Väitöskirjat

Recent Submissions

  • Stjernberg, Mats (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This PhD study in urban geography focuses on a distinct neighborhood type in Finland, namely suburban housing estates (lähiö). Although suburban housing estates are currently topical in Finland, as they are often associated with various problems, there has been little research concerning their development in the country at large during the last few decades. The purpose of this study is to overcome this shortage by analyzing the socio-economic and demographic development of suburban housing estates within the whole of Finland and in different types of regions. The focus is on suburban housing estates dating from the 1960s and 1970s, which was the main period of housing estate construction in Finland. The study examines what was characteristic of such estates in 1990 and 2010, and what kind of changes can be seen in their socio-economic and demographic position during this time span. Furthermore, the research examines suburban housing estates in three different sub-regional types: growing, stable and shrinking sub-regions. For conducting the analysis, a GIS-based approach was developed for defining, identifying and locating housing estates dating from the 1960s and 1970s within the whole Finnish territory. The empirical analysis of the research is based on examining the development of suburban housing estates according to both individual variables as well as multivariate methods (principle components analysis and cluster analysis) with the intention of uncovering the relationships between different facets of change. The research findings show that Finnish suburban housing estates dating from the 1960s and 1970s were usually relatively average neighborhoods in 1990, but since then they have generally witnessed noticeable socio-economic decline along with profound demographic changes. Also the attractiveness of these types of neighborhoods has gradually decreased over time. The study suggests that the development of suburban housing estates is closely linked to broader societal changes and particularly to the development of their wider regions. Although decline is evident in most Finnish housing estates, it is notable that not all estates are socio-economically disadvantaged. This underlines that housing estates are far from homogenous and that their development paths have been highly diverse. Overall though, based on the changes identified in this study, the public concerns related to this distinct type of concrete suburbia are in many ways valid, and from the perspective of Finnish urban and housing policy, suburban housing estates appear to be one of the most central challenges during the years to come.
  • Sälevaara, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The use of donated gametes has made parenthood possible for those women and men who are unable to conceive with their own gametes. Every year 150-200 children are born after oocyte donation treatment and 300 children after sperm donation treatment. Parental psychological health has scarcely been addressed during pregnancy and soon after delivery. One of the most important questions in gamete donation is whether the child should be informed about his/her genetic background. The aim of the first questionnaire study was to compare fear of childbirth and delivery experience among women who conceived with donated oocytes (n=26), women after IVF treatment with own gametes (n=52) and spontaneous conception (n=52). The level of fear of childbirth and pregnancy related anxiety was lower among oocyte donation mothers compared with controls. Delivery experience did not differ between the groups. Acute operative delivery associated with dissatisfaction only among oocyte donation mothers. In the second study we compared mental health symptoms between parents after oocyte donation, IVF/ICSI with own gametes and after spontaneous pregnancy. The study group was the same as in the first study. The parents filled in General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-36) during 2nd trimester, 8 weeks and 1 year postpartum. Oocyte donation mothers showed fewer mental health symptoms in early parenthood than controls. No differences were found during pregnancy and among fathers at any time point. The third study examined parents´ plans of disclosure to their child after oocyte donation treatment. A questionnaire was sent to 160 couples who had 231 donor conceived children. 60% of parents had already told or intended to inform the child about his/her genetic background. Of children aged 3-14, 26% had received information about the way of conception. Parents with younger children were more willing to tell the child compared to parents with older children. The fourth questionnaire study examined parents´ disclosure plans after sperm donation treatment and their experiences of donor treatment. Answers provided information on 240 children. Of parents, 40% intended to tell or had already told the child (16 %) about his/her genetic background. Parents with younger children were more inclined to openness than parents with older children. Noteworthy finding was that less than half of the parents (42%) were satisfied with the psychological counselling they received to discuss importance of disclosure to the child.
  • Puhakka, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection in developed countries. Only about 10% of the infected infants have symptoms due to CMV at birth. About half of these symptomatic infants will develop long-term sequelae, such as hearing loss or neurological impairment. Most congenitally infected infants are asymptomatic, and their prognosis is clearly better. The aim of this doctoral thesis was to evaluate the burden of congenital CMV infection (cCMV) in Finland. In the first study, we evaluated the CMV seroprevalence in Finland. We examined CMV antibodies of 200 randomly collected samples from the Finnish Maternity Cohort serum bank at three time points: 1992, 2002, and 2012. The seropositivity rate decreased significantly from 84.5% (95% CI 78.7–89.2) in 1992 to 71.5% (95% CI 64.7–77.6) in 2012. The outcome of symptomatic cCMV infection was evaluated retrospectively from a cohort of 26 children diagnosed in Finnish tertiary hospitals from 2000 to 2012. Long-term sequelae occurred in 58% (15/26), neurologic abnormality in 50% (12/24), and hearing loss in 42% (8/19) of the children. Of the children whose mothers had suffered from primary CMV infections in the first trimester, 86% (6/7) developed long-term sequelae. Of the children whose mothers had experienced non-primary CMV infections during the pregnancy, 64% (9/14) developed long-term sequelae. None of the 5 children whose mothers had had primary CMV infections in the second or third trimester had developed any long-term sequelae. To evaluate the prevalence of cCMV, and the outcome of asymptomatic cCMV, we screened 19,868 infants with a saliva CMV PCR test in four Helsinki area hospitals from September 2012 to January 2015. Confirmed cCMV infection occurred in 40 children, corresponding to a prevalence of 2 in 1,000 (95% CI 1.4–2.6). No differences in the Griffiths Mental Development Scales or hearing outcome could be found between cCMV positive and healthy controls at 18 months age. In addition, no CMV-related findings were detected in the ophthalmologic examinations. Among cCMV positive children, viral shedding to urine was more persistent than to saliva. At 18 months age all urine samples tested (33/33) were positive for CMV culture, but only 24% (9/37) saliva samples had positive CMV PCR. In conclusion, the disease burden of cCMV was relatively low in Finland. The prevalence was only 2 in 1,000, and the outcome of the asymptomatic infants was favourable. However, the morbidity of the symptomatic infection was remarkable. Over half of the infants from the retrospective cohort with CMV-related symptoms at birth developed long-term sequelae. In the positive screening samples, the genotype distribution for CMV glycoproteins gB, gH, and gN was similar to that reported from other populations and does not therefore explain the low burden of the disease in Finland.
