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  • Martin, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In this thesis we study the spectrum of a certain boundary value problem in cuspidal domains. This boundary value problem originates from the linear theory of water-waves. One particular motivation for studying the problem in cuspidal domains, is that in some cases the cuspidal shape could act as a wave absorbing structure. Furthermore, the problem itself has also mathematical interest on its own, due to its unusual form where the spectral parameter appears in the boundary condition. The thesis consists of an introductory part and three articles. In the first article we study the problem in a domain that represents a lake or a pond, in which parameter describing the sharpness of the cusp is two. In the article we show that in this case the essential spectrum of the problem contains real numbers which are greater or equal to a certain positive number. In the second article the setting is similar, but the sharpness parameter is allowed to be any real number greater than two. We show that in this case the continuous spectrum of the problem is the set of all non-negative real numbers and this is also the whole spectrum. In addition, we improve the result of the first article by showing that values found in the essential spectrum also belong to the continuous spectrum. In the third article we consider a case where the domain is a canal, filled with two liquid layers of different densities. The cuspidal form is in one of the layers and its sharpness parameter is two. We show that in this case the continuous spectrum of the problem contains real numbers which are greater or equal to a certain positive number, and that the interval from zero to this number is contained in the discrete spectrum.
  • Kivelä, Jyrki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    In this study the author discusses the historical and philosophical connections between David Hume (1711-1776) and Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855). Kierkegaard mainly encountered Humean ideas through the writings of Johann Georg Hamann (1730-1788) and Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (1743-1819). Hamann's and Jacobi's interpretations of Hume were at least among the influences when Kierkegaard developed his idea of paradoxical Christianity and his criticism of "Speculation". Because Hume's discussion of miracles is a classic in the philosophy of religion and Kierkegaard is known for his idea of the absolute paradox as the object of faith and because of Kierkegaard's knowledge of the conclusion of Hume's "Of Miracles", I have found it worthwhile to compare these two terms. The idea of a miracle expressed explicitly in terms of violation of the laws or order of nature is not important to Kierkegaard. I claim that the unavoidable doubtfulness of all historical knowledge and the non-immediate meaning of personal experience are the most important philosophical reasons for Kierkegaard's tangential interest in the concept of a miracle as a philosophical problem. The author argues that Kierkegaard's notion of ordinary belief as the opposite of doubt is at least partly analogous to Hume's notion of belief as a lively conception. Kierkegaard's belief is a terminator of doubt. Hume's custom-based belief acts in the same role when it disregards the uncertainty inherent in the conclusions drawn from our immediate experience. The author further argues that just like the ancient fiction of substance for Hume, the notions of pure being and an absolute beginning in a logical system for Climacus refer to fictional conceptual structures. Kierkegaard argues that there can be no system of life and Hume argues that the philosophical system solving the important problem of perception yields a fictitious solution. Humean notions of true and false philosophy are discussed in this connection. The thesis concludes with the suggestion that there is an affinity between the revocation of the Postscript and the conclusion of the first book of the Treatise. Finally, the author concludes that Kierkegaard was perhaps even profoundly inspired by the ideas present in Hume s thought. He, unlike Hume, embraced the idea of nearly miraculous personal transformation and believing in the most improbable thing. However, they shared the idea that at some basic level we are all nevertheless natural believers. They also understood the lure of abstract thought and saw the dangers of thinking in a sense too highly of philosophical enterprise itself, and agreed on the idea that it is not in fact that tautological or redundant to say that philosophers, too, are human beings.
