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  • Oksanen-Lyytikäinen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The idea of this research was to articulate the meanings of costume and costume design through three contemporary operas Helsinkiin 2005, Le Saxophone 2011 ja Kohtaus kadulla 2013 process descriptions. The aim of this study was to research the meaning of costume and costume design in different opera contexts from the point of view of the costume design-er, but also from the viewpoint of the composer, stage director, performers and the audience. These meanings are considered in the entirety of the above-mentioned operas. Besides will be asked, how do production, performing context and the quality of the collaboration and interaction influence to the artistic pro-cesses from the viewpoint of costume design. As the basis of the multiple case study there was fenomenographic and semi-otic approach to the opera phenomena and producing and interpreting the mean-ings of the costume. The meanings of the costume were to be introduced by adapting methods of craft science, practice-led and artistic research. As main research material was used artists descriptions of their processes, diaries, notes and visual documents like sketches and photographs of the productions. Also material collected by interviewing and inquiry methods was used. As the research result I pronounce the context-based meaning of the costume. The role and meaning of the costume changes according to which phase of the process and from whose viewpoint it is considered. The meaning of the costume is different to different artists or producers and it changes during the processes. To the director costuming can give, besides visual stage picture, tools to create action with, and to the performer it for example will function as a help to create the character and as a protection during performances. To the audience costume tells of the backgrounds or the nature of the characters or something from the stories behind the artwork. When compared, the sketches produced during the artistic processes and the photographs taken from the stages, it was clearly to be seen that the costume sketches had their impact to the stage picture. Through the sketches of the com-poser it was to be noticed that the creative processes in different arts to some extent remind each other. The documentation and analyzing documents of the artistic processes opens up a great chance to create a picture of what happens during art making.
  • Ervasti, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Teachers' work is considered stressful, but the extent to which factors related to the school setting are associated with teacher sick leave remains unknown. This study examined the association between pupil-related psychosocial factors, the school setting, and teacher sick leave. The general framework of this study was based on work stress models that propose that psychosocial factors affect health when the demands of the psychosocial work environment exceed the resources of the employee. Survey data and register data were collected independently from teachers and pupils during a period from 2003 to 2006. Data were collected from 1) the School Health Promotion Study (2004-2005) by the National Institute for Health and Welfare, and from 2) the Finnish Public Sector Study (FPSS) by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, which focuses on the health of municipal employees in 10 towns. The FPSS data are linked to employer register data as well as to register data from other sources. In four of the five articles (sub-studies) that comprise this thesis, register data on teacher sick leave served as an outcome variable. Either data from pupil surveys or from other registers were then linked to these data. In one study, survey data on teacher health, health-risk behaviors, and violent situations at work were used as outcome variables. The number of teachers in these studies varied between 2291 and 8089, depending on the availability of the data. Multilevel regression models served to examine the risk of short-term (1 to 3 days) and long-term (over 3 days) sick leave episodes, the risk of diagnosis-specific absences, or the risk of health problems, health-risk behaviors, and encountering workplace violence among teachers in all comprehensive education or in lower secondary schools only. The study designs were cross-sectional, except for one prospective study. Pupil-related psychosocial factors at school, namely vandalism of school property, bullying, truancy, and school satisfaction, were based on pupils' survey responses aggregated at the school level. Pupil vandalism, bullying at school, and school dissatisfaction were related to increased risk for sick leave among teachers. Vandalism and bullying at school were associated with teachers' short-term sick leave. Pupils' low school satisfaction was associated with teachers' long-term sick leave. In diagnosis-specific analyses, pupils' low school satisfaction predicted teachers' sick leave due to psychiatric diagnoses, more specifically, to neurotic and stress-related disorders. Special needs education seems to pose a challenge for teacher well-being. Male special education teachers were at higher risk for short-term and long-term sick leave than were male teachers in general education. Male special education teachers' risk for encountering mental abuse was three-fold, and their risk for encountering physical violence was five-fold higher than that among male teachers in general education. Although female special education teachers did not differ from female general education teachers with regard to sick leave, they were at greater risk for encountering mental abuse and physical violence than were their female colleagues in general education. The percentage of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in general education schools was also associated in a gradient manner with all teachers' risk for sick leave. In particular, when the school had few teacher resources in terms of large number of pupils per teacher (>15.3), the risk for long-term absences among teachers rose with increases in the numbers of pupils at school with SEN. Although teachers' sick leave varied significantly between the schools studied, the between-school variation in absences due to illness stemmed largely from pupil-related factors and factors related to the school setting. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that pupil-related psychosocial factors, such as pupils' problem behavior, school dissatisfaction, and violent or threatening situations in schools, affect teacher health as reflected by their taking sick leave. Attention should focus on teacher well-being, especially in schools characterized by such stressors. Possible actions may include teacher training and interventions to improve psychosocial environments in schools, but also strengthening teacher resources (i.e., reducing the ratio of pupils to teaching staff), especially in schools where the percentage of pupils with SEN is high.
