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  • Pesonen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    I examine the portrayal of Jesus as a friend of toll collectors and sinners in the Third Gospel. I aim at a comprehensive view on the Lukan sinner texts, combining questions of the origin and development of these texts with the questions of Luke s theological message, of how the text functions as literature, and of the social-historical setting(s) behind the texts. Within New Testament scholarship researchers on the historical Jesus mostly still hold that a special mission to toll collectors and sinners was central in Jesus public activity. Within Lukan studies, M. Goulder, J. Kiilunen and D. Neale have claimed that this picture is due to Luke s theological vision and the liberties he took as an author. Their view is disputed by other Lukan scholars. I discuss methods which scholars have used to isolate the typical language of Luke s alleged written sources, or to argue for the source-free creation by Luke himself. I claim that the analysis of Luke s language does not help us to the origin of the Lukan pericopes. I examine the possibility of free creativity on Luke s part in the light of the invention technique used in ancient historiography. Invention was an essential part of all ancient historical writing and therefore quite probably Luke used it, too. Possibly Luke had access to special traditions, but the nature of oral tradition does not allow reconstruction. I analyze Luke 5:1-11; 5:27-32; 7:36-50; 15:1-32; 18:9-14; 19:1-10; 23:39-43. In most of these some underlying special tradition is possible though far from certain. It becomes evident that Luke s reshaping was so thorough that the pericopes as they now stand are decidedly Lukan creations. This is indicated by the characteristic Lukan story-telling style as well as by the strongly unified Lukan theology of the pericopes. Luke s sinners and Pharisees do not fit in the social-historical context of Jesus day. The story-world is one of polarized right and wrong. That Jesus is the Christ, representative of God, is an intrinsic part of the story-world. Luke wrote a theological drama inspired by tradition. He persuaded his audience to identify as (repenting) sinners. Luke's motive was that he saw the sinners in Jesus' company as forerunners of Gentile Christianity.
  • Ahola, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The study stems from newspaper articles I wrote. Initially, I outlined the history, then I gathered information on the reading groups existing in Finland in 2009. What kind of people belong to them? What goes on in the meetings? My third goal was to study the reading. Do people read differently when they know their solitary reading will be followed by a discussion? Do they read different books from the ones they read just for leisure? How do they choose and discuss what they read? And finally: what is the purpose of reading groups? I advertised my study in the cultural pages of the newspaper, Helsingin Sanomat, where I work. Reading groups contacted me, and I sent out questionnaires to both the groups and their individual members. This took place in October 2009. By February 2010 I had the corpus of my study: 149 reading groups and a total of 657 members. The history of Finnish reading groups is long. The first one, The Reading Society of Ostrobothnia , dates back to the 1760s, when books were scarce. The history of reading groups also parallels the development of public libraries. Moreover, the rise of the Finnish language and cultural identity in the 19th century encouraged self-improvement. Reading groups were a medium for this throughout society, from the working class to university students, in towns and in the countryside. Although reading groups have existed in Finland since this time, they only became widely popular in the 21st century, mostly with well-educated middle class individuals and women (who account for over 90 % percent in this study). Women especially share the ideals of the culturally curious, ambitious and self-improving creative class . People read more seriously in groups than on their own. The most popular books in 2009 consisted of critically acclaimed, translated novels, rather than original Finnish-language ones. The books were read analytically, emphasizing the language and construction, but also in an opinionated way, making comparisons with the book and the reader s own life. Modern reading groups represent a new light-weight type of community, based on the idea of sharing a work of art. When the act of reading is followed by a discussion, it is intensified and becomes more significant. With their avid readers reading groups are an integral component of Finnish literary culture.
  • Raulio, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Work has a central role in the lives of big share of adult Finns and meals they eat during the workday comprise an important factor in their nutrition, health, and well-being. On workdays, lunch is mainly eaten at worksite canteens or, especially among women, as a packed meal in the workplace s break room. No national-level data is available on the nutritional quality of the meals served by canteens, although the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health laid out the first nutrition recommendations for worksite canteens in 1971. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of various socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and work-related factors to the lunch eating patterns of Finnish employees during the working day and how lunch eating patterns influence dietary intake. Four different population-based cross-sectional datasets were used in this thesis. Three of the datasets were collected by the National Institute for Health and Welfare (Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey from 1979 to 2001, n=24746, and 2005 to 2007, n=5585, the National Findiet 2002 Study, n=261), and one of them by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Work and Health in Finland survey from 1997, 2000, and 2003, n=6369). The Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey and the Work and Health in Finland survey are nationally representative studies that are conducted repeatedly. Survey information was collected by self-administered questionnaires, dietary recalls, and telephone interviews. The frequency of worksite canteen use has been quite stable for over two decades in Finland. A small decreasing trend can be seen in all socioeconomic groups. During the whole period studied, those with more years of education ate at worksite canteens more often than the others. The size of the workplace was the most important work-related determinant associated with the use of a worksite canteen. At small workplaces, other work-related determinants, like occupation, physical strain at work, and job control, were also associated with canteen use, whereas at bigger workplaces the associations were almost nonexistent. The major social determinants of worksite canteen availability were the education and occupational status of employees and the only work-related determinant was the size of the workplace. A worksite canteen was more commonly available to employees at larger workplaces and to those with the higher education and the higher occupational status. Even when the canteen was equally available to all employees, its use was nevertheless determined by occupational class and the place of residence, especially among female employees. Those with higher occupational status and those living in the Helsinki capital area ate in canteens more frequently than the others. Employees who ate at a worksite canteen consumed more vegetables and vegetable and fish dishes at lunch than did those who ate packed lunches. Also, the daily consumption of vegetables and the proportion of the daily users of vegetables were higher among those male employees who ate at a canteen. In conclusion, life possibilities, i.e. the availability of a canteen, education, occupational status, and work-related factors, played an important role in the choice of where to eat lunch among Finnish employees. The most basic prerequisite for eating in a canteen was availability, but there were also a number of underlying social determinants. Occupational status and the place of residence were the major structural factors behind individuals choices in their lunch eating patterns. To ensure the nutrition, health, and well-being of employees, employers should provide them with the option to have good quality meals during working hours. The availability of worksite canteens should be especially supported in lower socioeconomic groups. In addition, employees should be encouraged to have lunch at a worksite canteen when one is available by removing structural barriers to its use.
