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  • Kärpänen, Terhi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The circulatory system consists of two vessel types, which act in concert but significantly differ from each other in several structural and functional aspects as well as in mechanisms governing their development. The blood vasculature transports oxygen, nutrients and cells to tissues whereas the lymphatic vessels collect extravasated fluid, macromolecules and cells of the immune system and return them back to the blood circulation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the developmental and functional regulation of the lymphatic system long lagged behind that of the blood vasculature. Identification of several markers specific for the lymphatic endothelium, and the discovery of key factors controlling the development and function of the lymphatic vessels have greatly facilitated research in lymphatic biology over the past few years. Recognition of the crucial importance of lymphatic vessels in certain pathological conditions, most importantly in tumor metastasis, lymphedema and inflammation, has increased interest in this vessel type, for so long overshadowed by its blood vascular cousin. VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C) and its receptor VEGFR-3 are essential for the development and maintenance of embryonic lymphatic vasculature. Furthermore, VEGF-C has been shown to be upregulated in many tumors and its expression found to positively correlate with lymphatic metastasis. Mutations in the transcription factor FOXC2 result in lymphedema-distichiasis (LD), which suggests a role for FOXC2 in the regulation of lymphatic development or function. This study was undertaken to obtain more information about the role of the VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway and FOXC2 in regulating lymphatic development, growth, function and survival in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. We found that the silk-like carboxyterminal propeptide is not necessary for the lymphangiogenic activity of VEGF-C, but enhances it, and that the aminoterminal propeptide mediates binding of VEGF-C to the neuropilin-2 coreceptor, which we suggest to be involved in VEGF-C signalling via VEGFR-3. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of VEGF-C increases tumor lymphangiogenesis and intralymphatic tumor growth, both of which could be inhibited by a soluble form of VEGFR-3. These results suggest that blocking VEGFR-3 signalling could be used for prevention of lymphatic tumor metastasis. This might prove to be a safe treatment method for human cancer patients, since inhibition of VEGFR-3 activity had no effect on the normal lymphatic vasculature in adult mice, though it did lead to regression of lymphatic vessels in the postnatal period. Interestingly, in contrast to VEGF-C, which induces lymphangiogenesis already during embryonic development, we found that the related VEGF-D promotes lymphatic vessel growth only after birth. These results suggest, that the lymphatic vasculature undergoes postnatal maturation, which renders it independent of ligand induced VEGFR-3 signalling for survival but responsive to VEGF-D for growth. Finally, we show that FOXC2 is necessary for the later stages of lymphatic development by regulating the morphogenesis of lymphatic valves, as well as interactions of the lymphatic endothelium with vascular mural cells, in which it cooperates with VEGFR-3. Furthermore, our study indicates that the absence of lymphatic valves, abnormal association of lymphatic capillaries with mural cells and an increased amount of basement membrane underlie the pathogenesis of LD. These findings have given new insight into the mechanisms of normal lymphatic development, as well as into the pathogenesis of diseases involving the lymphatic vasculature. They also reveal new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of tumor metastasis and lymphatic vascular failure in certain forms of lymphedema. Several interesting questions were posed that still need to be addressed. Most importantly, the mechanism of VEGF-C promoted tumor metastasis and the molecular nature of the postnatal lymphatic vessel maturation remain to be elucidated.
  • Hyvönen, Heli (Väestöntutkimuslaitos, 2009)
    Immigration is one of the most topical international issues of our time. Worldwide, the number of immigrants has doubled over the last twenty years, and migration patterns have become so diversified that they now constitute a kind of “chaos”. The number and significance of women as migrants has also increased, which is earning women growing attention among scholars. This study looks at the migration of women, in particular mothers of small children, in both directions between Finland and Estonia, following the latter’s re- independence. The data consists of in-depth interviews conducted in 2005 with 24 Finnish and 24 Estonian immigrant women. The focus was on the women’s expectations and experiences of their new country of residence, acculturation – i.e. adjusting to a new environment, social networks in the country of origin and the new country, and models of motherhood following immigration. The primary research question was formulated as follows: Which factors have influenced the formation of female immigrants’ social ties, thus contributing to the formation of motherhood strategies and afecting internal family dynamics in the new country? The research consists of four previously published independent articles as well as a summary chapter. The study’s findings indicate that Finnish and Estonian women migrated for diferent reasons and at diferent times, and that their migration patterns also difered. Estonian migration occurred mainly in the 1990s, and most immigrants intended to return later to their country of origin. Regardless of the reason for migrating that they gave to immigration officials, other key reasons often included the desire for a more stable living environment and better income. Only four of the Estonian women had immigrated together with an Estonian husband, while two- thirds came because of marriage to a Finnish man. Most of the Finnish women, on the other hand, migrated after 2000 and either came with their family as a result of a spouse’s job transfer, or came by themselves to further their studies. In most cases, the migration was a temporary solution intended to promote one’s own or one’s spouse’s career advancement. Because the reasons for migrating were diferent between Finnish and Estonian women, their expectations of the new country and their status in it were also diferent. In terms of both social and economic standing, the position of Finnish immigrants was categorically better. The reason for migrating had an impact on one’s orientation toward the receiving society. Estonian women and Finns who migrated for marriage or edu cational reasons became immediately active in forming institutional and social ties in the new society. Conversely, the women had migrated because of work had little contact with Estonian society, and their social networks consisted of other Finnish immigrants. Furthermore, they maintained strong institutional and social ties to Finland and therefore felt no need to anchor themselves to Estonian society. The Finnish and Estonian women who were better integrated into the receiving country also maintained strong social ties to their country of origin. Women who became integrated into the receiving country as a result of giving birth to children utilized various services directed at families with children. In part, such services conveyed to the women the conceptions that were prevalent in the surrounding society concerning the treatment of children and the expectations on mothers, both of which difer to some extent in Finland and Estonia. had an impact on strategies of motherhood, internal family dynamics, and gender Regardless of the reason for migrating, or the country of origin, immigration equality. Most Estonian women had to do without the child-care help provided by relatives; before immigrating, some women had even had daily child-care assistance from family members. However, Estonian women who were married to Finns did receive help from the spouse and sometimes also the spouse’s relatives. Conversely, Finnish women who had immigrated because of a spouse’s job transfer were faced with the opposite situation, in which they bore the main responsibility for domestic work and child care. They were, however, in a position to pay for domestic help. Hence, the women who had integrated into a new society had to construct their own perceptions of motherhood by reconciling the motherhood models of both the cause of a spouse’s job transfer found that being a stay-at-home mother challenged previously self-evident behaviors. Receiving country and the country of origin, whereas women who had migrated because of a spouse’s job transfer found that being a stay-at-home mother challenged previously self-evident behaviors.
