Browsing by Author "Kyllönen, Juhapekka"

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  • Kyllönen, Juhapekka (2010)
    The European Union has stated the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as one of the major goals in its energy policy. The Emission trading system that started in year 2005 was established to create an efficient market for emission permits and to direct the emission reductions to areas where they are most cost-efficient. Finland has committed to follow the guidelines of the emission trading system and to make notable reductions to the total level of CO2 emissions. The goal of this study is to examine how the emission trading system has affected the fuel choices in the energy sector. The purpose is to find out whether there has been substitution between the different fuel types. The substitution effects were estimated by three different methods. Also this study tries to explain what type of price elasticities the different fuels have. Additionally the effect of emission permit on the allocation of different fuels is studied. The data used in this study were gathered from 67 plants over four years. The studied fuels were aggregated into three categories: wood, peat and other fuels the fourth studied variable was the price of emission permit. The data were edited in to a panel form and were analysed in statistical program EViews. Translog function form was used to solve the elasticities for different fuel types. The results indicate that during the observation period peat acted as a base load fuel with wood and other fuels acting as peaking fuels. Peat counted for half of the total fuel consumption with wood and the other fuels both having a share of about 25%. Wood and other fuels were more price sensitive and had a higher price elasticity than peat. The increase in the price of emission permits decreased the use of peat but had only minor effect on wood and other fuels. During the first period of emission trading system the fluctuation of the permit’s price was intense and the increase in the price did not have a major effect on the fuel choices in the Finnish energy sector. The second period started in 2008 and only one year of that period was included in this study, so it is still to yearly to make any further interpretations of how the second period has effected on the fuel choices. For future studies, in the field of interfuel substitution and price elasticity, a longer time period and a data set with more plants and more fuel types could offer more accurate results and would give more insight to how the plants react to the changing conditions.