Browsing by Author "Ylönen, Katriina"

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  • Ylönen, Katriina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Fatty acids, fibre, carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to glucose metabolism in subjects at high risk for type 2 diabetes a cross-sectional analysis Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disorder of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, resulting from genetics, environmental influences and interactions between these. The disease is characterized by insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, hepatic glucose overproduction and disordered fat mobilization and storage. The literature on associations between dietary factors and glucose metabolism is inconsistent. One factor behind the discrepant results may be genetic heterogeneity of study populations. Data on nutrient-gene interactions in relation to glucose metabolism are scarce. Thus, investigating high-risk populations and exploring nutrient-gene interactions are essential for improving the understanding of T2D aetiology. Ideally, this information could help to develop prevention programmes that take into account the genetic predisposition to the disease. In this study, associations between measures of glucose metabolism predicting T2D and fatty acids, antioxidative nutrients and fibre were examined in a high-risk population, i.e., in non-diabetic relatives of affected patients. Interactions between the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism and fatty acids on glucose metabolism were taken into consideration. This common polymorphism plays an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. The inverse associations observed between dietary fibre and insulin resistance are consistent with the prevailing recommendations urging increased intake of fibre to prevent T2D. Beneficial associations observed between the intake of carotenoids and glucose levels stress that a high consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries rich in carotenoids might also play a role in the prevention of T2D. Whether tocopherols have an independent association with glucose metabolism remains questionable. Observed interactions between fatty acids and glucose metabolism suggest that a high intake of palmitic acid is associated with high fasting glucose levels mainly in female Ala allele carriers. Furthermore, the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism may modify the metabolic response to dietary marine fat. The beneficial associations of high intake of marine n 3 fatty acids with insulin resistance and glucose levels may be restricted to carriers of the Ala allele. The findings pertain to subjects with a family history of T2D, and the cross-sectional nature of the study precludes inferences about causality. Results nevertheless show that associations of dietary factors with glucose metabolism may be modulated by the genetic makeup of an individual. Additional research is warranted to elucidate the role of probably numerous nutrient-gene interactions, some of which may be sex-specific, in the aetiology of T2D.