  • Simonen, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    One of the greatest changes in the Finnish drinking culture in recent years is that women are drinking more than before. Increasing alcohol consumption and binge drinking among women have often been interpreted as a convergence of feminine and masculine drinking and, specifically, as women becoming more masculine in their drinking. This study aims to examine and assess this view in more depth. The research question is whether the increasing drinking among women can be interpreted to mean that women are drawing closer to masculine drinking also in qualitative terms and that they are adopting characteristics of the masculine drinking culture. By examining the alcohol attitudes of women and men of different ages, the study aims to explore how the two genders and women especially construct and express their gender in drinking, and how this affects the assumption that feminine and masculine drinking styles are converging. The study approaches the theme by analysing how women and men of different ages and of different educational backgrounds discuss their attitudes towards alcohol, the values and norms they associate with drinking, as well as the feminine and masculine traits they assign to alcohol use. The theoretical framework of the study is that gender roles are socially, not biologically, constructed. Following the relational theory of gender, studies on gender representations of alcohol use and thereby discussions on the suggested convergence of feminine and masculine drinking take into account the significance of several factors, such as age, educational background and certain historical context, on the construction of gender (cf. Connell 2012). This study approaches alcohol use not as individual drinking but as collectively shared cultural models of drinking that include culture-specific values and norms guiding alcohol use and that also give a channel for expressing gender in a culturally understandable way (Tigerstedt & Törrönen 2005). The main data for the study consists of focus group interviews carried out in Finland (N = 16) and Sweden (N = 19) with women and men representing four different age groups (women and men born in 1943 - 1950, 1959 - 1966, 1975 - 1982, and 1983 - 1990) and two educational levels. The comparative evaluation of alcohol attitudes in different age groups aims to clarify how the gender convergence approach applies to women and men of different ages. The attention to age groups will also show whether women and men have collectively shared attitudes towards alcohol which could be interpreted as generational experiences of drinking. The study gives both an affirmative and a negative answer to the initial question of whether feminine and masculine drinking habits are converging and whether this development can be interpreted as women adopting more masculine drinking styles. The affirmative answer applies, with certain restrictions, to the youngest age groups of women. It is associated with young women adopting masculine drinking such as binge drinking. However, masculine influences are merging with feminine styles and contexts, resulting in a mix of feminine and masculine traits of drinking that diversifies also the masculine drinking traditions. The negative answer applies to the oldest age group of women. The traditionally feminine values and practices of older women with regard to drinking are in opposition to the assertion of increasing masculinity. These observations indicate that feminine drinking habits have multiple layers. They also reveal the level of challenge and complexity in the debate about the convergence of feminine and masculine drinking. The study shows that there are generational differences in women's drinking habits but not in men's. The oldest and the youngest groups of women in the study are living in different worlds of drinking and have different kinds of generational experiences concerning drinking. Compared to women, men have more uniform drinking attitudes across age groups. While there are no generational differences in masculine drinking habits, there are, nevertheless, differences stemming from educational background that are apparent among both the more educated and the less educated. As a whole, examining potential differences in drinking habits within and across gender groups introduces nuances to the debate about feminine and masculine drinking where gender categories are often perceived as opposite and one-dimensional. This study indicates a blending of feminine and masculine drinking habits. It also shows that there are variations of masculine and feminine gender representations of drinking and increasingly diversified means of expressing gender in drinking.
