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  • Tuomola-Karp, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Korppoo, Maijaleena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The goal of this research was to establish the necessary conditions under which individuals are prepared to commit themselves to quality assurance work in the organisation of a Polytechnic. The conditions were studied using four main concepts: awareness of quality, commitment to the organisation, leadership and work welfare. First, individuals were asked to describe these four concepts. Then, relationships between the concepts were analysed in order to establish the conditions for the commitment of an individual towards quality assurance work (QA). The study group comprised the entire personnel of Helsinki Polytechnic, of which 341 (44.5%) individuals participated. Mixed methods were used as the methodological base. A questionnaire and interviews were used as the research methods. The data from the interviews were used for the validation of the results, as well as for completing the analysis. The results of these interviews and analyses were integrated using the concurrent nested design method. In addition, the questionnaire was used to separately analyse the impressions and meanings of the awareness of quality and leadership, because, according to the pre-understanding, impressions of phenomena expressed in terms of reality have an influence on the commitment to QA. In addition to statistical figures, principal component analysis was used as a description method. For comparisons between groups, one way variance analysis and effect size analysis were used. For explaining the analysis methods, forward regression analysis and structural modelling were applied. As a result of the research it was found that 51% of the conditions necessary for a commitment to QA were explained by an individual’s experience/belief that QA was a method of development, that QA was possible to participate in and that the meaning of quality included both product and process qualities. If analysed separately, other main concepts (commitment to the organisation, leadership and work welfare) played only a small part in explaining an individual’s commitment. In the context of this research, a structural path model of the main concepts was built. In the model, the concepts were interconnected by paths created as a result of a literature search covering the main concepts, as well as a result of an analysis of the empirical material of this thesis work. The path model explained 46% of the necessary conditions under which individuals are prepared to commit themselves to QA. The most important path for achieving a commitment stemmed from product and system quality emanating from the new goals of the Polytechnic, moved through the individual’s experience that QA is a method of the total development of quality and ended in a commitment to QA. The second most important path stemmed from the individual’s experience of belonging to a supportive work community, moved through the supportive value of the job and through affective commitment to the organisation and ended in a commitment to QA. The third path stemmed from an individual’s experiences in participating in QA, moved through collective system quality and through these to the supportive value of the job to affective commitment to the organisation and ended in a commitment to QA. The final path in the path model stemmed from leadership by empowerment, moved through collective system quality, the supportive value of the job and an affective commitment to the organisation, and again, ended in a commitment to QA. As a result of the research, it was found that the individual’s functional department was an important factor in explaining the differences between groups. Therefore, it was found that understanding the processing of part cultures in the organisation is important when developing QA. Likewise, learning-teaching paradigms proved to be a differentiating factor. Individuals thinking according to the humanistic-constructivistic paradigm showed more commitment to QA than technological-rational thinkers. Also, it was proved that the QA training program did not increase commitment, as the path model demonstrated that those who participated in training showed 34% commitment, whereas those who did not showed 55% commitment. As a summary of the results it can be said that the necessary conditions under which individuals are prepared to commit themselves to QA cannot be treated in a reductionistic way. Instead, the conditions must be treated as one totality, with all the main concepts interacting simultaneously. Also, the theoretical framework of quality must include its dynamic aspect, which means the development of the work of the individual and learning through auditing. In addition, this dynamism includes the reflection of the paradigm of the functions of the individual as well as that of all parts of the organisation. It is important to understand and manage the various ways of thinking and the cultural differences produced by the fragmentation of the organisation. Finally, it seems possible that the path model can be generalised for use in any organisation development project where the personnel should be committed.
