidimensionality of the construct, and the measures were largely invariant across the five educational systems and gender. There was also some evidence to suggest that negatively worded items in a construct can attenuate the reliability and validity of the measures: a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) revealed the need to control for the method effects associated with such items. It seems that responses to negatively worded items differ systematically across countries and are systematically linked to students achievement. The analyses also covered the relationships between the student affect, achievement, and background variables such as parental education, gender and students educational aspirations. Lower mathematics achievement was associated with students from countries reporting higher motivational belief. On the association between students mathematics-related affect, achievement, parental education, educational aspirations and gender, it seems that there are culture-specific as well as cross-cultural universal outcomes. For instance, the relationship linking parental involvement, teacher responsiveness and mathematics achievement turned out to be culture-specific whereas, boys rated their mathematics competence more highly than girls did. Parental education, gender and long-term educational aspirations also influenced student achievement and motivation, but to different extents in different countries. Study IV, based on non-recursive structural equation models, tested theoretical and methodological models of the reciprocal relationship between mathematics-related affect (e.g., self-concept) and achievement using the TIMSS 2011 cross-sectional data set. The results in different countries support the existence of a unidirectional influence of affect on achievement and of achievement on affect, and a direct feedback-loop relationship between affect and achievement. According to the evidence, the reciprocal determinism between affect and achievement is dependent on the national context. Moreover, there was a cross-cultural universal pattern among males: reporting a stronger mathematics self-concept and higher long-term educational aspirations significantly predicted higher mathematics achievement. The effects of socioeconomic status on mathematics achievement and self-concept among the students were dependent on the national context.
  • Mäkelä, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Parkinsons sjukdom är en neurodegenerativ sjukdom som karakteriseras av en progressiv degenerering av både struktur och funktion hos dopaminerga neuron. En förlust av dopaminerga neuron i mitthjärnan leder till brist på signalsubstansen dopamin, vilket ger upphov till de typiska symptomen vid Parkinsons sjukdom: stelhet, darrning av armar och ben samt rörelsesvårighet. Den nuvarande behandlingen av Parkinsons sjukdom fokuserar på att lindra symptomen, men det finns inte för tillfället någon behandling som kunde förhindra nervcellsdegenereringen. Mitokondrierna producerar energi i cellerna och nervceller är beroende av en hög produktion av energi. En nedsatt mitokondriefunktion och en ökad oxidativ stress, det vill säga ett tillstånd med en ökad produktion av mycket reaktiva molekyler som kallas fria syreradikaler, anses vara en bidragande orsak till uppkomsten av Parkinsons sjukdom. I denna studie behandlades dopaminerga nervceller med substanser som har visats påverka ämnesomsättningen och mitokondriernas funktion i fettvävnad och muskel. Resultaten visade att behandlingen medförde en förbättrad mitokondriefunktion och ett ökat uttryck av antioxidanter som medför en ökas förmåga att motstå oxidativ stress. Nervcellerna var också mera resistenta mot toxin-inducerad celldöd, vilket antas vara på grund av den ökade förmågan att motstå oxidativ stress. Dessa resultat kan vara av betydelse för att förhindra att dopaminerga neuron förtvinar, och substanser som nu används för behandling av metaboliska förändringar skulle kunna vara av betydelse även vid behandling av Parkinsons sjukdom.
  • Kallio, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    All positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their RNA genomes in close association with cellular membranes. A great variety of cellular membranes are utilized by different viruses and those membranes are extensively modified to support viral replication and to protect the viral RNA from host cell defense mechanisms. Alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest virus (SFV), are positive-strand RNA viruses replicating their RNA on membranes derived from endosomal and lysosomal compartments. SFV induces small invaginations called spherules on plasma membrane and on endosomal membranes. Viral replication complex assembly, spherule formation and initiation of replication are carefully orchestrated events and are guided by specific sequence elements within the genomic RNA as well as by important enzymatic activities of nonstructural proteins (nsPs). The aim of this research was to study in detail how alphavirus replication complexes are assembled and to define the minimum requirements for spherule formation by using a plasmid-derived transreplication system mimicking SFV replication. The role of the genomic RNA in replication was deciphered by using RNA templates, which were either modified or differed in length. Use of RNA templates differing in length clearly showed that they define the spherule diameter suggesting that the template has a significant role in spherule formation. By modifying or deleting specific sequences from the template it was shown that highly conserved RNA elements are important for SFV replication and do not tolerate modifications without compromising replication. Study with the nsPs of SFV showed that the enzymatic activities essential for virus replication are also needed for spherule formation and that enzymes like helicase, protease and polymerase are absolutely essential for replication. Membrane association of the replication complex is also required to establish virus replication in the cells. The work with mutated nonstructural proteins and modified templates revealed a clear correlation between the minus-strand synthesis and spherule formation. This work describes the alphavirus replication processes in detail and provides new principles, which may be generally applicable to study the positive-sense RNA virus replication and the formation of virus-induced membranous replication spherules.
