Browsing by Author "Kylli, Petri"

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  • Kylli, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The main objectives in this thesis were to isolate and identify the phenolic compounds in wild (Sorbus aucuparia) and cultivated rowanberries, European cranberries (Vaccinium microcarpon), lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus), as well as to investigate the antioxidant activity of phenolics occurring in berries in food oxidation models. In addition, the storage stability of cloudberry ellagitannin isolate was studied. In wild and cultivated rowanberries, the main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic acids and neochlorogenic acids with increasing anthocyanin content depending on the crossing partners. The proanthocyanidin contents of cranberries and lingonberries were investigated, revealing that the lingonberry contained more rare A-type dimers than the European cranberry. The liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of cloudberry ellagitannins showed that trimeric lambertianin C and sanguiin H-10 were the main ellagitannins. The berries, rich in different types of phenolic compounds including hydroxycinnamic acids, proanthocyanidins, and ellagitannins, showed antioxidant activity toward lipid oxidation in liposome and emulsion oxidation models. All the different rowanberry cultivars prevented lipid oxidation in the same way, in spite of the differences in their phenolic composition. In terms of liposomes, rowanberries were slightly more effective antioxidants than cranberry and lingonberry phenolics. Greater differences were found when comparing proanthocyanidin fractions. Proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers of both cranberries and lingonberries were most potent in inhibiting lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activities and antiradical capacities were also studied with hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides. The sinapic acid derivatives of the hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides were the most effective at preventing lipid oxidation in emulsions and liposomes and scavenging radicals in DPPH assay. In liposomes and emulsions, the formation of the secondary oxidation product, hexanal, was inhibited more than that of the primary oxidation product, conjugated diene hydroperoxides, by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This indicates that they are principally chain-breaking antioxidants rather than metal chelators, although they possess chelating activity as well. The storage stability test of cloudberry ellagitannins was performed by storing ellagitannin isolate and ellagitannins encapsulated with maltodextrin at different relative vapor pressures. The storage stability was enhanced by the encapsulation when higher molecular weight maltodextrin was used. The best preservation was achieved when the capsules were stored at 0 or 33% relative vapor pressures. In addition, the antioxidant activities of encapsulated cloudberry extracts were followed during the storage period. Different storage conditions did not alter the antioxidant activity, even though changes in the ellagitannin contents were seen. The current results may be of use in improving the oxidative stability of food products by using berries as natural antioxidants.