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  • Kiilavuori, Kai (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Tala, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    A central part of the enculturation of new scientists in the natural sciences takes place in poorly understood apprentice master settings: potential expert researchers learn about success in science by doing science as members of research groups. What makes learning in such settings challenging is that a central part of the expertise they are attempting to achieve is tacit: the ideas guiding scientific knowledge-building are embodied in its practices and are nowadays rarely articulated. This interdisciplinary study develops a naturalistic view concerning scientific knowledge construction and justification and what is learned in those processes, in close cooperation with practitioners and by reflection on their actual practices. Such a viewpoint guides developing the expertise education of scientists. Another goal of the study is to encourage science education at every level to reflect as much as possible the epistemological aspects of doing science that practising scientists can also agree upon. The theoretical part of the dissertation focuses on those features of experimentation and modelling that the viewpoints of scientific practices suggest are essential but which are not addressed in the traditional views of science studies and, as a consequence, in science education. Theoretical ideas are tested and deepened in the empirical part, which concerns nanoscience. The developed contextualized method supports scientists in reflecting on their shared research practices and articulating those reflections in the questionnaire and interview. Contrary to traditional views, physical knowledge is understood to progress through the technoscientific design process, aiming at tightening the mutually developing conceptual and material control over the physical world. The products of the design process are both understanding about scientific phenomena and the means to study them, which means constructing and controlling a laboratory phenomenon, created in a laboratory in the same design process that produces the understanding about its functioning. These notions suggest the revision of what exactly is achieved by science and on what kind of basis, which indeed moves the epistemological views of science towards a viewpoint recognizable to its practitioners. Nowadays, technoscientific design is increasingly embodied in simulative modelling, mediating between the experimental reality and its theoretical framework. Such modelling is neither a part or continuation of theorizing as most literature considers modelling, nor it is only a bare means to analyse experimental data, but a partly independent and flexible method of generating our understanding of the world. Because the rapid development of modelling technology alters the evidential basis of science, a new kind of expertise is needed. The entry to the physical reality provided by generative modelling differs epistemologically and cognitively, from traditional methodological approaches. The expertise developed in such modelling provides scientists with new kinds of possibilities. For young scientists success and scientific and technological progress, this expertise is worth understanding.
  • Nousiainen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    In physics teacher education the use of graphical knowledge-representation tools like concept maps are often used because they are known to support the formation of organised knowledge. It is widely assumed that certain structural characteristics of concept maps can be connected to the usefulness of content. In order to study this relationship, the concept maps made by pre-service physics teachers are examined here. The design principles of the concept maps are based on quantitative experiments and modelling as the basic procedures in physics concept formation. The approach discussed here is informed by the recent cognitively oriented ideas of knowledge organisation around basic knowledge-organisation patterns and how they form the basis of more complex concept networks. The epistemic plausibility of justifications written in links is evaluated by using a four-level classification introduced here. The new method generalises and widens the existing approaches which use concept maps in representing the learners knowledge, and which also use concept maps for research purposes. Therefore, this thesis presents some novel theoretical constructs for analysis and discusses empirical results by using these new constructs at length, in order to show the advantages which the new theoretical aspects offer. Modelling of the data shows that such a concept-mapping technique supports students conceptual understanding. Also their usefulness in making plans for teaching is identified through modelling the flux of information which the relational structure of the map represents.
