Browsing by Author "Ylihärsilä, Hilkka"

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  • Ylihärsilä, Hilkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Theory of developmental origins of adult health and disease proposes that experiences during critical periods of early development may have consequences on health throughout a lifespan. Thesis studies aimed to characterize associations between early growth and some components of the metabolic syndrome cluster. Participants belong to two epidemiological cohorts with data on birth measurements and, for the younger cohort, on serial recordings of weight and height during childhood. They were born as singletons between 1924-33 and 1934-44 in the Helsinki University Central Hospital, and 500 and 2003 of them, respectively, attended clinical studies at the age of 65-75 and 56-70 years, respectively. In the 65-75 year old men and women, the well-known inverse relationship between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was confined to people who had established hypertension. Among them a 1-kg increase in birth weight was associated with a 6.4-mmHg (95% CI: 1.0 to 11.9) decrease in SBP. This relationship was further confined to people with the prevailing Pro12Pro polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2) gene. People with low birth weight were more likely to receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB, p=0.03), and, again, this relationship was confined to the carriers of the Pro12Pro (p=0.01 for interaction). These results suggest that the inverse association between birth weight and systolic BP becomes focused in hypertensive people because pathological features of BP regulation, associated with slow fetal growth, become self-perpetuating in adult life. Insulin resistance of the Pro12Pro carriers with low birth weight may interact with the renin-angiotensin system leading to raised BP levels. Habitual physical activity protected men and women who were small at birth, and thus at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes, against glucose intolerance more strongly. Among subjects with birth weight ≤3000 g, the odds ratio (OR) for glucose intolerance was 5.2 (95% CI: 2.1 to 13) in those who exercised less than 3 times per week compared to regular exercisers; in those who scored their exercise light compared with moderate exercisers (defined as comparable to brisk walking) the OR was 3.5 (1.5 to 8.2). In the 56-70 year old men a 1 kg increase in birth weight corresponded to a 4.1 kg (95% CI: 3.1 to 5.1) and in women to a 2.9 kg (2.1 to 3.6) increase in adult lean mass. Rapid gain in body mass index (BMI), i.e. crossing from an original BMI percentile to a higher one, before the age of 2 years increased adult lean mass index (LMI, lean mass/height squared) without excess fat accumulation whereas rapid gain in BMI during later childhood, despite the concurrent rise in LMI, resulted in a relatively higher increase in adult body fat mass. These findings illustrate how genes, the environment and their interactions, early growth patterns, and adult lifestyle modify adult health risks which originate from early life.