  • Junttila, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The World’s forests are facing novel stress due to climate change. Pest insects and pathogens are shifting towards new latitudes and heat stress is resulting in increased tree mortality and more frequent forest fires globally. Uncertainty in estimating the magnitude of climate change induced forest and tree decline requires new methods for unbiased estimation of tree decline. The development of remote sensing methods to detect early tree decline has been a major challenge due to the subtle nature of the early changes caused by different stressors. Multispectral lidar technology has the potential of detecting early tree decline by providing accurate three-dimensional and spectral information of tree structure simultaneously. The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the capabilities of multispectral terrestrial lidar in the detection and assessment of tree decline caused by different stressors. This was done by investigating the estimation of a remotely detectable indicator of tree decline, leaf water content (LWC). Specifically, new methods for measuring LWC using multispectral lidar intensity were developed from the leaf to the canopy scale in various environments and the relationship between LWC and tree decline induced by various stressors was investigated. Furthermore, the developed methods were tested in a forest environment to assess the applicability of multispectral lidar in the detection of bark beetle infestation in the field. Studies I-III focused on investigating the relationship between LWC and lidar intensity at multiple wavelengths. First, a hyperspectral lidar instrument was used to detect significant changes between fresh and drought-treated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees (study I). Then, a leaf-scale study (II) with Scots pine, Norway spruce, Small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata L.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and Silver birch (Betula pendula L.) was conducted and a strong relationship (R2=0.93) between a normalized difference index (NDI) calculated from 1550 nm and 690 nm wavelengths and LWC was found. This was followed by a study (III) where LWC estimation and pathogen- and drought-induced variation in LWC was studied with Norway spruce seedlings. Blue-stain fungi (Endoconidiophora polonica) inoculated seedlings expressed a rapid decrease in LWC while drought-treated seedlings showed more stable LWC until a very severe drought. LWC of the seedlings was predicted with an R2 of 0.89 using an NDI with 1550 nm and 905 nm wavelengths. In study IV, the developed method and the relationship between LWC and tree decline was investigated in the field with European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) infested trees. It was found that of the LWC metrics studied, gravimetric water content showed significant differences in the early stages of infestation and was more sensitive to bark beetle induced tree decline than equivalent water thickness (i.e. amount of water per leaf area). Linear discriminant models that were developed between infestation severity and lidar intensity metrics from 1550 nm and 905 nm wavelengths showed that green attack stage of the infestation could classified with an overall accuracy of 90%. This dissertation contributes both to the development of an objective and automatable method for detecting and measuring tree decline in the field, and to the understanding of the relationship between LWC and tree decline with implications to remote sensing. The dissertation will be published and popularized as a music video here: http://bit.ly/idanproffa.   .
  • Javanainen, Mervi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Since 1975, the prevalence of obesity has nearly tripled, and 39% of the world’s population is now overweight. Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective treatment for obesity and obesity-related diseases. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is one the most popular and well-studied operation types worldwide. However, in recent years, the popularity of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has risen rapidly, surpassing the RYGB. Bariatric surgery has proven to be safe; however, there is still limited information about some of the complication types. The complications that occur after bariatric surgery can be divided into early complications (under 30 days after the operation) and late ones (over 30 days after the operation); late complications can further be divided into surgical and non-surgical complications. This thesis consists of four different studies on the common complication types related to bariatric surgery. Study I analyses the relationship between bleeding/venous thromboembolic complications and different enoxaparin protocols, and Study II reviews the changes in pulmonary complications under different perioperative protocols. The last two studies compare late complications, vitamin deficiencies, and fractures between RYGB and SG operations. In Study IV, we also compare the number of fractures that occur after surgery to fractures in non-surgically treated patients. All the data from the patients were collected between 2007 and 2016 at Peijas Hospital, affiliated to Helsinki University Hospital. The patient characteristics and the data from the first two years were collected prospectively and later retrospectively. In addition to analyzing the patients who underwent operations, Study IV includes 199 non-surgically treated obese patients as a control group. In Studies I and II, the follow-up times were 30 days. In Study III, the follow-up time was two years, and, in Study IV, the follow-up time was at least six years. The results of Study I showed that enoxaparin was safest when administered in a 40-mg dose once a day. Study II revealed that, alongside avoiding the use of drains and urinary catheters, fast mobilization was favorable to prevent postoperative pneumonia and shorten the hospital stay. The last two studies compared RYGB to SG. It was observed that, compared to the SG patients, the RYGB patients had more late complications treated surgically or endoscopically. In Study IV, vitamin D, albumin, and B12 levels were at an acceptable level two years after either operation. It was shown that the bariatric patients had a higher risk of fractures compared to the non-surgically treated patients. Higher age, bariatric surgery, and lower body mass index (BMI) at the two-year control mark increased the risk of fracture after obesity treatment.