  • Porra, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    A novel method for functional lung imaging was introduced by adapting the K-edge subtraction method (KES) to in vivo studies of small animals. In this method two synchrotron radiation energies, which bracket the K-edge of the contrast agent, are used for simultaneous recording of absorption-contrast images. Stable xenon gas is used as the contrast agent, and imaging is performed in projection or computed tomography (CT) mode. Subtraction of the two images yields the distribution of xenon, while removing practically all features due to other structures, and the xenon density can be calculated quantitatively. Because the images are recorded simultaneously, there are no movement artifacts in the subtraction image. Time resolution for a series of CT images is one image/s, which allows functional studies. Voxel size is 0.1mm3, which is an order better than in traditional lung imaging methods. KES imaging technique was used in studies of ventilation distribution and the effects of histamine-induced airway narrowing in healthy, mechanically ventilated, and anaesthetized rabbits. First, the effect of tidal volume on ventilation was studied, and the results show that an increase in tidal volume without an increase in minute ventilation results a proportional increase in regional ventilation. Second, spiral CT was used to quantify the airspace volumes in lungs in normal conditions and after histamine aerosol inhalation, and the results showed large patchy filling defects in peripheral lungs following histamine provocation. Third, the kinetics of proximal and distal airway response to histamine aerosol were examined, and the findings show that the distal airways react immediately to histamine and start to recover, while the reaction and the recovery in proximal airways is slower. Fourth, the fractal dimensions of lungs was studied, and it was found that the fractal dimension is higher at the apical part of the lungs compared to the basal part, indicating structural differences between apical and basal lung level. These results provide new insights to lung function and the effects of drug challenge studies. Nowadays the technique is available at synchrotron radiation facilities, but the compact synchrotron radiation sources are being developed, and in relatively near future the method may be used at hospitals.
  • Patrikainen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The purpose of this research was to describe and understand class teacher s pedagogical thinking and action in mathematics education. At first we investigated how teachers taught mathematics as well as their reasons for their pedagogical decisions. Based on these empirical findings, the second essential aim was to consider the quality of mathematics education relative to socio-constructivistic curriculum thinking and to model it with theoretical conceptions. The conceptualizing of mathematics education was based on the didactical relation included in the didactical triangle. The research is qualitative by nature and can be characterized as a qualitative collective multiple-case study. The participants, three class teachers, were followed up during one mathematical teaching-studying-learning process. The research material was gathered by two different methods: first the teachers pedagogical action was observed using video recordings, and then the pedagogical thinking connected to this action was depicted with the help of stimulated recall interview. The video data was analysed using a theory based set of concepts which described the mathematics teaching-studying-learning process. The purpose of the theory-bounded interview data analysis was to deepen the tentative understanding of mathematics education gained through the video analysis. The results describe the teachers pedagogical thinking and action in the context of mathematics education. All three teachers shared a constructivistic conception of mathematics teaching and learning, but each emphasized different viewpoints. These personal conceptions of teaching were defined as humanistic-constructive, cognitive-constructive and contextual-constructive. Finally, a model of mathematics education consisting of four factors was constructed. This model also included the didactical relation which was defined as the teacher s relation to the student, the content and the life-world. The research results and methodological inventions can be used in the context of school teaching, teacher education and research on teaching. Teachers and teacher students can utilize the results when reflecting on their own pedagogical thinking and action. In addition the research provides topical information concerning Finnish mathematics education as well as new perspectives for national and international research, development and curriculum work.