  • Koivisto, Juhani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The dissertation Amenability of metric measure spaces and fixed point properties of groups consists of three articles revolving around amenability and property (T) in different contexts, and a summary. In the first article, (non-)amenability of hyperbolic metric spaces is considered. In it, we prove that a uniformly coarsely proper hyperbolic cone of a connected bounded metric space containing at least two points is non-amenable. In particular, this implies that any uniformly coarsely proper visual Gromov hyperbolic space with connected boundary containing at least two points is non-amenable. In the second article, the degree of amenability of metric measure spaces is considered in general. Here, we prove a homological characterisation of global weighted Sobolev inequalities for quasiconvex uniform metric measure spaces that support a local weak (1,1)-Poincaré inequality using methods from large scale algebraic topology. Returning to the topic of the first article, we show that a quasiconvex visual Gromov hyperbolic uniform metric measure space that supports a local weak (1,1)-Poincaré inequality with a connected boundary containing at least two points satisfies a global Sobolev inequality. In the third article, fixed point conditions for uniformly bounded group actions on Hilbert spaces are considered. In the article, we establish a spectral condition for the vanishing of the first cohomology group of the complex of square integrable cochains twisted by a uniformly bounded representation of an automorphism group of a 2-dimensional simplicial complex. In particular, if the automorphism group acts properly discontinuously and cocompactly on the complex this implies that every affine action of the automorphism group on the Hilbert space with linear part given by the representation has a fixed point. In the summary, the results of the articles are further explained and placed in a larger context: mathematically as well as historically.
  • Söderholm, Sandra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Fosforylering är en enzymatisk process i celler där en fosfatgrupp fästs t.ex. till ett protein. Fosforylering är en av de viktigaste post-translationella modifieringarna av proteiner och spelar en viktig roll i förmedlandet av intracellulära signaler och processer. Det är möjligt att identifiera tusentals protein-fosforyleringar med hjälp av mass spektrometri; så kallad fosfoproteomik. Mass spektrometri-baserad fosfoproteomik är därför en ypperlig metod för att undersöka omfattande förändringar i proteiners fosforylering, t.ex. i en cell eller vävnad. Datorstödda bioinformatiska analyser av det mass spektrometriska datat är avgörande för identifieringen av proteiner och deras modifikationer, men även för identifieringen av aktiva kinaser och deras substrat samt cellulära signaleringsrutter och nätverk. Det naturliga immunsystemets celler spelar en central roll i försvaret mot patogener såsom virus och bakterier. Dessa celler har specialiserade receptorer som kan upptäcka molekyler utmärkande för patogener, exempelvis nukleinsyror som tillhör virus. När dessa upptäcks av det naturliga immunförsvarets celler väcks en rad olika antivirala och inflammations-befrämjande reaktioner. Den infekterade cellens egna proteiner och signaleringsrutter kan gynna eller inhibera virusinfektioner och är därmed potentiella föremål för antivirala läkemedel. Det huvudsakliga syftet med studierna inkluderade i denna doktorsavhandling var att karakterisera de globala förändringarna i proteiners fosforylering i virusinfekterade och dsRNA-stimulerade mänskliga epitelceller och makrofager. Proteiner och cell signaleringsrutter med tidigare okända eller dåligt kända roller i virusinfektioner upptäcktes och undersöktes närmare med funktionella studier omfattande siRNA molekyler och kinas inhibitorer. Dessutom utvecklades en programvara, PhosFox, för att analysera fosfoproteomik data genererat av mångahanda databas sökalgoritmer. PhosFox användes för att identifiera proteiner vars fosforylering var annorlunda i ett prov jämfört med ett annat och för att klargöra vilka fosforyliserade positioner i proteiner beskrivits tidigare i litteraturen. Studierna i denna avhandling är bland de första där fosfoproteomik använts för att karakterisera växelverkan mellan virus och värdcell och de betonar fördelarna av att använda fosfoproteomik och bioinformatik i vetenskapliga forskning som omfattar det naturliga immunförsvaret och virusinfektioner. Resultaten av studierna framhäver betydelsen och potentialen som mass spektrometri-baserad fosfoproteomik har i upptäckten av nya potentiella proteiner som reglerar virusinfektioner och därmed kan fungera som objekt för antivirala läkemedel.
