Browsing by Subject "galaktoglukomannaani"

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  • Pulkkinen, Jukka (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Emulsified films are prepared by drying an emulsion. Polysaccharide based emulsified films consist of film-forming polysaccharide, fat, emulsifier and plasticiser. In the literature review, the materials used in the preparation of polysaccharide based emulsified films were discussed. The review also included a discussion of which factors affect the water barrier and mechanical properties of the emulsified films. The aim of the experimental study was to find out the potential of konjac glucomannan (KGM) and galactoglucomannan (GGM) in emulsified films. The effect of fat type and fat content on the water barrier and mechanical properties of the films were studied. Emulsified films which contained 30% (wt-% of GGM) fat were prepared from beeswax, rapeseed oil and pine wood oil. Fat contents of 10 and 50% were also used for beeswax. Emulsified films were compared with control films that did not contain any fat. The ratio of KGM and GGM used was 1:1. The water vapour permeability (WVP), water vapour transmission rate (WVTR), Young’s modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break were measured. Films were also viewed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). KGM and GGM were suitable materials for emulsified films. The surfaces of films dried at room temperature were more uniform than those dried at 60 °C. In the SEM images, wax droplets were smaller than oil droplets. The diameter of oil droplets was about 10 ?m and 2–6 ?m for wax droplets. Wax droplets were better entrapped in the film matrix probably due to their smaller size. As expected, best water barrier properties were obtained with films containing 50% beeswax (p < 0.05). WVP of the films decreased when the content of beeswax in the film increased. Films containing 30% oils and 10% beeswax did not differ significantly from the control film in water barrier and in mechanical properties. The lowest Young’s modulus was with 50% beeswax film. The control film was the stiffest and strongest. There were no statistically significant differences in elongation at break between the films. Emulsified films were successfully prepared from KGM and GGM. The water barrier properties of emulsified films were better than those of the control film and still the mechanical properties were rather well maintained.
  • Alakalhunmaa, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Aerogels are lightweight, porous and dry foams that are produced from gels by replacing the liquid phase by air. When produced from polysaccharide-based hydrogels, potential applications for aerogels could be found as bio-based packaging materials. The literature review focused on the production of polysaccharide-based hydrogels and their chemical crosslinking, as well as the production of aerogels and their properties. In the experimental study the possibilities for utilization of spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM), an abundant but largely unexploited raw material, as aerogel matrix was explored. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was used as reinforcement and the polysaccharides were crosslinked with ammonium zirconium carbonate (AZC). Hydrogels were prepared from GGM-NFC-suspensions and heat treatment was performed in order to induce crosslinking reaction. Prepared hydrogels were frozen in a bath of carbon dioxide ice and ethanol and subsequently freeze-dried into cubic aerogels. The aim was to investigate the effect of polysaccharide proportions and AZC content on the strength of hydrogels and on the mechanical properties and moisture sensitivity of aerogels. The formation of crosslinks was observed indirectly from the values of storage and loss moduli by dynamic rheological measurement. The strength of hydrogels was highly dependent on the AZC and NFC content. In contrast, the compressive modulus of aerogels instead was affected only by NFC content at relative humidity (RH) of 50% and 23 °C. Hydrogel strength could not be used for prediction of aerogel strength under these ambient conditions. AZC and NFC mainly decreased the sensitivity of aerogels towards moisture by decreasing the water absorption and its plasticizing effect on aerogels. The effect of crosslinking on mechanical and physical properties of aerogels appeared clearly at RH over 50%. GGM was shown to be a suitable aero-gel raw material when combined with NFC. The role of NFC in enhancing the aerogel’s me-chanical properties was significant. The mechanical properties of uncrosslinked aerogels, how-ever, weakened in a humid environment. In particular, AZC is needed to protect aerogels from the plastizicing effect of water. Properties of crosslinked aerogels in a humid environment would be an interesting subject of further studies.