  • Kiuru, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Javela, Kaija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    High quality of platelet analytics requires specialized knowledge and skills. It was applied to analyze platelet activation and aggregation responses in a prospective controlled study of patients with Finnish type of amyloidosis. The 20 patients with AGel amyloidosis displayed a delayed and more profound platelet shape change than healthy siblings and healthy volunteers, which may be related to altered fragmentation of mutated gelsolin during platelet activation. Alterations in platelet shape change have not been reported in association with platelet disorders. In the rare Bernard-Soulier syndrome with Asn45Ser mutation of glycoprotein (GP) IX, the diagnostic defect in the expression of GPIb-IX-V complex was characterized in seven Finnish patients, also an internationally exceptionally large patient series. When measuring thrombopoietin in serial samples of amniotic fluid and cord blood of 15 pregnant women with confirmed or suspected fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, the lower limit of detection could be extended. The results approved that thrombopoietin is present already in amniotic fluid. The application of various non-invasive means for diagnosing thrombocytopenia (TP) revealed that techniques for estimating the proportion of young, i.e. large platelets, such as direct measurement of reticulated platelets and the mean platelet size, would be useful for evaluating platelet kinetics in a given patient. Due to different kinetics between thrombopoietin and increase of young platelets in circulation, these measurements may have most predictive value when measured from simultaneous samples. Platelet autoantibodies were present not only in isolated autoimmune TP but also in patients without TP where disappearance of platelets might be compensated by increased production. The autoantibodies may also persist after TP has been cured. Simultaneous demonstration of increased young platelets (or increased mean platelet volume) in peripheral blood and the presence of platelet associated IgG specificities to major glycoproteins (GPIb-IX and GPIIb-IIIa) may be considered diagnostic for autoimmune TP. Measurement of a soluble marker as a sign of thrombin activation and proceeding deterioration of platelet components was applied to analyze the alterations under several stress factors (storage, transportation and lack of continuous shaking under controlled conditions) of platelet products. The GPV measured as a soluble factor in platelet storage medium showed good correlation with an array of other measurements commonly applied in characterization of stored platelets. The benefits of measuring soluble analyte in a quantitative assay were evident.
  • Räty, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Respiratory infections are the most common illnesses worldwide, and a large fraction of those are of viral origin. These infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and have substantial socioeconomic impact. Rapid identification of a causing agent provides guidance for treatment decisions and may help prevent the further spread of the virus. Noteworthy that virus infections can be complicated by subsequent bacterial infections. Over a period of 16 years, the occurrence of seven common respiratory viruses has been studied in certain segments of the Finnish population. A laboratory test (TR-FIA) for the rapid detection of viral proteins in respiratory secretions has been used in these studies. From many of the patients also acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens have been collected for the detection of antibodies to these seven viruses and also to Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a bacterial pathogen. During the 16-year period of observation, influenza viruses have caused epidemics every year. Some of these influenza findings have been further investigated in the National Influenza Center and relevant results have been reported to the WHO and to other international organizations. Also the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been found to circulate every year. This virus is an important respiratory pathogen of small children, but also of the elderly. Mycoplasma pneumoniae caused epidemics at intervals of several years. Typically, Mycoplasma pneumoniae affects families with school-age children, and often these infections do not require treatment. Members of the Finnish Defense Forces have been overrepresented in this surveillance, and a significant number of mycoplasma findings have been from young service men hospitalized with pneumonia. Although serological methods rarely help establish a diagnosis during the early phase of an infection, this study has shown that serology performed on paired sera can identify a substantial number of infections that would have gone undetected by rapid diagnostic methods. Besides finding the causative agent of a patient s illness, surveillance of respiratory infections provides information about pathogens that cause epidemics in the population. Through such surveillance it might be possible to identify previously unknown viruses, or common viruses with novel characteristics. As an example, one could mention zoonotic influenza viruses or influenza viruses that have acquired resistance to antiviral drugs.