  • Onatsu-Arvilommi, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Alkio, Martti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This thesis discusses the use of sub- and supercritical fluids as the medium in extraction and chromatography. Super- and subcritical extraction was used to separate essential oils from herbal plant Angelica archangelica. The effect of extraction parameters was studied and sensory analyses of the extracts were done by an expert panel. The results of the sensory analyses were compared to the analytically determined contents of the extracts. Sub- and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was used to separate and purify high-value pharmaceuticals. Chiral SFC was used to separate the enantiomers of racemic mixtures of pharmaceutical compounds. Very low (cryogenic) temperatures were applied to substantially enhance the separation efficiency of chiral SFC. The thermodynamic aspects affecting the resolving ability of chiral stationary phases are briefly reviewed. The process production rate which is a key factor in industrial chromatography was optimized by empirical multivariate methods. General linear model was used to optimize the separation of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters from esterized fish oil by using reversed-phase SFC. Chiral separation of racemic mixtures of guaifenesin and ferulic acid dimer ethyl ester was optimized by using response surface method with three variables per time. It was found that by optimizing four variables (temperature, load, flowate and modifier content) the production rate of the chiral resolution of racemic guaifenesin by cryogenic SFC could be increased severalfold compared to published results of similar application. A novel pressure-compensated design of industrial high pressure chromatographic column was introduced, using the technology developed in building the deep-sea submersibles (Mir 1 and 2). A demonstration SFC plant was built and the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A was purified to meet the requirements of US Pharmacopoeia. A smaller semi-pilot size column with similar design was used for cryogenic chiral separation of aromatase inhibitor Finrozole for use in its development phase 2.
  • Ossola, Bernardino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Parkinson´s disease (PD) is a debilitating age-related neurological disorder that affects various motor skills and can lead to a loss of cognitive functions. The motor symptoms are the result of the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. The factors that influence the pathogenesis and the progression of the neurodegeneration remain mostly unclear. This study investigated the role of various programmed cell death (PCD) pathways, oxidative stress, and glial cells both in dopaminergic neurodegeneration and in the protective action of various drugs. To this end, we exposed dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) to 6-OHDA, which produces oxidative stress and activates various PCD modalities that result in neuronal degeneration. Additionally, to explore the role of glia, we prepared rat midbrain primary mixed-cell cultures containing both neurons and glial cell types such as microglia and astroglia and then exposed the cultures to either MPP plus or lipopolysaccharide. Our results revealed that 6-OHDA activated several PCD pathways including apoptosis, autophagic stress, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and perhaps paraptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, we found that minocycline protected SH-SY5Y cells from 6-OHDA by inhibiting both apoptotic and non-apoptotic PCD modalities. We also observed an inconsistent neuroprotective effect of various dietary anti-oxidant compounds against 6-OHDA toxicity in vitro in SH-SY5Y cells. Specifically, quercetin and curcumin exerted neuroprotection only within a narrow concentration range and a limited time frame, whereas resveratrol and epigallocatechin 3-gallate provided no protection whatsoever. Lastly, we found that molecules such as amantadine may delay or even halt the neurodegeneration in primary cell cultures by inhibiting the release of neurotoxic factors from overactivated microglia and by enhancing the pro-survival actions of astroglia. Together these data suggest that the strategy of dampening oxidative species with anti-oxidants is less effective than preventing the production of toxic factors such as oxidative and pro-inflammatory molecules by pathologically activated microglia. This would subsequently prevent the activation of various PCD modalities that cause neuronal degeneration.