  • Kivelä, Jesper (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Liver transplantation has been an accepted treatment modality for end-stage liver disease in both children and adults for over 30 years. More than 100 children and adolescents have undergone liver transplantation in Finland; one tenth of them have undergone combined liver-kidney transplantation. Life expectancy after pediatric liver transplantation has improved during the years, and six to seven out of ten patients are expected to be alive twenty years later. Vascular complications, like hepatic artery thrombosis, increase patient morbidity and mortality early after liver transplantation however, the less severe form, late hepatic artery thrombosis, can be asymptomatic. The human leukocyte antigen system is responsible for immune responses against all foreign material, like liver allografts, via various mechanisms. These include production of antibodies, some of which can be directed against the donor, namely donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies. These are harmful to allografts, especially kidneys, but their role in pediatric liver transplantation is less well defined. Long-term complications, including renal impairment, can lead to chronic kidney disease after liver transplantation. Glomerular filtration rate provides an indicator of kidney function more reliably when measured instead of being estimated from surrogate markers. The aims of this study were to investigate prevalences of late hepatic artery thrombosis with magnetic resonance imaging in 34 patients and donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies with One Lambda LabScreen® antigen immunoassays in 50 patients after pediatric liver transplantation conducted between 1987 and 2007. Long-term renal function was studied with measurement of glomerular filtration rate using plasma clearance of 51-chromium-labeled ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid in 57 pediatric patients who received liver grafts between 1987 to 2007 as well as in 34 pediatric and adult patients who received simultaneously a liver and a kidney between 1993 and 2011. A decade after pediatric liver transplantation, 44% had late hepatic artery thrombosis and 52% had donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies. Renal function remained stable up to five years and declined thereafter to a mean measured glomerular filtration rate of 66 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 15 years after pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, renal function was stable during the follow-up, with a mean measured glomerular filtration rate of 70 mL/min/1.73 m2 at ten years after pediatric combined liver-kidney transplantation. Instead, renal function was impaired in adult patients after combined liver-kidney transplantation. In conclusion, late hepatic artery thrombosis and donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies are common after pediatric liver transplantation. Longitudinal renal function remains stable for at least five years after pediatric liver and liver-kidney transplantation, but declines in adult combined liver-kidney transplant patients.
  • Hämäläinen, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The Internet has changed several areas of our society and culture, including communication and its tool, language. The change of language has been studied from different points of view, but proper names have not received much attention. This thesis fills the gap by examining two name categories in the Internet: user names and level names. Theoretically and methodologically, the study is based especially on onomastics but also on several other disciplines, for example computer-mediated communication (CMC), game studies, digital culture, and drug trade and culture. The thesis consists of four research articles and an extensive summary. In many online communities, a user can create a personal user name, which makes them recognizable to other users. Article I makes an overview of user names in Finnish online communities, using a large corpus. The focus is especially on structure and the semantics of names. Article II studies user names of drug vendors on a global marketplace on Tor network. The article examines especially what kind of information and images vendors share and create of themselves in their names while building the trust that the online drug trade requires. Video games often consist of several spaces of play, which are called levels in this thesis. Article III examines the names of levels in a game called Minigolf, which was located on an online gaming community Playforia (Aapeli in Finnish). Special attention is paid to the principles of naming: what kinds of connections are there between the names and levels’ characteristics? Article IV continues examining level names in Minigolf from the point of view of memorability: what kind of names are easy or difficult to remember? Results of the empirical memory tests completed by game hobbyists show that memorability is influenced by the principle of naming, language and the length of the name, as well as the characteristics of the level itself. The summary part of the thesis evaluates the differences and similarities of user names and level names. The most remarkable common features are uniqueness, intertextuality, the influence of the English language, plentiful use of made-up words, and a somewhat carefree and playful attitude towards naming. The summary also presents the most important research question of the whole thesis: has the Internet changed the ways we give and use names? The answer is an equivocal yes and no. There are some characteristics in the Internet names that do not appear in the name categories of the non-virtual world. On the other hand, there are many resemblances, and some of them seem to be based on the models adapted from real-world names.
  • Tiittala, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Migrants are over-represented among the incident cases of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis in many low-prevalence countries including Finland. Current knowledge of the epidemiology of these infections among migrants is limited to guide the public health response. This thesis aims to describe the feasibility of screening in a population-based survey, to estimate the burden of infections, to evaluate the implementation of screening, and to assess HIV-related health literacy among specific migrant populations. Seroprevalence rates of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis were assessed in a population-based survey among adult Kurdish, Russian and Somali-origin migrants. Survey non-participation and previous notifications were evaluated through register-linkage. HBV, HIV and syphilis seroprevalence and implementation of screening among all asylum seekers in Finland in 2015–2016 were examined based on register information of healthcare procurements. HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of young adult asylum seekers were compared to those of age-matched general population in two separate surveys. Non-participation analysis observed no differences in the notification prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV or syphilis between participants and non-participants of the survey. The majority of survey participants accepted the multiphasic opt-in provider-initiated screening. Acceptability of HIV testing was increased by enhanced pre-test counselling. Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis among Kurdish, Russian and Somali-origin migrants and among asylum seekers were comparable or lower than in countries of origin. Prevalence of HCV and syphilis was higher in older age-groups. The burden of HBV was highest among Somali-origin migrants and that of HCV and syphilis among Russian migrants. Of all test-positive cases among Kurdish, Russian and Somali-migrants, 61% had not been previously notified and were considered missed diagnoses. Coverage of after arrival screening of HBV, HIV and syphilis was 88% among eligible Kurdish, Russian and Somali migrants, and 61% among asylum seekers. Previous HIV testing was reported by 31% of the Kurdish, Russian and Somali-origin migrants and 23% of the young adult asylum seekers. HIV-related knowledge among asylum seekers was below the international target level. Asylum seekers preferred passive sources of HIV information to interpersonal strategies of health education. In conclusion, although asylum and integration processes are windows of opportunity for health education, prevention and screening, barriers hindering their implementation exist. Missed HBV diagnoses among Somali-origin migrants suggest missed opportunities for vaccinations. Limitations of the current screening programme explain missed hepatitis C and syphilis diagnoses among Russian migrants. Findings from this study suggest opportunities for public health response: extending after-arrival screening of HBV, HIV and syphilis to all at-risk migrants, inclusion of HCV screening, describing and addressing barriers that hinder implementation of screening, enhancing provider-initiated screening and investing in health literacy.