  • Niemelä, Sami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Modern-day weather forecasting is highly dependent on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models as the main data source. The evolving state of the atmosphere with time can be numerically predicted by solving a set of hydrodynamic equations, if the initial state is known. However, such a modelling approach always contains approximations that by and large depend on the purpose of use and resolution of the models. Present-day NWP systems operate with horizontal model resolutions in the range from about 40 km to 10 km. Recently, the aim has been to reach operationally to scales of 1 4 km. This requires less approximations in the model equations, more complex treatment of physical processes and, furthermore, more computing power. This thesis concentrates on the physical parameterization methods used in high-resolution NWP models. The main emphasis is on the validation of the grid-size-dependent convection parameterization in the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) and on a comprehensive intercomparison of radiative-flux parameterizations. In addition, the problems related to wind prediction near the coastline are addressed with high-resolution meso-scale models. The grid-size-dependent convection parameterization is clearly beneficial for NWP models operating with a dense grid. Results show that the current convection scheme in HIRLAM is still applicable down to a 5.6 km grid size. However, with further improved model resolution, the tendency of the model to overestimate strong precipitation intensities increases in all the experiment runs. For the clear-sky longwave radiation parameterization, schemes used in NWP-models provide much better results in comparison with simple empirical schemes. On the other hand, for the shortwave part of the spectrum, the empirical schemes are more competitive for producing fairly accurate surface fluxes. Overall, even the complex radiation parameterization schemes used in NWP-models seem to be slightly too transparent for both long- and shortwave radiation in clear-sky conditions. For cloudy conditions, simple cloud correction functions are tested. In case of longwave radiation, the empirical cloud correction methods provide rather accurate results, whereas for shortwave radiation the benefit is only marginal. Idealised high-resolution two-dimensional meso-scale model experiments suggest that the reason for the observed formation of the afternoon low level jet (LLJ) over the Gulf of Finland is an inertial oscillation mechanism, when the large-scale flow is from the south-east or west directions. The LLJ is further enhanced by the sea-breeze circulation. A three-dimensional HIRLAM experiment, with a 7.7 km grid size, is able to generate a similar LLJ flow structure as suggested by the 2D-experiments and observations. It is also pointed out that improved model resolution does not necessary lead to better wind forecasts in the statistical sense. In nested systems, the quality of the large-scale host model is really important, especially if the inner meso-scale model domain is small.
  • Gagné, Stéphanie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Floating in the air that surrounds us is a number of small particles, invisible to the human eye. The mixture of air and particles, liquid or solid, is called an aerosol. Aerosols have significant effects on air quality, visibility and health, and on the Earth's climate. Their effect on the Earth's climate is the least understood of climatically relevant effects. They can scatter the incoming radiation from the Sun, or they can act as seeds onto which cloud droplets are formed. Aerosol particles are created directly, by human activity or natural reasons such as breaking ocean waves or sandstorms. They can also be created indirectly as vapors or very small particles are emitted into the atmosphere and they combine to form small particles that later grow to reach climatically or health relevant sizes. The mechanisms through which those particles are formed is still under scientific discussion, even though this knowledge is crucial to make air quality or climate predictions, or to understand how aerosols will influence and will be influenced by the climate's feedback loops. One of the proposed mechanisms responsible for new particle formation is ion-induced nucleation. This mechanism is based on the idea that newly formed particles were ultimately formed around an electric charge. The amount of available charges in the atmosphere varies depending on radon concentrations in the soil and in the air, as well as incoming ionizing radiation from outer space. In this thesis, ion-induced nucleation is investigated through long-term measurements in two different environments: in the background site of Hyytiälä and in the urban site that is Helsinki. The main conclusion of this thesis is that ion-induced nucleation generally plays a minor role in new particle formation. The fraction of particles formed varies from day to day and from place to place. The relative importance of ion-induced nucleation, i.e. the fraction of particles formed through ion-induced nucleation, is bigger in cleaner areas where the absolute number of particles formed is smaller. Moreover, ion-induced nucleation contributes to a bigger fraction of particles on warmer days, when the sulfuric acid and water vapor saturation ratios are lower. This analysis will help to understand the feedbacks associated with climate change.
  • Noreika, Norbertas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Negative anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., drainage and urbanization) are causing biotic homogenization through the replacement of specialist species with generalists. The identification and conservation of biodiversity hotspots within degraded (e.g., highly urbanized) landscapes, and ecological restoration (i.e., positive anthropogenic disturbance) have the potential to be important tools to counteract these negative effects. Mires are suitable targets for the investigation of these homogenization-reducing activities since they host many mire specialist species of, e.g. invertebrates. The main aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the effects of negative anthropogenic disturbances [urbanization (Chapter I) and drainage for forestry (Chapters II-IV)] on the invertebrate communities of boreal mires and how effective efforts are to reverse these negative effects through ecological restoration [i.e. positive anthropogenic disturbance (Chapters II-IV)]. In