Browsing by Author "Badeau, Maija"

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  • Badeau, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Soy-derived phytoestrogen genistein and 17β-estradiol (E2), the principal endogenous estrogen in women, are also potent antioxidants protecting LDL and HDL lipoproteins against oxidation. This protection is enhanced by esterification with fatty acids, resulting in lipophilic molecules that accumulate in lipoproteins or fatty tissues. The aims were to investigate, whether genistein becomes esterified with fatty acids in human plasma accumulating in lipoproteins, and to develop a method for their quantitation; to study the antioxidant activity of different natural and synthetic estrogens in LDL and HDL; and to determine the E2 esters in visceral and subcutaneous fat in late pregnancy and in pre- and postmenopause. Human plasma was incubated with [3H]genistein and its esters were analyzed from lipoprotein fractions. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) was used to quantitate genistein esters in monkey plasma after subcutaneous and oral administration. The E2 esters in women s serum and adipose tissue were also quantitated using TR-FIA. The antioxidant activity of estrogen derivatives (n=43) on LDL and HDL was assessed by monitoring the copper induced formation of conjugated dienes. Human plasma was shown to produce lipoprotein-bound genistein fatty acid esters, providing a possible explanation for the previously reported increased oxidation resistance of LDL particles during intake of soybean phytoestrogens. Genistein esters were introduced into blood by subcutaneous administration. The antioxidant effect of estrogens on lipoproteins is highly structure-dependent. LDL and HDL were protected against oxidation by many unesterified, yet lipophilic derivatives. The strongest antioxidants had an unsubstituted A-ring phenolic hydroxyl group with one or two adjacent methoxy groups. E2 ester levels were high during late pregnancy. The median concentration of E2 esters in pregnancy serum was 0.42 nmol/l (n=13) and in pre- (n=8) and postmenopause (n=6) 0.07 and 0.06 nmol/l, respectively. In pregnancy visceral fat the concentration of E2 esters was 4.24 nmol/l and in pre- and postmenopause 0.82 and 0.74 nmol/l. The results from subcutaneous fat were similar. In serum and fat during pregnancy, E2 esters constituted about 0.5 and 10% of the free E2. In non-pregnant women most of the E2 in fat was esterified (the ester/free ratio 150 - 490%). In postmenopause, E2 levels in fat highly exceeded those in serum, the majority being esterified. The pathways for fatty acid esterification of steroid hormones are found in organisms ranging from invertebrates to vertebrates. The evolutionary preservation and relative abundance of E2 esters, especially in fat tissue, suggest a biological function, most likely in providing a readily available source of E2. The body s own estrogen reservoir could be used as a source of E2 by pharmacologically regulating the E2 esterification or hydrolysis.