  • Karhu, Juho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The mid-infrared wavelength range is important for vibrational spectroscopy and trace gas detection, because it contains strong fundamental vibrational transitions. The extension of spectroscopic techniques into the mid-infrared wavelengths is a major area of development. This thesis describes sensitive spectroscopic measurements, which take advantage of the strong mid-infrared transitions to produce novel spectral data. The measurement setups are enhanced using optical frequency combs. Frequency combs are stable laser sources, which emit laser light over a wide optical spectrum. Their development was awarded with one half of the Nobel Prize in Physics in the year 2005. Frequency combs have found many applications in laser spectroscopy, because they combine the coherence and high brightness of a laser source with a wide optical spectrum. The stability of the frequency combs is valuable in high-resolution spectroscopy and metrology. This thesis is focused on two novel measurements: direct frequency comb spectroscopy of radiocarbon methane and double resonance spectroscopy of acetylene. In the former measurement, an optical frequency comb emitting in the mid-infrared region was used as the light source in broadband spectroscopy of radiocarbon methane. The carbon atom in the radiocarbon methane molecule is replaced by the radioactive carbon-14 isotope. High sensitivity was reached by combining a high-power mid-infrared frequency comb with cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy. The photoacoustic detector can take full advantage of the high power spectral density of the frequency comb. This measurement produced the first reported infrared spectrum of radiocarbon methane. In the double resonance spectroscopy measurements, a mid-infrared and a near-infrared light source were simultaneously used to excite two transitions of acetylene, with a shared energy state. This allows detection of spectral lines, which are normally absent in an acetylene infrared spectrum. The method also provides sub-Doppler resolution for determining spectral line positions with high precision. Because of the sub-Doppler resolution, instabilities of the light sources can begin to limit the precision of the measurements. A drastic increase in sensitivity was reached by stabilizing the light sources using frequency combs as references.
  • Metsäniitty, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Assessment of an individual’s age has important applications in forensics. From developing countries, the possibility to gather reliable reference data for forensic age estimation may be difficult. The aim was 1) to analyse the validity of the Greulich and Pyle method (1959), and other skeletal and dental methods; 2) to analyse forensic age assessments of asylum seekers in Finland, and the Finnish legislation; 3) to compare a created Somali dental development model (SM) on lower left permanent teeth (PT) from 31 to 37 with the Willems et al. model (WM; 2001); and 4) to study whether the addition of information on the development of third molars (TM) with PT increases the accuracy of age assessment of young Somalis. Dental and skeletal radiographic age-assessment methods were compared using Finnish child victim data (N=47). Information on forensic age assessment was collected from Finnish legislation texts, EU statistics, and public statistics by Immigration Authorities on asylum seekers in Finland. Analysis was made of forensic age assessments in Finland in 2015. The dental development of Somalis, born and living in Finland, was analysed, staging the PT according to Demirjian et al. (1973) and TM according to Köhler et al. (1994). First, both SM and WM on PT were validated on 635 Somalis, aged 4–18 years. Secondly, the age prediction performances of PT and TM development were tested separately and combined on 803 Somalis, aged 3–23 years, using a Bayesian approach. Of the compared dental and skeletal methods, development of PT showed the smallest deviation from the chronological age. In 2015, 149 asylum seekers, originating most often from Afghanistan, Iraq, and Somalia, were assessed for age using methods authorised by the Finnish legislation. Comparing the performances of the WM and SM, small but statistically significant differences in mean error were detected: -0.07 years in males and 0.16 years in females. The approach combining PT and TM predicted the age with the highest accuracy. In conclusion, dental methods, except using only TM, override skeletal methods in accuracy. The current Finnish legislation on forensic age assessment has been successfully implemented in Finland. In age assessment, the WM performs well for Somali children. The age prediction performance improves by combining the information of PT and TM, especially in 12- to 15-year-olds, when both PT and TM are still developing.
  • Pitkänen, Hannele (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The study examines the fabrication and mobilization of the local and school level evaluation in the field of comprehensive schooling within the Finnish quality evaluation discourse. Drawing on genealogy, the study runs out of the current notion and understanding in which the evaluation is reasoned as a necessary, natural and normal part of the workings of schools and municipalities as education provider. Finally, the evaluation is considered inevitable in constant improvement, development and governing of education in the context of global economy. The study analyses the descent, fabrication and mobilization of this understanding. It asks: 1) how is the present understanding on local quality evaluation in comprehensive school mobilized and construed within the Finnish discourse, and 2) which kind of discursive principles and rules can be identified as conditions for the construction and fabrication of a present discourse when examined in the dimensions of the knowledge, power and subject. The research data consists of a set of Finnish policy documents, legislation and texts on quality evaluation written by the experts of the evaluation in the field of comprehensive education in the period of 1970–2010. The aim of the study is to bring back forth and uncover the hidden historical horizon of the quality evaluation in education. In answering the first research question, the study provides a dense descriptive analysis on the formation and construction of the field of the statements where the school and municipal self-evaluation becomes fabricated as self-evident. Study identifies three discursive practices – systems of reasoning and doing – within the field of statements mobilizing the present understanding on evaluation. Those are the discursive practices of the 1) school based development, 2) performativity and educational outcomes and 3) customer oriented quality. The second research question is approached by setting the descriptive analysis of discursive practices and layers under examination in the genealogical dimensions of the knowledge, power and subject. First, in the dimension of knowledge, the study identifies an increasing and overarching will to know about education; will to know the all-embracing performance and the quality in all areas of schooling. In the dimension of power, the study identifies the process of normalization of evaluation in education practices during the re-search period. The evaluation becomes construed as a normal daily practice of education inseparable from teaching, schooling and education governance. In the dimension of subjectivity, the study identifies the fabrication of the ethics of inevitability of self-evaluation. Within the discourse, there is no decent place for actors those are unwilling to evaluate or to be evaluated. Finally, the evaluation discourse can be described as a discourse based on evolutionary hope towards the better future – with higher performativity and excellent quality. The discourse wraps and embeds the desire towards the better. However, at the same time, by the discourse itself, it appears evident that the education in its variedness will stay immeasurable by its nature. It also appears that the ethics of inevitability of self-evaluation will necessarily be bounded by the vagueness and subjective nature of the evaluation. Finally, in aspiring towards the normalization of the evaluation and quality work in the direction of universal organization, the school context and specific school knowledge appears to be fading out.
