Väitöskirjat

Recent Submissions

  • Marnela, Marika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The Arctic Ocean and its exchanges with the Nordic Seas influence the north-European climate. The Fram Strait with its 2600 m sill depth is the only deep passage between the Arctic Ocean and the other oceans. Not just all the deep water exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and the rest of the world's oceans take place through the Fram Strait, but also a significant amount of cold, low-saline surface waters and sea ice exit the Arctic Ocean through the strait. Correspondingly, part of the warm and saline Atlantic water flowing northward enters the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait bringing heat into the Arctic Ocean. The oceanic exchanges through the Fram Strait as well as the water mass properties and the changes they undergo in the Fram Strait and its vicinity are studied from three decades of ship-based hydrographic observations collected from 1980-2010. The transports are estimated from geostrophic velocities. The main section, comprised of hydrographic stations, is located zonally at about 79 °N. For a few years of the observed period it is possible to combine the 79 °N section with a more northern section, or with a meridional section at the Greenwich meridian, to form quasi-closed boxes and to apply conservation constraints on them in order to estimate the transports through the Fram strait as well as the recirculation in the strait. In a similar way, zonal hydrographic sections in the Fram Strait and along 75 °N crossing the Greenland Sea are combined to study the exchanges between the Nordic Seas and the Fram Strait. The transport estimates are adjusted with drift estimates based on Argo floats in the Greenland Sea. The mean net volume transports through the Fram Strait are averaged from the various approaches and range from less than 1 Sv to about 3 Sv. The heat loss to the atmosphere from the quasi-closed boxes both north and south of the Fram Strait section is estimated at about 10 TW. The net freshwater transport through the Fram Strait is estimated at 60-70 mSv southward. The insufficiently known northward transport of Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW) originating in the Nordic Seas is estimated using 2002 Oden expedition data. At the time of data collection, excess sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) was available, a tracer that besides a background anthropogenic origin derives from a mixing experiment in the Greenland Sea in 1996. The excess SF6 can be used to distinguish AIW from the upper Polar Deep Water originating in the Arctic Ocean. It is estimated that 0.5 Sv of AIW enters the Arctic Ocean. The deep waters in the Nordic Seas and in the Arctic Ocean have become warmer and in the Greenland Sea also more saline during the three decades studied in this work. The temperature and salinity properties of the deep waters found in the Fram Strait from both Arctic Ocean and Greenland Sea origins have become similar and continue to do so. How these changes will affect the circulation patterns will be seen in the future.
  • Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Agricultural lands are managed or modified ecosystems that interact with the surrounding natural environment so as to supply while also to use a great range of ecosystem services (ES). In addition, agriculture is responsible for disservices that negatively affect natural ecosystems. In Finland, agricultural lands have undergone marked changes affecting a great number of vital ES. Traditional agri-environmental policy has been criticized for being inefficient in ensuring the provision of ES or limiting the disservices, while markets have been unable to reflect the demand for or supply of ES due to the public character of some ES. Market-based mechanisms as well as targeted policy measures may ensure effective and efficient ES provision. This dissertation explores the factors that determine the citizen demand for and landowner supply of ES, and considers examples of market- and target-based measures that may supplement or replace the current form of agri-environmental policy. The first part of the dissertation is focused on the demand for and supply of cultural ES provided by agricultural lands. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate a marketbased scheme, i.e. a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme that provides certain landscape attributes in a typical agricultural area. The analysis revealed that the most valued attributes were the renovation of production buildings and the presence of grazing animals. The results demonstrated that citizen preferences were heterogeneous, a fact which may affect the level of transaction costs and the performance of the scheme. Landowners were skeptical towards the scheme, willing to provide ES that did not always match with the demand. They also demanded compensation in excess of their expenses. Nonetheless, cost benefit considerations revealed that the scheme may be feasible, as the aggregated welfare benefits outweigh the anticipated costs. The second part is focused on the supply of water conservation services and the avoidance of water eutrophication disservices. During the data collection, Finnish agrienvironmental policy set equal incentives for water conservation, not accounting for environmental conditions, which are spatially varied. Before suggesting any policy reform and the use of alternative measures such as target-based measures, where farmers are compensated for delivering certain ES, it is imperative to investigate the tendency of landowners to adopt water conservation measures. By combining survey data with GIS data, a binary choice model was employed. The model examined the adoption of special measures for water conservation if the soil quality implies a high leaching risk and if the water quality is already poor. Adoption in areas under risk was weakly supported by the study s estimates. This indicates that environmental awareness, assuming it increases with risk, is not strong enough to motivate adoption. Target-based which are spatially tailored measures can attract adopters in hotspot areas. The latter outcome leads to the last subject, which examines farmers participation in an agri-environmental auction scheme. According to the outcomes of the study, farmers who have previously participated in a pilot auction scheme were more likely to be participants in future auctions. The findings also suggested a strong relationship between attitudes and participation, particularly for attitudes related to specific environmental benefits attached to the auction scheme, novelty and financial features, as well as the complexity of the auction mechanism. The ES and disservices examined in this dissertation, i.e. landscape amenities and water eutrophication, are of priority. Finnish agricultural landscape has experienced severe stresses during the past years while the state of the Baltic Sea is largely affected by the eutrophication issues of water bodies. The empirical research findings enhance current knowledge in planning market- and target-based schemes in the years to come. These schemes are attracting increasing attention for being more effective and, if properly designed, more efficient. For agri-environmental auctions in particular, the findings are novel, since they were derived from the first auction experiment ever implemented in Finland.
