Recent Submissions

  • Nisén, Jessica (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The study of educational differences in fertility is relevant because such differences signal differences between social groups in a crucial aspect of wellbeing: family life. Associations between education and fertility on the individual level are widely documented in women, but the mechanisms behind the associations are still not entirely clear. Men s fertility overall and differences between social groups therein have received less attention. The study aimed at (1) Describing in particular men s fertility according to age, educational group and parity; (2) Assessing the extent to which educational differences in lifetime fertility are attributable to early-life characteristics in women or men, or mediated by characteristics in adulthood in men; (3) Investigating the extent to which the educational differences are attributable to underlying genetic or environmental factors. The study utilized two data sets. The first one is based on a 10-per-cent sample of households in the 1950 Census in Finland, covering cohorts born 1940 1950. The second one is based on the Finnish Twin Cohort Study, covering cohorts born 1950 1957. The measurement of fertility in the study was register-based. The statistical methods included parity decomposition, conventional and sibling fixed-effects regression analysis, and behavioural genetics analysis. Women educated to higher levels accumulated fewer children, and men respectively more children, in their lifetime. The positive gradient in the number of children among men was largely attributable to first births and to a smaller extent to second births. Educational differences in age-specific fertility in the teens and early 20s were larger among women than men. A less-well-off family background predicted higher fertility in women but lower fertility in men. Neither observed early-life characteristics nor unobserved characteristics shared by same-sex siblings explained the educational differences in men s lifetime fertility, and had a moderate explanatory role among women. In men, occupational position and income considerably mediated the association between education and the chance of having a first child. In the behavioural genetics analysis this association was modelled as a genetic correlation in women and men. The differences in first births and young-age fertility contributed considerably to the gender difference in the lifetime number of children by educational group. The limited explanatory role of early characteristics suggests that adulthood mechanisms are likely to be more influential in explaining the associations. The plausibility of indirect genetic effects through education on the chance of having a first child is noted. Economic mechanisms appear relevant for explaining the entry into parenthood among men.
  • Piippo, Jarna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation examines the current state of tuition of Spanish and Portuguese as mother tongues (heritage languages) in the basic education of the metropolitan area of Helsinki, where the number of plurilingual pupils is rapidly increasing. The theoretical framework is based on U. Bronfenbrenner s ecological systems theory. The research object is approached from both micro and macro perspectives in the light of demographic statistics, official documents and qualitative and quantitative data collected by questionnaires. The Finnish Constitution promotes the preservation and development of all mother tongues; however, the local authorities are not obligated to provide their tuition. Around 50 mother tongues are being taught with a State subsidy. Among the observed municipalities, Espoo has created the best framework for the tuition. The Education Department s centralized practices are the most efficient for information, enrolments, timetables and formation of groups, as well as for teacher recruitment, orientating and training. The biggest challenges for the teachers are the heterogeneity of the groups, the uncertainty of their own post and not belonging to the rest of the school community. They wish the parents had a more serious attitude towards the tuition and their own role in sustaining the mother tongue. The teaching is not systematically planned. The lack of materials could be compensated by digital resources, which would connect the pupils to the whole Spanish and Portuguese speaking world, but the equipment is often incomplete or the teachers don t have enough know-how to exploit it. Even though plurilingual practices would be particularly fruitful for these groups, many teachers prohibit the use of Finnish. Parents support their children's language development in different ways, having succeeded in maintaining their oral language skills and positive linguistic attitudes. The perceptions and experiences of the tuition vary. In general parents considered reading, writing and oral language skills to be more important than linguistic identity, history and culture. Pupils have a predilection for games and play, but they do not feel that they learn in the classes, nor are they interested in the contents. Currently, only a fifth of those entitled to tuition can or want to take part in it. Investigation on mother tongue tuition is almost non-existent in Finland, and the results of this study will help to improve the tuition of Spanish and Portuguese, and also other languages. The most urgent areas to be developed are shown to be the rationalization of the municipal-level practices, the elaboration and implementation of concrete language-specific curricula, teacher training and the commitment of the families. All this would be achieved best if mother tongue tuition were given the same status as other school subjects.