  • Äyräs, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Background: Increased nuchal translucency (NT) has been used as a screening method for fetal aneuploidies since 1990s. It is also known to be associated with a wide variety of structural defects and genetic syndromes. Long-term studies with a large cohort about the neurodevelopmental outcome of euploid children with increased fetal NT are sparse and the neurodevelopment is worth further study. Aim: The primary aim of this study was to collect data on the pregnancy outcomes, long-term neurodevelopmental and overall outcomes in a large cohort of fetuses with increased NT from singleton pregnancies in order to improve parental counselling. Material: All singleton pregnancies referred to the Department of Fetal Medicine at the Helsinki University Hospital due to increased NT in the first-trimester screening during 2002 2007 were studied. The outcome data were retrieved from hospital databases and national registers. Results: There were 1063 fetuses with increased NT in the first-trimester screening. Abnormal karyotype was observed in 224 fetuses (21%) and adverse pregnancy outcome occurred in 322 (30%). Termination of pregnancy was performed in 209 (20%) and there were 43 (4%) miscarriages and perinatal deaths. Of the 834 euploid fetuses 74 (9%) had structural defects or genetic disorders. Favourable pregnancy outcome became less likely by increasing NT: favourable outcome occurred in 92% in the lowest NT group (95th percentile 3.4 mm) and in 18% in the highest NT group (≥ 6.5 mm). Of the euploid fetuses with normal second-trimester ultrasound examination 96% were healthy at the discharge from the delivery hospital. During the follow-up (mean 6.5 years) neurodevelopmental impairment was detected in 29 (4.2%) and it was severe in 12 (1.7%). Major structural defects, severe neurodevelopmental impairment, or genetic disorders were detected in 54 cases (7%). Conclusion: One in five fetuses with increased NT (≥ 95th percentile) has chromosomal abnormalities and one in ten of the euploid fetuses has structural defects or genetic syndromes. Major health impairment (major structural defect, severe neurodevelopmental impairment, or genetic syndrome) is likely to be detected in 7% of euploid children with increased NT in the first-trimester screening but normal findings in the second-trimester screening. These results are helpful in counselling the parents when increased NT is detected.
  • Anyan, James (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study explores how opportunities for higher education (HE) are distributed in Ghana s public universities to students; and particularly, how those from the disadvantaged sections of the Ghanaian society fare in that regard. It was approached as a multi-level (integrating elements of micro, meso and macro) and multi-perspective dual transformative case study. Drawing mainly upon data collected from semi-structured interviews with students, graduates, university officials and policy-makers, as well as secondary data archived by the relevant institutions; it examines the processes and patterns in the distribution of admission slots to students. It engages with the tensions and dilemmas confronting the universities in such allocations, and debates same, in the context of procedural justice and meritocracy on the one hand, and distributive justice and affirmative action on the other. The interactions and intersections of socio-economic and other significant variables parental education, family income, geographical location, gender and disability are discussed, principally, in the framework of effectively maintained inequality (EMI), to understand the factors influencing the patterns of distribution observed. The data were thematically analysed using both sensitising concepts from the literature review, the conceptual frameworks as well as the indigenous concepts that emerged from the data. The findings indicate that the distribution of HE seats in the two public universities selected for the study is highly inequitable with students who graduated from the few urban-based and elite upper secondary schools overrepresented while graduates from the majority rural-based and resource-poor schools are underrepresented. Although there was unanimity among the different groups of participants about the existence and persistence of the problem, their approaches to dealing with the problem proved dichotomous. While students from the rural schools, for instance, exposed their status frustration and assumed a reformist stance on the issue of remodelling the current grade-based admission system to one cognisant of the difficult circumstances under which rural students pursue their upper secondary education, their counterparts from the elite schools essentially defended the maintenance of the status quo. The majority of female participants, contrary to the views of policy-makers, strongly objected to affirmative action for the admission of females; arguing that the policy reinforces the notion that they are inferior to their male counterparts. The results further reveal a multi-layered social stratification in access to, and equity in HE in Ghana. Almost all the students and graduates who were admitted into the universities on affirmative action basis identified themselves as rural people from low-income families, with little or no parental education, and poor parental occupations. Such students, though in dire financial straits, were contrary to expectations, found to be very resilient and highly motivated to complete their studies; posting excellent academic performance. Students with disabilities were also found to be internally excluded, facing life and academic threatening challenges, whereas female students reported entrenched socio-cultural norms impeding the education and aspirations of women in the Ghanaian society. Against these backdrops, the study calls for a rethink of the current overly meritocratic admission procedures in Ghana s public universities that do harm to access and equity for the majority rural students. It further recommends financial support from government to support the affirmative action initiatives of the public universities; an improvement in the conditions of students with disability, and multi-sectoral interventions to ameliorate the barriers impeding the education of females. The successful completion of HE holding all things constant by these disadvantaged groups, with its attendant better educated citizenry, enhanced civic consciousness, empowerment and participation, in addition to other socio-economic benefits, make such investments worthwhile. Keywords: distributive justice, procedural justice, affirmative action, gender, disability, stratification.