  • Holmlund-Suila, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Vitamin D deficiency in infancy and childhood impairs normal bone development and growth: defective bone mineralization leads to rickets. For many decades in Finland, vitamin D supplementation in infants has been successful in preventing rickets. However, along with increasing knowledge of non-skeletal vitamin D actions, optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration, has been under debate. The optimal vitamin D status and the dose of supplemental vitamin D in different populations may differ considerably. This doctoral thesis aimed to define the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD less than 50 nmol/l) in Finnish children, focusing on individuals with high risk of vitamin D deficiency, and studying in chronically ill children the factors that further increase the prevalence of low serum 25OHD concentration. Vitamin D interventions in infants and young adults enabled examination of the effect and safety of higher than currently recommended vitamin D supplementation, and exploring vitamin D and mineral metabolism in more detail. The study populations comprised 113 healthy term newborns and 42 young adults who participated in vitamin D intervention, and 1,335 children followed at Children s Hospital Helsinki between 2007 and 2010 for a chronic illness. The vitamin D interventions were double-blinded controlled randomized trials. The newborns received either 10, 30 or 40 µg of vitamin D3 daily from 2 weeks to 3 months, and blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 3 months. The young adults were either normal weight (n=24), or suffered from severe childhood-onset obesity (n=18). Both groups received either placebo or 50 µg of vitamin D3 daily for 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Data on chronically ill children were collected in a retrospective manner from the hospital laboratory database. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency exceeded 40% in the study cohorts: especially adolescents and obese individuals were at risk for low 25OHD concentration. Seasonal variation was evident in school-age children, with the lowest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in summer, and the highest prevalence in winter and spring. In younger children, vitamin D deficiency was less prevalent, and seasonal variation was lacking. Daily vitamin D3 supplementation with 30 to 40 µg in infants, and 50 µg in young adults was safe in short-term follow-up. With good adherence to intervention, both 30 and 40 µg dosing increased infant 25OHD concentration to more than 80 nmol/l. The vitamin D3 intervention did not affect serum intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations, but a distinct sex difference was observed, girls having higher concentration than boys at three months of age. Obesity associated with inferior response to vitamin D3 supplementation. Obese individuals receiving 50 µg vitamin D3 daily achieved similar 25OHD concentrations as normal-weight subjects who received placebo. Chronically ill children and obese subjects need individualized vitamin D supplementation and follow-up.
  • Kilpinen, Susanne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The term tylosin-responsive diarrhea (TRD) stands for canine chronic, idiopathic, recurrent diarrhea that responds repeatedly to tylosin treatment. A specific feature of TRD is that diarrhea ceases within a few days of initiating tylosin treatment and the stool remains normal for as long as treatment continues. After discontinuation of tylosin, diarrhea reappears in many dogs within a short time. When tylosin is reintroduced, its effect does not diminish, even with numerous treatments. Despite its wide acceptance as a treatment for canine chronic enteropathies, few published studies have assessed the efficacy of tylosin treatment in chronic diarrhea disorders in dogs. To evaluate the efficacy, a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial was performed. The proportion of dogs with normal fecal consistency at the end of treatment was 85% in the tylosin group and 29% in the placebo group. Tylosin at a dosage of 25 mg/kg once daily for seven days was effective, compared with placebo, in treating diarrhea in TRD dogs. No changes specific to TRD were detected in clinical, laboratory, or histopathologic examinations. In this study, TRD had affected mainly middle-aged, large-breed dogs, and the diarrhea was of a mixed small and large intestinal pattern. Diarrhea recurred in 88% of the diagnostically confirmed TRD dogs at a median of day 9 after discontinuation of tylosin. Diarrhea ceased at a median of 2-3 days after reintroduction of tylosin at three different dosages. Tylosin lacks official oral dosage recommendations and an optimal treatment strategy has not been established. The results showed that 93% of the dogs included in the trial, suffering from recurrent diarrhea and previously responding to oral tylosin therapy at a dose of 25 mg/kg once daily for seven days, responded also to doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg once daily for seven days after diarrhea relapse. The exact mode of action contributing to the cessation of recurrent diarrhea in dogs after tylosin administration remains obscure. Known pathogenic bacteria have previously been excluded as the underlying cause of TRD. Therefore, the antibacterial effect of tylosin may play a minor role in terminating recurrent diarrhea, and the immunomodulatory properties of tylosin could explain the favorable effect. These could be mediated by a shift of intestinal microbiota towards potentially beneficial commensal bacteria. Data revealed that tylosin administration resulted at the time of cessation of diarrhea in a significant increase in the fecal levels of Enterococcus spp. of TRD dogs compared with levels during the diarrhea period following discontinuation of tylosin. Cessation of diarrhea in TRD dogs with tylosin treatment could thus be mediated by selection of a specific intestinal lactic acid population, the Enterococcus spp.. To conclude, this thesis provides evidence-based data that tylosin is an effective treatment of chronic, idiopathic, recurrent diarrhea in dogs. The results suggest that an optimal treatment strategy for TRD is to start an empirical treatment trial with tylosin at a dosage of 25 mg/kg once daily for seven days. In case of a relapse after discontinuation of tylosin, the dose could be tapered down to 5 mg/kg once daily at the time of reintroducing tylosin. Further, the findings provide new insight into the possible mechanism behind the cessation of chronic diarrhea. The probiotic potential of some enterococci strains is known and these enterococci may possess properties that attenuate inflammation in the gut mucosa and normalize fecal consistency. They may thus provide an alternative to the long-term use of antimicrobials in the treatment of TRD in dogs.