  • Laine, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis is to investigate Finnish elementary school teachers perspectives on gifted education. In particular, teachers conceptions of giftedness, their attitudes toward gifted education and the practices they are using to address gifted students needs are examined. The thesis is intended to increase understanding of the current state of gifted education from the perspective of teachers in Finland, a context in which emphasis is on inclusion and differentiated teaching. The thesis is comprised of four articles. The first analyzes the public discus- sion of giftedness in print media during the years 1992-2007 in order to enrich the view of the Finnish context by revealing different conceptions of giftedness and gifted students in that time period. The three other articles (II-IV) are based on survey data gathered from Finnish elementary school teachers (N=212) during the school year 2010-2011. The instrument used was a mixed questionnaire, including both qualitative and quantitative items. By mixing both qualitative and quantitative data and analysis methods the thesis thereby utilizes a mixed methods approach. The results indicate that teachers conceptions, even though simplistic, as well as their attitudes are in many ways supportive of the gifted and their education in general. In particular, teachers attitudes toward differentiated teaching for the gifted were mainly positive, whereas they were mostly negative about acceleration and ability groupings. Furthermore, teachers descriptions of their practices revealed that, even though they differentiate their teaching, they do not necessarily use evidence-based practices shown to be effective with gifted students. Together these findings suggest that the practical functionality of a differentiation paradigm might be questioned. The thesis also emphasizes that, in Finland, meeting the needs of gifted students depends heavily on individual teachers, which may lead to inequality in delivering quality education to the gifted.
  • Fyhr, Kim (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study looks at the ex ante review of fundamental rights in the EU legislative process. It examines the rights-based review, which is carried out at different phases of EU law-making procedure before the EU legal act concerned is formally adopted and entered into force. An ex ante review of EU legislative proposals is examined here with relation to selected substantive fundamental rights, most notably the right to privacy and the right to data protection. Therefore, the normative framework of the analysis of the EU legislative process consists of fundamental rights which derive from the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights and the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights. Continuity and change in ex ante review of EU legislation will be examined by analyzing selected case studies involving concrete pieces of EU legislation that mainly fall under the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice - a highly sensitive policy sector from the point of view of fundamental rights. Most of the chosen legislative dossiers are inextricably linked with anti-terrorism measures. The research is predominantly of legal-empirical nature and intends to merge theory with practice in an analytical-descriptive way. The analysis of the selected case studies is guided by a reliance on such doctrinal and theoretical constructs of fundamental and human rights law as the test of permissible limitations on fundamental rights with the proportionality test at its apex. Moreover, aside from understanding fundamental rights as a set of negative obligations binding upon the legislature, due attention will also be paid to assessing how positive obligations regarding fundamental rights have been dealt with by the EU legislature. In light of the major findings of the study, the EU system of rights-based constitutional review has significantly changed. This is due to the impact of the legally-binding EU Charter of Fundamental Rights entry into force in 2009, which carries fundamental rights aspects assuming increasing significance at the level of daily legislative activities by the EU institutions. Similarly, the Member States also appear to increasingly use rights-language in their national observations on EU legislative proposals. We are witnessing a considerable empowerment of EU ex ante review, but in a manner that this does not entail a corresponding weakening of the rights-based review by the courts, especially the CJEU. It is claimed that the EU system of rights-based review of EU legislation is evolving gradually towards a hybrid and essentially pluralistic system of review in which ex ante and ex post phases of review complement each other. Similarly, the fundamental rights review system of the EU involves a number of institutions and actors, at different levels and phases, carrying out their own part in the rights-based review of EU legislation as a whole. Given its essentially pluralistic normative and institutional composition, the EU s rights-based review system as a whole contributes to topical discussion on European constitutionalism and constitutional pluralism. This evolution has led to fundamental rights being taken more seriously in the EU legislative process, which has also impacted institutions. Keywords: Constitutional law, European Union, European Union law, Fundamental rights, Ex ante rights-based review of legislative proposals, legislative procedures of the EU
