Browsing by Author "Gyllenberg, David"

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  • Gyllenberg, David (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Early identification of individuals who later develop psychiatric problems requiring psychotropic medication and psychiatric hospital treatment has implications for prevention. The aims of this thesis are to describe the cumulative incidence of psychotropic medication use from age 12 to age 25, and to study factors at age eight that predict psychotropic medication use and psychiatric hospital treatment between age 12 and 25. A representative random sample of all children born in 1981 and alive at age eight in 1989 was primarily selected in 1989 (6,017 of 60,007; 10%). At age eight, 5,813 children were assessed using questionnaires (97% of 6,017). The parents and the teacher completed questionnaires with items concerning family structure, parental education level, conduct problems, hyperactive problems, emotional symptoms, bullying, and victimization of bullying behavior. The children themselves completed questions regarding depressive symptoms, bullying, and victimization of bullying behavior. Between 1994 and 2005, when the participants were 12-13 to 24-25 years old, the personal identification numbers of 5,525 subjects (92% of 6,017) were linked to the nationwide Drug Prescription Register and the nationwide Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Information about psychotropic medication use and psychiatric hospital treatment between age 12 and 25 was collected from these registers. The main results in the thesis are that more than every seventh subject had used psychotropic medications by age 25, and that psychotropic medication use and psychiatric hospital treatment are strongly associated with psychiatric symptoms at age eight. Depressive symptoms predicted treatment of depressive disorders and non-intact family structure predicted a wide range of different psychiatric treatments in both sexes. Among males, particularly acting-out behaviors, while among females, especially depressive and anxiety symptoms and being a victim of bullying behavior predicted antipsychotic use, antidepressant use, and psychiatric hospital treatment by age 25. The study shows that a considerable proportion of the population has used psychotropic medication at some point by age 25. The novel result that the psychiatric outcomes are partly predicted differently among males versus females, should be further studied using large population-based cohorts. If the results are replicated and screening of mental health problems is implemented in primary schools, sex-specific screening strategies might be warranted.