  • Puhakainen, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Mgbeahuruike, Anthony (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Prophylactic stump treatment with Phlebiopsis gigantea has been used for a long time in the biological control of the conifer pathogen, Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. However, the mechanisms underlying the biocontrol process are poorly understood. A total of 64 isolates of P. gigantea from different geographical regions were screened for fungal traits (growth rate, enzyme production, wood decay capabilities and antagonism) important for the biocontrol properties. The genomic sequence and the expression profile of P. gigantea hydrophobin encoding genes 1 and 2 in a selected set of isolates of the biocontrol fungus was analysed. Additionally, the distribution and the regulatory patterns of different hydrophobin encoding genes in the ecologically important fungi, P. gigantea and H. irregulare were investigated alongside the evolutionary forces driving hydrophobin gene evolution. The results show that different growth media had a huge influence on the outcome of the interaction between P. gigantea and H. annosum s.s. and the ability to degrade the different structural components of wood could partly explain the higher competitive advantage over H. annosum s.s. The antagonistic ability of P. gigantea also correlated positively with the transcript levels of hydrophobin 1 and 2 encoding genes (Pgh1 and Pgh2) but there was no relationship between the antagonistic ability and expression of either Pgh1 or Pgh2. Furthermore, the regulatory patterns of Pgh1 and Pgh2 suggest a role in the formation of aerial hyphea during the growth and development of P. gigantea. Hydrophobin encoding genes are redundant in both fungal species studied in the thesis research . However, in H. annosum s.s., each gene coding for hydrophobins seemed to be regulated by different environmental factors. Hydrophobin encoding genes were found to have witnessed a considerable expansion in both P. gigantea and H. annosum s.l. as well as in other basidiomycetes while a massive contraction of the hydrophobin encoding genes has occurred in the ascomycetes. Evidence of positive selection was also observed in P. gigantea and H. annosum s.l. hydrophobins and the hydrophobins from other fungal species. Finally, to understand the effect of secondary metabolites produced by P. gigantea on the gene expression profile of H. annosum s.s., transcriptomics analysis was carried out using microarray expression method. Also macroarray analysis was used to compare the transcriptomics profile of different strains of P. gigantea (competitively effective wild type, less competitively effective wild type and their progeny) against the commercial isolate, Rotstop F® when cultivated on artificial growth medium. The metabolites from P. gigantea effectively repressed some genes involved in diverse metabolic pathways in H. annosum s.s. Aditionally, several genes were found to be uniquely expressed in the progeny strain of P. gigantea, an indication that breeding could serve as an alternative for improving the P. gigantea isolates for a better biocontrol application. Generally, the results reported in this study have highlighted some of the physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms governing the biological control of the conifer pathogen, H. annosum s.l., by P. gigantea.
  • Lindholm, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Good recovery helps to restore functional reserves and facilitates the positive effects of stress at work. The risk of job stress is increased by excessive quantitative demands, low job control, poor recovery and disruption of biological rhythms. Stress causes changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) function and in excretion of cortisol hormone regulated by hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex (HPA) axis. Melatonin and cortisol are diurnally oscillating hormones reflecting disruption of biological rhythms. Common symptoms of harmful stress are sleep problems, exhaustion and decrease in work efficiency. The risk of many common diseases increases. In this study perceived and physiologically measured stress and recovery were analysed in media work, which contains typical risk factors of job stress in 24/7 society. A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (ISW, n = 750) and to an equal number of randomly selected controls with regular 8-hour daytime work (RDW). The questionnaire included items of work characteristics, perceived stress, mental and physical health and lifestyle. The response rate was over 80 % in ISW group and about 35 % in RDW group. Seventy respondents from both groups were randomly selected for physiological measurements. Cortisol and melatonin hormones were analysed from five salivary samples taken while subjects were awake. Heart rate variability as indicator of ANS function was calculated from 24 hour ECG recordings. Body movements were monitored by actigraphy. Severe subjective stress, irregular shift work, and short actual sleep time were all significant explanatory variables of augmented morning cortisol response. The risk of daytime sleepiness was nearly twofold in the ISW group compared to the RDW group. The daytime sleepiness was associated with attenuated relaxation of ANS during sleep in ISW group. The changes in the afternoon and evening levels of cortisol and melatonin hormones might predispose to difficulties in initiating sleep. In all, about 40 % of workers reported high job control and 40% low job control. During the recovery period (from 18.00 to 06.00 hrs between working days), those who experienced high job control at work had significantly better recovery of ANS function than other workers. Depression, hypertension and poor general health were associated with many types of sleep disorders and they all increased the risk of nocturnal waking. Severe stress doubled the risk of difficulties initiating sleep and the risk of non-restorative sleep. Analysis of recovery should be included in the evaluation of workers health and well-being in 24/7 society. Simultaneously analysed autonomic nervous system function and neuroendocrine indicators provide additional information about stress and recovery. Ambulatory measurements in real life settings could offer new insights in occupational health studies, once their validation has been achieved.