  • Aalto, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The doctoral thesis deals with the history of Finnish medical education from the viewpoint of medical students adopting a professional identity. The period studied is 1933 - 1969. It is a period of modernisation and enlargement in education, as well as scientific progress in medicine. In Finnish society there was a profound ideological change from a national and right-wing atmosphere of the interwar period to the welfare state of the 1960s led by centre and leftist parties. After the Second World War, society changed in terms of structures and political environment, as well as values and norms. With the economic growth the welfare state project progressed quickly. The political keywords of the era were regional stability, centralised planning, and equality. The development also touched upon medical education. When the public health-care system grew, the number of physicians was increased. Aims and contents of education also changed. The research shows that Finnish medical education became more professional, specialised and society-oriented in the period from the 1930s to the 1960s. The medical curriculum was shortened. The practical, clinical studies were given a higher priority. The orientation to society strengthened when more social and preventive medicine and work with patients outside hospitals were introduced in the end of the 1960s and in the beginning of the 1970s. Medical students strongly promoted this development all along the way. The focus of the research is on medical students, who orientate to their future profession under their studies and adopt a professional identity. The research is based on qualitative analysis of historical source material. The main sources are protocols of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Helsinki and magazines by the medical students associations. In addition to the official curriculum, the education has disseminated tacit knowledge about studies, professional culture, and being a doctor. The high socio-economic background of medical students and their inherited cultural capital has made it easier to adopt tacit knowledge, which is seen as being both academic and professional. In the research, tacit knowledge is studied by sketching the ideal image of a physician at different times. In the first half of the century this ideal was a free professional. The physician s profession was seen as a vocation with high moral and ethical values and close contact to patients. In the 1940s and the 1950s, the ideal was characterised by professional and scientific knowledge that was affected by new methods of diagnosing and healing. The growing specialisation also changed the image. In the 1960s, the ideal image of the physician was bound to the welfare state: the physician was a medical specialist and an active citizen in service to society. During the 1960s, traditionally conservative Finnish physicians and their culture was criticised by the younger, more liberal generation. The professional culture went through a profound change in terms of doctors relationships to their patients, colleagues and society. In the research period, the professional culture and tacit knowledge about it became more visible, open, and pluralistic. The profession of a physician has traditionally been among the most highly-respected in Finland. In the research period, the source of this respect was an image of the profession as a vocation with scientific and professional knowledge. However, this respect has also been connected to the role of Finnish intellectual elite that was aware of its responsibility in the development of their country. Despite all the changes, physicians shared the values and culture of the university-educated class. The medical-students associations played an important part in socialising medical students both to their profession and to their academic class.
  • Kouhia, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the meanings of modern day textile hobby crafts for makers who engage with crafts as a creative leisure outlet. The research is embodied in the term unraveling, which conceptualizes the study both as a means to reflect on the meanings of embodied practice, and as a way to open up new perspectives on making. The theoretical framework reviews contemporary textile hobby crafting culture and uncovers how it has found new meaning in recreational leisure, gendered domesticity and individual resourcefulness linked with Do-It-Yourself. The thesis consists of three sub-studies. The first level of examination is based on interviews with craftspeople coming from different cultural backgrounds, who were asked to talk about how they see the meaning and value of craft making in their lives. Secondly, textile hobby craft making is approached as a collective practice through a study conducted with an open-curricula craft group. Thirdly, the story of a craft-maker-researcher is sewn into the research narrative through autoethnographic cinema in order to create an understanding of the performativity of craft practice from the perspective of a young maker. The three studies address how hobby craft making opens up opportunities for learning, sharing, community building and self-discovery, and how it materializes experiences of belonging to a social group and nurtures emotional sensibility in relation to one s own being. The studies show that the meanings attached to hobby craft making have many dimensions, and can be characterized as multiple, overlapping, connective, contextual, shifting and conflicting. Regardless of individual differences, there is a range of commonalities shared by the craftspeople, and accordingly, a wider sense of the world, which becomes agreed upon by the people interested in textile hobby crafts. This suggests that as people take up hobby crafting, they become involved in the negotiation of comprehensive strategies for discussing and sharing hobby practices. This implies that a shared view of the world plays an important role in cultivating meaningfulness of one s craft work, as it generates a common cultural interpretation of the meanings of craft as a leisure pursuit. All in all, experiencing personal meaningfulness seems to be the most important reason for taking up textile hobby craft activities.
