Browsing by Author "Haapala, Markus"

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  • Haapala, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Miniaturized analytical devices, such as heated nebulizer (HN) microchips studied in this work, are of increasing interest owing to benefits like faster operation, better performance, and lower cost relative to conventional systems. HN microchips are microfabricated devices that vaporize liquid and mix it with gas. They are used with low liquid flow rates, typically a few µL/min, and have previously been utilized as ion sources for mass spectrometry (MS). Conventional ion sources are seldom feasible at such low flow rates. In this work HN chips were developed further and new applications were introduced. First, a new method for thermal and fluidic characterization of the HN microchips was developed and used to study the chips. Thermal behavior of the chips was also studied by temperature measurements and infrared imaging. An HN chip was applied to the analysis of crude oil – an extremely complex sample – by microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) high resolution mass spectrometry. With the chip, the sample flow rate could be reduced significantly without loss of performance and with greatly reduced contamination of the MS instrument. Thanks to its suitability to high temperature, microchip APPI provided efficient vaporization of nonvolatile compounds in crude oil. The first microchip version of sonic spray ionization (SSI) was presented. Ionization was achieved by applying only high (sonic) speed nebulizer gas to an HN microchip. SSI significantly broadens the range of analytes ionizable with the HN chips, from small stable molecules to labile biomolecules. The analytical performance of the microchip SSI source was confirmed to be acceptable. The HN microchips were also used to connect gas chromatography (GC) and capillary liquid chromatography (LC) to MS, using APPI for ionization. Microchip APPI allows efficient ionization of both polar and nonpolar compounds whereas with the most popular electrospray ionization (ESI) only polar and ionic molecules are ionized efficiently. The combination of GC with MS showed that, with HN microchips, GCs can easily be used with MS instruments designed for LC-MS. The presented analytical methods showed good performance. The first integrated LC–HN microchip was developed and presented. In a single microdevice, there were structures for a packed LC column and a heated nebulizer. Nonpolar and polar analytes were efficiently ionized by APPI. Ionization of nonpolar and polar analytes is not possible with previously presented chips for LC–MS since they rely on ESI. Preliminary quantitative performance of the new chip was evaluated and the chip was also demonstrated with optical detection. A new ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry, desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), was presented. The DAPPI technique is based on an HN microchip providing desorption of analytes from a surface. Photons from a photoionization lamp ionize the analytes via gas-phase chemical reactions, and the ions are directed into an MS. Rapid analysis of pharmaceuticals from tablets was successfully demonstrated as an application of DAPPI.