  • Leiviskä, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Dyslipidemia - high serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), or triglycerides or low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration - is one among the most important factors increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the main apolipoprotein of atheroprotective HDL particles and apoB is the main apolipoprotein in all other atherogenic lipoprotein particles. An increased number of apoB-containing particles and low HDL-C together with almost normal LDL-C is a common feature in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The first aim of this study was to assess the systematic errors in cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-C measurements. Secondly, the effect of fasting and non-fasting triglyceride values on the prevalences of high LDL-C and metabolic syndrome was estimated. The reference intervals for apoA-I, apoB, and apoB/apoA-I ratio were calculated and they were compared with the traditional lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in different pathophysiological conditions. Finally, two direct HDL-C methods and two turbidimetric apoA-I methods in two independent laboratories were compared to discover the concordance between these methods. The data for estimating accuracy of cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-C measurements was obtained from different external quality assessment (EQA) programs, in which the Laboratory of Analytical Biochemistry at the National Institute for Health and Welfare has participated since 1978. The laboratory data for lipid and lipoprotein population trends was obtained from the FINRISK population-based health surveys during 1982 2012. During this time systematic error for cholesterol and triglyceride measurements remained within the range of 4% but for HDL-C error was larger. Comparison of two direct HDL-C methods showed a concentration-dependent difference between these methods. At low HDL-C concentrations difference between methods was negative -12.0 %, but at higher concentrations turned out to be positive: +9.0 %. However, apoA-I methods demonstrated better agreement than HDL-C in the method comparisons. Obese men and women had the highest apoB concentrations and apoB/apoA-I ratios compared to the healthy reference group. Men with self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes had lower apoB concentrations and apoB/apoA-I ratio than the averages in the healthy reference group. In contrast women had higher apoB concentrations and apoB/apoA-I ratios in obesity, CVD, hypertension, or diabetes than in the healthy reference group. Participating in the external quality assessment programs with target values measured by the reference methods was essential, when interpreting the effects of the systematic errors on the population lipid trends. The concentration-dependent differences in homogeneous HDL-C methods may cause misclassificatios in the risk assessment of cardiovascular disease. Because an increased number of apoB-containing lipoproteins but a normal or even low LDL-cholesterol is a common feature in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, apoB measurements may produce more specific information in the risk assessment for CVD in these conditions than total cholesterol and LDL-C measurements.
  • Santala, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In this historiographical study I evaluate the placement of Eero Saarinen s airport terminals in the history of modern architecture. His Trans World Airlines Terminal (1956-62) and Dulles International Airport (1958-63) were the first airport terminals to enter the annals of modern architecture. I hypothesize that the airport terminal was previously excluded as a building type from historiography since it was seen as infrastructure, not architecture. Furthermore, its modernity did not coincide with the aims of historians, who could not utilize an emergent building type to demonstrate how modernism revolutionized architectural vocabularies. Discussing the related histories of aviation and technologies, the typological instability of the airport terminal, and Saarinen s architectural practice, I utilize genealogy, microhistory, and Science and Technology Studies to intervene in the historiography of modern architecture. Specifically, I question the assumption that architecture follows technological developments, the narrow interpretation of modernity dominating the writing of architectural history, and the resulting myopia in the classification of emerging building types. I view Saarinen s architectural practice as one of the many laboratories for a new architecture. Mapping such laboratories reveals a multifaceted view of postwar architecture, where modernism is explained by individual actors laboring at their localized sites to mediate a particular kind of modernity. I argue that Saarinen s engagement with technology and his laboratory-like working methods reconciled the contradictions between modern architecture and its blind spot, the airport terminal. This synthesis allowed the terminal building to transcend its utilitarian-technological nature as transportation infrastructure and led to its inclusion in the history of modern architecture as a building type that has its own history and parameters for design. This study makes three contributions. It outlines the history of the airport terminal emphasizing buildings that could have easily found their place in the canon of modern architecture. It explains the reasons for their exclusion and suggests ways to reduce the canon s myopia towards variants of modernism. More broadly, this study contributes to our understanding of the historiography of modern architecture and its logic of including emergent buildings by acknowledging the airport terminal as an emblematic building type of the twentieth century.
  • Korhonen, Kalle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Zavaleta Ochoa, Eugenia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    During the decade of 1970, in Costa Rica started more often to appear state and private exhibition spaces; and commercialization of the artistic creations began to develop on a regular basis. This scenario was set by the interference of the welfare state; without this intervention the cultural development of Costa Rica would have been slower and weaker. Since 1950, began a series of economic, political and social changes that allowed the definition of cultural policies, which permitted state actions that resulted in museums, contests, awards and public collections, among others. Thus, cultural policies became the driving force that impulsed the culture and, specifically, the art market in the country. In other words, the welfare state created a primary substrate from which cemented the country's cultural life and, therefore, the commodification of art. So, this research focuses on the primary substrate that led to the flowering of an art market. In the process of building the art market, we consulted the Collection of Laws, Decrees and Resolutions, and The Gazette. Furthermore, we used databases such as the Costa Rican Legal Information System. The Costa Rican Art Museum (MAC) has albums, files, documents and databases that were fundamental in determining the country's cultural life, in other words, -for example- the identification of national and foreign artists, public collections, exhibitions, awards, contests, art reviews, comments and auctions. From these documents, databases were developed to process the extracted information. Other databases that were consulted were the catalogs of the National Insurance Institute, the Central Bank of Costa Rica, the Social Security Fund and the Museum of Contemporary Art and Design.