  • Logie, Andrew (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation comprises a diachronic survey of popular Korean historiography from the earliest surviving supradynastic treatments through to a sample of current day South Korean popular history works; therein the focus is on the pre-Three Kingdoms period, dealing with questions of ethnogenesis and state formation. Part I delineates the premodern conceptualization of ancient Korea, terming it the Orthodox Narrative, the defining characteristic of which was the successful merger and coexistence of both nativist and Sinic elements, popularly symbolized in the Dangun-Gija symbiosis. Part II then focuses on premodern treatments of historical geography, a topic which has gone on to become a core area of modern, post-colonial concern, particularly regarding the location and territory of ancient Joseon and the Han Commanderies. Part III looks at the contemporary popular history writings of the Colonial Era, broadly terming this new perspective as 'Northern/Altaic' owing to its continental focus and utilization of the then accepted Altaic language hypothesis; seeking to distill and magnify the perceived nativist elements of the Orthodox Narrative, its defining revisionist feature was - and still is - explicit anti-Sinocentricism. Indeed, current day South Korean popular historiography, treated in Part IV is found to be still deeply influenced by the two key architects of the Northern/Altaic paradigm, Sin Chaeho and Choe Namseon, whose works can be seen as representing two starting points on the same conceptual spectrum under which most subsequent efforts can be classified: an 'Empire' variant imagining ancient Joseon as both a rival and source of classical Sinic civilization, and a 'Pan-Altaic' variant which utilizes long-range theories in the name of pan-Altaic solidarity. Despite a tradition of rationalist empiricism reaching back to premodern scholarship, the dominant trend in the most visible popular historiography has been towards historicization of mythology; this thesis suggests such a phenomenon can, at least in part, be understood as being both due to the embedding of the foundation myths within the Orthodox Narrative that ensured their survival, and the consequent and continued need for national mythology in the modern era where myth maintains its historical resonance.
  • Sivelä, Jonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral thesis, consisting of four separate articles and a summarizing report, discusses so-called South African AIDS myths also called AIDS beliefs, rumours, misconceptions and legends. AIDS myths have been put forth as an outcome of and a major reason behind the severe HIV/AIDS situation in South Africa. They are proposed to flourish among black South Africans living in impoverished townships and villages. In previous studies, the reasons and mechanisms behind AIDS myths have been understood to be rather straightforward, and it has been suggested that they have a considerable effect on people s behaviour. This thesis argues that the processes and expressions related to them are, in fact, much more complex and multifaceted. The theoretical backbone of this thesis is influenced by folklore studies, which emphasizes the importance of taking into account the nuances of textual and verbal expressions conveying both historical and contemporary meanings of a specific cultural setting. Most of the empiric observations that are discussed in this thesis are based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Xhosa people living in two different townships in Cape Town. This part of the thesis examines the meanings and processes related to the manifestations and possible impact of AIDS myths. The thesis also includes a discourse analytic section that examines how South African AIDS myths are presented in current academic studies. Fieldwork shows that AIDS myths do exist among informants in these two township settings in Cape Town. AIDS-related communication, including expressions of AIDS myths, stems from a specific cultural and social setting, and it is influenced by specific manners of communication and a complex past characterized by apartheid-era legacies. Against this background, AIDS myths can be understood as expressing a kind of cultural and narrative resistance to the disease and its manifestations, as well as to cultural models which impose a certain kind of behaviour and communication. Fieldwork also shows that the impact of AIDS myths on people s behaviour is not as direct as proposed, and that there is a difference between knowing the myths and acting in accordance with them. Furthermore, an examination of the discourse that touches on South African AIDS myths reveals that it includes themes that resonate with derogatory notions of Africa and Africans and are characterized by apartheid-era narratives that still persist today.