  • Kozlowska-Rautiainen, Daria (Unigrafia, 2016)
    This dissertation provides an analysis of the scope and procedure of obtaining documents from the opponent in international commercial arbitration. The goal of this research is to provide an in-depth study of the myriad of detailed questions regarding the procedure and scope of obtaining document production which goes beyond analyzing the differences between common law and civil law practices and takes an international commercial arbitration perspective. The primary aim, however, is not to supply definite answers, but rather to present possible best practices by, for example, discussing various approaches and problematic areas of the topic and also providing the reader with awareness of different aspects that should be taken into account when dealing with document production. To reach this aim, the method of legal dogmatics is predominantly employed. The core of this research is in the interpretation and systematization of international arbitration sources, especially soft law, which provide detailed guidance regarding document production, against the background of legal principles of arbitral procedure. The challenge of conducting research regarding document production is that procedural timetables, document requests, objections and procedural orders are confidential. However, the author of this dissertation had the rare opportunity to research files of ICC cases and anonymized examples from the chosen cases serve as valuable source regarding international arbitration practice. The research is divided into five substantive chapters. In Chapter 2, the framework for document production is discussed. In Chapter 3, the procedure and requirements of the request for documents is analyzed. Here important questions are considered, such as what is the basis of a party s right to obtain documents, how to delimit a narrow category of documents, what is meant by relevance and materiality, can a party request documents relating to issues it does not have the burden of proving and also when are the documents considered as being in a party s control. In Chapter 4, the attention turns to the possible bases for an objection to a document request, such as privilege, confidentiality, data protection, unreasonable burden of production etc. Chapter 5 contains analysis of the questions connected to the actual production, including the tribunal s order to produce or dismiss a production request, the form of production and the consequences of non-compliance, i.e. adverse inferences and financial consequences. In Chapter 6, the issue of national courts assistance in obtaining documents from the opponent is addressed. The detailed results of the analysis are presented throughout this dissertation and the significance of this research is in the discussion of the specific questions. Nonetheless, on the basis of the conducted study certain key findings are also drawn. First, the research shows that many issues can be resolved on the basis of balancing principles of international commercial arbitration. Consequently, there is no need for more regulation. Arbitration needs to remain flexible. Predictability should not be achieved on the level of arbitration rules and soft law, but in specific arbitration proceedings. Second, there are important legal implications relating to production of electronic documents and participants of the arbitral process need to be aware of them. Third, arbitrators are very cautious when making decisions as to not violate possible due process or public policy requirements. In fact, only one arbitral award has been set aside due to a reason connected to a document production question. Finally, with respect to many questions regard-ing the scope and procedure of document production, one can refer to an international commercial arbitration approach.