  • Aatola, Piia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Aatola, P. 2013. Putting a Price on Carbon Econometric Essays on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and its Impacts. ABSTRACT This dissertation examines the main instrument of the European Union climate policy, the emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) during its first years. Emission trading provides a cost-efficient way to reduce emissions. It creates a price on carbon dioxide and thereby incentives for cleaner production. The four empirical studies in this dissertation provide new information on the price determination in the emissions trading market, market efficiency and market interactions with the electricity markets. This information is useful for many purposes. It benefits the market participants who make choice between trading of emission allowances in the market and abatement of emissions. For the authorities and policy planners the price signal and the efficiency of the markets reveal unique real-time information on marginal abatement costs, impacts of policy decisions and impacts of institutional design of this policy instrument. To be a well-functioning policy instrument the EU ETS should create a credible price signal and efficient markets for trading allowances. The objective of this dissertation is to analyze the EU ETS markets and the price of the European Union emissions allowance, EUA, with econometric time series models. A large data set on market fundamentals is used to analyze the price series. The results of this dissertation reveal that EU ETS is functions well. Carbon has a price that reflects to a large extent the market fundamentals in the study period. The markets are maturing even if not fully informational efficient yet. Interactions with electricity markets are close. The impact of price of carbon on the price of electricity is positive but spatially uneven. In the long run, also climate change affects the electricity bill. The first study of this dissertation investigates the price determination in the market. The empirical results based on years 2005-2011 show that the price of the EUA is largely determined by the market fundamentals. Especially the price of coal, gas, oil and the price of German electricity are reflected in the price of EUA. In the second study we build up forecasting models and use a trading simulation to study the informational efficiency of the market. Results reveal that the market is not fully efficient but maturing. There might have been possibilities to make economic profit during the second period in the EU ETS market. The last two papers focus on the interaction of emissions trading with electricity markets. The third study looks at the impact of EUA price on the integrating European electricity markets. The electricity markets are integrating but the positive impact of carbon price on the electricity price is uneven depending on the fuel mix in regional electricity markets. The last study analyses the impact of increasing mean temperature due to climate change and the EUA price on the electricity bill in the EU. Warming climate affect the electricity bill unevenly: in the southern European countries the bill is expected to increase due to the increased demand for cooling, whereas the northern and central parts of the continent may face decreasing costs as the winters get warmer. Keywords: Climate change, EU ETS, price determination, market efficiency, electricity market, time series econometrics
  • Siltala, Sakari (2013)
    This monograph demonstrates how the Finnish cooperative movement tried to assimilate capitalism, but got itself assimilated instead. The study examines the role of cooperatives during the period of fundamental structural changes in the Finnish business system 1982 - 2004. This period saw the breakthrough of competitive capitalism and the dissolution of cooperative capitalism, i.e. an economic system permeated by cartels and multilevel cooperation in business life. The monograph is an empirical case study focusing on Metsäliitto (Metsä Group), one of the biggest European forest industry corporations and producer cooperatives (annual turnover 8,8 billion in 2002, owned by 125 000 private Finnish forest owners). The main sources of the study are the documents of the archives of Metsäliitto, MTK (The Central Union of Agricultural Producers and Forest Owners) and Metsäteollisuus ry (Finnish Forest Industries Federation) and the interviews of 65 representatives of the aforementioned organizations and other business leaders. The study uses an actor-structure-approach, where Metsäliitto is the actor defining the viewpoint, and the established cooperative capitalism the surrounding structure. The essential findings and results are connected with international discussions on national business systems and varieties of capitalism. Throughout the 20th century Finland lived of forests, cartels and cooperatives. The three elements supporting the business system combine in the case of Metsäliitto. This makes it a revealing example when studying the dissolution of cooperative capitalism. The monograph provides new information on the role of Finland s most important industry and export sector and the cooperative movement during the transformation of the national business system. The thesis shows how Finnish cooperative capitalism broke under both internal and external pressures alike. Internally, it was challenged by another form of economic cooperation with long traditions, the cooperative movement. Metsäliitto aspired to dominate the roundwood markets of the country and to force other forest industry enterprises under the cooperative´s raw material hegemony and Metsäliitto-led cooperation. Externally, cooperative capitalism was broken down by expanding regime of economic neoliberalism, European integration and the resultant stricter competition laws and -policies. The monograph examines the difficult adjustment of the cooperatives to the competitive capitalism, the breakthrough of which Metsäliitto itself assisted. This adjustment is connected to a worldwide trend, the hybridization of cooperatives, i.e. the expansion of ownership rights to non-members, the mutation towards investor-oriented firms, and the dissolution of the cooperative ideology.
  • Arppe, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Räsänen, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Day by day more and more. Repetitive constructions in Finnish The study describes syntactic repetition in Finnish. Under investigation are short repetitive constructions in which the construction is connected by a morpheme, for example, päivä päivältä day by day , uudelleen ja uudelleen again and again . The study is a qualitative corpus-based study. It has three study questions. First, the study analyses the grammatical structure of repetitive constructions. Secondly, repetition is an iconic phenomenon, and the study investigates the motivation for repetition. Why and where is repetition used? Thirdly, the study will tentatively explain the syntactic productivity of the constructions. Syntactic repetition has semantic and pragmatic functions of which three are the most interesting. Firstly, it changes the aspectual interpretation of utterances. Durative situations become continuative, and semelfactive iterative. Secondly, repetition is also used to intensify expressions. Thirdly, repetition can be used to express superlative meanings. Repetition has many pragmatic functions. For example, it carries affective meanings in conversation. Repetition can also be used as an expressive tool in narrative contexts.