  • Parviainen, Arno (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    As the consumption of natural resources increase with the exponential world population growth, the food industry needs to answer the demand. This means that farming has to be increased and optimized from its current level. The problem is summoned from the fact that the amount of arable land is decreasing. This eventually leads to prioritizing the land for food crops and the downscaling the production of i.e. palm oil and cotton. Cotton is ~90% pure cellulose and is used for textile commodities for its properties over synthetic fibers. The same cellulose can be found all around in nature, from the structure of trees to algae. Cellulose is the world s most commonly found polymer and it is generated annually in nature enough to stop cotton farming altogether. The problem is the low solubility of cellulose to commonly used solvents. The extensive hydrogen bonding network of cellulose gives this biopolymer its strong features. The structure of cellulose and the chemical features has been known for a century and a half to this date, but solubilization of cellulose has evaded a more systemic, yet pragmatic approach. There have been introductions of various types of solvent systems for cellulose dissolution, from which ionic liquids have been the most successful class of solvents. The research performed in this thesis has been focusing on the research and development of new cellulose dissolving ionic liquids. A class of imidazolium based ionic liquids was used as the starting point for the development, since they exhibit high dissolutive power and relatively low viscosities. The chemical stability of the solvent system needs to sustain various kinds of chemical and physical stress without compromising process safety, ecology or economy. Our research indicated that the acidity-basicity of the ionic liquid components was correlating with the chemical-physical stability of the solvents. The higher the basicity was the less stable the ionic liquid become and in the same time it was found out that the ionic liquids that were synthesized from less basic components were not able to dissolve cellulose in the first place. We calculated the gas-phase basicities (proton affinity) of various types and strengths of bases by using simple and efficient computational method. After the calculations were done, we combined the bases with acetic acid to form acetate ionic liquids and with propionic acid for propionates correspondingly. After the examination of the cellulose dissolution capability we discovered a threshold basicity where the cellulose dissolution capability was introduced. In a collaboration with Aalto University, we developed an ionic liquid that could be used in industrial scale production of cellulose fibers. The research was steered towards investigation of the chemical stability and recyclability of this new ionic liquid.
  • Dimitrow, Sari Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Development and Validation of a Drug-Related Problem Risk Assessment Tool for Use by Practical Nurses Working With Community-Dwelling Aged The demand for long-term home health care services for the aged (≥65 years) is growing. Practical nurses (PNs) are those who most often visit the aged using HC services and consequently, are in a key position to monitor the benefits and risks of pharmacotherapy of their clients. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an easy-to-use DRP Risk Assessment Tool (DRP-RAT) for PNs caring for home-dwelling aged ≥65 years focusing on identifying and solving the highest priority DRP risks. The specific aims were: 1) to systematically review articles that describe criteria for assessing inappropriate prescribing in the aged ≥65 years; 2) to describe the development process and content validation of the DRP-RAT; 3) to evaluate the feasibility of the final DRP-RAT among PNs in HC; and 4) to assess the reliability of risk assessments conducted by PNs by using DRP-RAT and to identify the clinically most significant DRPs needing action. Two systematic literature reviews (Study I, year 2010; an unpublished one) and the expertise of the research group were used as a basis for the development of the DRP-RAT. The content of the draft tool was validated by a three-round Delphi survey with a panel of 18 experts in geriatric care and pharmacotherapy (Study