  • Lehtinen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    "The contextualization of radio discourse by prosodic means. The example of five great French philosophers of the 20th century" This PhD thesis treats the contextualization of radio discourse by prosodic means. More precisely, the work is focussed on seven “marked figures”, which consist of the salient changes of one or more prosodic parameters. The phenomena are studied here both from the angle of their acoustic forms and from the angle of their typical contexts of occurrences and discursive functions. The data comes from six radio broadcasts transmitted by different French radio stations between 1948 and 1973. The speakers of the broadcasts are famous French 20th–century philosophers: Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Michel Foucault, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Gaston Bachelard. The total duration of the data is 162’32. In addition to a general presentation of the phenomena, the thesis includes contrastive studies in which the two main phenomena of the work (the so-called “figure HB” and the so-called “undulating figure”) are compared with a melodic figure occurring in classical piano music and with a prosodic phenomenon of Finnish (the so-called “figure of familiarity”). One part of the thesis is also devoted to a contrastive study discussing the prosodic interpretation of punctuation (the full stop and the comma) in The Stranger (L’Étranger) by Albert Camus, as read by the author. Methodologically, the work falls within the scope of conversation analysis (CA), and it is inspired by the interaction-based approach to prosody, the “theory of contextualization” of Gumperz and by numerous linguistic and phonetic works directed towards French. The results of this work, based on seven original publications, suggest that the “marked figures” constitute multidimensional phenomena of speech having an important and a complex role in the contextualization of radio discourse. The acoustic forms of these phenomena are very different, and their functions reach several discursive levels. In addition to presenting the phenomena under consideration, the work includes some methodological and theoretical discussion concerning the study and the nature of the process of the contextualization of speech.
  • Buysse, Manon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Clause linking, or the incorporation of multiple predications within a complex linguistic unit, is an essential component of efficient language use, but also a major hurdle in the language learning process. Although discrete aspects of clause linking and its development in second language acquisition (SLA) have been studied before, a comprehensive and theoretically unified approach to the phenomenon in SLA is still lacking. To redress this gap, the study presented in this doctoral dissertation proposes a model of clause linking and its development in SLA based on the theoretical framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG; Van Valin and LaPolla 1997, Van Valin 2005) and its application to first language acquisition (Van Valin 2001). It provides a detailed account of clause linking, formalized in the Interclausal Relations Hierarchy (IRH; Van Valin 2005), which takes into account various structural levels of language and considers both the syntactic and the semantic aspects of clause linking. Oral narratives in L2 French and English were transcribed and divided into four groups based on their overall proficiency level in the L2, resulting in a total of 100 (4 x 25) samples per L2. Matched narrative production data from 25 native speakers of each target language served as a benchmark for our analyses. Results provide evidence for the universality of RRG s hypotheses in the sense that L2 learners seem to be guided by the same principles as L1 acquirers; forms of linkage characterized by similar syntactic and semantic strength are acquired more easily (as predicted by the IRH), and syntactic junctures at particular structural levels are associated with particular semantic relations between events. However, our L2 productions were also found to develop differently from those of Van Valin s (2001) young L1 acquirers in various respects: our L2 learners produce complex clauses from early stages of development onwards, as the hurdles they encounter in mastering the various L2 linking devices are unrelated to the development of their cognitive abilities or discourse organization capacities. In addition, we observed that the learners of L2 French and those of L2 English behave rather similarly in how they establish clause linking at various stages of development, but also deviate from one another in non-trivial ways which merit further research.
