Browsing by Author "Haapalahti, Petri"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-1 of 1
  • Haapalahti, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The autonomic nervous system is an important modulator of ventricular repolarization and arrhythmia vulnerability. This study explored the effects of cardiovascular autonomic function tests on repolarization and its heterogeneity, with a special reference to congenital arrhythmogenic disorders typically associated with stress-induced fatal ventricular arrhythmias. The first part explored the effects of standardized autonomic tests on QT intervals in a 12-lead electrocardiogram and in multichannel magnetocardiography in 10 healthy adults. The second part studied the effects of deep breathing, Valsalva manouvre, mental stress, sustained handgrip and mild exercise on QT intervals in asymptomatic patients with LQT1 subtype of the hereditary long QT syndrome (n=9) and in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD, n=9). Even strong sympathetic activation had no effects on spatial QT interval dispersion in healthy subjects, but deep respiratory efforts and Valsalva influenced it in ways that were opposite in electrocardiographic and magnetocardiographic recordings. LQT1 patients showed blunted QT interval and sinus nodal responses to sympathetic challenge, as well as an exaggerated QT prolongation during the recovery phases. LQT1 patients showed a QT interval recovery overshoot in 2.4 ± 1.7 tests compared with 0.8 ± 0.7 in healthy controls (P = 0.02). Valsalva strain prolonged the T wave peak to T wave end interval only in the LQT1 patients, considered to reflect the arrhythmogenic substrate in this syndrome. ARVD patients showed signs of abnormal repolarization in the right ventricle, modulated by abrupt sympathetic activation. An electrocardiographic marker reflecting interventricular dispersion of repolarization was introduced. It showed that LQT1 patients exhibit a repolarization gradient from the left ventricle towards the right ventricle, significantly larger than in controls. In contrast, ARVD patients showed a repolarization gradient from the right ventricle towards the left. Valsalva strain amplified the repolarization gradient in LQT1 patients whereas it transiently reversed it in patients with ARVD. In conclusion, intrathoracic volume and pressure changes influence regional electrocardiographic and magnetocardiographic QT interval measurements differently. Especially recovery phases of standard cardiovascular autonomic functions tests and Valsalva manoeuvre reveal the abnormal repolarization in asymptomatic LQT1 patients. Both LQT1 and ARVD patients have abnormal interventricular repolarization gradients, modulated by abrupt sympathetic activation. Autonomic testing and in particular the Valsalva manoeuvre are potentially useful in unmasking abnormal repolarization in these syndromes.