II, year 2010). Data for the feasibility study were collected during the training of PNs, working in HC, in the use of the DRP-RAT (Study III, year 2011). The PN-conducted (n=25) DRP risk assessments by DRP-RAT (n=85) and the same clients copied medication lists (n=68), face-to-face discussions and responses to open questions of the returned feedback forms (n=23) were analyzed. In 2013, an experienced geriatrician reviewed HC clients (n=45) medications by using three different reviewing methods on each patient (Study IV). The methods based on: 1) DRP-RAT (n=45) completed by the PNs (n=26) and copied medication lists; 2) health centre s medical records ( gold standard ); and 3) Methods 1 and 2 together. Results of the reviews and contents of the geriatrician s open comments regarding the PNsʼ risk assessments were analyzed. DRPs in the study population identified and reported by the geriatrician were studied from the geriatrician s DRP classifications (n=45) and by a retrospective review of the geriatrician s case reports (n=45). The final DRP-RAT consists of 18 items that assess risks for DRPs in home-dwelling clients. It is divided into four sections: 1) Basic Client Data, 2) Potential Risks for DRPs in Medication Use, 3) Characteristics of the Clientʼs Care and Adherence and, 4) Recommendations for Actions to Resolve DRPs. The DRP-RAT turned out to be feasible among PNs and the PN-completed tool was capable of providing reliable and timely patient information to support physician s clinical decision making. Compared to the gold standard (Method 2), Method 1 resulted in a false negative rating in 7% (95 % CI 1.4 18.3) of the cases (3/45). The geriatrician identified an average of 3.1 potential DRPs per patient. This study indicates that the DRP-RAT, developed and validated in this study, could make it possible to more effectively involve PNs, working in HC, in medication risk management among the home-dwelling aged, and that medication risk management should be focused on the highest priority risks. Actions to facilitate the implementation of the DRP-RAT in the Finnish health care system are needed. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effects of PNsʼ risk assessments using the DRP-RAT on clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes.
  • Tanhuanpää, Topi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Urban forests provide various ecosystem services. However, they also require fairly intensive management, which can be supported with up-to-date tree-level data. Until recently, the data have been collected using traditional field measurements. Laser scanning (LS) techniques provide efficient means for acquiring detailed three-dimensional (3D) data from the vegetation. The objective of this dissertation was to develop methods for mapping and monitoring urban forests at tree level. In substudy I, a method (MS-STI) utilizing multiple data sources was developed for extracting tree-level attributes. The method combined airborne laser scanning (ALS), field measurements, and tree locations. The field sample was generalized using the non-parametric nearest neighbor (NN) approach. The relative root mean square error (RMSE) of diameter at breast height (DBH) varied between 18.8 33.8%. The performance of MS-STI was assessed in substudy II by applying it to an existing tree register. 88.8% of the trees were successfully detected, and the relative RMSE of DBH for the most common diameter classes varied between 21.7 24.3%. In substudy III, downed trees were mapped from a recreational forest area by detecting changes in the canopy. 97.7% of the downed trees were detected and the commission error was 10%. Species group, DBH, and volume were estimated for all downed trees using ALS metrics and existing allometric models. For the DBH, the relative RMSE was 20.8% and 34.1% for conifers and deciduous trees respectively. Finally, in substudy IV, a method utilizing terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and tree basic density was developed for estimating tree-level stem biomass for urban trees. The relative RMSE of the stem biomass estimates varied between 8.4 10.5%. The dissertation demonstrates the applicability of LS data in assessing tree-level attributes for urban forests. The methods developed show potential in providing the planning and management of urban forests with cost-efficient and up-to-date tree-level data.