addition, the purpose was to determine which environmental variables are key in supporting mire specialist invertebrate species and communities. Therefore, this thesis started by reviewing current knowledge on the responses of mire invertebrate species and communities to anthropogenic disturbances. The effects of urbanization were studied on spiders and carabid beetles (Chapter I), while the effects of drainage for forestry and subsequent restoration were investigated on five solitary invertebrate groups (Chapter II) and social insects, i.e. ants (Chapter III). Finally, a powerful Before-After Control-Impact (BACI) design was used to reveal the effects of drainage and restoration on butterflies (Chapter IV). Generally, both high levels of urbanization (Chapter I) and mire drainage for forestry (Chapters II-IV) had negative effects on mire specialist species (lower abundances) and invertebrate communities (homogenized and very different in structure from pristine mire communities). However, these detrimental effects can be reduced or even reversed through appropriate urban mire conservation and ecological restoration. Local habitat conditions were shown to be particularly important for the survival of specialist invertebrate species in urban mires (Chapter I) and for the successful recovery of restored mire invertebrates (Chapters II-IV). Individual mire specialist species responded negatively to environmental variables associated with deteriorated (i.e. drained or highly urbanized) mire conditions [number of high (> 3m) trees for carabid beetles, crane flies, micromoths (Chapter II), ants (Chapter III) and butterflies (Chapter IV)] and positively to pristine mire-associated variables [Sphagnum cover for carabid beetles and spiders (Chapters I-II), crane flies (Chapter II) and suggestively for ants (Chapter III); larval food plant cover and number of lower (1.5 - 3m) trees for butterflies (Chapter IV)]. The more specialized the mire species were, the more negatively they were affected by deteriorated-mire-associated variables and the more positively they responded to pristine-mire-associated variables. I conclude that the restoration actions taken (removing tall trees but leaving smaller trees, and raising the water table level) are appropriate in creating suitable habitat conditions for mire invertebrates, as both individual specialist species and communities showed positive responses already 1-3 years since restoration (Chapters II-IV). Finally, the appropriate restoration actions in well-prioritized locations as well as urban mire conservation should reverse the trend of biotic homogenization.
  • Spilling, Kristian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Increased anthropogenic loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) has led to an eutrophication problem in the Baltic Sea, and the spring bloom is a key component in the biological uptake of increased nutrient concentrations. The spring bloom in the Baltic Sea is dominated by both diatoms and dinoflagellates. However, the sedimentation of these groups is different: diatoms tend to sink to the sea floor at the end of the bloom, while dinoflagellates to a large degree are been remineralized in the euphotic zone. Understanding phytoplankton competition and species specific ecological strategies is thus of importance for assessing indirect effects of phytoplankton community composition on eutrophication problems. The main objective of this thesis was to describe some basic physiological and ecological characteristics of the main cold-water diatoms and dinoflagellates in the Baltic Sea. This was achieved by specific studies of: (1) seasonal vertical positioning, (2) dinoflagellate life cycle, (3) mixotrophy, (4) primary production, respiration and growth and (5) diatom silicate uptake, using cultures of common cold-water diatoms: Chaetoceros wighamii, C. gracilis, Pauliella taeniata, Thalassiosira baltica, T. levanderi, Melosira arctica, Diatoma tenuis, Nitzschia frigida, and dinoflagellates: Peridiniella catenata, Woloszynskia halophila and Scrippsiella hangoei. The diatoms had higher primary production capacity and lower respiration rate compared with the dinoflagellates. This difference was reflected in the maximum growth rate, which for the examined diatoms range from 0.6 to 1.2 divisions d-1, compared with 0.2 to 0.3 divisions d-1 for the dinoflagellates. Among diatoms there were species specific differences in light utilization and uptake of silicate, and C. wighamii had the highest carbon assimilation capacity and maximum silicate uptake. The physiological properties of diatoms and dinoflagellates were used in a model of the onset of the spring bloom: for the diatoms the model could predict the initiation of the spring bloom; S. hangoei, on the other hand, could not compete successfully and did not obtain positive growth in the model. The other dinoflagellates did not have higher growth rates or carbon assimilation rates and would thus probably not perform better than S. hangoei in the model. The dinoflagellates do, however, have competitive advantages that were not included in the model: motility and mixotrophy. Previous investigations has revealed that the chain-forming P. catenata performs diurnal vertical migration (DVM), and the results presented here suggest that active positioning in the water column, in addition to DVM, is a key element in this species' life strategy. There was indication of mixotrophy in S. hangoei, as it produced and excreted the enzyme leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). Moreover, there was indirect evidence that W. halophila obtains carbon from other sources than photosynthesis when comparing increase in cell numbers with in situ carbon assimilation rates. The results indicate that mixotrophy is a part of the strategy of vernal dinoflagellates in the Baltic Sea. There were also indications that the seeding of the spring bloom is very important for the dinoflagellates to succeed. In mesocosm experiments dinoflagellates could not compete with diatoms when their initial numbers were low. In conclusion, this thesis has provided new information about the basic physiological and ecological properties of the main cold-water phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea. The main phytoplankton groups, diatoms and dinoflagellates, have different physiological properties, which clearly separate their life strategies. The information presented here could serve as further steps towards better prognostic models of the effects of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.