  • Rytkönen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Human-mediated movement of plants and plant products is now generally accepted to be the primary mode of introduction of plant pathogens. Species of the genus Phytophthora are commonly spread in this way and have caused severe epidemics in silviculture, horticulture as well as natural systems all over the world. The aims of the study were to gather information on the occurrence of Phytophthora spp. in Finnish nurseries, to produce information for risk assessments for these Phytophthora spp. by determining their host ranges and tolerance of cold temperatures, and to establish molecular means for their detection. Phytophthora cactorum was found to persist in natural waterbodies and results suggest that irrigation water might be a source of inoculum in nurseries. In addition to P. cactorum, isolates from ornamental nursery Rhododendron yielded three species new to Finland: P. ramorum, P. plurivora and P. pini. The only species with quarantine status, P. ramorum, was most adapted to growth in cold temperatures and able to persist in the nursery in spite of an annual sanitation protocol. Phytophthora plurivora and the closely related P. pini had more hosts among Nordic tree and plant species than P. ramorum and P. cactorum, and also had higher infectivity rates. All four species survived two weeks in -5 °C , and thus soil survival of these Phytophthoras in Finland is likely under current climatic conditions. The most common tree species in Finnish nurseries, Picea abies, was highly susceptible to P. plurivora and P. pini in pathogenicity trials. In a histological examination of P. plurivora in P. abies shoot tissues, fast necrotrophic growth was observed in nearly all tissues. The production of propagules in P. abies shoot tissue was only weakly indicated. In this study, a PCR DGGE technique was developed for simultaneous detection and identification of Phytophthora spp. It reliably detected Phytophthora in plant tissues and could discriminate most test species as well as indicate instances of multiple-species infections. It proved to be a useful detection and identification tool either applied alone or in concert with traditional isolation culture techniques. All of the introduced species of Phytophthora had properties that promote a high risk of establishment and spread in Finland. It is probable that more pathogens of this genus will be introduced and become established in Finland and other Nordic countries unless efficient phytosanitary control becomes standard practice in the international plant trade.
  • Forsström, Laura Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Climate is warming and it is especially seen in arctic areas, where the warming trend is expected to be greatest. Arctic freshwater ecosystems, which are a very characteristic feature of the arctic landscape, are especially sensitive to climate change. They could be used as early warning systems, but more information about the ecosystem functioning and responses are needed for proper interpretation of the observations. Phytoplankton species and assemblages could be especially suitable for climate-related studies, since they have short generation times and react rapidly to changes in the environment. In addition, phytoplankton provides a good tool for lake classifications, since different species have different requirements and tolerance ranges for various environmental factors. The use of biological indicators is especially useful in arctic areas, were many of the chemical factors commonly fall under the detection limit and therefore do not provide much information about the environment. This work brings new information about species distribution and dynamics of arctic freshwater phytoplankton in relation to environmental factors. The phytoplankton of lakes in Finnish Lapland and other European high-altitude or high-latitude areas were compared. Most lakes were oligotrophic and dominated by flagellated species belonging to chrysophytes, cryptophytes and dinoflagellates. In Finnish Lapland cryptophytes were of less importance, whereas desmids had high species richness in many of the lakes. In Pan-European scale, geographical and catchment-related factors were explaining most of the differences in species distributions between different districts, whereas lake water chemistry (especially conductivity, SiO2 and pH) was most important regionally. Seasonal and interannual variation of phytoplankton was studied in subarctic Lake Saanajärvi. Characteristic phytoplankton species in this oligotrophic, dimictic lake belonged mainly to chrysophytes and diatoms. The maximum phytoplankton biomass in Lake Saanajärvi occurs during autumn, while spring biomass is very low. During years with heavy snow cover the lake suffers from pH drop caused by melt waters, but the effects of this acid pulse are restricted to surface layers and last for a relatively short period. In addition to some chemical parameters (mainly Ca and nutrients), length of the mixing cycle and physical factors such as lake water temperature and thermal stability of water column had major impact on phytoplankton dynamics. During a year with long and strong thermal stability, the phytoplankton community developed towards an equilibrium state, with heavy dominance of only a few taxa for a longer period of time. During a year with higher windiness and less thermal stability, the species composition was more diverse and species with different functional strategies were able to occur simultaneously. The results of this work indicate that although arctic lakes in general share many common features concerning their catchment and water chemistry, large differences in biological features can be found even in a relatively small area. Most likely the lakes with very different algal flora do not respond in a similar way to differences in the environmental factors, and more information about specific arctic lake types is needed. The results also show considerable year to year differences in phytoplankton species distribution and dynamics, and these changes are most likely linked to climatic factors.