  • Eriksson, Pia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    In Finnish society, family creation is usually considered a private matter, whereas child protection is considered a public matter. In the adoption process these two matters intertwine, and prospective adoptive parents face the tensions which arise from this when becoming pre-adoption clients in social services. The power dynamics between prospective adoptive parents as clients and the professionals in this process have rarely been of interest, despite power being an integral to social work. Furthermore, the emotions of encounters between clients and professionals in social work settings have largely been overlooked in research. Though professionals are important facilitators in making crucial decisions about the creation of families in the inter-county adoption process, the client-professional relationship has only been studied to a minor extent in this institutional setting. This study investigates the context of statutory pre- adoption services of pre-adoption counselling (assessment and preparation) and mediation in inter-country adoption in Finland as a receiving country. The study conveys user perspectives of prospective adoptive parents and enhances the understanding of the institutional setting of pre- adoption services by utilizing the concepts of emotion, power, social interaction and service satisfaction. The study examines how prospective adoptive parents experience and account for statutory pre-adoption services from their client position, and how emotions and power intertwine in social interaction in the pre-adoption context. Finally, it contextualizes the experiences of prospective adoptive parents within broader social work and intercountry adoption discussions. This study applies a broad methodological approach, using survey derived data (N=1451) and narrative interviews (N=19). The overarching theoretical perspectives are those of narrativity, a horizontal view of knowledge production, and a reflexive methodology. The survey data was analysed using logistic regression and content analysis, whereas the interviews were analysed by way of thematic narrative analysis. The study showed that 81.7% of adoptive parents were satisfied with the pre-adoption counselling they had received. This service satisfaction was best explained on the interpersonal level in the relationship between client and professional. However, consequent analysis of the institutional setting indicated that stressful emotions are common among prospective adoptive parents. The findings suggest that an experience of fear was connected with the risk of the loss of a wanted child through either rejection in the assessment procedure or a termination of the adoption process. A gatekeeping function of the professionals is seen to be present throughout the whole pre-adoption process, and a power asymmetry was perceived by the prospective adoptive parent through different controlling practices. In combination with a sense of loss of control in their vulnerable client position and a dependency on the system, emotions of anger and fear were also experienced. The study showed that prospective adoptive parents use different strategies in their social interactions with professionals to navigate this institutional setting. However, stressful emotions and the resulting strategic actions can pose a challenge to establishing a trustful relationship with professionals, which is important in terms of service delivery. Prospective adoptive parents balance their anxiety and hope in the process through their own emotional engagement, but the study also identified the professionals as key actors in diminishing stressful emotions in the setting. Two different but converging discourses were identified in the interview data, as an emotional discourse of wanting a child , and a cognitive discourse of providing a home . These reflected a difference in primary aims between the client and professional, and were further found to be influenced by the knowledge orders of adult-driven Western reproduction, and child-centered child protection. The implications of the study suggest an acknowledgment of dependency, vulnerability and emotion among the prospective adoptive parents, as well as a need for client participation in creating a common understanding and a more dialogical set of practices. On a global level and as a social work practice, adoption services need to be brought closer to a child protection aim.
  • Spirin, Viacheslav (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation deals with the basidiomycete genus Antrodia, one of the largest polypore genera, which embraces over 80 species. Together with some other genera of brown-rot fungi (Fomitopsis, Laetiporus, Postia etc.), Antrodia constitutes its own lineage within the Polyporales, the so called antrodia clade. However, the genus in its current scope is polyphyletic and in need of further splitting into several natural genera. The main aim of this study is to define what is the genus Antrodia as a monophyletic unity, and to revise species concepts in some of the most important species complexes in Antrodia sensu lato. In the strict sense, Antrodia is a small genus, with six species closely related to the genus type, Antrodia serpens. They are highly uniform morphologically but can be recognized based on meticulous pore and spore measurements, as well as ecological and geographic data. Morphological and DNA data also allowed to revise species concepts within the Antrodia crassa, A. serialis, and A. malicola groups, belonging to the antrodia clade. All these revisions were based on type studies, studies of available herbarium material, and DNA analyses. In total, specimens of 46 Antrodia species were sequenced, 36 of them for the first time. Twelve new species were described, and six new combinations were proposed. Neotypes and epitypes were designated for seven species, in order to fix the current use of the species names. Results of the present research can be applied to further taxonomic revisions of brown-rot polypores, as well as for introducing phylogenetically sound genus concepts in the antrodia clade. Re-evaluation of species concepts in the A. crassa group provided new data on the ecology and indicator values of some species, and therefore it can be useful for defining their status in regional Red Lists and lists of indicator species of old-growth forests.