  • Abbas Hilmi, Hanan (2010)
    Bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria and their isolated peptide bacteriocins are of value to control pathogens and spoiling microorganisms in foods and feed. Nisin is the only bacteriocin that is commonly accepted as a food preservative and has a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive organisms including spore forming bacteria. In this study nisin induction was studied from two perspectives, induction from inside of the cell and selection of nisin inducible strains with increased nisin induction sensitivity. The results showed that a mutation in the nisin precursor transporter NisT rendered L. lactis incapable of nisin secretion and lead to nisin accumulation inside the cells. Intracellular proteolytic activity could cleave the N-terminal leader peptide of nisin precursor, resulting in active nisin in the cells. Using a nisin sensitive GFP bioassay it could be shown, that the active intracellular nisin could function as an inducer without any detectable release from the cells. The results suggested that nisin can be inserted into the cytoplasmic membrane from inside the cell and activate NisK. This model of two-component regulation may be a general mechanism of how amphiphilic signals activate the histidine kinase sensor and would represent a novel way for a signal transduction pathway to recognize its signal. In addition, nisin induction was studied through the isolation of natural mutants of the GFPuv nisin bioassay strain L. lactis LAC275 using fl uorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The isolated mutant strains represent second generation of GFPuv bioassay strains which can allow the detection of nisin at lower levels. The applied aspect of this thesis was focused on the potential of bacteriocins in chicken farming. One aim was to study nisin as a potential growth promoter in chicken feed. Therefore, the lactic acid bacteria of chicken crop and the nisin sensitivity of the isolated strains were tested. It was found that in the crop Lactobacillus reuteri, L. salivarius and L. crispatus were the dominating bacteria and variation in nisin resistance level of these strains was found. This suggested that nisin may be used as growth promoter without wiping out the dominating bacterial species in the crop. As the isolated lactobacilli may serve as bacteria promoting chicken health or reducing zoonoosis and bacteriocin production is one property associated with probiotics, the isolated strains were screened for bacteriocin activity against the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The results showed that many of the isolated L. salivarius strains could inhibit the growth of C. jejuni. The bacteriocin of the L. salivarius LAB47 strain, with the strongest activity, was further characterized. Salivaricin 47 is heat-stable and active in pH range 3 to 8, and the molecular mass was estimated to be approximately 3.2 kDa based on tricine SDS-PAGE analysis.
  • Lyhs, Ulrike (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Ojala, Teija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Modern DNA sequencing technologies have opened up new possibilities to study bacteria. These methods have not only enabled the characterization of the genetic capacities of bacteria at previously unseen scale but have also provided a wealth of information about bacterial transcriptomes. In this thesis, sequencing and subsequent analysis approaches were applied to study Lactobacillus crispatus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Specifically, the aim was to uncover how these two Gram-positive species of human relevance can live in and interact with their environments. L. crispatus is a prominent member of the human vaginal flora and important for urogenital health. In this thesis, an annotated genome sequence was produced for L. crispatus ST1 and analyzed in conjunction with publicly available genome sequences of nine vaginal L. crispatus isolates. The common ortholog groups of the ten isolates captured approximately 57% of the ortholog groups of each isolate and provided a good estimation of the final set of core features of this central urogenital species. Notably, several of the detected L. crispatus core features were of putative relevance to vaginal health. Among these features was a previously characterized adhesin, which was in this thesis identified as a likely antagonist to the harmful vaginal bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. Altogether, the study revealed a notable functional similarity between the L. crispatus strains and established the role of L. crispatus core proteins in maintaining vaginal health. P. freudenreichii, in turn, is an industrially important dairy culture. In this thesis, the cheese starter P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS was subjected to transcriptome and genome sequencing to gain a deeper understanding of the role of this bacterium in industrial cheese ripening. The genome of strain JS encoded several enzymes and metabolic pathways involved in the formation of flavor compounds and was highly similar to those of the other P. freudenreichii strains. Transcriptome analysis of industrial cheese samples revealed nearly 15% of the 2,377 protein-coding genes of strain JS to be significantly differentially expressed between the warm and cold room ripening of cheese. Several of the flavor-associated genes exhibited higher expression levels in the warm compared to the cold room samples, corroborating the hypothesis that P. freudenreichii contributes more to the cheese flavor development during warm than cold room ripening. Automated function prediction of bacterial protein sequences greatly facilitated the genomics investigations of L. crispatus and P. freudenreichii in this thesis, providing functional descriptions for a majority of the predicted coding sequences of strains ST1 and JS. Moreover, re-annotation of the coding sequences of the nine publicly available vaginal L. crispatus isolates significantly increased the portion of the L. crispatus coding sequences with functional descriptions in the comparative genomics study of L. crispatus. The different methods varied in their prediction capabilities and were often complementary, supporting the use of more than one function prediction method in a bacterial genome project. Moreover, extremely strict thresholds in the homology searches were noted to unnecessarily restrict the pool of hits available for annotation transfer, hampering both the annotation quality and the fraction of coding sequences with a functional classification. Taken together, the utilized sequencing approaches coupled with suitable downstream analyses proved effective in deciphering the physiology of lactobacilli and propionibacteria and offered novel insights into the health-promoting properties of L. crispatus and flavor-forming capabilities of P. freudenreichii.