  • Peltomaa, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Phytoplankton constitute the autotrophic, photosynthesizing component of the plankton community in freshwaters as well as in oceans. Today, phytoplankton account for about half of Earth s primary production (PP). Carbon and energy fixed by phytoplankton are transported further in the aquatic food web to heterotrophic zooplankton and finally to fish or, alternatively, are decomposed by heterotrophic bacteria that also act as food for higher trophic-level organisms. Since phytoplankton fix inorganic carbon (IC), they are highly important in lake carbon cycling and balance. Many of the lakes in the boreal area are characterized by heavy loadings of brown-coloured humic matter, mostly dissolved organic carbon (DOC), that diminishes light penetration in the water column. This is problematic for phytoplankton which, as photosynthetic organisms, are dependent on solar radiation. The phytoplanktonic life in boreal humic lakes is also hampered by strong thermal stratification patterns that due to nutrient uptake, lead to inorganic nutrient limitation in the illuminated epilimnion. However, nutrients are often plentiful in the dark hypolimnion. Since phytoplankton are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, they must have several adaptations to help them survive in various environments, including boreal humic lakes. The present study focused on the traits of motility and cell size, both of which affect phytoplankton capability to not only obtain nutrients and light, but also to avoid zooplankton grazing. Special attention was given to the group of autotrophic picoplankton (APP), which are nonmotile, small (cell size 0.2 2 µm) and less studied than the larger phytoplankton. The seasonal dynamics of APP and larger phytoplankton were associated with changes in the abiotic environment, especially parameters prone to the ongoing climate change. In addition, the associations between phytoplankton and their competitors and grazers in the microbial food web (MFW), as well as the possible top-down effects of fish on the MFW, phytoplankton and surface water carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were studied in more detail. Four of the five studies were undertaken in situ in the small, strongly stratified, humic headwater Lake Valkea-Kotinen. The fifth study was a fish biomanipulation experiment conducted in enclosures in the humic Lake Pääjärvi and the clearwater Lake Vesijärvi. The most successful phytoplankton taxa in Lake Valkea-Kotinen in terms of PP as well as biomass were flagellated. However, motility was really advantageous only when combined with large cell size (> 20 µm): Peridinium dinoflagellates dominated in PP and the biomass in spring and autumn, whereas in summer Gonyostomum semen (Ehr.) Diesing took over. This was probably because only the large cells were able to migrate long distances between the illuminated epilimnion and nutrient-rich hypolimnion. Interestingly, the most abundant phytoplankton taxa in Lake Valkea-Kotinen were the nonmotile and tiny (~ 2 µm) Choricystis (Skuja) Fott-like eukaryotic APP. The strength of the APP was in isopycny, i.e. the capability to remain at the boundary layer between the epi- and hypolimnion, where they obtained access to light and nutrients. Both G. semen and APP correlated positively with high water column stability, which also indicates that they benefitted from strong stratification patterns. There were changes in the water quality in Lake Valkea-Kotinen during the study period of 1990 2006, most importantly, as increases in DOC and water colour, whereas phosphorus, which was the limiting nutrient, decreased. This was problematic for the large flagellates (studied in 1990 2003) and prokaryotic APP (Merismopedia warmingiana Lagerheim; in 2002 2006). However, the eukaryotic APP (in 2002 2006) were favoured by the increased water colour. APP abundance correlated negatively with heterotrophic bacteria in the epilimnion of Lake Valkea-Kotinen, which indicates nutrient competition between these two groups. The bacteria correlated positively with large phytoplankton (measured as chlorophyll a), and probably were partly sustained by G. semen, which was associated with high extracellular organic carbon (EOC) release. However, both the APP and bacterial numbers were in general low in Lake Valkea-Kotinen, which was explained by the high nanoflagellate (NF) and ciliate abundance. Nevertheless, the NFs did not graze on the APP, and the APP as well as the larger phytoplankton were able to avoid ciliate grazing during the strongest stagnation by remaining in the anoxic parts of the water column, where algivorous ciliates were less abundant. The enclosure experiment in lakes Pääjärvi and Vesijärvi showed no top-down effects of fish on APP or any other components of the MFW. This was probably due to the low abundance of cladocerans, especially the large daphnids. However, in the humic Lake Pääjärvi, fish influenced the food web via nutrient enrichment, i.e. through bottom-up effects. The total phytoplankton biomass did not change, but the PP increased and led to increments in bacterial production (BP) and ciliates, which took advantage of the enhanced phytoplankton production. Therefore, although unexpected, the higher PP did not translate into lower water CO2 concentration, but the BP and ciliate algivory increased concurrently and produced more CO2. Thus, the net ecosystem production (NEP) remained stable.
