Browsing by Author "Vaahtomeri, Kari"

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  • Vaahtomeri, Kari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Tumorigenesis is a consequence of inactivating mutations of tumor suppressor genes and activating mutations of proto-oncogenes. Most of the mutations compromise cell autonomous and non-autonomous restrains on cell proliferation by modulating kinase signal transduction pathways. LKB1 is a tumor suppressor kinase whose sporadic mutations are frequently found in non-small cell lung cancer and cervical cancer. Germ-line mutations in the LKB1 gene lead to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with an increased risk of cancer and development of benign gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps consisting of hyperproliferative epithelia and prominent stromal stalk composed of smooth muscle cell lineage cells. The tumor suppressive function of LKB1 is possibly mediated by 14 identified LKB1 substrate kinases, whose activation is dependent on the LKB1 kinase complex. The aim of my thesis was to identify cell signaling pathways crucial for tumor suppression by LKB1. Re-introduction of LKB1 expression in the melanoma cell line G361 induces cell cycle arrest. Here we demonstrated that restoring the cytoplasmic LKB1 was sufficient to induce the cell cycle arrest in a tumor suppressor p53 dependent manner. To address the role of LKB1 in gastrointestinal tumor suppression, Lkb1 was deleted specifically in SMC lineage in vivo, which was sufficient to cause Peutz-Jeghers syndrome type polyposis. Studies on primary myofibroblasts lacking Lkb1 suggest that the regulation of TGFβ signaling, actin stress fibers and smooth muscle cell lineage differentiation are candidate mechanisms for tumor suppression by LKB1 in the gastrointestinal stroma. Further studies with LKB1 substrate kinase NUAK2 in HeLa cells indicate that NUAK2 is part of a positive feedback loop by which NUAK2 expression promotes actin stress fiber formation and, reciprocally the induction of actin stress fibers promote NUAK2 expression. Findings in this thesis suggest that p53 and TGFβ signaling pathways are potential mediators of tumor suppression by LKB1. An indication of NUAK2 in the promotion of actin stress fibers suggests that NUAK2 is one possible mediator of LKB1 dependent TGFβ signaling and smooth muscle cell lineage differentiation.