  • Mattsson, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    During the last decade, the cosmological observations have indicated that the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann models with linear perturbations fail to describe our universe at late times unless a dominant energy component with negative pressure called dark energy is introduced. In this thesis, we study the implications of the nonlinear nature of general relativity on the cosmological model building beyond the standard Friedmann models. Despite the well established observational status of cosmic structures, their effects have gained more attention only along with the dark energy debate. In particular, the fact that the start of the supposed dark energy domination coincides with the time the nonlinear inhomogeneities started to form on larger scales, motivates the study of the dynamics of the cosmic structures. In cosmology, the implication of the nonlinearity of gravity is that averages of inhomogeneous quantities do not evolve in time like the corresponding homogeneous quantities - a phenomenon referred to as the backreaction. Due to the new precision observations during the recent years, the evaluation of the backreaction in our universe is a topical, but complex task. In this thesis, rather than trying to fully quantify the backreaction, the emphasis is on the model building. We explicitly demonstrate the importance of the exact matching conditions in the solutions representing cosmic structures in the context of backreaction evaluation. Indeed, the cosmic web of structures is made of very differently behaving regions and the shear on the interface between the different regions seems to play an important role. The backreaction term emerging from averaging the Einstein equation is not the only effect that cosmic structures can have on the observations. Indeed, we also demonstrate that even though the backreaction would remain small, large effects can arise from the choice of the smoothing scale and, perhaps surprisingly, from perturbative models as well. As we find, at least the supernova data can be explained within a linearly perturbed Friedmann model - without dark energy. The key point is to take into account the effects of structures on the observable distance measures, ignored in the standard cosmological perturbation theory. Further inspection shows that the model is actually equivalent to a nonperturbative inhomogeneous solution, confirming that the supernova data does not necessarily imply additional nonperturbative corrections. Considering physical quantities such as the expansion rate of space and the matter density, there are large local variations in the cosmic web. The main question to answer is whether (and to what extent) the effects of the local variations average out or accumulate in the observables. It appears likely that when combining all the cosmological data, more sophisticated models than the perturbed Friedmann or the simplest spherically symmetric exact inhomogeneous solutions are required to fully quantify the effects of the structures on the cosmological observations.
  • Jokela, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder influenced by several genes, environmental factors, and their interplay. Serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) genes have been implicated in vulnerability to depression and other psychiatric disorders, but the results have been inconsistent. The present study examined whether these two genes moderated the influence of different depressogenic environmental factors on subthreshold depressive symptoms (assessed on a modified version of Beck s Depression Inventory, BDI) and depression-related temperament, i.e., harm avoidance (assessed on the Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI). The environmental factors included measures of childhood and adolescence exposure, i.e., maternal nurturance and parental socioeconomic status, and adulthood social circumstances, i.e., perceived social support and urban/rural residence. The participants were two randomly selected subsamples (n = 1246, n = 341) from the longitudinal population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (n = 3596). Childhood environmental factors were assessed when the participants were 3 to 18 years of age, and three years after the baseline. Adulthood environmental factors and outcome measures were assessed 17 and 21 years later when the participants were 21 to 39 years of age. The T102C polymorphism of the HTR2A gene moderated the association between childhood maternal nurturance and adulthood depressive symptoms, such that exposure to high maternal nurturance predicted low depressive symptoms among individuals carrying the T/T or T/C genotypes, but not among those carrying the C/C genotype. Likewise, high parental SES predicted low adulthood harm avoidance in individuals carrying the T/T or T/C genotype, but not in C/C-genotype carriers. Individuals carrying the T/T or T/C genotype were also sensitive to urban/rural residence, such that they had lower depressive symptoms in urban than in rural areas, whereas those carrying the C/C genotype were not sensitive to urban/rural residence difference. HTR2A did not moderate the influence of social support. TheA779C/A218C haplotype of the TPH1 gene was not involved in the association between childhood environment and adulthood outcomes. However, individuals carrying A alleles of the TPH1 haplotype were more vulnerable to the lack of adulthood social support in terms of high depressive symptoms than their counterparts carrying no A alleles. Furthermore, individuals living in remote rural areas and carrying the A/A haplotype had higher depressive symptoms than those carrying other genotypes of the TPH1. The findings suggest that the HTR2A and TPH1 genes may be involved in the development of depression by influencing individual s sensitivity to depressogenic environmental influences.