  • Törneblom, Eljas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Let X be a topological space and K the real algebra of the reals, the complex numbers, the quaternions, or the octonions. The functions form X to K form an algebra T(X,K) with pointwise addition and multiplication. We study first-order definability of the constant function set N' corresponding to the set of the naturals in certain subalgebras of T(X,K). In the vocabulary the symbols Constant, +, *, 0', and 1' are used, where Constant denotes the predicate defining the constants, and 0' and 1' denote the constant functions with values 0 and 1 respectively. The most important result is the following. Let X be a topological space, K the real algebra of the reals, the compelex numbers, the quaternions, or the octonions, and R a subalgebra of the algebra of all functions from X to K containing all constants. Then N' is definable in <R,Constant,+,*,0',1'>, if at least one of the following conditions is true. (1) The algebra R is a subalgebra of the algebra of all continuous functions containing a piecewise open mapping from X to K. (2) The space X is sigma-compact, and R is a subalgebra of the algebra of all continuous functions containing a function whose range contains a nonempty open set of K. (3) The algebra K is the set of reals or the complex numbers, and R contains a piecewise open mapping from X to K and does not contain an everywhere unbounded function. (4) The algebra R contains a piecewise open mapping from X to the set of the reals and function whose range contains a nonempty open subset of K. Furthermore R does not contain an everywhere unbounded function.
  • Paloniemi, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Nature conservation in everyday life: Private landowners perceptions of and experiences on temporary nature conservation and its renewing process This study explores the legitimacy of official nature conservation of private lands. It describes how temporary nature conservation became a part of Finnish nature conservation policy and how forest owners perceived this tool and its usage. In addition, the study analyses forest owners' attitudes on official nature conservation. The study combines individual and official perspectives, and presents a nature conservation politics of everyday life. The theoretical background of the study is learning processes of environmentally responsible participation, and especially empowerment. Main methods in gathering the material for the study have been interviews and a survey. In the 1990 s, Finnish landowners opposed the implementation of nature conservation, especially conservation of shores and the establishment of the European-wide network of conservation areas (Natura 2000). After negative experiences on these conservation efforts, some private landowners were disempowered and some even rejected conservation completely. The Nature Conservation Act of 1996 launched an option to conserve nature officially for fixed time-periods. Use of such a policy tool did not immediately become a widely-used and appreciated conservation practice. During the following decade, however, it attracted remarkable attention within Finnish nature conservation policy discussions. The perspective of landowners began to be emphasised when local and regional organisations for nature conservation and forestry together defined the ideas of natural values trading. Later, the national governance process of the committee defining the Forest Biodiversity Programme for Southern Finland (METSO) institutionalised these ideas in one of its pilot projects. Landowners participated in the project of natural values trading by offering their forests for conservation, which reflects the increased acceptance and legitimacy of nature conservation on private forests. The central elements producing the legitimacy of natural values trading have been voluntariness, temporariness, and dialogue between nature conservation and forestry. Natural values trading analysed in the study is an example of new environmental policy instruments and its creation process represents governance in the implementation of nature conservation. It has increased the legitimacy of nature conservation policy of private forests in Finland. The results reveal the importance of participation and learning processes in the implementation of nature conservation policy, and the need to also pay attention to these processes in the future.
  • Hongisto, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The premise of this doctoral dissertation is practical. It aims to develop the teaching of the history of science. There is, on the whole, plenty of research literature and teaching material pertaining to the history of science available for the upper secondary school level. This material has not, however, been made with the needs of the teaching of history in mind; instead it is geared towards the teaching of science. Research within the framework of the teaching of the history of science has been conducted primarily by researchers interested in the teaching of science, not history. These people claim that ever more knowledge about the general nature of science is needed in modern education. The English term for the general nature of science is the Nature of Science (NOS). This concept is closely linked to projects aiming to reform the teaching of science that by introducing the philosophy of science, the history of science and the sociology of science in to the teaching of science. Pedagogical experiments conducted within the framework of the teaching of the history of science represent two different branches of pedagogical research: Science, Technology and Society (STS) and the History and Philosophy of Science (HPS). These branches examine the history of science from slightly different viewpoints: HPS emphasises the bond between the history of science and research into changes in scientifical theories, and it is closely linked to the philosophy of science. STS, on the other hand, stresses the societal nature of science and is linked to the sociology of science. One aim of this doctoral dissertation is to examine how well the pedagogical experiments conducted within these two branches of research are transferable to the teaching of history. The history of science has been employed in pedagogical experiments within the HPS and STS traditions. A third teaching method frequently used is narratives about the history of science. However, how can we avoid mythical interpretations of the history of science and opt for pedagogically acceptable themes and narratives? This requires that those devising pedagogical experiments or writing teaching materials for the teaching of science more carefully examined the big picture of nature. As a model of our research we use Design Based Research. In this type of research, the problems posed by the study of teaching are approached from a pragmatic standpoint, in an effort to come up with concrete answers applicable to teaching. One such research problem is the theme of this doctoral dissertation: the opportunities for the teaching of the history of science at Finnish upper secondary school. The teaching of the history of science is a pedagogically important topic, and it is included in syllabuses and course books. Consequently, its practical applications are worth studying.
