Browsing by Author "Gabrenaite-Verkhovskaya, Rasa"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-1 of 1
  • Gabrenaite-Verkhovskaya, Rasa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The particles of Potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) are helically constructed filaments that contain multiple copies of a single type of coat-protein (CP) subunit and a single copy of genome-linked protein (VPg), attached to one end of the virion. Examination of negatively-stained virions by electron microscopy revealed flexuous, rod-shaped particles with no obvious terminal structures. It is known that particles of several filamentous plant viruses incorporate additional minor protein components, forming stable complexes that mediate particle disassembly, movement or transmission by insect vectors. The first objective of this work was to study the interaction of PVA movement-associated proteins with virus particles and how these interactions contribute to the morphology and function of the virus particles. Purified particles of PVA were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and immuno-gold electron microscopy. A protrusion was found at one end of some of the potyvirus particles, associated with the 5' end of the viral RNA. The tip contained two virus-encoded proteins, the genome-linked protein (VPg) and the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro). Both are required for cell-to-cell movement of the virus. Biochemical and electron microscopy studies of purified PVA samples also revealed the presence of another protein required for cell-to-cell movement the cylindrical inclusion protein (CI), which is also an RNA helicase/ATPase. Centrifugation through a 5-40% sucrose gradient separated virus particles with no detectable CI to a fraction that remained in the gradient, from the CI-associated particles that went to the pellet. Both types of particles were infectious. AFM and translation experiments demonstrated that when the viral CI was not present in the sample, PVA virions had a beads-on-a-string phenotype, and RNA within the virus particles was more accessible to translation. The second objective of this work was to study phosphorylation of PVA movement-associated and structural proteins (CP and VPg) in vitro and, if possible, in vivo. PVA virion structural protein CP is necessary for virus cell-to-cell movement. The tobacco protein kinase CK2 was identified as a kinase phosphorylating PVA CP. A major site of CK2 phosphorylation in PVA CP was identified as a single threonine within a CK2 consensus sequence. Amino acid substitutions affecting the CK2 consensus sequence in CP resulted in viruses that were defective in cell-to-cell and long-distance movement. The CK2 regulation of virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement by phosphorylation of CP was possibly due to the inhibition of CP binding to viral RNA. Four putative phosphorylation sites were identified from an in vitro phosphorylated recombinant VPg. All four were mutated and the spread of mutant viruses in two different host plants was studied. Two putative phosphorylation site mutants (Thr45 and Thr49) had phenotypes identical to that of a wild type (WT) virus infection in both Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum plants. The other two mutant viruses (Thr132/Ser133 and Thr168) showed different phenotypes with increased or decreased accumulation rates, respectively, in inoculated and the first two systemically infected leaves of N. benthamiana. The same mutants were occasionally restricted to single cells in N. tabacum plants, suggesting the importance of these amino acids in the PVA infection cycle in N. tabacum.