Browsing by Subject "oat"

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  • Rekola, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Chemical composition of oats and its suitability for baking were reviewed in the literature part. The special features of baking without gluten and possibilities to increase the quality of gluten-free bread were also discussed. The aim of the experimental research was to develop high protein gluten-free oat-based bread. The effect of different protein concentration on structural, textural and sensory properties of gluten-free oat bread was studied. Also the effect of processing method on bread quality was studied by using sourdough technology and straight dough technology. Gluten-free oat bread recipe and baking protocol as well as sourdough fermentation conditions were optimized on the basis of preliminary trials. Oat-based breads with varying protein content were baked by using straight dough and sourdough technologies. Reference sample was oat-based bread without added protein. Specific volume, moisture content, texture profile analysis (crumb hardness, chewiness and resilience) and starch retrogradation of gluten-free breads were analysed. For shelf life measurements, breads were stored in plastic bags at room temperature from 1 to 3 days. Sensory profile of bread samples were evaluated on the day of baking by a trained panel. Descriptive analysis method was used. Palatable high protein gluten-free oat-based bread was obtained in this study. Increasing amount of protein improved the crumb structure and shelf life of gluten-free breads. All of the protein supplemented breads had agreeable sensory profile. Sourdough did not further improve the quality of high protein gluten-free bread except for increased aroma intensity. Oats and its fractions can be successfully applied as an ingredient for gluten-free baking to enhance the nutritional quality.
  • Mykrä, Emmi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Oat (Avena sativa L.) is a crop grown for feed and for food industry. It is the most used fodder plant after barley in Finland and is also exported. In 2011, oat was grown on 308 200 hectares in Finland and the average yield per hectare was 3390 kg. Several fungal and virus diseases cause remarkable crop losses in oats. Especially in the temperate zone, the most common disease is the head blight caused by Fusarium species. These fungi overwinter as mycelium or spores and produce mycotoxins. In Finland, F. culmorum is a common DON toxin producer and F. langsethiae is a T-2/HT-2 toxin producer in oats. Toxins affect the quality of oat yield and can make it unsuitable for use. Therefore, the amounts of mycotoxin allowed in cereals are stipulated by food safety authorities. This thesis was a part of MTT Agrifood Research Finland’s Hyötygeeni project. The aim of the research was to study resistance of eight oat cultivars to F. culmorum and F. langsethiae. Indicators of resistance were germination of the infested seeds, the proportion of infected seeds and the amounts of mycotoxins. The trials were made in greenhouse with artificial inoculations. The results indicated that four cultivars expressed similar levels of resistance to both Fusarium species. Three cultivars had better resistance to F. langsethiae than F. culmorum and only one cultivar had better resistance to F. culmorum than F. langsethiae. In future research, the results can be utilized in resistance breeding. Global warming will increase the risk of plant diseases. On that account importance of breeding will be emphasized.
  • Ketonen, Krista (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Variation of the protein and amino acid content of barley, wheat and oats were studied. Diets based on grain samples of different protein content were optimized for pigs and poultry.The study went on to optimize diets for pigs and poultry with grains of different protein contents. The amino acid and raw protein analysis was undertaken on 38 grain samples. Correlations were calculated between different variables in grain samples and linear regression analysis was conducted between the protein and amino acid composition. The best estimate for amino acid concentrations of cereals was the protein content. The relative content of amino acids decreases as protein content increases and especially so in barley and wheat. Most reliable regression equations between amino acid and protein content were made for barley and wheat samples. For oat reliable regression equations could not be made. Oats also differed by other features from barley and wheat as it correlated with different variables compared to barley and wheat. Amount of needed protein concentrate levels decreased when barley and wheat protein and amino acid contents were considered in optimization. Protein concentrate levels did not decrease when used oat sample with highest protein content.
  • Laine, Juhana (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The literature review focused on the composition of oats along with wheat-free oat baking technology. Enzyme active baking and rye malt utilization in low gluten baking was also reviewed. In the experimental part the effect of an extract prepared from rye malt sourdough on dough viscosity and oat bread quality was studied in order to develop technology to good quality rye flavored oat bread. Rye malt flour of high enzyme activity was used to prepare a sourdough enabling degradation of rye prolamins, harmful to celiac patients. Rye malt extract was prepared from the sourdough by centrifugation. Part of the extract was heated for enzyme inactivation to compare the effects of the enzyme active and inactive extracts on oat dough and bread. The extract was used for baking 15, 25 and 30 % (dough weight) by reducing water. Miniature size breads (20 g) were baked in small pans. Dough viscosity was measured to show partial hydrolyzation of beta-glucan due to enzyme activity. Rye flavor was measured with the help of trained jury. Rye malt extract decreased dough pH approximately from 5.8 to 4.4 and increased the titratable acidity. The dough was less viscous when using enzyme active extract and more viscous when using the inactivated extract. The rye malt extract increased bread firmness and flavor and aroma were improved. Also the pores in the crumb were smaller and more evenly distributed. The inactivated extract increased bread crumbliness. The results suggest that the production of good quality rye flavored oat bread is technologically possible when using an enzyme active extract. This can possibly be explained by the low pH inhibiting the amylases together with high gelatinization temperature of oat starch. During fermentation, the pH of the rye malt sourdough drops so low that it inhibits the excessive ?-amylase activity in the dough so that excessive starch hydrolysation cannot occur. Therefore the use of the rye malt extract in baking process is possible without inactivation. Sourdough fermentation as part of gluten-free baking can improve bread color, aroma, flavor and texture. Also, the addition of rye malt extract improved mold-free time by lowering the pH. It seems that with the help of this technology it is possible to add long yearned rye flavor to low gluten oat bread. Based on earlier results it was concluded that it is possible to achieve bread prolamin content of 63.5 mg/kg. However, it should be possible to obtain even better results with the help of further development.