  • Garritzen, Elise (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2011)
    Enchanted by Sources. Henry Biaudet, Liisi Karttunen and Finnish Historical Research in Rome in the Early Twentieth Century This study traces the scholarly endeavours of Henry Biaudet (1870 1915) and Liisi Karttunen (1880 1957) and "La mission historique finlandaise à Rome" which they founded in 1909. They are forgotten in Finnish historiography, but remain internationally renowned for their contribution to the nunciature studies. By investigating their historical work on the Counter- Reformation era, their roles in the scientific communities of Helsinki and Rome as well as the intersection of politics and science in their scholarly practices the study explores the nature of historical research in general at the turn of the twentieth century. The work covers fields such as historiography, university history and the political use of history. Methodologically the research is based on the analysis and contextualization of published and unpublished sources (e.g. correspondences, university records, scholarly publications and reviews in academic journals). Henry Biaudet criticized the previous research on the Nordic Counter-Reformation for its narrow national scope and sources. He sought out a new approach, including the use of sources in archives all over Europe and the inclusion of the Catholic viewpoint. Accordingly, Biaudet and Karttunen searched for records in archives in Southern Europe. Their unorthodox interpretations were denounced in Finland since the picture they gave of late sixteenth-century Sweden was too different from the national narrative. Moreover, Finnish national identity was firmly rooted in Protestantism, and questioning the benevolence of the Reformation and its main actors was considered as an attack not only against historical truth but also national values. The comparison between Biaudet s and Karttunen s arguments and the accepted narrative in Finland shows how traditional interpretations of the Nordic Reformation were influenced by the Lutheran ethos and European anticlerical rhetoric. Historians have recently paid substantial attention to the political use of history, usually focusing on politicized constructions of the national past. This study shows how research that met the criteria of modern historiography also served political purposes. Conducting research in an international community of historians and publishing ambitious scholarly studies that interested an international audience were ways to create a positive image of Finland abroad. These were not uniquely Finnish ideas but rather ideas shared by the international community of historians in Rome. In this context, scientific pursuits were given a clear political meaning. This enhances our understanding of nineteenth-century historiography being firmly rooted between science and politics.
  • Tasanen, Tapani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on historiantutkimuksen menetelmiä käyttäen selvittää metsänhoidon teorian sekä käytännön metsänhoidon kehitysvaiheet ja näihin vaikuttaneet tekijät, keskiajalta lähtien 1870-luvulla tapahtuneeseen metsäteollisuuden läpimurtoon saakka. Tutkimus tarkastelee Suomen metsiä, niiden käyttöä ja metsänhoidon alkuvaiheita Ruotsin ja Venäjän vallan aikoina. Vastauksia haetaan erityisesti seuraaviin pääkysymyksiin: - miten eri metsänkäyttömuodot ja -käyttäjät vaikuttivat metsiin ja metsänhoidon edistymiseen? - millä tavoin maanomistuksen kehitys vaikutti metsien käyttöön ja hoitoon? - millaisiin päämääriin ja yhteiskunnallisiin taustatekijöihin metsien käytön julkinen ohjaus perustui? - mitä käytännön vaikutuksia valtion metsäpolitiikalla ja ohjauksella oli metsänhoidon kehitykseen? - missä ja miten kehittyivät Suomessa sovellettu metsänhoidon teoria ja käytännön menetelmät? - mitkä tekijät säätelivät metsänhoidon teorioiden soveltamista käytäntöön? - mikä oli naapurimaiden metsänhoidon sekä kansainvälisten yhteyksien merkitys metsänhoidon kehitykselle Suomessa? - miten vuosisatainen pelko metsien ja puun loppumisesta vaikutti metsänhoidon kehitykseen? - millainen merkitys puun arvon kehityksellä oli metsänhoidon alkuun saattamiselle ja edistymiselle? Suomessa harjoitettiin 1870-luvulle saakka pääasiassa talonpoikaista metsänkäyttöä. Maaseudun väestö hankki toimeentulonsa metsistä eränkäynnin, kaskiviljelyn, laiduntamisen, rakennushirsien valmistamisen, tervantuotannon ja paikoin myös potaskan tai sysien valmistamisen avulla. Erityisesti rannikkoseuduilla tuotettiin "isorakennuksen puita", lehtereitä, mastopuita ja muuta erikoispuutavaraa. Lautojen ja lankkujen sahaus laajeni vähitellen, saavuttaen 1800-luvun lopulla hallitsevan aseman myyntiin tarkoitettujen metsäntuotteiden tuotannossa. Polttopuun sekä muun kotitarvepuun kulutus säilyi suurimpana puunkäytön ryhmänä pitkälle 1900-luvulle saakka. Mainituista metsänkäyttömuodoista erityisesti kaskeaminen ja sitä seuraava laiduntamisvaihe sekä tervaspuiden koloaminen "autioittivat" laajoja metsäalueita. Tiheimmin asutuilla seuduilla esiintyi pulaa poltto- ja rakennuspuusta myöhäiskeskiajalta alkaen. Nämä ongelmat sekä laivanrakennuksen ja vuoriteollisuuden puunsaannin turvaamisen tarve johtivat 1600-luvun puolivälissä pysyvään metsänkäytön