  • Mangs, Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Parry, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Cells are packed with membrane structures, defining the inside and outside, and the different subcellular compartments. These membranes consisting mainly of phospholipids have a variety of functions in addition to providing a permeability barrier for various compounds. These functions involve cellular signaling, where lipids can act as second messengers, or direct regulation of membrane associating proteins. The first part of this study focuses on relating some of the physicochemical properties of membrane lipids to the association of drug compounds to membranes. A fluorescence based method is described allowing for determination of the membrane association of drugs. This method was subsequently applied to a novel drug, siramesine, previously shown to have anti-cancer activity. Siramesine was found to associate with anionic lipids. Especially interesting is its strong affinity for a second messenger lipid phosphatidic acid. This is the first example of a small molecule drug compound specifically interacting with a cellular lipid. Phosphatidic acid in cells is required for the activation of many signaling pathways mediating growth and proliferation. This provides an intriguing possibility for a simple molecular mechanism of the observed anti-cancer activity of siramesine. In the second part the thermal behavior and self assembly of charged and uncharged membrane assemblies was studied. Strong inter-lamellar co-operativity was observed for multilamellar DPPC vesicles using fluorescence techniques together with calorimetry. The commonly used membrane models, large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and multilamellar vesicles (MLV) were found to possess different biophysical properties as interlamellar interactions of MLVs drive segregation of a pyrene labeled lipid analogue into clusters. The effect of a counter-ion lattice on the self assembly of a cationic gemini surfactant was studied. The presence of NaCl strongly influenced the thermal phase behavior of M-1 vesicles, causing formation of giant vesicles upon exceeding a phase transition temperature, followed by a subsequent transition into a more homogenous dispersion. Understanding the underlying biophysical aspects of cellular membranes is of fundamental importance as the complex picture of the structure and function of cells is evolving. Many of the cellular reactions take place on membranes and membranes are known to regulate the activity of many peripheral and intergral membrane associating proteins. From the point of view of drug design and gene technology, membranes can provide an interesting target for future development of drugs, but also a vehicle sensitive for environmental changes allowing for encapsulating drugs and targeting them to the desired site of action.
  • Dannenberg, Alia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    In the thesis I study various quantum coherence phenomena and create some of the foundations for a systematic coherence theory. So far, the approach to quantum coherence in science has been purely phenomenological. In my thesis I try to answer the question what quantum coherence is and how it should be approached within the framework of physics, the metatheory of physics and the terminology related to them. It is worth noticing that quantum coherence is a conserved quantity that can be exactly defined. I propose a way to define quantum coherence mathematically from the density matrix of the system. Degenerate quantum gases, i.e., Bose condensates and ultracold Fermi systems, form a good laboratory to study coherence, since their entropy is small and coherence is large, and thus they possess strong coherence phenomena. Concerning coherence phenomena in degenerate quantum gases, I concentrate in my thesis mainly on collective association from atoms to molecules, Rabi oscillations and decoherence. It appears that collective association and oscillations do not depend on the spin-statistics of particles. Moreover, I study the logical features of decoherence in closed systems via a simple spin-model. I argue that decoherence is a valid concept also in systems with a possibility to experience recoherence, i.e., Poincaré recurrences. Metatheoretically this is a remarkable result, since it justifies quantum cosmology: to study the whole universe (i.e., physical reality) purely quantum physically is meaningful and valid science, in which decoherence explains why the quantum physical universe appears to cosmologists and other scientists very classical-like. The study of the logical structure of closed systems also reveals that complex enough closed (physical) systems obey a principle that is similar to Gödel's incompleteness theorem of logic. According to the theorem it is impossible to describe completely a closed system within the system, and the inside and outside descriptions of the system can be remarkably different. Via understanding this feature it may be possible to comprehend coarse-graining better and to define uniquely the mutual entanglement of quantum systems.
  • Blåsten, Eemeli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    We prove uniqueness and stability for the inverse boundary value problem of the two dimensional Schrödinger equation. We do not assume the potentials to be continuous or even bounded. Instead, we assume that some of their positive fractional derivatives are in a specific Lorentz space. These spaces are a natural generalization to the usual fractional Sobolev spaces. The thesis consists of two parts. In the first part, we define the generalized fractional Sobolev spaces and prove some of their properties including embeddings and interpolation identities. In particular we sharpen the usual Sobolev embedding into the space of Hölder-continuous functions, by showing that a particular kind of space embeds into the space of continuous functions without any modulus of continuity. The inverse problem is considered in the second part of the thesis. We prove a new Carleman estimate for ∂. This estimate has a fast decay rate, which will allow us to consider potentials with very low regularity. After that we use Bukhgeim s oscillating exponential solutions, Alessandrini s identity and stationary phase to get information about the difference of the potentials from the difference of the Cauchy data. The stability estimate will be of logarithmic type, but works with potentials of low regularity.