  • Raatikainen, Eija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The aim of this study is to explore trust at school and its meaning for 9th grade students. The intent is to investigate students views about trust and mistrust in school relationships. Three research questions are posed: 1) what meanings do students give to their experiences of trust and mistrust at school and how do they evaluate connection of these experiences to their well-being and enjoyment in the classroom? 2) what and how important, is the teacher s role according to the students writings, and 3) what might the different pedagogical and administrative structures of schools reveal about trust and mistrust in a particular school culture? The data consists of 134 writings of 9th grade students (secondary school) from three schools in one of the biggest cities in Finland. The schools differ from others in terms of their pedagogical or structural backgrounds. The study is restricted to the micro-level of, disposition of Educational Sociology, focusing on trust in schools relationships. The theoretical framework of the study is trust, as a part of social capital; however trust is also approached from the sociological, the psychological and philosophical perspective. The methodological approach is narrative research concerning school practice . Analysis of narrative consist mostly content analysis, but also some elements of holistic-content reading, thematic reading and categorical content. The analysis found three main themes: 1) individual stories of trust, 2) the teachers role in making trust possible in the classroom, and 3) school as a community of trust. According to the study trust at school (1) is a complex phenomenon consisting of people s ability to work together and to recognize the demands that different situations present. Trust at school is often taken for granted. In the students experiences trust is strongly connected to friendship, and the teacher s ability to connect with students. Students experiences of mistrust stem from bulling, school violence, lack of respect as well as teachers lacking basic professional behavior. School relationships are important for some students as source of enjoyment, but some feel that it is difficult to evaluate the connection between trust and enjoyment. The study found that students trust of teachers (2) is linked to the teacher s professional role as a teacher, a caring human being open to dialogue. In other words, the students describe teachers abilities to create a sense of trust in terms of three expectations: the teacher was better, the same or worse than expected. Better than expected, means the teacher engender a high degree of trust and has excellent communication skills. Same as expected means the teacher comes across as familiar and secure, while lower than expected means the teacher creates no trust and has poor communication skills. Finally, it was shown that trust at school (3) should not only exist between some individuals, but between (all) members of the school community. In other words, according to the study there is some evidence that trust is strongly committed to school culture. Further, trust seems to depend on (school-) cultural background, values, beliefs, expectations, norms as well as staff behaviour. The basic elements of an optimum level of trust at school are favourable school structure and pedagogical background; however, good relationships between teachers and students as well as high professional skills are also needed. Trust at school is built by good communication, working together and getting to know each other.
  • Talvenmäki, Pirkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Kärpänen, Terhi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The circulatory system consists of two vessel types, which act in concert but significantly differ from each other in several structural and functional aspects as well as in mechanisms governing their development. The blood vasculature transports oxygen, nutrients and cells to tissues whereas the lymphatic vessels collect extravasated fluid, macromolecules and cells of the immune system and return them back to the blood circulation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the developmental and functional regulation of the lymphatic system long lagged behind that of the blood vasculature. Identification of several markers specific for the lymphatic endothelium, and the discovery of key factors controlling the development and function of the lymphatic vessels have greatly facilitated research in lymphatic biology over the past few years. Recognition of the crucial importance of lymphatic vessels in certain pathological conditions, most importantly in tumor metastasis, lymphedema and inflammation, has increased interest in this vessel type, for so long overshadowed by its blood vascular cousin. VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C) and its receptor VEGFR-3 are essential for the development and maintenance of embryonic lymphatic vasculature. Furthermore, VEGF-C has been shown to be upregulated in many tumors and its expression found to positively correlate with lymphatic metastasis. Mutations in the transcription factor FOXC2 result in lymphedema-distichiasis (LD), which suggests a role for FOXC2 in the regulation of lymphatic development or function. This study was undertaken to obtain more information about the role of the VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway and FOXC2 in regulating lymphatic development, growth, function and survival in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. We found that the silk-like carboxyterminal propeptide is not necessary for the lymphangiogenic activity of VEGF-C, but enhances it, and that the aminoterminal propeptide mediates binding of VEGF-C to the neuropilin-2 coreceptor, which we suggest to be involved in VEGF-C signalling via VEGFR-3. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of VEGF-C increases tumor lymphangiogenesis and intralymphatic tumor growth, both of which could be inhibited by a soluble form of VEGFR-3. These results suggest that blocking VEGFR-3 signalling could be used for prevention of lymphatic tumor metastasis. This might prove to be a safe treatment method for human cancer patients, since inhibition of VEGFR-3 activity had no effect on the normal lymphatic vasculature in adult mice, though it did lead to regression of lymphatic vessels in the postnatal period. Interestingly, in contrast to VEGF-C, which induces lymphangiogenesis already during embryonic development, we found that the related VEGF-D promotes lymphatic vessel growth only after birth. These results suggest, that the lymphatic vasculature undergoes postnatal maturation, which renders it independent of ligand induced VEGFR-3 signalling for survival but responsive to VEGF-D for growth. Finally, we show that FOXC2 is necessary for the later stages of lymphatic development by regulating the morphogenesis of lymphatic valves, as well as interactions of the lymphatic endothelium with vascular mural cells, in which it cooperates with VEGFR-3. Furthermore, our study indicates that the absence of lymphatic valves, abnormal association of lymphatic capillaries with mural cells and an increased amount of basement membrane underlie the pathogenesis of LD. These findings have given new insight into the mechanisms of normal lymphatic development, as well as into the pathogenesis of diseases involving the lymphatic vasculature. They also reveal new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of tumor metastasis and lymphatic vascular failure in certain forms of lymphedema. Several interesting questions were posed that still need to be addressed. Most importantly, the mechanism of VEGF-C promoted tumor metastasis and the molecular nature of the postnatal lymphatic vessel maturation remain to be elucidated.