  • Kauppila, Pirkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The tackling of coastal eutrophication requires water protection measures based on status assessments of water quality. The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate whether it is possible both scientifically and within the terms of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) to assess the status of coastal marine waters reliably by using phytoplankton biomass (ww) and chlorophyll a (Chl) as indicators of eutrophication in Finnish coastal waters. Empirical approaches were used to study whether the criteria, established for determining an indicator, are fulfilled. The first criterion (i) was that an indicator should respond to anthropogenic stresses in a predictable manner and has low variability in its response. Summertime Chl could be predicted accurately by nutrient concentrations, but not from the external annual loads alone, because of the rapid affect of primary production and sedimentation close to the loading sources in summer. The most accurate predictions were achieved in the Archipelago Sea, where total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) alone accounted for 87% and 78% of the variation in Chl, respectively. In river estuaries, the TP mass-balance regression model predicted Chl most accurately when nutrients originated from point-sources, whereas land-use regression models were most accurate in cases when nutrients originated mainly from diffuse sources. The inclusion of morphometry (e.g. mean depth) into nutrient models improved accuracy of the predictions. The second criterion (ii) was associated with the WFD. It requires that an indicator should have type-specific reference conditions, which are defined as "conditions where the values of the biological quality elements are at high ecological status". In establishing reference conditions, the empirical approach could only be used in the outer coastal water types, where historical observations of Secchi depth of the early 1900s are available. The most accurate prediction was achieved in the Quark. In the inner coastal water types, reference Chl, estimated from present monitoring data, are imprecise - not only because of the less accurate estimation method but also because the intrinsic characteristics, described for instance by morphometry, vary considerably inside these extensive inner coastal types. As for phytoplankton biomass, the reference values were less accurate than in the case of Chl, because it was possible to estimate reference conditions for biomass only by using the reconstructed Chl values, not the historical Secchi observations. An paleoecological approach was also applied to estimate annual average reference conditions for Chl. In Laajalahti, an urban embayment off Helsinki, strongly loaded by municipal waste waters in the 1960s and 1970s, reference conditions prevailed in the mid- and late 1800s. The recovery of the bay from pollution has been delayed as a consequence of benthic release of nutrients. Laajalahti will probably not achieve the good quality objectives of the WFD on time.    The third criterion (iii) was associated with coastal management including the resources it has available. Analyses of Chl are cheap and fast to carry out compared to the analyses of phytoplankton biomass and species composition; the fact which has an effect on number of samples to be taken and thereby on the reliability of assessments. However, analyses on phytoplankton biomass and species composition provide more metrics for ecological classification, the metrics which reveal various aspects of eutrophication contrary to what Chl alone does.