julkiseen ohjaukseen. Tuolloin Ruotsin valtakunnan metsälainsäädännön kivijalaksi tuli kestävyyden periaate, josta kruunu kylläkin joutui tinkimään moneen otteeseen. Valtion jatkuva rahantarve oli käytännössä metsäpolitiikan tärkein taustavoima sekä Ruotsin vallan että autonomian aikana. Jo 1600-luvulla ruvettiin vaatimaan talonpoikien yhteismaiden jakamista omistajilleen vastuullisemman metsänkäytön nimissä. Isoajakoa saatiin Suomessa odottaa 1770-luvulle saakka. Etelä-Suomessa se valmistui melko nopeasti, 1800-luvun puoliväliin mennessä. Sillä olikin myönteinen, metsien säästävämpään käsittelyyn johtava vaikutus. Valtiosta tuli isonjaon myötä erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa merkittävä metsänomistaja 1800-luvun jälkipuoliskolla. Valtion metsähallinto, jota maaherrat ja sivistyneistö vaativat perustettavaksi jo 1700-luvun puolivälissä, aloitti toimintansa maanlaajuisesti 1860-luvulla. Se oli ensimmäinen merkittävä metsänhoidon organisaatio, ja vasta sen myötä metsänkäyttöä ohjaavilla säädöksillä ja ohjeilla alkoi olla käytännön merkitystä. Yksityismetsiä varten ei tällaista organisaatiota vielä perustettu, niitä rasittivat pahoin nousevan sahateollisuuden määrämittahakkuut pitkälle 1900-luvun puolelle. Turun Akatemiassa tehtiin mittavaa metsänhoidon menetelmiä koskevaa sekä myös metsäpoliittista tutkimustyötä 1700-luvun jälkipuoliskolla. Tulokset eivät vielä sanottavasti siirtyneet käytäntöön, lähinnä puun alhaisen arvon ja tarvittavien organisaatioiden puuttumisen takia. Kun valtion metsähallintoa ja Suomen omaa metsäopetusta ryhdyttiin perustamaan 1800-luvun puolivälissä, haettiin metsänhoidon mallia alan johtavaksi maaksi kehittyneestä Saksasta. Tultaessa 1870-luvulle, oli Evolla jo käynnissä voimakas kehitystyö maamme olosuhteisiin soveltuvien menetelmien luomiseksi saksalaisen teorian pohjalta. Metsänhoidon tiedot ja taidot olisivat jo tässä vaiheessa riittäneet kestävän metsätalouden harjoittamiseen kaikkien omistajaryhmien metsissä, jos tarvittavat organisaatiot olisi kyetty perustamaan ja metsäammattilaisia olisi koulutettu tarpeeksi. Metsänhoidon kehitystä hidastivat 1800-luvun lopulla lähinnä valtion heikko talous ja poliittiset näkemyserot. Metsäteollisuuden 1870-luvulta alkanut voimakas kasvu ja lisääntyvä puuntarve pakottivat kuitenkin valtiovallan pitämään huolta puuntuotannon jatkuvuudesta. Metsäteollisuuden kasvavan viennin kautta lisääntyvät verotulot ja kan-santalouden myönteinen kehitys antoivat vähitellen mahdollisuuden metsänhoidon edistämiseen ammattilaisten koulutuksen, kansalaisten neuvonnan, lainsäädännön ja viranomaisten toiminnan kautta. Tämä tutkimus lähestyy aihettaan metsähistorian, taloushistorian, yhteiskuntahistorian ja ympäristöhistorian näkökulmista. Ajankohtaista merkitystä sillä on kehitysmaiden sekä Itä-Euroopan siirtymätalouksien metsänhoidon edistämiselle, missä suomalaiset metsäammattilaiset ovat mukana lukuisten kehityshankkeiden asiantuntijoina. Kymmenissä maissa metsätalous kamppailee samanlaisten ongelmien kanssa kuin Suomessa ja naapurimaissa 100 - 300 vuotta sitten. Meidän kokemuksistamme on näille kansantalouksille hyötyä valtion- ja yksityismetsätalouden metsänhoito-organisaatioita sekä metsälainsäädäntöä kehitettäessä.
  • Joronen, Tuula (Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskus, 2012)
    The purpose of the study was to examine the development of entrepreneurial activities amongst immigrants, the factors affecting this development and the success of businesses in Finland. The study examines the opportunity structures that Finland has offered immigrants as well as factors affecting the offering of entrepreneurship, such as motives towards entrepreneurship and the resources of immigrants. The study is based on many types of materials. The analysis of the operating environment and the development of the number and structure of entrepreneurial activities of immigrants are based on statistics and previous studies. Differences affecting the entrepreneurial activities of immigrants from different regions and different nationalities, the prevalence of forced entrepreneurship and the success of entrepreneurial activities in terms of employment and survival of companies were studied using register data. Motives for entrepreneurship, methods of operation and success in terms of financial livelihood were studied by means of questionnaires and interviews. A central finding of this study is that while forced entrepreneurship is more common than average among immigrant entrepreneurs, they have succeeded in finding employment and staying in business as commonly as entrepreneurs from the Finnish original population. Although shutting down the business is linked with a higher risk of unemployment among immigrant entrepreneurs than among Finnish entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship has been a channel for finding employment for some immigrants as well. The methods of operation of immigrant entrepreneurs were quite similar to those of Finnish entrepreneurs. The differences found were related more to the situation of immigration and the choice of business sector than to the ethnic culture of immigrant entrepreneurs. Keywords: Immigrant, entrepreneur, forced entrepreneurship, ethnic resources, ethnic market.