  • Hamunen, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Mannerless infinitives. Construction Grammar of co-eventive infinitive structures in Finnish dialects Markus Hamunen, University of Helsinki This thesis deals with certain Finnish infinitive structures roughly designating how something happens simultaneously to an event described by a finite structure (e.g. Keijo syö hotkien ‘Keijo gulps his food down’). The thesis consists of two parts: four distinct research articles studying separate infinitive structures, and a theoretical introductory part. The objects of research are the so called colorative construction (e.g. juosta jol-kottaa ‘s/he runs at a trot’ or ‘s/he jogs’), the (T)e-infinitive instructive (TEN-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottaen ‘s/he runs trotting’), the mA-infinitive adessive (MALLA-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottamalla ‘s/he runs (by) trotting’), and the mA-infinitive abessive (MATTA-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottamatta ‘s/he runs without trotting’). The unifying property of these structures is that they all describe how something happens. In the colorative construction, this meaning is incorporated in the lexical semantics of the colorative finite verb (e.g. jolkottaa ‘to run slowly at a trot’). The other three infinitive structures are adjuncts of finite structures. The semantics of their adjuncthood concerns how the infinitive structure characterizes described events by the finite structure. The data in this study is based on approximately 6,000 clausal examples gathered from three distinct corpora: Lauseopin arkisto (LA, Syntax Archive), Digitaalinen Muoto-opin arkisto (DMA, Digital Morphology archive), and Suomen murteiden sanakirja (SMS, Dictionary of Finnish Dialects, in the alphabetical range from A to kurvottaa). The most crucial research questions in this study can be illustrated in: What kind of infinitive structures are the objects of research, and how do theoretical concepts and tools of cognitive linguistics, and especially construction grammar (e.g. Fillmore & Kay 1995), implement the description of objects in this research? First, in the analysis of corpus data, in becomes apparent that both the colorative construction and the infinitive adjuncts are polysemous. In the colorative construction this can be seen in the colorative features characterizing the events in question where they may be dealing, for example, with an actor, an action itself or something emerging causally from the action (e.g. sound, see the article Liike ja tapa). Accordingly, the polysemy of infinitive adjuncts is manifest in the fact that different grammatical factors between verbs and verbal structures (subject and temporal interpretations, hyponymy, causal relations and negation) have an effect on whether the event described by the infinitive structure is interpreted as manner, means, concomitant, method, or as something else attributed to the event described by the finite structure (see articles Juosten vai juoksemalla and MATTA-rakenne). Second, in this study, the application of construction grammar is twofold. On the one hand, it gives a description of constructional development of the colorative construction from the reconstructed Late-Proto-Finnic form to the modern Finnish (see article Kieliopillistuminen). On the other hand, the actual theoretical contribution in this study addresses the constructional character of infinitive adjuncts. This thesis gives an overall grammatical and semantic description for the object structures of this study. At the same time, it offers insight into an extremely challenging topic for any grammar model: adjuncts.
  • Stenius-Ayoade, Agnes (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Being homeless is a stressful life-situation that complicates everyday life in many ways. Previous studies from other countries have shown that homelessness is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as increased use of hospital and emergency department services. Yet, the health situation of the homeless in Finland has not been extensively studied before. The aim of this study was to examine the housing situation, morbidity, mortality and healthcare service use of the homeless shelter population in Helsinki, Finland. By combining data from both local and national registers three cohorts of shelter users (in total 1458 persons) were followed for up to ten years. The housing situation, morbidity and overall as well as cause-specific mortality and health care service use were assessed and compared with an age-matched control group from the general population. The results show that homeless shelter users had high morbidity compared with the control group, and that especially psychiatric morbidity was high. During the ten-year follow-up period about half of those who had stayed in shelter died, which means a fivefold risk of death for the homeless compared with the controls. The risk of death from diseases and medical conditions was more than threefold compared with the control group, and the risk of death from external causes was over tenfold. The large majority of those still alive at the end of the ten year follow-up were staying in supported housing, with only a small group being still or again homeless. Six per cent of the homeless were independently housed. Compared with controls, the homeless had over 40 times more hospital days in psychiatric hospitals, 10 times more hospital emergency department visits and over six times more medical/surgical hospital days. Also those who had stayed only temporarily in shelter had a high use of emergency department and hospital services. Mental disorders were strongly associated with primary healthcare service use. The homeless visited primary care for mental health- and substance use-related problems, traumas and infections, but undertreatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes was detected. This study shows that, also in the Finnish setting, having experienced homelessness is strongly associated with adverse health outcomes and that the prognosis for the homeless in shelters is poor both in terms of being independently housed and mortality. The high use of hospital and emergency services and relatively low use of outpatient care, as well as undertreatment of chronic conditions, indicate that access to timely and appropriate care is insufficient, leading to high use of specialized care. Better, targeted healthcare services are needed to prevent avoidable hospitalizations, ill health and premature death.