  • Hyvönen, Heli (Väestöntutkimuslaitos, 2009)
    Immigration is one of the most topical international issues of our time. Worldwide, the number of immigrants has doubled over the last twenty years, and migration patterns have become so diversified that they now constitute a kind of “chaos”. The number and significance of women as migrants has also increased, which is earning women growing attention among scholars. This study looks at the migration of women, in particular mothers of small children, in both directions between Finland and Estonia, following the latter’s re- independence. The data consists of in-depth interviews conducted in 2005 with 24 Finnish and 24 Estonian immigrant women. The focus was on the women’s expectations and experiences of their new country of residence, acculturation – i.e. adjusting to a new environment, social networks in the country of origin and the new country, and models of motherhood following immigration. The primary research question was formulated as follows: Which factors have influenced the formation of female immigrants’ social ties, thus contributing to the formation of motherhood strategies and afecting internal family dynamics in the new country? The research consists of four previously published independent articles as well as a summary chapter. The study’s findings indicate that Finnish and Estonian women migrated for diferent reasons and at diferent times, and that their migration patterns also difered. Estonian migration occurred mainly in the 1990s, and most immigrants intended to return later to their country of origin. Regardless of the reason for migrating that they gave to immigration officials, other key reasons often included the desire for a more stable living environment and better income. Only four of the Estonian women had immigrated together with an Estonian husband, while two- thirds came because of marriage to a Finnish man. Most of the Finnish women, on the other hand, migrated after 2000 and either came with their family as a result of a spouse’s job transfer, or came by themselves to further their studies. In most cases, the migration was a temporary solution intended to promote one’s own or one’s spouse’s career advancement. Because the reasons for migrating were diferent between Finnish and Estonian women, their expectations of the new country and their status in it were also diferent. In terms of both social and economic standing, the position of Finnish immigrants was categorically better. The reason for migrating had an impact on one’s orientation toward the receiving society. Estonian women and Finns who migrated for marriage or edu cational reasons became immediately active in forming institutional and social ties in the new society. Conversely, the women had migrated because of work had little contact with Estonian society, and their social networks consisted of other Finnish immigrants. Furthermore, they maintained strong institutional and social ties to Finland and therefore felt no need to anchor themselves to Estonian society. The Finnish and Estonian women who were better integrated into the receiving country also maintained strong social ties to their country of origin. Women who became integrated into the receiving country as a result of giving birth to children utilized various services directed at families with children. In part, such services conveyed to the women the conceptions that were prevalent in the surrounding society concerning the treatment of children and the expectations on mothers, both of which difer to some extent in Finland and Estonia. had an impact on strategies of motherhood, internal family dynamics, and gender Regardless of the reason for migrating, or the country of origin, immigration equality. Most Estonian women had to do without the child-care help provided by relatives; before immigrating, some women had even had daily child-care assistance from family members. However, Estonian women who were married to Finns did receive help from the spouse and sometimes also the spouse’s relatives. Conversely, Finnish women who had immigrated because of a spouse’s job transfer were faced with the opposite situation, in which they bore the main responsibility for domestic work and child care. They were, however, in a position to pay for domestic help. Hence, the women who had integrated into a new society had to construct their own perceptions of motherhood by reconciling the motherhood models of both the cause of a spouse’s job transfer found that being a stay-at-home mother challenged previously self-evident behaviors. Receiving country and the country of origin, whereas women who had migrated because of a spouse’s job transfer found that being a stay-at-home mother challenged previously self-evident behaviors.