  • Harve, Heini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of death in Europe. It has been estimated that about 40 % of CA victims have ventricular fibrillation (VF) at the time of the first heart rhythm analysis. The treatment for VF is immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and rapid defibrillation. The automated external defibrillator (AED) and the concept of public access defibrillation (PAD) may be a key to shortening defibrillation delays. Recent studies have shown that PAD programs are associated with high survival rates from VF when devices have been placed in certain risk sites and used by trained laypersons. Today many public places are equipped with AEDs. The purpose of this study was to find new ways of utilizing layperson defibrillation and promote the concept of public access defibrillation (PAD). The study explored the use of AEDs by non-medical first responders in Finland and cabin crew on board a commercial aircraft. A simulated study was performed to explore the role of dispatcher assistance in layperson CPR and defibrillation. A 15-year follow-up study of 59 one-year survivors after successful out-of-hospital resuscitation was performed to evaluate the long-term quality of life of the CA patients. Although there are many AEDs in use by non-medical first responders in Finland, the results of the study showed that there are large variations between individual first response units. This is considered to be caused by the lack of national standards and regulations that would define a full integration of first-responder programmes into the Emergency Medical Services system. The goal of rapid defibrillation in five minutes after the onset of CA is difficult to achieve in Finland due to sparse population and long distances. Local PAD programs may shorten the defibrillation delays. Dispatcher assistance in defibrillation by a layperson not trained to use an AED seems feasible and does not compromise the performance of CPR. In a simulated study, the quality of mouth-to-mouth ventilation performed by laypersons was found to be better after CPR training compared with performance with dispatcher assistance before training. Training was not found to have an influence on the quality of compressions or defibrillation compared with dispatcher assistance of untrained laypersons. The target groups for CPR and defibrillation training need further evaluation. The placements of the AEDs in public areas should be known by the emergency response center and the location should be marked with an international sign. The finding that once a good neurological outcome after CA is achieved, it can be maintained for more than 10 years, encourages further efforts to improve the survival of CA patients.
  • Halonen, Tero (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    From Provincial Institutes to the University. The Academisation Process of the Research and Teaching of Agricultural and Forest Sciences at the University of Helsinki before 1945. This study focuses on the teaching and research conducted in the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Helsinki, as well as in its predecessor, the Section of Agriculture and Economics before 1945. The study falls into the field of university history. Its key research question is the academisation process, an example of which is the academisation process of the teaching and research of agricultural and forest sciences in Finland. From a perspective of university history, the study looks at academisation as the beginning of university-level teaching and research in these fields, or their relocation to a university or another institute of university standing. In addition to the above, the academisation process also includes the establishment of the position of the subjects and their acceptance as part of university activity. Academic closure, on the other hand, prevents the academisation of new subjects. In Finland, the preliminary stage of the academisation of the research and teaching of the agriculture and forestry was the Age of Utility, when questions concerning the subjects became part of clerical and civil service training at the Royal Academy of Turku in the mid-18th century. In the mid-19th century, as a result of social and economic development, agricultural and forestry professionals needed more theoretical professional training. At that time, the Imperial Alexander University was focused on traditional professional training and theoretical education, so, because of this academic closure, practical training for agronomists and foresters was organised at first outside the University at the Mustiala Agricultural Institute and the Evo Forest Institute. In the late 19th century, discussion began on the reform of higher agricultural and forestry education. This led, from the 1890s, to the academisation of higher agricultural and forestry education and research at the Alexander University. Academisation was followed by a transitional stage, during which the work of the Section of Agriculture and Economics, which had begun in 1902, became more established in about 1910. The position of the agricultural and forest sciences was, however, largely temporary, because of the planned Agricultural University. A sign of this establishment and of the rise in scientific status of the subjects was the commencement of operations of the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry in 1924. Furthermore, as a consequence of the development of the subjects and the collapse of the Agricultural University project, agricultural and forest sciences gradually began to be accepted at the University of Helsinki from the end of the 1920s. This led to the allocation of sites for the faculty buildings and research farms, and to the building of ‘Metsätalo’ before the Second World War. Key words: academisation, academisation process, academic closure, university history, University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, agricultural sciences, forest sciences, agronomy training, forestry training