  • Hyvönen, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Lactoferrin (Lf) is a bioactive molecule found in milk that is expressed in and secreted by mammary epithelial cells. It is also present in the secondary granules of neutrophils. The concentration of Lf in milk depends on the stage of lactation of the cow and infection status of the mammary gland. Lf has many biological functions that relate to bovine intramammary infections. Lf exerts bacteriostatic activity by binding iron and has bactericidal activity that results from the interaction between Lf and bacterium. Lf regulates the inflammatory response by binding to bacterial endotoxin, which inhibits formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, or indirectly stimulates the host immune system. Lf inhibits intracellular invasion of pathogens and biofilm formation. It has immunoregulatory functions that affect antibody synthesis, production of various cytokines, and complement activation. Mastitis is the most costly disease of dairy cows, causing decrease in milk quality and safety and marked economic losses for the industry. Mastitis affects animal welfare and is one of the main reasons for culling dairy cows. Mastitis is the most common reason for treating dairy cows with antibiotics, but results of the treatments are often poor. New approaches for mastitis control are urgently needed. This thesis focuses on the behavior and effects of Lf in the bovine mammary gland. The studies include in vivo experiments, using induced mastitis with endotoxin, and two different udder pathogens, as well as in vitro experiments using bovine mammary epithelial (BME) cells. Concentrations of bovine Lf (bLf) and citrate in milk were investigated in experimentally induced endotoxin mastitis using the same cows during early and late-lactation period. The ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from bovine mastitis to adhere to, and invade and replicate intracellularly, and the related effect of bLf, were studied in a BME cell model. Transgenic cows expressing recombinant human Lf (rhLf) in their milk were used in two experiments in which intramammary infection was induced by a major pathogen Escherichia coli, and a minor pathogen, Staphylococcus chromogenes. Basal concentrations of bLf and rhLf in the milk of the rhLf-transgenic cows were determined during the first months of the lactation period. Concentration of bLf in the milk was significantly higher during the early lactation period than during the late lactation in experimentally induced endotoxin mastitis. The molar ratio of citrate to bLf before and after challenge was also significantly higher during the early lactation period. The molar ratio is more important than the absolute concentration of either component, and a low molar ratio increases resistance of the mammary gland to invading bacteria, coliforms in particular. The results of this study may partly explain the susceptibility of dairy cows to intramammary infections during early lactation. All CNS species examined were able to adhere to BME cells, but internalization varied among the strains. The effect of bLf on the adhesion and invasion of the CNS strains was weak, but it significantly decreased intracellular replication rates. The effect of bLf was not related to the in vitro susceptibility of the CNS strain to bLf. A new approach to prevention of bovine intramammary infection could be represented by genetic engineering, which was tested here using rhLf-transgenic cows. Two different udder pathogens, E. coli and S. chromogenes, were selected for induction of experimental mastitis in the transgenic and control cows. The bacterial strains used in the experiments were susceptible in vitro to bLf; susceptibility to hLf varied such that the E. coli strain was intermediately susceptible and the S. chromogenes strain fully susceptible. The response of the cows was monitored by determining concentrations of bLf and rhLf in the milk and concentrations of several indicators of inflammation in the milk and blood. Expression of rhLf in the milk did not protect the cows from E. coli or staphylococcal intramammary infection. All cows became infected in both models. In the E. coli model all cows developed clinical mastitis, but rhLf-cows showed milder systemic signs and lower concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin in serum than the controls. rhLf-cows were protected from clinical disease in staphylococcal infection and had a milder inflammatory reaction, which was recorded as lower N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamidase (NAGase) activity and concentration of serum amyloid A in the milk. The results of the investigations reported in this thesis show that one aspect of the innate immunity of the mammary gland is mediated by Lf, which has a multifunctional role. The host response of the cow to intramammary infection depends on the stage of lactation, and on the infectious agent and its virulence. The limited positive effects in the experiments using rhLf-transgenic cows do not warrant further development of this type of genetic engineering to increase mastitis resistance in dairy cows. However, Lf could be of potential benefit if it were able to be used to support the immune defense of the bovine mammary udder.