  • Simonen, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    One of the greatest changes in the Finnish drinking culture in recent years is that women are drinking more than before. Increasing alcohol consumption and binge drinking among women have often been interpreted as a convergence of feminine and masculine drinking and, specifically, as women becoming more masculine in their drinking. This study aims to examine and assess this view in more depth. The research question is whether the increasing drinking among women can be interpreted to mean that women are drawing closer to masculine drinking also in qualitative terms and that they are adopting characteristics of the masculine drinking culture. By examining the alcohol attitudes of women and men of different ages, the study aims to explore how the two genders and women especially construct and express their gender in drinking, and how this affects the assumption that feminine and masculine drinking styles are converging. The study approaches the theme by analysing how women and men of different ages and of different educational backgrounds discuss their attitudes towards alcohol, the values and norms they associate with drinking, as well as the feminine and masculine traits they assign to alcohol use. The theoretical framework of the study is that gender roles are socially, not biologically, constructed. Following the relational theory of gender, studies on gender representations of alcohol use and thereby discussions on the suggested convergence of feminine and masculine drinking take into account the significance of several factors, such as age, educational background and certain historical context, on the construction of gender (cf. Connell 2012). This study approaches alcohol use not as individual drinking but as collectively shared cultural models of drinking that include culture-specific values and norms guiding alcohol use and that also give a channel for expressing gender in a culturally understandable way (Tigerstedt & Törrönen 2005). The main data for the study consists of focus group interviews carried out in Finland (N = 16) and Sweden (N = 19) with women and men representing four different age groups (women and men born in 1943 - 1950, 1959 - 1966, 1975 - 1982, and 1983 - 1990) and two educational levels. The comparative evaluation of alcohol attitudes in different age groups aims to clarify how the gender convergence approach applies to women and men of different ages. The attention to age groups will also show whether women and men have collectively shared attitudes towards alcohol which could be interpreted as generational experiences of drinking. The study gives both an affirmative and a negative answer to the initial question of whether feminine and masculine drinking habits are converging and whether this development can be interpreted as women adopting more masculine drinking styles. The affirmative answer applies, with certain restrictions, to the youngest age groups of women. It is associated with young women adopting masculine drinking such as binge drinking. However, masculine influences are merging with feminine styles and contexts, resulting in a mix of feminine and masculine traits of drinking that diversifies also the masculine drinking traditions. The negative answer applies to the oldest age group of women. The traditionally feminine values and practices of older women with regard to drinking are in opposition to the assertion of increasing masculinity. These observations indicate that feminine drinking habits have multiple layers. They also reveal the level of challenge and complexity in the debate about the convergence of feminine and masculine drinking. The study shows that there are generational differences in women's drinking habits but not in men's. The oldest and the youngest groups of women in the study are living in different worlds of drinking and have different kinds of generational experiences concerning drinking. Compared to women, men have more uniform drinking attitudes across age groups. While there are no generational differences in masculine drinking habits, there are, nevertheless, differences stemming from educational background that are apparent among both the more educated and the less educated. As a whole, examining potential differences in drinking habits within and across gender groups introduces nuances to the debate about feminine and masculine drinking where gender categories are often perceived as opposite and one-dimensional. This study indicates a blending of feminine and masculine drinking habits. It also shows that there are variations of masculine and feminine gender representations of drinking and increasingly diversified means of expressing gender in drinking.
  • Garritzen, Elise (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2011)
    Enchanted by Sources. Henry Biaudet, Liisi Karttunen and Finnish Historical Research in Rome in the Early Twentieth Century This study traces the scholarly endeavours of Henry Biaudet (1870 1915) and Liisi Karttunen (1880 1957) and "La mission historique finlandaise à Rome" which they founded in 1909. They are forgotten in Finnish historiography, but remain internationally renowned for their contribution to the nunciature studies. By investigating their historical work on the Counter- Reformation era, their roles in the scientific communities of Helsinki and Rome as well as the intersection of politics and science in their scholarly practices the study explores the nature of historical research in general at the turn of the twentieth century. The work covers fields such as historiography, university history and the political use of history. Methodologically the research is based on the analysis and contextualization of published and unpublished sources (e.g. correspondences, university records, scholarly publications and reviews in academic journals). Henry Biaudet criticized the previous research on the Nordic Counter-Reformation for its narrow national scope and sources. He sought out a new approach, including the use of sources in archives all over Europe and the inclusion of the Catholic viewpoint. Accordingly, Biaudet and Karttunen searched for records in archives in Southern Europe. Their unorthodox interpretations were denounced in Finland since the picture they gave of late sixteenth-century Sweden was too different from the national narrative. Moreover, Finnish national identity was firmly rooted in Protestantism, and questioning the benevolence of the Reformation and its main actors was considered as an attack not only against historical truth but also national values. The comparison between Biaudet s and Karttunen s arguments and the accepted narrative in Finland shows how traditional interpretations of the Nordic Reformation were influenced by the Lutheran ethos and European anticlerical rhetoric. Historians have recently paid substantial attention to the political use of history, usually focusing on politicized constructions of the national past. This study shows how research that met the criteria of modern historiography also served political purposes. Conducting research in an international community of historians and publishing ambitious scholarly studies that interested an international audience were ways to create a positive image of Finland abroad. These were not uniquely Finnish ideas but rather ideas shared by the international community of historians in Rome. In this context, scientific pursuits were given a clear political meaning. This enhances our understanding of nineteenth-century historiography being firmly rooted between science and politics.