  • Toivonen, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary ocular malignancy in adults. In Finland, approximately 50 new cases are diagnosed yearly. Up to 50% of UM metastasize, mostly to the liver, although other organs are also affected. Despite improvements in the management of the primary tumour, the survival rates of patients with metastatic UM are poor. Until the 1970s, UMs were treated by enucleation i.e. removal of the eye. Currently, UM is usually treated by brachytherapy, which is known to influence tumour cells and blood vessels. UMs enucleated both primarily and secondarily after brachytherapy contain tumour-infiltrating macrophages, and a high number of macrophages in primary UM is associated with a shorter survival and a higher microvascular density (MVD) within the tumour tissue. The latter is independently associated with a shorter time to metastatic death. Macrophages have several diverse roles depending on their response to variable signals from the surrounding microenvironment. They function as scavengers, as producers of angiogenic and growth factors as well as proteases, which modulate extracellular matrix. Thus, tumour invasiveness and the risk for metastasis increase with increasing macrophage density. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regression and progression of UM on macrophage numbers and microcirculation factors. Tumour regression is induced by primary brachytherapy, and tumour progression is evidenced by the development of metastases. Understanding the biological behaviour of UMs in the both states may help us in finding new treatment modalities against this disease. To achieve these aims case-control analyses of irradiated UMs and primarily-enucleated eyes (34 matched pairs) were performed. UMs were stained immunohistochemically to detect macrophages, extravascular matrix (EVM) loops and networks, and MVD. Following brachytherapy, a lower MVD was observed. The average number of macrophages remained unchanged. Considering that irradiated melanomas may still contain proliferating tumour cells, a clinically-relevant consequence of my study would be the reassurance that the risk for metastasis is likely to be reduced, given that the low MVD in untreated UMs indicates a favourable prognosis. The effect of progression on macrophages was studied in a paired analysis of primarily-enucleated UM and their corresponding hepatic metastases (48 pairs). A cross-sectional histopathological analysis of these pairs was carried out by staining both specimens in a similar way to the first study. MVD was greater in hepatic metastases than in corresponding primary tumours, and the survival of the patient tended to be shorter if hepatic metastases had a higher MVD. Hepatic metastases had also more dendritic macrophages than the primary UMs. Thus, the progression to metastasis seems to alter the inflammatory status within the tumour. Furthermore, determining MVD of biopsied hepatic metastases may serve as a supplementary tool in estimating the prognosis of patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. After irradiation, the majority of treated eyes have been clinically observed to have pigmented episcleral deposits. A noncomparative clinical case series of 211 irradiated UM eyes were studied by recording the number and location of pigmented episcleral deposits during follow-up visits after brachytherapy. For the first time, the study described pigmented episcleral deposits, which are found in the most UM eyes after brachytherapy, and proved them to consist of macrophages full with engulfed melanin particles. This knowledge may save patients from unnecessary enucleation, because episcleral pigmented deposits might be mistaken for extrascleral tumour growth. The presence of pigmented macrophage-related episcleral deposits was associated with plaque size and isotope rather than with tumour size, suggesting that, in addition to tumour regression, radiation atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium and choroid contributes to the formation of the deposits. In the paired (the same 34 pairs as in the first study) cross-sectional study of irradiated and non-irradiated UMs, clinically-visible episcleral deposits and migrating macrophages in other extratumoral tissues were studied histopathologically. Resident macrophages were present in extratumoral tissues in eyes with both irradiated and non-irradiated UM. Irradiation increased both the number of CD68+ macrophages in the sclera beneath the tumour and the number of clinically-observed episcleral macrophages aggregates. Brachytherapy seemed to alter the route of migration of macrophages: after irradiation, macrophages migrated preferentially through the sclera while in non-irradiated UMs they seemed to migrate more along the choroid. In order to understand the influence of these routes on tumour progression and regression in the future, labelling and tracking of activated macrophages in vivo is required.
  • Mäntyniemi, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This work focuses on the role of macroseismology in the assessment of seismicity and probabilistic seismic hazard in Northern Europe. The main type of data under consideration is a set of macroseismic observations available for a given earthquake. The macroseismic questionnaires used to collect earthquake observations from local residents since the late 1800s constitute a special part of the seismological heritage in the region. Information of the earthquakes felt on the coasts of the Gulf of Bothnia between 31 March and 2 April 1883 and on 28 July 1888 was retrieved from the contemporary Finnish and Swedish newspapers, while the earthquake of 4 November 1898 GMT is an example of an early systematic macroseismic survey in the region. A data set of more than 1200 macroseismic questionnaires is available for the earthquake in Central Finland on 16 November 1931. Basic macroseismic investigations including preparation of new intensity data point (IDP) maps were conducted for these earthquakes. Previously disregarded usable observations were found in the press. The improved collection of IDPs of the 1888 earthquake shows that this event was a rare occurrence in the area. In contrast to earlier notions it was felt on both sides of the Gulf of Bothnia. The data on the earthquake of 4 November 1898 GMT were augmented with historical background information discovered in various archives and libraries. This earthquake was of some concern to the authorities, because extra fire inspections were conducted in three towns at least, i.e. Tornio, Haparanda and Piteå, located in the centre of the area of perceptibility. This event posed the indirect hazard of fire, although its magnitude around 4.6 was minor on the global scale. The distribution of slightly damaging intensities was larger than previously outlined. This may have resulted from the amplification of the ground shaking in the soft soil of the coast and river valleys where most of the population was found. The large data set of the 1931 earthquake provided an opportunity to apply statistical methods and assess methodologies that can be used when dealing with macroseismic intensity. It was evaluated using correspondence analysis. Different approaches such as gridding were tested to estimate the macroseismic field from the intensity values distributed irregularly in space. In general, the characteristics of intensity warrant careful consideration. A more pervasive perception of intensity as an ordinal quantity affected by uncertainties is advocated. A parametric earthquake catalogue comprising entries from both the macroseismic and instrumental era was used for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. The parametric-historic methodology was applied to estimate seismic hazard at a given site in Finland and to prepare a seismic hazard map for Northern Europe. The interpretation of these results is an important issue, because the recurrence times of damaging earthquakes may well exceed thousands of years in an intraplate setting such as Northern Europe. This application may therefore be seen as an example of short-term hazard assessment.