  • Soukka, Pirkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Abstract Pirkko Soukka From Anxiety to Faith: Eugen Drewermann and the Depth Psychological Interpretation of the Christian Faith The aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate Eugen Drewermann`s concept of birth of faith (fides qua). My research question is, what new does Eugen Drewermann contribute to the theological concept of birth of faith as he applies depth psychology to it, and what is the theological significance of this application? I analyze Drewermann s concepts of being without faith, finding God s revelation, the contents of this revelation, and the birth of faith. I employ concept, proposition, argument, structural- and requirement analyses. I also evaluate some of the discussions stirred by Drewermann s thinking. I have used Drewermann´s hermeneutical and dogmatic studies as my sources. According to Drewermann, every human being is under the condition of existential and psychological anxiety from which the only rescue is faith. God reveals himself to everybody s inner being. What we see in the Bible is this revelation as reflected by man s inner being. The revelation can be found in the unconscious mind and in the mental images brought forth by biblical texts. Everyone can discover these images by letting the texts of the Bible become alive to them. Drewermann suggests that the meaning of these images is best explained by the analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung. Revelation is essentially about finding God and finding ourselves. Faith is born when the loving spirit, which Drewermann calls the spirit of Jesus of Nazareth, awakens the images of the unconscious. God calls forth faith in man s inner being through this spirit and by means of these images. Faith causes the anxiety to vanish and man is able to find his true self. Integrating depth psychological contents into theology is the leading principle in Drewermann s interpretation of the birth of faith. This has yielded some theologically important results as well as those that are theologically disputable. These outcomes can be seen, for instance, in Drewermann s concept of anxiety, in his understanding of God s self-disclosure in creation, and in the way he suggests God is found, all of which are essential to his thinking. His concept of anxiety accurately expresses the holistic character of human experience. On the other hand, his idea of an inner image as the foundation of revelation is not depth psychologically correct. Moreover, Drewermann s view that revelation can be found in the Bible from behind the text is difficult to prove psychologically. Also his view of the contents of revelation is theologically narrow and the spirit of Jesus of Nazareth as a theological concept is vague. Drewermann correctly emphasizes that the birth of faith is an experience both existential and psychological. His idea of faith that is free from anxiety is, however, theologically unusual and psychologically unrealistic. Nevertheless, my study proves that Drewermann´s interpretation of the birth of faith gives new perspectives to the theological interpretation of the birth of faith. He is a pioneer in applying depth psychology to theology.
  • Laukola, Iiro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The interaction between Greek and Egyptian cultural concepts has been an intense yet controversial topic in studies about Ptolemaic Egypt. The present study partakes in this discussion with an analysis of the encomiastic poems of Callimachus of Cyrene (c. 305 c. 240 BC). The success of the Ptolemaic Dynasty is crystallized in the juxtaposing of the different roles of a Greek βασιλεύς and of an Egyptian Pharaoh, and this study gives a glimpse of this political and ideological endeavour through the poetry of Callimachus. The contribution of the present work is to situate Callimachus in the core of the Ptolemaic court. Callimachus was a proponent of the Ptolemaic rule. By reappraising the traditional Greek beliefs, he examined the bicultural rule of the Ptolemies in his encomiastic poems. This work critically examines six Callimachean hymns, namely to Zeus, to Apollo, to Artemis, to Delos, to Athena and to Demeter together with the Victory of Berenice, the Lock of Berenice and the Ektheosis of Arsinoe. Characterized by ambiguous imagery, the hymns inspect the ruptures in Greek thought during the Hellenistic age. These poems link Ptolemaic kings and queens with the deities they address and embroider this linkage with Egyptian cultural concepts. The Victory of Berenice and the Lock of Berenice contain a subtext in which Berenice II is portrayed in Egyptian terms whereas the Ektheosis of Arsinoe examines the mortuary aspects of Graeco-Egyptian Ptolemaic Egypt. The Ptolemies created a new audience for the poets of their court when they established a bilingual cadre of scribes. The scribes, together with the indigenous priests, were a heterogeneous group, but some were thoroughly Hellenized, as the case of Manetho confirms. The encomiastic poetry of Callimachus legitimized the status of the Ptolemies amid the native Egyptian elite, but also made their style of kingship more familiar to the Greeks.
  • Salojärvi, Virpi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The dissertation investigates the role of media in political conflict during President Hugo Chávez s administration (1999-2013). This conflict is understood as antagonism where the political opponent is seen as an enemy instead of a more equal adversary. In Venezuela, private media were powerful economic and political actors before Chávez s era due to clientelistic tradition. President Chávez questioned the neoliberal measures taken by previous governments and started to apply his politics of the socialism of 21st century in a manner that shaped his government s media policies. Several private media outlets disagreed with his drastic measures and took them as an attack. Confrontation developed between the private media and state media sectors. This polarized situation offers an excellent case study to focus on the construction of hegemonies in a populist context, and the media s role in it because the society was penetrated by politics. Researching hegemonies should take into account differing parties of the conflict, which includes a variety of groups, even though on a macro level they are often treated as unified blocs. Thus, creating unity (the feeling of us ) becomes important in order for hegemonies to operate. A theoretical framework of hegemonies, antagonism, and populism frames examination of a variety of case studies, including newspaper content and the discourses of different media actors, with analyses of content, frame, visual rhetoric, and argumentation analysis. Three core findings are presented. First, in Venezuela during this period there were two populist power blocs, the Chavistas and their opposition, who both tried to create (counter-)hegemonic power and appeal to the people. Second, in a situation of hegemonic battles, the media functions as constructor of unity. As a result of the media s role in unifying the groups and constructing common identities, it became especially significant in this power struggle. Third, the construction of populist signifiers, which serve the function of forming group cohesion, is a process where collective memories and values play essential roles. Ultimately, values in hegemony are not only forced from above but also rise from below as individuals adopt different values and make them personal, and in this way construct their own meanings for populist signifiers.
