Browsing by Author "Zhu, Lei"

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  • Zhu, Lei (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death of men in developed countries. Measurement of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a very sensitive method for diagnosing and monitoring of prostate cancer (PCa), but the specificity needs improvement. Measurements of different molecular forms of PSA have been shown to improve differentiation between PCa and benign prostatic diseases. However, accurate measurement of some isoforms has not been achieved in previous assays. The aim of the present study was to develop new assays that reliably measure enzymatically active PSA, PSA-α1-chymotryposin (PSA-ACT) and PSA-α1-protease inhibitor (PSA-API), and to evaluate their diagnostic value. Double-label immunofluorometric assays using a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) and another antibody to either free PSA (fPSA) or total PSA (tPSA) were developed and used to measure PSA-ACT and fPSA or tPSA at the same time. These assays provide enough sensitivity for measurement of PSA-ACT in sera with low PSA levels. The results obtained confirmed that proportion of PSA-ACT to tPSA (%PSA-ACT) was as useful as proportion of fPSA to tPSA (%fPSA) for discrimination between PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We developed an immunoassay for detection of PSA-API based on proximity ligation, which improved assay sensitivity 10-fold compared with conventional assays. Our results confirmed previous findings that the PSA-API level is somewhat lower in men with than without PCa, and the combination of %fPSA and proportion of PSA-API to tPSA (%PSA-API) provides diagnostic improvement compared with either method alone. Assays based on this principle should be applicable to other immunoassays in which the nonspecific background is a problem. An immunopeptidometric sandwich assay (IPMA) was developed to measure the enzymatically active PSA. This assay showed high specificity, but sensitivity was not good enough for measurement of PSA concentrations in the gray zone, 2-10 µg/L, in which tPSA does not efficiently differentiate between PCa and BPH. We further developed a solid-phase proximity ligation immunoassay, which provided a 10-fold improvement in sensitivity. This proof of concept study shows that peptides reacting with proteins are potentially useful for sensitive and specific measurement of protein variants for which specific MAbs cannot be obtained.