  • Fornaro, Paolo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    In the last couple of decades, advances in information technology have led to a dramatic increase in the availability of economic data. This doctoral dissertation consists of a collection of articles aimed at the study of various econometric methodologies that allow for the use of large datasets in macroeconomic applications. Chapters 2 and 5 present large dimensional models to nowcast and forecast macroeconomic variables of interests, such as Finnish real output and the binary recession indicator. In particular, in Chapter 2 I use microeconomic data to create timely estimates of the aggregate output indicator of the Finnish economy. In Chapter 5, I use a large dimensional probit model to compute short and long-term forecasts of the United States recession indicator. Chapters 3 and 4 consist of studies related to Finnish enteprises. Specifically, in Chapter 3 I examine the employment behavior of small and large Finnish firms and analyze how their job creation and cyclicality has differed over the last 16 years. In Chapter 4, I analyze the effect of shocks to large Finnish corporations onto the aggregate business cycle, finding that the shocks to a small number of companies are able to explain a substantial share of the fluctuations in aggregate output.
  • Toivonen, Marjaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Environmental fallows are fields that aim to produce environmental benefits instead of agricultural products. In many European countries, the establishment and management of fallows is funded via agri-environmental programmes. This thesis focuses on the biodiversity benefits of environmental fallows in boreal farmland. I examined the impacts of different fallow types and landscape structure on the diversity and species composition of multiple taxa in fallows. I also aimed to evaluate what fallow types, and in what landscape context, are needed to contribute to different biodiversity objectives: the promotion of conservation concern species, overall species diversity or ecosystem services. Species richness and composition of the studied species groups differed substantially between fallow types, and landscape context further modified the value of fallows. Perennial fallows sown with meadow plants supported high plant species richness and bumblebee abundance. Old grassland fallows benefitted both butterflies in general, and butterflies and bumblebees with narrow niches and low dispersal capacities. The positive impacts were emphasized when long-term fallows were located in complex landscapes. High forest cover in the surrounding landscape increased plant species richness in perennial fallows. The breeding density of open farmland birds was highest in short-term meadow fallows in landscapes rich in perennial grasslands. Foraging edge birds preferred short-term meadow fallows in open landscapes and long-term grassland fallows in forested landscapes. Vegetation of annual fallow types game fields and landscape fields differed considerably from perennial fallows and other non-crop biotopes, thus enhancing landscape heterogeneity. My results show that the biodiversity benefits of fallows can be enhanced by adapting fallows to the landscape context and to specific conservation objectives. If the objective is to support species of conservation concern, managing long-term fallows in complex landscapes rich in perennial grasslands is probably the best strategy. Overall biodiversity can also be enhanced in short-term fallows, especially if they are sown with diverse seed mixtures of species that are not too competitive in field conditions. Depending on the sown species, short-term fallows provide good possibilities to enhance landscape heterogeneity and promote ecosystem services. Future studies should consider the specific roles of forest and perennial grasslands in driving the effectiveness of agri-environment schemes. In addition, the impacts of agri-environment schemes, including fallows, on realized ecosystem services should be investigated.
  • Mikeshin, Igor (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This thesis is the study of a rehabilitation ministry for the addicted people called Good Samaritan, run by the Russian Baptist Church. The study scrutinizes a two-dimensional process of Christian Rehabilitation. This process consists of two aspects: bodily detoxication through prolonged isolation, and radical moral transformation through conversion to Christianity. This twofold process corresponds to the twofold nature of substance use dependence: biochemical and psychological. The narrative of conversion is constructed upon the literalist reading of the particular translation of Scripture Russian Synodal Bible impacted by the 16th (Martin Luther) and 17th century (Jacobus Arminius and the Remonstrants) Protestant dogmatics and Russian historical and sociocultural context. The narrative of rehabilitation is also impacted by the street, junkie, and prison experience of the rehabilitants and their elders, who hold the authority to interpret Scripture. My research contributes to the study of Russian Evangelical Christianity and substance use dependence, both of which are unique and substantially influenced by contemporary Russian historical, sociocultural, political, economic, and linguistic context. At the same time, both Russian Evangelicalism and substance abuse share global features of Evangelical Christianity and drug epidemics. My analysis is based on the ethnographic fieldwork conducted from January 2014 to January 2015 in St. Petersburg and Leningradskaia oblast', Russia. The participant observation included prolonged stays in three rehab facilities, guest and missionary visits, church services, seminars, festivities, and extensive study of Protestant Christianity and substance abuse.