  • Rönkä, Anu-Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The current theoretical discussion on risk communication emphasizes a dialogic and participatory approach. In practice, however, risk communication proceedings are still characterized by the traditional deficit model. The aim of this study is to consid-er the conditions for implementing participatory formats and interaction in risk communication. The study focuses on analysing risk communication in the risk case characterized by high ambiguity (Renn 2015). In these cases, according to Ortwin Renn (2015), the process of evaluation needs to be open to public scrutiny and new forms of delibera-tion. High ambiguity would require the most inclusive strategy for involvement. The study will consider how interaction could be practiced in the case of controversy. A controversial public debate on the potential health risks connected to wireless communications technology is being analysed as a case example. The research mate-rial consists of newspaper material, webpage material and expert debate collected by the eDelphi method. In the case example, the expert contradiction is analysed exerting definitions for risk, ambiguity, uncertainty and ignorance (Stirling & Gee 2002). According to a formal definition, risk is a condition under which it is possible both to define a comprehensive set of all possible outcomes and to resolve a discrete set of probabili-ties across this array of outcomes (ibid.). In the case example, the ambiguity is con-nected to what extent areas of ambiguity, uncertainty and ignorance are taken into account when assessing the overall picture of the risk. The conclusion is that, in the case of risk as characterized by high ambiguity, risk communication should structure contradictory information in the frame of strong and weak information rather than in the frame of true and false information, as connected to traditional risk communication. Communication and interaction should be introduced as a force affecting the struc-ture of the conversation. Interactive risk communication should contribute to the discussion so that both strong and weak knowledge are involved in the discussion. Communication should structure and create more understanding concerning the discussion as a whole and the disagreement related to it. In terms of policy research, both conflicting and consensual policies should be avoided. As an alternative to these, a dialogic approach is presented to systematically address disagreements and increase understanding of controversy.
  • Pulkkinen, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Legumes are a sustainable source of plant protein, and their production could be increased in Europe. The use of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is limited in part due to the presence of the pyrimidine glycosides vicine and convicine. Vicine and convicine, and particularly their aglycones, can cause a form of haemolytic anaemia called favism in individuals who have genetic deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme. Different processing methods have reduced the vicine and convicine contents to varying levels, but the formation of the aglycones have not been studied. Practical processing methods for removal of vicine, convicine and their aglycones are still required. The main aim of this study was to implement methods for the total elimination of vicine and convicine, with a focus on the aglycones. The compounds of interest were quantified using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection against an internal standard uridine. The contents of vicine and convicine were determined in cultivars grown in Finland, and the contents were compared within a selected growing year and among three growing years. Vicine and convicine were hydrolysed in faba bean extracts, in vicine and convicine fractions and in faba bean suspensions by using β-glucosidase to study the formation and stability of the aglycones. Finally, the formation and stability reactions were studied under selected model conditions and in sourdoughs and breads. The performance of the HPLC method was suitable for the analysis of vicine and convicine. The levels in the studied cultivars varied from 5.2–7.6 mg/g dry matter (DM) and 2.1–3.6 mg/g DM within one growing year for vicine and convicine, respectively. Cultivar comparison showed that the cultivar ‘Kontu’, the commonly grown cultivar in Finland, contained high amounts of vicine and convicine. No extensive variation was noted among three studied growing years, even though the weather conditions varied markedly. The aglycones were detected and monitored with the HPLC method used for vicine and convicine analysis. The aglycones formed in the vicine and convicine fractions decreased in amount and finally lost their UV absorptivity after 2 h at pH 5 at 37 °C. The need for an external enzyme source was confirmed, as losses of vicine and convicine were rather small in faba bean suspensions. Selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were able to hydrolyse vicine and convicine in faba bean sourdoughs at 25 °C, 24 h; the hydrolysis depended on the fermentation temperature. Sourdoughs lost up to 82–85% of the vicine and up to 34–47% of the convicine. The amounts of vicine and convicine in wheat breads, containing 30% faba bean, were comparable to the amounts that were in sourdoughs after 24 h of fermentation. The aglycones were measured from sourdoughs fermented at 25 °C and from the corresponding doughs, but not from the breads. This study showed that vicine and convicine can be analysed simultaneously with their aglycones with an RP-HPLC-UV method, which provides the benefit of estimation of the total elimination of these compounds. The aglycones were found to disappear in all the studied matrices. Fermentation can induce losses of vicine and convicine, but the efficiency of hydrolysis depends on the selection of strains and the fermentation conditions. Furthermore, controlled acidification is necessary for maintain acceptable sensory quality.
  • Gammal, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The rapid rates of global biodiversity loss and the serious anthropogenic pressures currently affecting our marine ecosystems have increased the interest in and importance of understanding the role of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning. It is well known that biodiversity contributes to a plethora of ecosystem functions, and that benthic macrofauna have an influence on several functions that sedimentary ecosystems provide. Biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships can however be very context dependent, which complicates our ability to generalize on the role of biodiversity and to predict the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem functions and services. In this thesis, biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationships were examined in a variety of field studies in different ecosystems to elucidate the context-dependence of these relationships in heterogeneous real-world coastal zones. This included testing the effects of hypoxia, habitat characteristics and background biodiversity on the link between the fauna and the functioning in terms of benthic nutrient recycling. Hypoxia is a serious threat both in open and coastal waters, and its consequences for the benthic macrofauna-function link was investigated through sampling along natural gradients of increasing hypoxia, in a low-diversity as well as a higher-diversity coastal system. In both systems, the benthic macrofaunal communities were clearly decimated with declining oxygen conditions, although some species did show a higher tolerance of low oxygen concentrations. These species were likely important for the solute fluxes as long as the species could prevail, but during severe hypoxia and anoxia nutrient recycling processes were heavily altered, with markedly larger effluxes of ammonium and phosphate. A large variation in macrofaunal communities and solute fluxes was also observed between normoxic sites, with indications that even small variations in sediment organic material content and carbon/nitrogen ratio affected the relationships. The effects of environmental context in mediating ecosystem functioning were further assessed through sampling 18 sites on a gradient of grain size, from coarse sand to silty sediments, with varying organic material content and vegetation. Benthic macrofaunal community abundance, biomass and species richness was higher in coarser sediments and in habitats with more vegetation. Biomass and abundance of a few dominant species together with organic content, amount of roots and vegetation were indicated to contribute to nutrient recycling processes across the sedimentary gradient. Closer analyses suggested that the benthic macrofauna had a stronger influence on the ecosystem functions in muddy and medium sediments than in sandy sediment, despite the richer communities in the sandy sediments. Species redundancy is hypothesised to be important for the stability of ecosystems. Therefore redundancy patterns over space and their ability to reflect natural biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships across an extensive sandflat were explored. Redundancy over space was observed within the investigated functional groups, but the dominant species were indicated to drive the spatial distribution of the functional groups and the ecosystem functioning. In summary, these correlative field studies indicated that abundance and biomass of benthic macrofauna are important for nutrient recycling processes at the sediment-water interface, but the relationships are significantly mediated by environmental context. Hypoxic conditions in coastal zones are especially problematic because the heavily altered nutrient recycling processes and decimated macrofauna communities, can have severe consequences for overall functioning of the ecosystems. Furthermore, a few dominating species were suggested to be especially important for the investigated ecosystem functions regardless of large variations in species richness across studies. Hence, it is important to consider natural variability, as well as several measures of biodiversity, not only species richness, in BEF studies in order to obtain a more realistic understanding of the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships in heterogeneous coastal areas. An improved understanding of the complex links within coastal ecosystems is a prerequisite for improved management and conservation.