  • Janér, Cecilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Respiratory distress is a major contributor to morbidity in newborn infants. Insufficient clearance of lung liquid at birth causes maladaptation (transient tachypnea of the newborn, TTN) primarily in late preterm (delivery at 34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) and term infants. In small preterm infants excess lung liquid further complicates respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by a lack of pulmonary surfactant. Importantly, the risk of respiratory morbidity remains elevated in early term infants (i.e. delivery at 37 0/7- 38 6/7 gestational weeks), especially if delivered by elective cesarean section (CS). Thus, major risk factors for respiratory morbidity include preterm delivery or delivery by elective CS. In both prematurity and CS, the hormonal milieu of the fetus, important in adaptation to air-breathing, differs from that of the term vaginally delivered infants. In particular, glucocorticoids (GCs) play an important role in the maturation of the fetal lung. GCs are often administered antenatally to mothers at risk of preterm delivery as an attempt to reduce respiratory morbidity in their preterm infants. Although relevant to preventive and treatment strategies for respiratory distress in newborn infants, data on airway ion and liquid transport and their hormonal regulation in human infants are limited. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to acquire new data on lung liquid clearance and its molecular mechanisms in newborn infants. In particular, we studied their hormonal regulation during pulmonary adaptation. We used ultrasound to estimate the amount of lung liquid in term newborn infants, and compared infants delivered vaginally (VD) and by elective CS. The gene expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), Na-K-ATPase and serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) were determined in airway epithelial cells from nasal epithelium, used as a surrogate for the lower airway epithelium. Gene expression was quantified by measuring mRNA levels of these genes with a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We determined the concentration of cortisol hormone in umbilical cord blood and saliva with liquid-chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship of ENaC, Na-K-ATPase and SGK1 gene expression with cortisol was studied in cohorts of late preterm and term infants. In preterm infants, we studied the effect on airway ENaC expression of a repeated antenatal dose of the glucocorticoid betamethasone to the mother. The term infants and the majority of the preterm infants in the studies were born at the Women’s Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital. The lung liquid content of the term, healthy infants at three hours postnatally was significantly higher in infants delivered by elective CS than in VD infants. The umbilical cord cortisol concentration was lower in CS than in VD infants, and CS was associated with lower SGK1 expression at 1.5 hours after delivery. At this time point, the airway expression of ENaC, Na-K-ATPase, and SGK1 was lower in infants delivered late preterm and early term than in infants delivered ≥ 39 weeks. In addition, ENaC expression of late preterm and term infants correlated positively with umbilical cord blood and salivary cortisol concentrations. However, a repeat antenatal dose of betamethasone to the mother had no significant effect on ENaC expression in the preterm infants. This thesis work confirms that compared with infants delivered vaginally the amount of lung liquid remains more abundant after CS, and that ultrasound is a useful tool for evaluating lung liquid content in newborns. Low SGK1 expression after CS delivery and lack of labor could contribute to the insufficient activation of transmembrane sodium transport causing defective liquid absorption. In infants delivered < 39 weeks of gestation airway epithelial amounts of ENaC, Na-K-ATPase, and SGK1 mRNAs were all lower than in those delivered ≥ 39 weeks. These physiological data are in line with the epidemiologic evidence of a higher risk for respiratory morbidity in infants delivered before 39 weeks of gestation, especially when delivered by CS. Thus, our data support the practice of postponing elective CS until 39 weeks. Our findings provide valuable information for planning strategies aimed at preventing or treating respiratory distress in preterm and term infants.
  • Käkelä, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) was one of the central writers in the formative period of American science fiction, and among the first to emphasize the societal and political importance of the genre. This dissertation examines the themes of history, frontier expansionism, and guardianship in Asimov's key works, the Robot and Foundation series, in order to view his influence on the development of science fiction when it started to distance itself from pulp fiction and refine its key tropes and themes. A significant part of Asimov's Robot and Foundation stories were first published as serials in the 1940s and 1950s Astounding Science-Fiction magazine, and the pulp publishing context is crucial in order to understand Asimov's impact on the genre. Thus, this dissertation combines the contextual examination of Asimov's main themes with a discussion of the views of the Astounding magazine editor, John W. Campbell, Jr., a key influence on Asimov's work. Moreover, the present study extends to Asimov's 1980s novels that combine much of his fiction into a unified grand narrative of future history. My claim is that in Asimov's series the need to understand history in order to construct a sustainable future becomes the pivotal theme, both on the level of narration and on the level of characters that turn their knowledge of history into action. This awareness of history, I contend, leads to the recurrent realization that human culture will decline if stagnation is not reversed by frontier expansion. The pervasive frontier theme and the role of individual heroes in Asimov s work also reflect the Western backdrop of American pulp fiction. In this way, it demonstrates the science fiction genre's shift from cowboy heroes of Western fiction to problem-solving engineers on the intellectual frontier of the future. Finally, the historical and frontier aspects in Asimov's series point toward the notion of guardianship and the aspiration to apply the understanding of both history and science to engineer a more peaceful, yet non-stagnant future. Throughout his career, then, Asimov displays a tension between a utopian desire and the pragmatic and techno-meritocratic solutions typical to Campbell s stable of writers. Thus, although Asimov's series is usually taken as straightforward prose fiction that focuses on solutions and explanations, this dissertation demonstrates its central tensions, which also serve to highlight the development of the science fiction genre. The readings presented make visible the ambiguous strains between Asimov's cyclical models of history and his admiration of the Enlightenment ideal of progression, between individual freedom and the notion of guardianship, as well as between pragmatism and utopia. Informed by American history, Asimov's series portrays how individuals make bold maneuvers in order to steer humankind toward a more sustainable future, thus engaging in what could be termed the cowboy politics of an enlightened future.