  • Peuhkuri, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Nordman, Lieselott (Institutionen för nordiska språk och nordisk litteratur, Nordica, Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    The thesis studies the translation process for the laws of Finland as they are translated from Finnish into Swedish. The focus is on revision practices, norms and workplace procedures. The translation process studied covers three institutions and four revisions. In three separate studies the translation process is analyzed from the perspective of the translations, the institutions and the actors. The general theoretical framework is Descriptive Translation Studies. For the analysis of revisions made in versions of the Swedish translation of Finnish laws, a model is developed covering five grammatical categories (textual revisions, syntactic revisions, lexical revisions, morphological revisions and content revisions) and four norms (legal adequacy, correct translation, correct language and readability). A separate questionnaire-based study was carried out with translators and revisers at the three institutions. The results show that the number of revisions does not decrease during the translation process, and no division of labour can be seen at the different stages. This is somewhat surprising if the revision process is regarded as one of quality control. Instead, all revisers make revisions on every level of the text. Further, the revisions do not necessarily imply errors in the translations but are often the result of revisers following different norms for legal translation. The informal structure of the institutions and its impact on communication, visibility and workplace practices was studied from the perspective of organization theory. The results show weaknesses in the communicative situation, which affect the co-operation both between institutions and individuals. Individual attitudes towards norms and their relative authority also vary, in the sense that revisers largely prioritize legal adequacy whereas translators give linguistic norms a higher value. Further, multi-professional teamwork in the institutions studied shows a kind of teamwork based on individuals and institutions doing specific tasks with only little contact with others. This shows that the established definitions of teamwork, with people co-working in close contact with each other, cannot directly be applied to the workplace procedures in the translation process studied. Three new concepts are introduced: flerstegsrevidering (multi-stage revision), revideringskedja (revision chain) and normsyn (norm attitude). The study seeks to make a contribution to our knowledge of legal translation, translation processes, institutional translation, revision practices and translation norms for legal translation. Keywords: legal translation, translation of laws, institutional translation, revision, revision practices, norms, teamwork, organizational informal structure, translation process, translation sociology, multilingual.
  • Heiskanen, Jouni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from lakes result from processes between the watershed, lake characteristics and the atmosphere. The organic matter loading from the watershed both provides carbon for the lake biota and in major part defines water clarity, which, in addition to wind and heat flux, is essential in thermocline formation. Thermal stratification suppresses the wind-induced momentum input to the surface water preventing effective mixing of gases throughout the water column. The lake biota process the organic matter, producing carbon dioxide (CO2) in oxic surface water and also methane (CH4) if the near-bottom water becomes anoxic, and thus influence the chemical properties of the water column. Finally, air-water GHG exchange occurs over a thin layer at the water surface. Lakes are typically supersaturated with CO2 and CH4 in relation to average atmospheric mixing ratios causing fluxes of these gases to the atmosphere. Even though lakes cover only 2 % of the world s land surface, it has been estimated that lakes release about 10 % of the carbon fixed annually by the terrestrial ecosystems back to the atmosphere. A critical parameter in the gas exchange estimates is the gas transfer velocity (k), which is governed by turbulence. The implementation of direct flux measurement using the eddy covariance (EC) technique allows the detailed measurements needed to estimate k. However, on lakes, the EC method is a novel subject and as of yet, there has been no published estimates of the error related to these measurements nor fully established set of accepted procedures. The aim of this thesis was to assess the current global CO2 evasion estimates from lakes to the atmosphere by comparing parameterizations for k and the significance of wind and heat flux to the gas transfer in small lakes. To improve future predictions of gas evasion from lakes, we focused on the changes in water clarity and how they affect water column physics and processes in the air-water interface. We used the EC method for the high precision data needed, and therefore also aimed to improve the EC methodology on lakes. The air-water gas transfer was related to both wind and heat loss during times of seasonal stratification, but only to wind during autumn overturn, and the mean value for k of CO2 was 6.0 cm h-1 in Lake Kuivajärvi. When wind-induced thermocline tilting and resulting spatial variability in surface water CO2 concentrations was accounted for, k derived from the measurements dropped to 5.2 cm h-1. This was still over twice the estimate (2.2 cm h-1) calculated with a widely used model for k in lakes suggesting that the global estimates of gas evasion from lakes might be underestimations. Unsolved question is that how important factor the thermocline tilting is in other lakes in defining spatial variability? Our results showed that k for CH4 was higher than for CO2, a result which has been reported in some other studies, but as of yet, no solid explanation has been found. Water clarity was a significant parameter defining the thermal stratification of the lake: a change from clear to dark water would lead to shorter stratification period and lower water column temperatures in small lakes and therefore have significant impact on the lake-atmosphere exchange processes. Important question is how changes is climate will affect lake water clarity e.g. via precipitation and runoff related DOC loading. We concluded that the EC method produces reliable results even in a small lake after rigorous data processing. After these procedures, about half of the CO2 and turbulent heat flux data were of good quality with relative random errors of 10 % and 26 % for heat and CO2 fluxes, respectively. When measuring GHG fluxes accurately from lakes, methods that integrate over time and space are a necessity. These will provide more detailed knowledge on the complex processes that contribute to the gas transfer, from large scale physical phenomena such as thermocline tilting to small scale such as near-surface turbulence. Since most of the world s lakes are small and in northern latitudes, our studies have wide implications even to the global level. Better understanding of the lake biogeochemistry will allow us to make more accurate estimates of GHG evasion from lakes in different regions as well as predictions of how the climate change will affect the lake-atmosphere GHG fluxes.