  • Gaal, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Cerebrovascular diseases continue to challenge us by robbing lives and leaving many disabled still in their prime working age. Some cerebrovascular diseases are more acute in nature, and some erode the quality of life over a long period of time. A life-threatening form of acute cerebrovascular disease is brought on by the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA). Most IAs are berry-shaped pouches at the forking site of cerebral arteries. Since according to autopsy results, 2-5% of the population harbours IA, it is a common disease. Most IA go unnoticed during one s lifetime, however, often the first symptom they give is their deadly rupture. Likely, both environmental factors and a compound genetic susceptibility, contribute to the risk of IA, making it a complex disease. The aim of studies I-III was to test whether in humans common genetic variants contribute to the susceptibility to IA (I,II), and to seek genetic evidence for their pathomechanism (III). In multinational genome-wide association studies (I,II) we identified 5 loci with strong statistical evidence of association with IA, and a further 14 loci with suggestive evidence. Further, we found that suggestive IA risk locus at 5q26 is strongly associated with high systolic blood pressure in over 210 000 individuals of European descent, highlighting the connection between hypertension and IA (III). To gain further insight into cerebral vasculopathies and to facilitate the development of novel therapies, in study (IV) we turned our attention to vascular growth factor induced angiogenesis in a model organism. We tested by viral gene transfer the known vascular growth factors in the murine central nervous system and characterised extensively the angiogenesis upon treatment. The aim of the study was to identify the best candidate vascular growth factor(s) for therapeutic brain angiogenesis. We identified placenta growth factor as the most safe and efficient candidate for therapeutic revascularisation of the central nervous system. We envision a placenta growth factor enhanced multiple bur hole indirect extracranial-intracranial bypass as a novel therapeutic approach in the brain, possibly aiding the treatment of diseases such as chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, complex IAs and stroke.
  • Tähtinen, Vesa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This PhD Thesis is about certain infinite-dimensional Grassmannian manifolds that arise naturally in geometry, representation theory and mathematical physics. From the physics point of view one encounters these infinite-dimensional manifolds when trying to understand the second quantization of fermions. The many particle Hilbert space of the second quantized fermions is called the fermionic Fock space. A typical element of the fermionic Fock space can be thought to be a linear combination of the configurations m particles and n anti-particles . Geometrically the fermionic Fock space can be constructed as holomorphic sections of a certain (dual)determinant line bundle lying over the so called restricted Grassmannian manifold, which is a typical example of an infinite-dimensional Grassmannian manifold one encounters in QFT. The construction should be compared with its well-known finite-dimensional analogue, where one realizes an exterior power of a finite-dimensional vector space as the space of holomorphic sections of a determinant line bundle lying over a finite-dimensional Grassmannian manifold. The connection with infinite-dimensional representation theory stems from the fact that the restricted Grassmannian manifold is an infinite-dimensional homogeneous (Kähler) manifold, i.e. it is of the form G/H where G is a certain infinite-dimensional Lie group and H its subgroup. A central extension of G acts on the total space of the dual determinant line bundle and also on the space its holomorphic sections; thus G admits a (projective) representation on the fermionic Fock space. This construction also induces the so called basic representation for loop groups (of compact groups), which in turn are vitally important in string theory / conformal field theory. The Thesis consists of three chapters: the first chapter is an introduction to the backround material and the other two chapters are individually written research articles. The first article deals in a new way with the well-known question in Yang-Mills theory, when can one lift the action of the gauge transformation group on the space of connection one forms to the total space of the Fock bundle in a compatible way with the second quantized Dirac operator. In general there is an obstruction to this (called the Mickelsson-Faddeev anomaly) and various geometric interpretations for this anomaly, using such things as group extensions and bundle gerbes, have been given earlier. In this work we give a new geometric interpretation for the Faddeev-Mickelsson anomaly in terms of differentiable gerbes (certain sheaves of categories) and central extensions of Lie groupoids. The second research article deals with the question how to define a Dirac-like operator on the restricted Grassmannian manifold, which is an infinite-dimensional space and hence not in the landscape of standard Dirac operator theory. The construction relies heavily on infinite-dimensional representation theory and one of the most technically demanding challenges is to be able to introduce proper normal orderings for certain infinite sums of operators in such a way that all divergences will disappear and the infinite sum will make sense as a well-defined operator acting on a suitable Hilbert space of spinors. This research article was motivated by a more extensive ongoing project to construct twisted K-theory classes in Yang-Mills theory via a Dirac-like operator on the restricted Grassmannian manifold.