  • Rasinkangas, Pia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The present thesis studied the biogenesis of the pili of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and examined whether pili influence the in vivo persistence and the ability to modulate faecal microbiota in mice and humans. L. rhamnosus GG is one of the most extensively studied lactic acid bacteria, and it is commonly present in so-called probiotic products. Heterotrimeric proteinaceous pili, which are able to bind for example to mucus, collagen and β-lactoglobulin, have been found and characterised on the surface of L. rhamnosus GG during recent years. Pili are formed by the major pilin SpaA, which forms the shaft of the pilus structure, the mucus-binding tip pilin SpaC and basal pilin SpaB. The pili are synthesised on the cell membrane by the pilin-specific transpeptidase sortase C (SrtC), and attached to the cell wall by housekeeping transpeptidase sortase A (SrtA). As the pilus is the major mucus adhesin of L. rhamnosus GG and, according to various studies, a crucial factor in the L. rhamnosus GG adherence and signalling to the host, it was deemed important to characterise the pilus biogenesis pathway and the functions of the produced pili. Random chemical mutagenesis was used to obtain derivatives of L. rhamnosus GG with variable pilus production capacities to study factors affecting pilus biogenesis. Enrichment schemes for the isolation of the derivatives were devised, and consequently 10 pilus-deficient, 13 highly adherent and one pilus-secreting derivative were characterised. Genotypic and phenotypic characterisation of the derivatives revealed that a functional SrtC is essential for pilus biogenesis, as well as the sufficient expression of the major pilin SpaA. Additionally, the role of the insertion sequence-rich genomic region, containing also the pilus gene cluster, in the adaptation of L. rhamnosus GG to varying environments was revealed, as several derivatives were obtained in which the region was deleted. The adhesion capacity of L. rhamnosus GG was found to be increased either due to a mutation in the tip pilin SpaC or as a result of increased pilin production. One of the highly adherent derivatives with high pilin production harboured a mutation in the SpaA pilin, likely increasing the derivative s capacity to secrete this pilus backbone-forming subunit. In addition, a pilus-secreting derivative was characterised, and noted to harbour a mutated housekeeping sortase SrtA, demonstrating its essential role in the attachment of pili to the cell wall. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the C-terminal sortase recognition motif of pilins, with the sequence LPxTG, was variable between the proteins recognised by pilin-specific transpeptidase SrtC and housekeeping transpeptidase SrtA. This was found not only for the pilins of L. rhamnosus GG, but also for pilins of other sortase-dependent pili-harbouring Gram-positive bacteria, indicating a role for this motif in the regulation of pilus biogenesis. In a subsequent functional characterisation of L. rhamnosus GG pilins, it was demonstrated that SrtC indeed recognised the shaft pilin SpaA through a conserved triple glycine (TG) motif, and was likely to recognise also the tip pilin SpaC, which harbours the same motif. The basal pilin SpaB, containing a single glycine (SG) motif, was recognised by SrtA, leading to the attachment of pilus to the cell wall. Finally, the in vivo effect of the L. rhamnosus GG pili was evaluated in intervention trials in mice and humans. By performing mouse and human intervention trials with one of the described pilus-deficient derivatives, L. rhamnosus GG-PB12 and the parental strain, it was possible to demonstrate that the presence of pili increased the persistence of L. rhamnosus GG in the gastrointestinal tract and led to significant changes in the faecal microbiota composition, especially in humans. Species richness increased significantly due to the consumption of piliated L. rhamnosus GG in the human trial, indicating potential beneficial effects for the host, as a high species richness of gut microbiota has been associated with stability and resilience towards exogenous species. In conclusion, the research described here provides new insights into pilus biogenesis in L. rhamnosus GG and highlights the importance of the pili in the in vivo adherence capacity and gut microbiota modulation ability of L. rhamnosus GG.