  • Lopez Valladares, Gloria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (N=932) collected from human cases of invasive listeriosis in Sweden between 1958 and 2010 were serotyped and characterised with pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis (PFGE) and AscI restriction enzyme. The genotype diversity of L. monocytogenes isolates was investigated and related to genotypic results from epidemiological information on human infection, in order to detect possible clustering of L. monocytogenes genotypes over time, season, location, age, or gender (Paper I). From 1972 to 1995, serovar 4b was the predominant serovar; however, in 1996, serovar 1/2a became the major serovar among human listeriosis cases in Sweden. Based on the number and distribution of all bands in the profile, 63 PFGE types belonging to serovars 1/2b, 3b and 4b and 119 PFGE types belonging to serovars 1/2a and 1/2c were identified (Paper I). The PFGE types were further assembled into PFGE groups, based on the number and distribution of small bands below 145.5 kb (Papers II and III). As the genomic region of small bands is genetically more conservative than in large bands, the distribution of small bands establishes relatedness of strains and defines genetic markers for both lineages. Cold-smoked salmon (Salmo salar) and gravad salmon packed under modified atmosphere or vacuum from three manufacturers were purchased in Sweden and Germany in 2005 and the occurrence and levels of L. monocytogenes were analysed (Paper IV): 56 products were analysed and eleven harboured L. monocytogenes. From the positive samples, 56 isolates were analysed with AscI, and 11 isolates were further analysed with ApaI: five AscI PFGE types were identified, four belonging to serovar 1/2a and one to 4b. Forty-three (n=43: 76.8%) isolates shared serovar 1/2a and 13 (23.2%) shared serovar 4b and all AscI types were identified among human clinical strains in Sweden. Moreover, three gravad salmon samples harboured two PFGE types each from different lineages, serovar 1/2a and serovar 4b. Although, in most of the products, the level of L. monocytogenes was less than 100 cfu/g, the highest level was 1500 cfu/g. The occurrence of L. monocytogenes was 12.9% in gravad salmon, encountered in three manufacturers (A, B, C) and 28% in cold-smoked salmon only from manufacturer A. Although the level of L. monocytogenes in RTE fish products is generally low, these products, should be considered possible sources of listeriosis in Sweden. A patient may harbour more than one L. monocytogenes PFGE type that can be determined through PFGE and AscI restriction enzyme. However, to avoid misleading conclusions, several L. monocytogenes colonies should be isolated and characterised from different sites from the same patient or mother-baby pairs (Paper V).
  • Saarnio, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Vitamin D is crucial for the human body and it has a significant role in bone growth and for maintenance of the skeleton throughout life. It is metabolized in the liver to the main circulating form, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) transports vitamin D metabolites into target tissues. A small amount of vitamin D is also free in the circulation. These free metabolites are suggested to be more active because they can enter the cells without a receptor. Genetic variation of DBP coding gene affects the protein’s ability to bind 25(OH)D, thereby influencing bound and free 25(OH)D concentrations. Furthermore, vitamin D concentrations have been reported to be lower in obese individuals than in their normal-weight peers. This study investigated the association of DBP genetic variation on vitamin D metabolism and bone traits. Study also aimed to examine whether obese individuals differ in their vitamin D metabolism from the normal-weight individuals and do these potential differences affect bone. These studies consisted of 233 Finnish children and adolescents (7–19 years) (Study I) and of 622 Finnish women and men (37–47 years) (Studies II and III). In Study III, the adults were stratified by body mass index into normal-weight, overweight, and obese. Intake of vitamin D and calcium, medications and physical activity were collected. 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), albumin, and bone turnover markers as well as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4588 and 7041 in the GC gene (Study I and II) were determined. In addition, free 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated and in Study II adjusted with genotype specific affinity values. Bone traits were measured with Dual energy X-ray-absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. In Study I, 25(OH)D and PTH were lowest in genotype GC2/2. In boys, genotype was negatively associated with hip bone mineral content (BMC) and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). In both girls and boys, genotype was associated with lumbar spine BMC and bone strength. In Study II, variation were found among genotypes in DBP, total, free, and bioavailable 25(OH)D, and PTH concentrations. DBP concentration was lowest in genotype GC2/2. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were lowest in GC diplotypes 1S/2, 1S/1F, and 2/2, but adjusted free and bioavailable 25(OH)D concentrations were highest in GC2/2. PTH was also low in GC2/2. In Study III, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in obese women than in normal-weight. In men, both bound and free 25(OH)D were lower in obese than in those of normal-weight. In addition, DBP and PTH were higher in obese women and in both genders combined than in their normal weight peers. In obese women, 25(OH)D was negatively associated with distal radius trabecular density and tibial shaft cortical strength index (CSI). Furthermore, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were negative determinants of distal radius CSI, radial shaft cortical density, and tibial shaft CSI in obese women. In conclusion, genetic variation in DBP is associated with bound and unbound forms of 25(OH)D, DBP and PTH concentrations and genetic variation of DBP can be one factor affecting bone mass accrual in adolescence. Associations of BMI with total, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D, DBP, and PTH concentrations demonstrate a difference in vitamin D metabolism between obese and normal-weight individuals. Furthermore, altered vitamin D metabolism in the obese may influence bone.