  • Juuti, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The study as a whole examined piano musicians identity negotiations in the context of their music studies and their transition to working life. This research report and the articles accompanying it also introduce a socio-culturally oriented approach to the study of musical identities. Study I explored adult instrumental students identity work while negotiating entry to a prestigious music academy. The specific focus was on how students accounts of their competencies vis-à-vis their peers are implicated in their musical identity work, and how students accounts of their own and others participation in and engagement with the musical practices of the academy resourced their musical identity work. A further concern was how students accounts of life-courses and trajectories were implicated in their musical identity work. Study II focused on how solo piano students identity projects were mediated within the student-teacher relationship. It examined how solo piano students identity projects were mediated within and in relation to their interpretative work on the canon, undertaken along with their teacher, and further, how their identity as a solo piano student was negotiated in relation to other ongoing musical identity projects. Study III focused on career-young professional pianists talk about the transition from study within a music academy to working life. The focus was especially on the ways in which they characterised the nature and significance of this transition, from very traditional practice, and how they (re-)negotiated their professional identities as working musicians and pianists in their contemporary working lives. The participants of the overall study were ten solo piano students who were interviewed once during their studies at the Sibelius Academy. Four of these original participants were followed up for about eight years from the original interviews when entering professional working life. The starting point for the methods used in the study was the socio-cultural framework plus qualitative thematic analysis. Within this study, identity negotiations and the relation between individual and social aspects of identity were researched through the collection of the musicians accounts of their musical histories and experiences situated in the daily practices of their study and work. The analytical method involved the initial identification of key themes, with the detailed analysis then focusing on the particular ways in which the participants talked about the process of becoming musicians. The results showed how identity work is a complex, mediated process. The comparative dynamics amongst peers were seen as a key mediator of the identity work done during studies at the academy. Furthermore, student-teacher interactions emerged as crucial sites for identity negotiations. It seemed that a collegial and collaborative approach to the interpretation of music, and the associated understanding that came with it, fostered professional growth and enhanced artistic confidence. This work also highlighted the conflicts and problematic identity positions that emerge in the creative relationship between the teacher and the student a relationship in which visions and insights are not necessarily shared. The analyses also exemplify how in some circumstances the envisaged reactions of the teacher and the associated risk of troubled identity positions problematised students engagement with popular forms of music-making. Furthermore, it was observed that the creation of novel interpretations of pieces from the canon form a central aspect of one s personal musical identity and is a socially and culturally situated act. The results of this study also highlighted how, especially during the students transition to the music community, they seemed unable to define community-level norms and expectations. Moreover, they talked against some of these. Talking against emerged as strongly agentic identity work. Thereafter, in the context of the transition from music studies to working life, there was clear evidence of the emergence of the informants own stories , own ways and the use of inner resources. Agency was thus clearly observable in the career-young professional musicians construction and re-construction of their own creative practices and paths. These paths were not fixed or dependent on communal expectations; rather, they reflected freedom, widening perspectives and independence, the embracing of multiple influences, and the anchor- ing of individual lives in more holistic ways. One of the key elements in the process of becoming agentic seemed to be the acceptance of multiplicity.
  • Navickaitė-Martinelli, Lina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In an attempt to expand and enrich the existing trends of musical performance studies, as well as exploit the potentials of semiotic analysis, this dissertation offers the theoretical perspective that enables the unfolding of the multiple meanings generated by and communicated through the performer s art. Without denying that musical performance is inevitably associated with the opus, the semiotic approach, it is proposed here, should study performance as encompassing all the exogenic meanings that do not necessarily depend on a musical work. Thus, the focus of the present dissertation is the figure of a classical music performer as a significant part of society, as well as cultural, institutional and personal discourses that both generate the art of music performance and originate from it. The main targets here are mapping the predominant tendencies of the art of musical performance during the twentieth century and proposing a form of semiotic analysis of different representations and self-representations that musical performers, pianists in particular, put into action in their interactions with social and cultural contexts (including different types of performer-listener communication processes, scholarly analyses, the various media through which the art of music performance is disseminated, and aspects related to the marketing and ideologizing of today s performance practices). The dissertation is structured into four parts. Part 1 introduces a semiotic framework for studying musical performance. Part 2 discusses a variety of meanings communicated through the performers art as well as the media in which the art of classical piano music performance is operating. Part 3 positions the performers art within the Western musical canon by examining Beethoven interpretations as played by pianists of various cultural and historical backgrounds. The concluding Part 4 presents novel discourses on the art of musical performance by analyzing 11 personal websites of Lithuanian classical pianists as an important vehicle of contemporary performers for communicating their artistic identities. It is claimed in this dissertation that the combination of semiotic and musicological approaches is relevant and revealing in the study of musical performance art in that it strongly make a case for current musicology to elaborate increasingly interdisciplinary paradigms and modes of investigation.