  • Ikävalko, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation focuses on the practices of gender equality work by analysing gender equality planning (GEP) processes in upper secondary educational institutions, both general and vocational. Its aim is to analyse the practices included in gender equality work, which may, regardless of the expressed goals, have un-equalizing consequences. Different techniques of promoting equality are not neutral because they define possible ways to understand gender and equality. The study asks what consequences instumentalized gender equality work has for educational institutions and workplaces; how the power relations function in an equality working group of a educational institution; what opportunities for agency arise for teachers and students in gender equality work; and what opportunities are offered by the drifting, nomadic approach to feminist research on gender equality work. The dissertation includes five articles and a summary chapter. The study is framed within the critical studies of gender equality politics, studies of governmentality, feminist studies of educational practices and poststructuralist methodological discussion. The methodological approach of the study is nomadic and discursive reading. The research data consist of interviews in educational institutions that had drawn up their gender equality plans, recorded meetings of equality working groups of a vocational institution and an general upper secondary school, ethnographical notes from the group meetings and interviews with the members of the groups. In addition, it contains two national surveys (2009 and 2011) about GEP in upper secondary educational institutions. In the case of the GEP in workplaces, the correctives of the gender equality act and the project form of GEP turns equality work into managerialist practices, which produce a quantified, statistically controllable and instumentalized understanding of equality. This is why gender equality does not easily become a political question within the practices of GEP. The study shows that the subject of GEP is expected to remain positive and have faith in its good-spirited co-operation, but on the other hand accept the fact that too many reformations cannot be demanded too quickly. In the case of the operational GEP, the guidelines emphasize the importance of the student s involvement in the process of GEP and the need for equality-skilled workers in the labour market. At the same time the discourse of GEP has not invited students to participate. The participation of students is done according to a ready-made model, which is not organized nor planned by the students themselves. The student is not the one who starts to create and shape the ways in which to put equality work into action in educational institution. She is involved and made a part of the equality planning model . Working against the individualism of managerialist discourses, the equality working groups can offer sites for feminist resistance in the form of a sense of community. If the need to produce the paper (the gender equality plan) is put aside, new knowledge can be generated and shared through discussion. The group s co-operation is a form of resistance to managerialist practices in gender equality work that attach the activity to the individual. The paradox of feminist resistance in the context of GEP is that while the separateness of the working group may give a sense of autonomy to its members, it keeps the feminist demands unconnected from the everyday practices of educational institutions. In the equality working group, the possibilities to refuse to undertake the tasks at hand and become a target of persuasion form the positionings for the working group members. The different possibilities to produce speech or silence in the group are analysed as an effect of power relations in the group. The becomings of the researcher and the chair of the working group occur as mutual dependence and as ever-arising possibilities between these becomings. The study suggests that the concept of a rhizome could open up new ways to consider the multidirectional change in the context of equality work. From the nomadic drifting approach research is not intended to speak on behalf of others or to resettle in others position, but to acknowledge and recognize the current positionings and create alliances together.
  • Viitamies, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    A conclusion of my research is that Helsinki City s pedestrian zone increases in size when traffic speeds are slowed down and more room for pedestrian traffic is made, not when car traffic is attempted to get rid of completely. Pedestrian traffic was noted as the most important means of travel by the city of Helsinki by the beginning of 1970s. In spite of that, Kluuvi s pedestrian zone was formed as late as the 1990s after prolonged controversy. Today Aleksanterinkatu, Keskuskatu, Mikonkatu and Kluuvikatu are car-free streets. The changes happened a lot slower than in other Nordic capitals because driving has progressively been increasing and growing stronger culturally in Finland all they way since the 1950s till today. The car was rooted to the society in the 60s. The property owners thought that the streets had to be left for cars to ensure that customer and service traffic could happen without problems. Citizens, activists and planners were well aware of international trends according to which pedestrian streets made cities feel more humane. Also, only the minority of the shopkeepers were against traffic calming in the urban core. The street space s slow gradual change began in the Three Smiths square in the year 1980. As on the following years the Aleksanterinkatu Street s sidewalks were widened, they as a consequence were illegally used as a parking space. On the other hand, the way the streets were used by the citizens also changed in the desired way. Nowadays, a hundred thousand citizens walk on the Aleksanterinkatu Street over the course of a day. Kluuvi´s pedestrian zone was implemented when real-estate owners renewed their buildings and built underground parking lots. They had to approve pedestrian streets as a trade for building rights. The businesses leaned towards traffic calming in 1990´s because walking was thought to be the most effective means to gain customers for stores and restaurants in the urban core. Helsinki´s street culture has gotten richer, following the changes the street space faced that favored events, hanging around and rambling. In the 1970s there weren t any street cafés or street musicians in Helsinki. The meaning of urban street has changed. Thoroughfares became places for trade and other interactions. The City of Helsinki built its brand by redesigning the streets. On the streets minority groups and individuals become visible and join the society. The street life grows stronger and the traffic system in Helsinki becomes less and less automobile dependent. The central pedestrian zone will expand faster than it has in the past. Although this requires certain conditions to be met; urban planning has to come together with business. Shop owners and restaurant keepers etc. have to join the city production. They must practice their right to the city and the streets.