  • Lukkari, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This study brings new insights into the magmatic evolution of natural F-enriched peraluminous granitic systems. The Artjärvi, Sääskjärvi and Kymi granite stocks within the 1.64 Ga Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith have been investigated by petrographic, geochemical, experimental and melt inclusion methods. These stocks represent late-stage leucocratic and weakly peraluminous intrusive phases typical of rapakivi granites worldwide. The Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks are multiphase intrusions in which the most evolved phase is topaz granite. The Kymi stock contains topaz throughout and has a well-developed zoned structure, from the rim to the center: stockscheider pegmatite equigranular topaz granite porphyritic topaz granite. Geochemically the topaz granites are enriched in F, Li, Be, Ga, Rb, Sn and Nb and depleted in Mg, Fe, Ti, Ba, Sr, Zr and Eu. The anomalous geochemistry and mineralogy of the topaz granites are essentially magmatic in origin; postmagmatic reactions have only slightly modified the compositions. The Kymi equigranular topaz granite shows the most evolved character, and the topaz granites at Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi resemble the less evolved porphyritic topaz granite of the Kymi stock. Stockscheiders are found at the roof contacts of the Artjärvi and Kymi stocks. The stockscheider at Artjärvi is composed of biotite-rich schlieren and pegmatite layers parallel to the contact. The schlieren layering is considered to have formed by velocity-gradient sorting mechanism parallel to the flow, which led to the accumulation of mafic minerals along the upper contact of the topaz granite. Cooling and contraction of the topaz granite formed fractures parallel to the roof contact and residual pegmatite magmas were injected along the fractures and formed the pegmatite layers. The zoned structure of the Kymi stock is the result of intrusion of highly evolved residual melt from deeper parts of the magma chamber along the fractured contact between the porphyritic granite crystal mush and country rock. The equigranular topaz granite and marginal pegmatite (stockscheider) crystallized from this evolved melt. Phase relations of the Kymi equigranular topaz granite have been investigated utilizing crystallization experiments at 100 to 500 MPa as a function of water activity and F content. Fluorite and topaz can crystallize as liquidus phases in F-rich peraluminous systems, but the F content of the melt should exceed 2.5 - 3.0 wt % to facilitate crystallization of topaz. In peraluminous F-bearing melts containing more than 1 wt % F, topaz and muscovite are expected to be the first F-bearing phases to crystallize at high pressure, whereas fluorite and topaz should crystallize first at low pressure. Overall, the saturation of fluorite and topaz follows the reaction: CaAl2Si2O8 (plagioclase) + 2[AlF3]melt = CaF2 (fluorite) + 2Al2SiO4F2 (topaz). The obtained partition coefficient for F between biotite and glass D(F)Bt/glass is 1.89 to 0.80 (average 1.29) and can be used as an empirical fluormeter to determine the F content of coexisting melts. In order to study the magmatic evolution of the Kymi stock, crystallized melt inclusions in quartz and topaz grains in the porphyritic and the equigranular topaz granites and the marginal pegmatite were rehomogenized and analyzed. The homogenization conditions for the melt inclusions from the granites were 700 °C, 300 MPa, and 24 h, and for melt inclusions from the pegmatite, 700 °C, 100 MPa, and 24/96 h. The majority of the melt inclusions is chemically similar to the bulk rocks (excluding H2O content), but a few melt inclusions in the equigranular granite show clearly higher F and low K2O contents (on average 11.6 wt % F, 0.65 wt % K2O). The melt inclusion compositions indicate coexistence of two melt fractions, a prevailing peraluminous and a very volatile-rich, possibly peralkaline. Combined petrological, experimental and melt inclusion studies of the Kymi equigranular topaz granite indicate that plagioclase was the liquidus phase at nearly water-saturated (fluid-saturated) conditions and that the F content of the melt was at least 2 wt %. The early crystallization of biotite and the presence of muscovite in crystallization experiments at 200 MPa contrasts with the late-stage crystallization of biotite and the absence of muscovite in the equigranular granite, indicating that crystallization pressure may have been lower than 200 MPa for the granite.
  • Taubert, Stefan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The magnetically induced currents in organic monoring and multiring molecules, in Möbius shaped molecules and in inorganic all-metal molecules have been investigated by means of the Gauge-including magnetically induced currents (GIMIC) method. With the GIMIC method, the ring-current strengths and the ring-current density distributions can be calculated. For open-shell molecules, also the spin current can be obtained. The ring-current pathways and ring-current strengths can be used to understand the magnetic resonance properties of the molecules, to indirectly identify the effect of non-bonded interactions on NMR chemical shifts, to design new molecules with tailored properties and to discuss molecular aromaticity. In the thesis, the magnetic criterion for aromaticity has been adopted. According to this, a molecule which has a net diatropic ring current might be aromatic. Similarly, a molecule which has a net paratropic current might be antiaromatic. If the net current is zero, the molecule is nonaromatic. The electronic structure of the investigated molecules has been resolved by quantum chemical methods. The magnetically induced currents have been calculated with the GIMIC method at the density-functional theory (DFT) level, as well as at the self-consistent field Hartree-Fock (SCF-HF), at the Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of the second order (MP2) and at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) levels of theory. For closed-shell molecules, accurate ring-current strengths can be obtained with a reasonable computational cost at the DFT level and with rather small basis sets. For open-shell molecules, it is shown that correlated methods such as MP2 and CCSD might be needed to obtain reliable charge and spin currents. The basis set convergence has to be checked for open-shell molecules by performing calculations with large enough basis sets. The results discussed in the thesis have been published in eight papers. In addition, some previously unpublished results on the ring currents in the endohedral fullerene Sc3C2@C80 and in coronene are presented. It is shown that dynamical effects should be taken into account when modelling magnetic resonance parameters of endohedral metallofullerenes such as Sc3C2@C80. The ring-current strengths in a series of nano-sized hydrocarbon rings are related to static polarizabilities and to H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shieldings. In a case study on the possible aromaticity of a Möbius-shaped [16]annulene we found that, according to the magnetic criterion, the molecule is nonaromatic. The applicability of the GIMIC method to assign the aromatic character of molecules was confirmed in a study on the ring currents in simple monocylic aromatic, homoaromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic hydrocarbons. Case studies on nanorings, hexaphyrins and [n]cycloparaphenylenes show that explicit calculations are needed to unravel the ring-current delocalization pathways in complex multiring molecules. The open-shell implementation of GIMIC was applied in studies on the charge currents and the spin currents in single-ring and bi-ring molecules with open shells. The aromaticity predictions that are made based on the GIMIC results are compared to other aromaticity criteria such as H-1 NMR shieldings and shifts, electric polarizabilities, bond-length alternation, as well as to predictions provided by the traditional Hückel (4n+2) rule and its more recent extensions that account for Möbius twisted molecules and for molecules with open shells.