  • Tasanen, Tapani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on historiantutkimuksen menetelmiä käyttäen selvittää metsänhoidon teorian sekä käytännön metsänhoidon kehitysvaiheet ja näihin vaikuttaneet tekijät, keskiajalta lähtien 1870-luvulla tapahtuneeseen metsäteollisuuden läpimurtoon saakka. Tutkimus tarkastelee Suomen metsiä, niiden käyttöä ja metsänhoidon alkuvaiheita Ruotsin ja Venäjän vallan aikoina. Vastauksia haetaan erityisesti seuraaviin pääkysymyksiin: - miten eri metsänkäyttömuodot ja -käyttäjät vaikuttivat metsiin ja metsänhoidon edistymiseen? - millä tavoin maanomistuksen kehitys vaikutti metsien käyttöön ja hoitoon? - millaisiin päämääriin ja yhteiskunnallisiin taustatekijöihin metsien käytön julkinen ohjaus perustui? - mitä käytännön vaikutuksia valtion metsäpolitiikalla ja ohjauksella oli metsänhoidon kehitykseen? - missä ja miten kehittyivät Suomessa sovellettu metsänhoidon teoria ja käytännön menetelmät? - mitkä tekijät säätelivät metsänhoidon teorioiden soveltamista käytäntöön? - mikä oli naapurimaiden metsänhoidon sekä kansainvälisten yhteyksien merkitys metsänhoidon kehitykselle Suomessa? - miten vuosisatainen pelko metsien ja puun loppumisesta vaikutti metsänhoidon kehitykseen? - millainen merkitys puun arvon kehityksellä oli metsänhoidon alkuun saattamiselle ja edistymiselle? Suomessa harjoitettiin 1870-luvulle saakka pääasiassa talonpoikaista metsänkäyttöä. Maaseudun väestö hankki toimeentulonsa metsistä eränkäynnin, kaskiviljelyn, laiduntamisen, rakennushirsien valmistamisen, tervantuotannon ja paikoin myös potaskan tai sysien valmistamisen avulla. Erityisesti rannikkoseuduilla tuotettiin "isorakennuksen puita", lehtereitä, mastopuita ja muuta erikoispuutavaraa. Lautojen ja lankkujen sahaus laajeni vähitellen, saavuttaen 1800-luvun lopulla hallitsevan aseman myyntiin tarkoitettujen metsäntuotteiden tuotannossa. Polttopuun sekä muun kotitarvepuun kulutus säilyi suurimpana puunkäytön ryhmänä pitkälle 1900-luvulle saakka. Mainituista metsänkäyttömuodoista erityisesti kaskeaminen ja sitä seuraava laiduntamisvaihe sekä tervaspuiden koloaminen "autioittivat" laajoja metsäalueita. Tiheimmin asutuilla seuduilla esiintyi pulaa poltto- ja rakennuspuusta myöhäiskeskiajalta alkaen. Nämä ongelmat sekä laivanrakennuksen ja vuoriteollisuuden puunsaannin turvaamisen tarve johtivat 1600-luvun puolivälissä pysyvään metsänkäytön julkiseen ohjaukseen. Tuolloin Ruotsin valtakunnan metsälainsäädännön kivijalaksi tuli kestävyyden periaate, josta kruunu kylläkin joutui tinkimään moneen otteeseen. Valtion jatkuva rahantarve oli käytännössä metsäpolitiikan tärkein taustavoima sekä Ruotsin vallan että autonomian aikana. Jo 1600-luvulla ruvettiin vaatimaan talonpoikien yhteismaiden jakamista omistajilleen vastuullisemman metsänkäytön nimissä. Isoajakoa saatiin Suomessa odottaa 1770-luvulle saakka. Etelä-Suomessa se valmistui melko nopeasti, 1800-luvun puoliväliin mennessä. Sillä olikin myönteinen, metsien säästävämpään käsittelyyn johtava vaikutus. Valtiosta tuli isonjaon myötä erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa merkittävä metsänomistaja 1800-luvun jälkipuoliskolla. Valtion metsähallinto, jota maaherrat ja sivistyneistö vaativat perustettavaksi jo 1700-luvun puolivälissä, aloitti toimintansa maanlaajuisesti 1860-luvulla. Se oli ensimmäinen merkittävä metsänhoidon organisaatio, ja vasta sen myötä metsänkäyttöä ohjaavilla säädöksillä ja ohjeilla alkoi olla käytännön merkitystä. Yksityismetsiä varten ei tällaista organisaatiota vielä perustettu, niitä rasittivat pahoin nousevan sahateollisuuden määrämittahakkuut pitkälle 1900-luvun puolelle. Turun Akatemiassa tehtiin mittavaa metsänhoidon menetelmiä koskevaa sekä myös metsäpoliittista tutkimustyötä 1700-luvun jälkipuoliskolla. Tulokset eivät vielä sanottavasti siirtyneet käytäntöön, lähinnä puun alhaisen arvon ja tarvittavien organisaatioiden puuttumisen takia. Kun valtion metsähallintoa ja Suomen omaa metsäopetusta ryhdyttiin perustamaan 1800-luvun puolivälissä, haettiin metsänhoidon mallia alan johtavaksi maaksi kehittyneestä Saksasta. Tultaessa 1870-luvulle, oli Evolla jo käynnissä voimakas kehitystyö maamme olosuhteisiin soveltuvien menetelmien luomiseksi saksalaisen teorian pohjalta. Metsänhoidon tiedot ja taidot olisivat jo tässä vaiheessa riittäneet kestävän metsätalouden harjoittamiseen kaikkien omistajaryhmien metsissä, jos tarvittavat organisaatiot olisi kyetty perustamaan ja metsäammattilaisia olisi koulutettu tarpeeksi. Metsänhoidon kehitystä hidastivat 1800-luvun lopulla lähinnä valtion heikko talous ja poliittiset näkemyserot. Metsäteollisuuden 1870-luvulta alkanut voimakas kasvu ja lisääntyvä puuntarve pakottivat kuitenkin valtiovallan pitämään huolta puuntuotannon jatkuvuudesta. Metsäteollisuuden kasvavan viennin kautta lisääntyvät verotulot ja kan-santalouden myönteinen kehitys antoivat vähitellen mahdollisuuden metsänhoidon edistämiseen ammattilaisten koulutuksen, kansalaisten neuvonnan, lainsäädännön ja viranomaisten toiminnan kautta. Tämä tutkimus lähestyy aihettaan metsähistorian, taloushistorian, yhteiskuntahistorian ja ympäristöhistorian näkökulmista. Ajankohtaista merkitystä sillä on kehitysmaiden sekä Itä-Euroopan siirtymätalouksien metsänhoidon edistämiselle, missä suomalaiset metsäammattilaiset ovat mukana lukuisten kehityshankkeiden asiantuntijoina. Kymmenissä maissa metsätalous kamppailee samanlaisten ongelmien kanssa kuin Suomessa ja naapurimaissa 100 - 300 vuotta sitten. Meidän kokemuksistamme on näille kansantalouksille hyötyä valtion- ja yksityismetsätalouden metsänhoito-organisaatioita sekä metsälainsäädäntöä kehitettäessä.