  • Vuolasto, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The image of Pietism a window to personal spirituality. The teachings of Johann Arndt as the basis of Pietist emblems The Pietist effect on spiritual images has to be scrutinised as a continuum initiating from the teachings of Johann Arndt who created a protestant iconography that defended the status of pictures and images as the foundation of divine revelation. Pietist artworks reveal Arndtian part of secret, eternal world, and God. Even though modern scholars do not regarded him as a founding father of Pietism anymore, his works have been essential for the development of iconography, and the themes of the Pietist images are linked with his works. For Arndt, the starting point is in the affecting love for Christ who suffered for the humankind. The reading experience is personal and the words point directly at the reader and thus appear as evidence of the guilt of the reader as well as of the love of God. Arndt uses bounteous and descriptive language which has partially affected promoting and picturing of many themes. Like Arndt, Philipp Jakob Spener also emphasised the heart that believes. The Pietist movement was born to oppose detached faith and the lack of the Holy Ghost. Christians touched by the teachings of Arndt and Spener began to create images out of metaphors presented by Arndt. As those people were part of the intelligentsia, it was natural that the fashionable emblematics of the 17th century was moulded for the personal needs. For Arndt, the human heart is manifested as a symbol of soul, personal faith or unbelief as well as an allegory of the burning love for Jesus. Due to this fact, heart emblems were gradually widely used and linked with the love of Christ. In the Nordic countries, the introduction of emblems emanated from the gentry s connections to the Central Europe where emblems were exploited in order to decorate books, artefacts, interiors, and buildings as well as visual/literal trademarks of the intelligentsia. Emblematic paintings in the churches of the castles of Venngarn (1665) and Läckö (1668), owned by Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, are one of the most central interior paintings preserved in the Nordic countries, and they emphasise personal righteous life. Nonetheless, it was the books by Arndt and the Poet s Society in Nurnberg that bound the Swedish gentry and the scholars of the Pietist movement together. The Finnish gentry had no castles or castle churches so they supported county churches, both in building and in maintenance. As the churches were not private, their iconography could not be private either. Instead, people used Pietist symbols such as Agnus Dei, Cor ardens, an open book, beams, king David, frankincense, wood themes and Virtues. In the Pietist images made for public spaces, the attention is focused on pedagogical, metaphorical, and meaningful presentation as well as concealed statements.
  • Rahkala, Mari-Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The aim of this research is to present, interpret and analyze the phenomenon of pilgrimage in a contemporary, suburban Greek nunnery, and to elucidate the different functions that the present-day convent has for its pilgrims. The scope of the study is limited to a case nunnery, the convent of the Dormition of the Virgin, which is situated in Northern Greece. The main corpus of data utilized for this work consists of 25 interviews and field diary material, which was collected in the convent mainly during the academic year 2002-2003 and summer 2005 by means of participant observation and unstructured thematic interviewing. It must be noted that most Greek nunneries are not really communities of hermits but institutions that operate in complex interaction with the surrounding society. Thus, the main interest in this study is in the interaction between pilgrims and nuns. Pilgrimage is seen here as a significant and concrete form of interaction, which in fact makes the contemporary nunneries dynamic scenes of religious, social and sometimes even political life. The focus of the analysis is on the pilgrims’ experiences, reflected upon on the levels of the individual, the Church institution, and society in general. This study shows that pilgrimage in a suburban nunnery, such as the convent of the Dormition, can be seen as part of everyday religiosity. Many pilgrims visit the convent regularly and the visitation is a lifestyle the pilgrims have chosen and wish to maintain. Pilgrimage to a contemporary Greek nunnery should not be ennobled, but seen as part of a popular religious sentiment. The visits offer pilgrims various tools for reflecting on their personal life situations and on questions of identity. For them the full round of liturgical worship is a very good reason for going to the convent, and many see it as a way of maintaining their faith and of feeling close to God. Despite cultural developments such as secularization and globalization, pilgrims are quite loyal to the convent they visit. It represents the positive values of ‘Greekness’ and therefore they also trust the nuns’ approach to various matters, both personal and political. The coalition of Orthodoxy and nationalism is also visible in their attitudes towards the convent, which they see as a guardian of Hellenism and as nurturing Greek values both now and in the future.