  • Partanen, Ari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Ablative hyperthermia (more than 55 °C) has been used as a stand-alone treatment for accessible solid tumors not amenable to surgery, whereas mild hyperthermia (40-45 °C) has been shown effective as an adjuvant for both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. An optimal mild hyperthermia treatment is noninvasive and spatially accurate, with precise and homogeneous heating limited to the target region. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can noninvasively heat solid tumors deep within the human body. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ideal for HIFU treatment planning and monitoring in real time due to its superior soft-tissue contrast, high spatial imaging resolution, and the ability to measure temperature changes. The combination of MRI and HIFU therapy is known as magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU). Low temperature-sensitive liposomes (LTSLs) release their drug cargo in response to heat (more than 40 °C) and may improve drug delivery to solid tumors when combined with mild hyperthermia. MR-HIFU provides a way to image and control content release from imageable low-temperature sensitive liposomes (iLTSLs). This ability may enable spatiotemporal control over drug delivery - a concept known as drug dose painting. The objectives of this dissertation work were to develop and implement a clinically relevant volumetric mild hyperthermia heating algorithm, to implement and characterize different sonication approaches (multiple foci vs. single focus), and to evaluate the ability to monitor and control heating in real time using MR-HIFU. In addition, the ability of MR-HIFU to induce the release of a clinical-grade cancer drug encapsulated in LTSLs was investigated, and the potential of MR-HIFU mediated mild hyperthermia for clinical translation as an image-guided drug delivery method was explored. Finally, drug and contrast agent release of iLTSLs as well as the ability of MR-HIFU to induce and monitor the content release were examined, and a computational model that simulates MR-HIFU tissue heating and drug delivery was validated. The combination of a multifoci sonication approach and the mild hyperthermia heating algorithm resulted in precise and homogeneous heating limited to the targeted region both in vitro and in vivo. Heating was more spatially confined compared to the use of single focus sonication method. The improvement in spatial control suggests that multifoci heating is a useful tool in MR-HIFU mediated mild hyperthermia applications for clinical oncology. Using the mild hyperthermia heating algorithm, LTSL + MR-HIFU resulted in significantly higher tumor drug concentrations compared to free drug and LTSL alone. This technique has potential for clinical translation as an image-guided drug delivery method. MR-HIFU also enabled real-time monitoring and control of iLTSL content release. Finally, computational models may allow quantitative in silico comparison of different MR-HIFU heating algorithms as well as facilitate therapy planning for this drug delivery technique.
  • Pöyhiä, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) is caused by stretching, tearing or avulsion of the C5-C8 or Th1 nerve roots during delivery. Foetal-maternal disproportion is the main reason for BPBI. The goal of this study was to find out the incidence of posterior subluxation of the humeral head during first year of life in BPBI and optimal timing of the ultrasonographic screening of the glenohumeral joint. The glenohumeral congruity and posterior subluxation of the humeral head associated to muscle atrophy were assessed and surgical treatment of the shoulder girdle as well as muscle changes in elbow flexion contracture were evaluated. The prospective, population based part of the study included all neonates born in Helsinki area during years 2003-2006. Patients with BPBI sent to the Hospital for Children and Adolescents because of decreased external rotation, internal rotation contracture or deformation of the glenohumeral joint as well as patients with elbow flexion contracture were also included in this prospective study. The incidence of BPBI was calculated to be 3.1/1000 newborns in Helsinki area. About 80% of the patients with BPBI recover totally during the follow-up within the first year of life. Permanent plexus injury at the age of one year was noted in 20% of the patients (0.64/1000 newborns). Muscle imbalance resulted in sonographically detected posterior subluxation in one third of the patients with permanent BPBI. If muscle imbalance and posterior subluxation are left untreated bony deformities will develop. All patients with internal rotation contracture of the glenohumeral joint presented muscle atrophy of the rotator cuff muscles. Especially subscapular and infraspinous muscles were affected. A correlation was found particularly between greatest thickness of subscapular muscle and subluxation of the humeral head, degree of glenoid retroversion, as well as amount of internal rotation contracture. Supinator muscle atrophy was evident among all the studied patients with elbow flexion contracture. Brachial muscle pathology seemed to be an important factor for elbow flexion contracture in BPBI. Residual dysfunction of the upper extremity may require operative treatment such as tendon lengthening, tendon transfers, relocation of the humeral head or osteotomy of the humerus. Relocation of the humeral head improved the glenohumeral congruency among patients under 5 years of age. Functional improvement without remodeling of the glenohumeral joint was achieved by other reconstructive procedures. In conclusion: Shoulder screening by US should be done to all patients with permanent BPBI at the age of 3 and 6 months. Especially atrophy of the subscapular muscle correlates with glenohumeral deformity and posterior subluxation of the humeral head, which has not been reported in previous studies. Permanent muscle changes are the main reason for diminished range of motion of the elbow and forearm. Relocation of the humeral head, when needed, should be performed under the age of 5 years.
  • Lohman, Martina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)