  • Korpela, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The journey of ritual objects from original context to museum Trajectories of a selection of ritual objects in the collection of Central African Kuba at the Museum of Cultures This study concerns selected ritual and/or ceremonial objects in the Kuba collection at the Museum of Cultures (NBA, Finland). The aim of the study was to prove the historical importance of ethnographic objects, now in museums, to their original culture. For this purpose the objects primary uses and also their cultural value both for the original society and later in their trajectories needed to be determined. Igor Kopytoff s idea of the social life of things served as the theoretical basis for the study, in which sacral or otherwise special objects are singularized as a group of their own. It was methodically possible to illustrate the changes in the valuation and uses of the objects during their transitional stages. The model reflected the changes in circumstances, the museum being one of the end points. The study shows the gradual adaptation of the tradition to the robust commercial and cultural connections established in the 16th century. Kuba was a Central African domain whose success was based on good governance and strong external links. The organization connecting its diverse peoples was that of sacral kingship, which guaranteed the wellbeing and safety of the community. The domain s esteemed material culture, known even today as Kuba culture, is proof of this. It reflected the importance of the state, the cosmological ideas of the people, and hierarchical values as well. European colonialism greatly affected African societies, and also the western conception of other cultures. Africa was considered a source of raw material and its peoples the objects of civilization efforts, with no regard to the prevailing systems of life. Material culture may not necessarily be history writing; however, it often proves to be the only surviving example of earlier culture, society and religion. The appreciation of the material culture of Kuba during the colonial period shows how a society can survive in difficult times due to its strong culture. The extensive collecting of material culture by westerners meant changes in the trajectory of the objects. Originally parts of rituals, they became ethnographic objects, losing their meaning and purpose, never to be regained. The objects are presented in museums as singular items or grouped in series, and yet they retain some of their original power. It is now the responsibility of the present owners to decide whether the situation requires re-evaluation or the objects be simply forgotten.
  • Söderlund, Mervi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    In biosphere safety assessment of spent nuclear fuel, the importance of radionuclides increases with their possibility to induce radiation dose for humans and other organisms in the future. The surface environment migration and sorption of 135Cs, 129I, 93m,94Nb and 79Se is of great importance since these radionuclides have been assessed to contribute to the potential radiation dose in the most realistic biosphere calculation cases. This doctoral thesis aimed to investigate the retention and behaviour of cesium (Cs+), iodine (I- and IO3-), niobium (Nb(OH)5) and selenium (SeO32- and SeO42-) in humus and rather undeveloped mineral soil of boreal forest on Olkiluoto Island when abiotic factors affecting the sorption reactions were varied. Factors affecting species transformations of iodine and selenium were also examined for the same soil samples and under the same experimental conditions. Cesium retention was affected by e.g. incubation conditions, soil depth, pH, humus and mineralogy. Humus exhibited lower sorption of cesium than mineral soil, which was caused by mineral soil s relatively high muscovite content and the presence of Cs selective FES sites in muscovite interlayer spaces. Formation of slightly reducing soil conditions decreased soil retention of cesium, presumably caused by the formation of NH4+ ions and arisen competition of the FES sites. Increase in soil pH accelerated the retention of cesium on negatively charged surface sorption sites. The highest retention of inorganic iodine forms iodide and iodate were observed in humus, as caused by sorption processes and speciation changes leading to presumable formation of organo iodine compounds in microbially mediated reactions. Iodine sorption on mineral soil was very low in aerobic and anaerobic soil conditions, even though acidic pH values increased the retention. Decrease in pH had similar effect for selenium (selenite) and niobium. For these two elements inorganic soil components, and especially weakly crystalline aluminium and iron oxides are considered important retentive phases due to inner sphere complexation with surface Al and Fe atoms. Speciation of iodine showed considerable dependence on soil environment. Iodate was reduced to iodide especially in anaerobic soil conditions, low pH and in the presence of organic matter and microbial activity. No oxidation of iodide to iodate was detected. Formation of unidentified, presumable organo iodine compounds was observed in humus and mineral soil of low pH or varying incubation time. Inorganic selenium forms selenite and selenate proved to be persistent in the experimental conditions as no changes in selenium liquid phase speciation was observed irrespective of variation in incubation time, pH or redox potential.