  • Rautiainen, Aapo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Human land use affects the climate through various channels. This thesis focuses on the optimal (i.e. welfare-maximizing) regulation of land use sector climate impacts using market-based instruments, such as taxes and subsidies. The thesis consists of four articles and a summary chapter. Each article focuses on a separate aspect of land use sector climate policy. The first article outlines a comprehensive tax policy for jointly regulating carbon storage in biomass, soils and products. Considerations regarding soil carbon storage are emphasized. The second article concerns the regulation of CO2 emissions from the energy use of logging residues. The harmfulness of these emissions is compared with that of fossil emissions. A way to harmonize the carbon taxation of the both energy sources is presented. The third article regards the application of the additionality principle to forest carbon subsidies. In the stand-level context it appears that the additionality principle can be implemented without distorting the optimal rotation, by reclaiming subsidies for baseline carbon storage by a site productivity tax on forests. However, at the market-level such a tax distorts the optimal rotation and the optimal land allocation. These distortions can be avoided, if the excess subsidies are eliminated by general land taxation (which also targets other land use). The fourth article presents a new concept: the Social Cost of Forcing (SCF), which is the social cost of the marginal unit of radiative forcing at a given moment. It is a fundamental price that can be used to value different forcing agents. Forcing agents’ prices that are based on the SCF are consistent with the Social Cost of Carbon, and can therefore be consistently applied in cost-benefit analysis or utilized to harmonize the regulation of non-CO2 forcing agents. Together the four articles contribute to our understanding of land use sector climate policy design.
  • Heinola, Ivika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Background. Abdominal aortic infections are dreaded disorders in vascular surgery, linked to high morbidity and mortality. Mycotic aneurysm as a primary infection of the abdominal aorta (MAAA) and an aortic graft infection (AGI) are different entities; however, due to bacterial presence in aorta and perivascular tissue, the principles of management are the same. Due to low incidence and complexity of disease, the high-quality evidence is lacking to define whether prosthetic aortic reconstructions in infectious conditions are utterly safe or whether biological reconstruction material should be preferred despite some shortcomings in durability. In complex abdominal surgery encompassing visceral aorta, prolonged aortic clamping above renal arteries is a risk factor for acute ischaemic kidney injury. In such situations, renal protection is recommended in order to avoid irreversible damage and renal replacement therapy. Aims. The aim of current study was to evaluate the infection resistance and durability of biological grafts as an aortic reconstruction material in abdominal aortic infections and to estimate the mortality after such reconstructions. Furthermore, efficacy of temporary axillo-renal bypass in prevention of renal ischaemic damage from major aortic surgery was estimated. Materials. The study comprises two parts. In the first part, 132 patients were analysed after being treated for aorto-iliac infections with arterial resection and reconstruction with a biological graft. Study I included patients treated due to AGI with femoral vein grafts, Study II included patients in whom the arterial infection was treated using cryopreserved venous allografts, and Study III included patients who were treated with various biological grafts for a primary aortic infection. The primary endpoints were postoperative mortality and reinfection rates, secondary endpoints were treatment-related mortality, overall mortality and graft reinterventions. During the second part of the study, (Study IV) patients who underwent temporary axillo-renal bypass during a major aortic intervention were retrospectively analysed. Outcome measures were postoperative kidney injury and 30-day mortality. Studies I, II and IV entailed retrospective analyses of patients treated at Helsinki University Hospital, while Study II was multicentre retrospective analysis of patients from six countries. Results. Sixty-four percent (64%, n=85) of the patients underwent surgery for an abdominal aortic infection with autologous femoral veins (FV), 17% (n=23) with cryopreserved venous allografts (CVA), 9% (n=12) with xenopericardial tube grafts, 5% (n=7) with cryopreserved arterial allografts, and 4% (n=5) with fresh arterial allografts. Most common indications for operation were aortic graft infection with an incidence of 51% (n=67) and mycotic abdominal aneurysm with 45% (n=60). The 30-day mortality was 9% for patients treated with FV for an AGI, 9% for patients treated for mixed infectious indications with cryopreserved venous allografts, and 5% for patients treated with various biological reconstructions due to MAAA,. The respective treatment-related mortality rates in these cohorts were 18%,13% and 9%. The reinfection rate was 2% (n=3) and 11% (n=14) of the grafts needed reinterventions at the mid-term follow-up, with stenotic lesions in femoral veins as the most common indication (n=9/14). Kaplan-Meier estimation of survival at 5 years was 59% (95% confidence interval, [CI] 43% – 73%) for patients treated with FV due to AGI and 71% (95% CI 52% –89%) for patients treated with mixed biological materials for MAAA. For patients treated with cryopreserved allografts for mixed indications, estimated survival at 2-years was 70% (95% CI 49% – 91%). Sixteen patients were operated with temporary axillo-renal bypass during aortic surgery. Despite short median renal ischaemia time of 24.5 minutes, 6 (38%) patients suffered acute kidney injury (AKI), of whom 4 had renal insufficiency preoperatively. One patient needed temporary renal replacement therapy, at one-month follow-up, however, renal function had returned to its baseline level or improved in all patients. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality was nil. Conclusions. Biological reconstruction material is infection resistant and reasonably durable in midterm analysis. Early postoperative and overall mortality rates are acceptable after treatment of such a complex entity as abdominal aortic infections. Furthermore, temporary axillo-renal bypass is safe and feasible in diminishing acute kidney injury during major aortic surgery.

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