  • Yli-Juuti, Taina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Atmospheric aerosol particles affect the visibility, damage human health and influence the Earth's climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Considerable uncertainties are associated with the estimates of aerosol climatic effects and the extent of these effects depends on the particles size, composition, concentration and location in the atmosphere. Improved knowledge on the processes affecting these properties is of great importance in predicting future climate. Significant fraction of the atmospheric aerosol particles are formed in the atmosphere from trace gases through a phase change, i.e. nucleation. The freshly nucleated secondary aerosol particles are about a nanometer in diameter, and they need to grow tens of nanometers by condensation of vapors before they affect the climate. During the growth, the nanoparticles are subject to coagulational losses, and their survival to CCN sizes is greatly dependent on their growth rate. Therefore, capturing the nanoparticle growth correctly is crucial for representing aerosol effects in climate models. A large fraction of nanoparticle growth in many environments is expected to be due to organic compounds. However a full identification of the compounds and processes involved in the growth is lacking to date. In this thesis the variability in atmospheric nanoparticle growth rates with particle size and ambient conditions was studied based on observations at two locations, a boreal forest and a Central European rural site. The importance of various organic vapor uptake mechanisms and particle phase processes was evaluated, and two nanoparticle growth models were developed to study the effect of acid-base chemistry in the uptake of organic compounds by nanoparticles. Further, the effect of inorganic solutes on the partitioning of organic aerosol constituents between gas and particle phase was studied based on laboratory experiments. Observations of the atmospheric nanoparticle growth rates supported the hypothesis of organic compounds controlling the particle growth. The growth rates of particles with diameter PIENEMPI 20 nm vary with particle size, and the processes covering the uptake of organic vapors and limiting the nanoparticle growth were concluded to be size dependent. Formation of organic salts in the particle phase is likely to play a role in nanoparticle growth, however, according to the model predictions, it does not explain the uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds entirely. Small amount of inorganic salt does not seem to affect the volatility of organic acids, however with an increased inorganic content the case is not as clear.
  • Korhonen, Jaana (2016)
    International industrial competitiveness depends on many aspects. It can be based on cost advantages over international competitors, which are realized as higher market shares and increased trade flows in global markets. Competitiveness can also be improved by creating higher value through increased product quality and by means of sustainability. This places increasing strategic importance on scarcening natural resources and on how proactively environmental responsibility is perceived in the international forest sector in the future; as an additional cost or more as an opportunity of a high road to competitiveness? The goal of this dissertation is to analyze international competitiveness and its drivers from five different perspectives at the regional, country, and firm levels, with an emphasis on the pulp and paper industry. The empirical research problems of five individual research articles are approached by combining quantitative and qualitative data analyses. The time period from 1990 to 2030 was covered in the analyses. The results highlight the importance of forests, markets, and regulation in creating competitive advantages at different levels in the sector. The traditional forest sector factors such as resource availability and traditional economic factors such price competitiveness are going to play an important role also in the future. However, sustainability will become increasingly important for the value creation opportunities of industries. It is an opportunity for companies in their global value chains if the global environmental awareness and societal demand for sustainability continue to increase. Therefore, more responsible use of global forest resources can offer solutions to global sustainability challenges, and in the transition to a bioeconomy in which the forest industry plays a key role.
