Browsing by Author "Zhang, Lei"

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  • Zhang, Lei (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Dyslipidaemia, a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is prevalent not only in diabetic patients but also in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). The aims of this study were: 1) to investigate lipid levels in relation to glucose in European (Study I) and Asian (Study II) populations without a prior history of diabetes; 2) to study the ethnic difference in lipid profiles controlling for glucose levels (Study III); 3) to estimate the relative risk for cardiovascular mortality (Study IV) and morbidity (Study V) associated with dyslipidaemia in individuals with different glucose tolerance status. Data of 15 European cohorts with 19 476 subjects (I and III) and 13 Asian cohorts with 19 763 individuals (II and III) from 21 countries aged 25-89 years, without a prior history of diabetes at enrollment, representing Asian Indian, Chinese, European, Japanese and Mauritian Indian, were compared. The lipid-CVD relationship was studied in 14 European cohorts of 17 763 men and women which provided with follow-up data on vital status, with 871 CVD deaths occurred during the average 10-year follow-up (IV). The impact of dyslipidaemia on incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in persons with different glucose categories (V) was further evaluated in 6 European studies, with 9087 individuals free of CHD at baseline and 457 developed CHD during follow-up. Z-scores of each lipid component were used in the data analysis (I, II, IV and V) to reduce the differences in methodology between studies. Analyses of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis adjusting for potential confounding factors. Within each glucose category, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were correlated with increasing levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), TC to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (p<0.05 in most of the ethnic groups) and inversely associated with HDL-C (p<0.05 in some, but not all, of the populations). The association of lipids with 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) followed a similar pattern as that for the FPG, except the stronger association of HDL-C with 2hPG. Compared with Central & Northern (C & N) Europeans, multivariable adjusted odd ratios (95% CIs) for having low HDL-C were 4.74 (4.19-5.37), 5.05 (3.88-6.56), 3.07 (2.15-4.40) and 2.37 (1.67-3.35) in Asian Indian men but 0.12 (0.09-0.16), 0.07 (0.04-0.13), 0.11 (0.07-0.20) and 0.16 (0.08-0.32) in Chinese men who had normoglycaemia, prediabetes, undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes, respectively. Similar results were obtained for women. The prevalence of low HDL-C remained higher in Asian Indians than in others even in individuals with LDL-C < 3 mmol/l. Dyslipidaemia was associated with increased CVD mortality or CHD incidence in individuals with isolated fasting hyperglycaemia or IFG, but not in those with isolated post-load hyperglycaemia or IGT. In conclusion, hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse lipid profiles in Europeans and Asians without a prior history of diabetes. There are distinct patterns of lipid profiles associated with ethnicity regardless of the glucose levels, suggesting that ethnic-specific strategies and guidelines on risk assessment and prevention of CVD are required. Dyslipidaemia predicts CVD in either diabetic or non-diabetic individuals defined based on the fasting glucose criteria, but not on the 2-hour criteria. The findings may imply considering different management strategies in people with fasting or post-load hyperglycaemia.