  • Ammunet, Riitta (Unigrafia, 2016)
    The aim of my doctoral thesis is to analyze and describe the manner in which the definite article is used in different kinds of noun phrases (NPs), ranging between i) autonomous titles that represent original pieces of artwork (i.e. film titles) and ii) headings that are linked and interrelated to each other (i.e. news headlines). The definite article can, in principle, always be omitted. However, there are also particular cases which are often related to certain text types or other conventions when the definite article is or is not omitted. My dissertation sheds more light on these pragmatic laws. Before my corpus analysis I conducted a perception study where informants were asked to comment on the acceptability of some examples representing different kinds of titles and headings. I also examined a sample of news headlines dating from 1 October 2013 until 15 March 2014. This study primarily focuses on headlines from daily newspapers (i.e. both paper and online newspapers). Headlines from news broadcasts and current affairs programmes were, however, also examined. My main research data has been collected from the www.mymovies.it film corpus. As my more specific data I chose to examine one year per decade between 1904 and 2014. The data consists of 2841 NPs from 7585 film titles. My analysis starts with John Hawkins's Location Theory and the analysis of the standard definite article within Italian language. Knud Lambrecht s theoretical description on the Information Structure is then used to examine interrelated headlines. The principle theoretical framework is based on Cognitive Linguistics and particularly Construction Grammar. I describe the characteristics of different linguistic levels, namely the syntactic, the semantic and pragmatic levels, with discourse pattern schemes. This approach has made it possible to describe these characteristics in a way that includes only the contextual aspect, i.e. the situational setting [frame], above all other aspects. The findings show that the use (or the omittance) of the definite article is influenced by multiple variables and conventions, sometimes together and sometimes separately. The dissertation, for instance, demonstrates that, in different types of action films, word choice in film titles contributes to the general omission of the definite article. Similarly, the definite article is omitted when the connection between a noun and its complement could in some way be anticipated. In contrast the definite article is typically written in a title or headline when the noun and the complement are not automatically associated with each other. Finally, my doctoral dissertation also touches on the historical development of the definite article, the so-called 'definite article cycle', and on Latin which, in the background, subtly continues to have its influence on modern Italian. This is the reason why the dissertation's title and also a couple of headings have been written in Latin.
  • Aarnos, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    As dissolved organic matter (DOM) constitutes a vast reservoir of carbon and nutrients in lakes, rivers and ocean, it plays an important role in the global carbon and nutrient cycles. Only a part of DOM is directly biologically utilizable by bacteria, but solar radiation induced photochemical reactions may mineralize DOM to inorganic forms such as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and ammonium (NH4+), and also degrade non-labile DOM molecules to labile organic substrates available for bacteria. This dissertation examined the photochemical transformation of DOM in the surface water in different scales of aquatic environments; from a Finnish boreal lake and the Baltic Sea to the coastal areas of ten globally big rivers. This dissertation studied photochemical reactions such as photoproduction of DIC, NH4+, and labile substrates supporting bacterial growth, and determined the photoreactivity of DOM, i.e., apparent quantum yields for the photoreactions in each environment. To consider the relevance of photochemistry of DOM, an optical model was used to quantify the photoreaction rates taking into account for the determined photoreactivity of DOM and solar radiation incidental to each environment studied. In the Baltic Sea, the pelagic heterotrophic bacterioplankton was carbon-limited indicating low bioavailability of DOM in the surface water. Irradiations of the waters with natural or simulated solar light resulted in photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and phototransformation of DOM to DIC and NH4+ as well as to labile DOM substrates. This dissertation showed that across the entire Baltic Sea, the annual photoproduction of NH4+ corresponded to 9 18% of the annual river loading of DON, but the photoproduction of DIC exceeded the annual river loading of photoreactive terrigenous DOC. Furthermore, the studies along the salinity transects indicated that terrigenous DOC was more photoreactive than marine DOC but the marine DON was more reactive than terrigenous DON. The photoproduced labile substrates supported bacterial production and biomass leading to a 3-level trophic transfer of non-labile DOM and a simultaneous stimulation of autotrophic algae and primary production. The annual amount of photostimulated bacterial biomass corresponded to 3 5% of total bacterial biomass across the entire Baltic Sea. In the Baltic Sea as well as in the mesohumic lake studied, the photolytic water layer was shallow and limited the phototransformation of DOM to the top 30 cm. In the global scale, the annual DIC photoproduction from terrigenous CDOM in front of the ten rivers studied (12.5 ± 2.1 Tg C y-1) corresponded to 18 ± 4% of annual flux of terrigenous DOC of the rivers. When extrapolated to a global estimate, 44.5 ± 10.6 Tg of terrigenous DOC was annually mineralized to DIC by solar radiation in coastal waters. Globally, the amount of photomineralization of terrigenous DOC was larger in coastal ocean than in lakes and reservoirs. However, the areal rates of DIC photoproduction were larger in the lakes and reservoirs than in the coastal waters indicating that phototransformation of terrigenous DOC was likely limited by relatively short residence times in inland waters. To conclude, the phototransformation in coastal waters formed the final sink for riverine terrigenous CDOM and DOC, but was restricted in general, to a few hundred kilometres from river mouths to the ocean with the exception of largest discharging rivers.