  • Taipale, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Hienola, Anca (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The conversion of a metastable phase into a thermodynamically stable phase takes place via the formation of clusters. Clusters of different sizes are formed spontaneously within the metastable mother phase, but only those larger than a certain size, called the critical size, will end up growing into a new phase. There are two types of nucleation: homogeneous, where the clusters appear in a uniform phase, and heterogeneous, when pre-existing surfaces are available and clusters form on them. The nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase molecules is connected not only with inorganic compounds, but also with nonvolatile organic substances found in atmosphere. The question is which ones of the myriad of organic species have the right properties and are able to participate in nucleation phenomena. This thesis discusses both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, having as theoretical tool the classical nucleation theory (CNT) based on thermodynamics. Different classes of organics are investigated. The members of the first class are four dicarboxylic acids (succinic, glutaric, malonic and adipic). They can be found in both the gas and particulate phases, and represent good candidates for the aerosol formation due to their low vapor pressure and solubility. Their influence on the nucleation process has not been largely investigated in the literature and it is not fully established. The accuracy of the CNT predictions for binary water-dicarboxylic acid systems depends significantly on the good knowledge of the thermophysical properties of the organics and their aqueous solutions. A large part of the thesis is dedicated to this issue. We have shown that homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of succinic, glutaric and malonic acids in combination with water is unlikely to happen in atmospheric conditions. However, it seems that adipic acid could participate in the nucleation process in conditions occurring in the upper troposphere. The second class of organics is represented by n-nonane and n-propanol. Their thermophysical properties are well established, and experiments on these substances have been performed. The experimental data of binary homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation have been compared with the theoretical predictions. Although the n-nonane - n-propanol mixture is far from being ideal, CNT seems to behave fairly well, especially when calculating the cluster composition. In the case of heterogeneous nucleation, it has been found that better characterization of the substrate - liquid interaction by means of line tension and microscopic contact angle leads to a significant improvement of the CNT prediction. Unfortunately, this can not be achieved without well defined experimental data.
  • Lindberg, Sauli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The dissertation deals with the Jacobian equation in the plane. R.R. Coifman, J.-P. Lions, Y. Meyer and S. Semmes proved in their seminal paper from 1993 that when a mapping from the n-space to the n-space belongs to a suitable homogeneous Sobolev space, its Jacobian determinant belongs to a real-variable Hardy space. Coifman, Lions, Meyer and Semmes proceeded to ask the following famous open problem: can every function in the Hardy space be written as the Jacobian of some Sobolev mapping? It follows from the work of G. Cupini, B. Dacorogna and O. Kneuss that the range of the Jacobian operator is dense in the Hardy space. As a consequence of this, solving the Jacobian equation reduces to proving that every so-called energy-minimal solution satisfies certain natural a priori estimate. In the dissertation we use Lagrange multipliers in Banach spaces to prove the sought after a priori estimate for a large class of energy-minimal solutions. It remains unclear whether the class is large enough to imply the surjectivity of the Jacobian operator, but we present many partial results on the properties of the class. To cite an example, when the Hardy space is endowed with a particular norm that is well suited to the study of the Jacobian equation, all the extreme points of the unit ball are Jacobians. Furthermore, the energy-minimal solutions for the extreme points satisfy the wanted a priori estimate. As one of the main results of the dissertation we reduce solving the Jacobian equation to a fairly concrete finite-dimensional problem. As the main tools of the dissertation we use Banach space geometry, harmonic analysis in the plane and methods from the theory of incompressible elasticity.
  • Wang, Keguang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Pack ice is an aggregate of ice floes drifting on the sea surface. The forces controlling the motion and deformation of pack ice are air and water drag forces, sea surface tilt, Coriolis force and the internal force due to the interaction between ice floes. In this thesis, the mechanical behavior of compacted pack ice is investigated using theoretical and numerical methods, focusing on the three basic material properties: compressive strength, yield curve and flow rule. A high-resolution three-category sea ice model is applied to investigate the sea ice dynamics in two small basins, the whole Gulf Riga and the inside Pärnu Bay, focusing on the calibration of the compressive strength for thin ice. These two basins are on the scales of 100 km and 20 km, respectively, with typical ice thickness of 10-30 cm. The model is found capable of capturing the main characteristics of the ice dynamics. The compressive strength is calibrated to be about 30 kPa, consistent with the values from most large-scale sea ice dynamic studies. In addition, the numerical study in Pärnu Bay suggests that the shear strength drops significantly when the ice-floe size markedly decreases. A characteristic inversion method is developed to probe the yield curve of compacted pack ice. The basis of this method is the relationship between the intersection angle of linear kinematic features (LKFs) in sea ice and the slope of the yield curve. A summary of the observed LKFs shows that they can be basically divided into three groups: intersecting leads, uniaxial opening leads and uniaxial pressure ridges. Based on the available observed angles, the yield curve is determined to be a curved diamond. Comparisons of this yield curve with those from other methods show that it possesses almost all the advantages identified by the other methods. A new constitutive law is proposed, where the yield curve is a diamond and the flow rule is a combination of the normal and co-axial flow rule. The non-normal co-axial flow rule is necessary for the Coulombic yield constraint. This constitutive law not only captures the main features of forming LKFs but also takes the advantage of avoiding overestimating divergence during shear deformation. Moreover, this study provides a method for observing the flow rule for pack ice during deformation.