  • Joronen, Tuula (Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskus, 2012)
    The purpose of the study was to examine the development of entrepreneurial activities amongst immigrants, the factors affecting this development and the success of businesses in Finland. The study examines the opportunity structures that Finland has offered immigrants as well as factors affecting the offering of entrepreneurship, such as motives towards entrepreneurship and the resources of immigrants. The study is based on many types of materials. The analysis of the operating environment and the development of the number and structure of entrepreneurial activities of immigrants are based on statistics and previous studies. Differences affecting the entrepreneurial activities of immigrants from different regions and different nationalities, the prevalence of forced entrepreneurship and the success of entrepreneurial activities in terms of employment and survival of companies were studied using register data. Motives for entrepreneurship, methods of operation and success in terms of financial livelihood were studied by means of questionnaires and interviews. A central finding of this study is that while forced entrepreneurship is more common than average among immigrant entrepreneurs, they have succeeded in finding employment and staying in business as commonly as entrepreneurs from the Finnish original population. Although shutting down the business is linked with a higher risk of unemployment among immigrant entrepreneurs than among Finnish entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship has been a channel for finding employment for some immigrants as well. The methods of operation of immigrant entrepreneurs were quite similar to those of Finnish entrepreneurs. The differences found were related more to the situation of immigration and the choice of business sector than to the ethnic culture of immigrant entrepreneurs. Keywords: Immigrant, entrepreneur, forced entrepreneurship, ethnic resources, ethnic market.
  • Harve, Heini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of death in Europe. It has been estimated that about 40 % of CA victims have ventricular fibrillation (VF) at the time of the first heart rhythm analysis. The treatment for VF is immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and rapid defibrillation. The automated external defibrillator (AED) and the concept of public access defibrillation (PAD) may be a key to shortening defibrillation delays. Recent studies have shown that PAD programs are associated with high survival rates from VF when devices have been placed in certain risk sites and used by trained laypersons. Today many public places are equipped with AEDs. The purpose of this study was to find new ways of utilizing layperson defibrillation and promote the concept of public access defibrillation (PAD). The study explored the use of AEDs by non-medical first responders in Finland and cabin crew on board a commercial aircraft. A simulated study was performed to explore the role of dispatcher assistance in layperson CPR and defibrillation. A 15-year follow-up study of 59 one-year survivors after successful out-of-hospital resuscitation was performed to evaluate the long-term quality of life of the CA patients. Although there are many AEDs in use by non-medical first responders in Finland, the results of the study showed that there are large variations between individual first response units. This is considered to be caused by the lack of national standards and regulations that would define a full integration of first-responder programmes into the Emergency Medical Services system. The goal of rapid defibrillation in five minutes after the onset of CA is difficult to achieve in Finland due to sparse population and long distances. Local PAD programs may shorten the defibrillation delays. Dispatcher assistance in defibrillation by a layperson not trained to use an AED seems feasible and does not compromise the performance of CPR. In a simulated study, the quality of mouth-to-mouth ventilation performed by laypersons was found to be better after CPR training compared with performance with dispatcher assistance before training. Training was not found to have an influence on the quality of compressions or defibrillation compared with dispatcher assistance of untrained laypersons. The target groups for CPR and defibrillation training need further evaluation. The placements of the AEDs in public areas should be known by the emergency response center and the location should be marked with an international sign. The finding that once a good neurological outcome after CA is achieved, it can be maintained for more than 10 years, encourages further efforts to improve the survival of CA patients.