  • Huuskonen, Kari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    From The Dark Side: Experiences On Modernisation In The Narrative Community Of Visually Impaired People My study describes the experiences on modernisation among the first generations of the organised visually impaired people in the narrative context of the end of the 19:th century and the first decades of the 20:th century. My research material includes oral and written descriptions, photographs, and various objects that describe the thoughts and experiences of people in the past. The oldest data I found has been developed simultaneously with the formation of the publicity institution in Finland. This data includes both my main source the magazines of blind people and the minutes of blind people s associations. They have been supplemented by biographical interviews. The eldest interviewees have been among the founders of blind people s own magazines and associations in the beginning of the 20:th century. It has been an essential goal of my study to bring these thoughts and experiences of the past into the current discussion going on in the academic disability research: which/what kind of social changes connected with modernisation have increased the exclusion of disabled citizens from society, and which have promoted their integration. In the 19:th century, an institutional philosophy was adopted from other European countries to the Finnish education of disabled children. According to my study, this did not exclude the visually impaired from society. Most of the narrators included in the study lost the daily contact into their close communities when they started at the schools for the blind. Yet because of the huge effort that the society forced them to make, most of them developed into independent and self-supporting citizens. The study also shows that the schools of the blind were not closed institutional communities. Institutions for the blind were meeting points of several generations as well as of different thoughts and philosophies. For a long time, they functioned as the main arenas for the organisational life and social action of the visually impaired, where the community-based culture of activity gradually developed from the satisfaction of basic needs into social forms and a common strategy of survival.
  • Spoof, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The purpose of this study is to determine what class teachers and special teachers emphasise in ethical consideration, in which situations they find that ethical difficulties arise and how they would overcome them. In additions, the study aims to describe the effects of ethical con-sideration on the teachers` work. The theoretical backround is based on theories concerning the ethics of the teacher and the literature associated with education and teaching. The empirical study was based on data obtained through questionnaires and interviews. The questionnaires were posted to 470 randomly-selected class teachers and special teachers; 298 of them (63%) completed and returned the questionnaire, and 19 teachers were inter-viewed. The results of the questionnaires and the interviews were examined crosswise with a mixed-methods procedure. The questionnaires were analysed by factor analysis. Those items which rose above the av-erage served as the foundation for the analysis. The questionnaires also included open ques-tions. These questions and the interviews were analysed with a content analysis method. Some principles of this method were combined with the results of the questionnaires to in-crease mutual understanding. In this study, the ethical consideration of the teachers was divided in to four notable parts: 1) moral obligations, 2) respect for the teaching stuff, 3) the demand for responsibility, and 4) dependence on the situation. These items were also notable both in situations that were ethi-cally difficult for teachers and in their solutions to these situations. It became evident that these situations were very common in everyday work and resulted from the character of the teachers´ work. This study showed that the teacher meets the pupils as a group and that the teacher must examine according to the circumstances the truth, individuality, special ar-rangements and co-operation between the school and the parents. The teachers` continuous lack of time limited the ethical consideration. It emerged that the teachers consider their work very multi-faceted and that the sense of obligation, power and responsibility was inevitably received emphasis. The consciousness of authority and the responsibilities associated with it seemed, however, to strengthen this ac-tion. The study showed that the teachers, especially the young female ones, long for more solidarity. Significantly, such experience does not eliminate the importance of ethical consid-eration; on the contrary, it deepens it. According to the results, creating conditions and cir-cumstances for the teachers that open co-operation is inevitable, and easy interaction will in-evitably be possible in the future. There was not observed any differences in ethical consideration between class teachers and special teachers. Therefore, the integration of the pupils to general teaching cannot be consid-ered questionable. Teachers´ answers suggested that ethical consideration improved the tolerance of stress, increased self-confidence and courage as well as belief in the future. The teachers considered ethical consideration important and encouraging for it increased justice and empathy in the teachers´ work.