  • Valpola, Samu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    In Finland one of the most important current issues in the environmental management is the quality of surface waters. The increasing social importance of lakes and water systems has generated wide-ranging interest in lake restoration and management, concerning especially lakes suffering from eutrophication, but also from other environmental impacts. Most of the factors deteriorating the water quality in Finnish lakes are connected to human activities. Especially since the 1940's, the intensified farming practices and conduction of sewage waters from scattered settlements, cottages and industry have affected the lakes, which simultaneously have developed in to recreational areas for a growing number of people. Therefore, this study was focused on small lakes, which are human impacted, located close to settlement areas and have a significant value for local population. The aim of this thesis was to obtain information from lake sediment records for on-going lake restoration activities and to prove that a well planned, properly focused lake sediment study is an essential part of the work related to evaluation, target consideration and restoration of Finnish lakes. Altogether 11 lakes were studied. The study of Lake Kaljasjärvi was related to the gradual eutrophication of the lake. In lakes Ormajärvi, Suolijärvi, Lehee, Pyhäjärvi and Iso-Roine the main focus was on sediment mapping, as well as on the long term changes of the sedimentation, which were compared to Lake Pääjärvi. In Lake Hormajärvi the role of different kind of sedimentation environments in the eutrophication development of the lake's two basins were compared. Lake Orijärvi has not been eutrophied, but the ore exploitation and related acid main drainage from the catchment area have influenced the lake drastically and the changes caused by metal load were investigated. The twin lakes Etujärvi and Takajärvi are slightly eutrophied, but also suffer problems associated with the erosion of the substantial peat accumulations covering the fringe areas of the lakes. These peat accumulations are related to Holocene water level changes, which were investigated. The methods used were chosen case-specifically for each lake. In general, acoustic soundings of the lakes, detailed description of the nature of the sediment and determinations of the physical properties of the sediment, such as water content, loss on ignition and magnetic susceptibility were used, as was grain size analysis. A wide set of chemical analyses was also used. Diatom and chrysophycean cyst analyses were applied, and the diatom inferred total phosphorus content was reconstructed. The results of these studies prove, that the ideal lake sediment study, as a part of a lake management project, should be two-phased. In the first phase, thoroughgoing mapping of sedimentation patterns should be carried out by soundings and adequate corings. The actual sampling, based on the preliminary results, must include at least one long core from the main sedimentation basin for the determining the natural background state of the lake. The recent, artificially impacted development of the lake can then be determined by short-core and surface sediment studies. The sampling must be focused on the basis of the sediment mapping again, and it should represent all different sedimentation environments and bottom dynamic zones, considering the inlets and outlets, as well as the effects of possible point loaders of the lake. In practice, the budget of the lake management projects of is usually limited and only the most essential work and analyses can be carried out. The set of chemical and biological analyses and dating methods must therefore been thoroughly considered and adapted to the specific management problem. The results show also, that information obtained from a properly performed sediment study enhances the planning of the restoration, makes possible to define the target of the remediation activities and improves the cost-efficiency of the project.