  • af Hällström, Taija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in men. In 2004, 5237 new cases were diagnosed and altogether 25 664 men suffered from prostate cancer in Finland (Suomen Syöpärekisteri). Although extensively investigated, we still have a very rudimentary understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to the frequent transformation of the prostate epithelium. Prostate cancer is characterized by several unique features including the multifocal origin of tumors and extreme resistance to chemotherapy, and new treatment options are therefore urgently needed. The integrity of genomic DNA is constantly challenged by genotoxic insults. Cellular responses to DNA damage involve elegant checkpoint cascades enforcing cell cycle arrest, thus facilitating damage repair, apoptosis or cellular senescence. Cellular DNA damage triggers the activation of tumor suppressor protein p53 and Wee1 kinase which act as executors of the cellular checkpoint responses. These are essential for genomic integrity, and are activated in early stages of tumorigenesis in order to function as barriers against tumor formation. Our work establishes that the primary human prostatic epithelial cells and prostatic epithelium have unexpectedly indulgent checkpoint surveillance. This is evidenced by the absence of inhibitory Tyr15 phosphorylation on Cdk2, lack of p53 response, radioresistant DNA synthesis, lack of G1/S and G2/M phase arrest, and presence of persistent gammaH2AX damage foci. We ascribe the absence of inhibitory Tyr15 phosphorylation to low levels of Wee1A, a tyrosine kinase and negative regulator of cell cycle progression. Ectopic Wee1A kinase restored Cdk2-Tyr15 phosphorylation and efficiently rescued the ionizing radiation-induced checkpoints in the human prostatic epithelial cells. As variability in the DNA damage responses has been shown to underlie susceptibility to cancer, our results imply that a suboptimal checkpoint arrest may greatly increase the accumulation of genetic lesions in the prostate epithelia. We also show that small molecules can restore p53 function in prostatic epithelial cells and may serve as a paradigm for the development of future therapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer We hypothesize that the prostate has evolved to activate the damage surveillance pathways and molecules involved in these pathways only to certain stresses in extreme circumstances. In doing so, this organ inadvertently made itself vulnerable to genotoxic stress, which may have implications in malignant transformation. Recognition of the limited activity of p53 and Wee1 in the prostate could drive mechanism-based discovery of preventative and therapeutic agents.
  • Molari, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    In the course of my research for my thesis The Q Gospel and Psychohistory, I moved on from the accounts of the Cynics ideals to psychohistorical explanations. Studying the texts dealing with the Cynics and the Q Gospel, I was amazed by the fact that these texts actually portrayed people living in greater poverty than they had to. I paid particular attention to the fact that the Q Gospel was born in traumatising, warlike circumstances. Psychiatric traumatology helped me understand the Q Gospel and other ancient documents using historical approaches in a way that would comply with modern behavioural science. Even though I found some answers to the questions I had posed in my research, the main result of my research work is the justification of the question: Is it important to ask whether there is a connection between the ethos expressed by means of the religious language of the Q Gospel and the predominantly war-related life experiences typical to Palestine at the time. As has been convincingly revealed by a number of studies, traumatic events contribute to the development of psychotic experiences. I approached the problematic nature, significance and complexity of the ideal of poverty and this warlike environment by clarifying the history of psychohistorical literary research and the interpretative contexts associated with Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Melanie Klein. It is justifiable to question abnormal mentality, but there is no reliable return from the abnormal mentality described in any particular text to the only affecting factor. The popular research tendency based on the Oedipus complex is just as controversial as the Oedipus complex itself. The sociological frameworks concerning moral panics and political paranoia of an outer and inner danger fit quite well with the construction of the Q Gospel. Jerrold M. Post, M.D., Professor of Psychiatry, Political Psychology and Interna-tional Affairs at George Washington University, and founder and director of the Center for the Analysis of Personality and Political Behavior for the Central Intelligence Agency, has focused on the role played by charisma in the attracting of followers and detailed the psychological styles of a "charismatic" leader. He wrote the books Political Paranoia and Leaders and Their Followers in a Dangerous World: the Psychology of Political Behavior among others. His psychoanalytic vocabulary was useful for my understanding of the minds and motivations involved in the Q Gospel s formation. The Q sect began to live in a predestined future, with the reality and safety of this world having collapsed in both their experience and their fantasies. The deep and clear-cut divisions into good and evil that are expressed in the Q Gospel reveal the powerful nature of destructive impulses, envy and overwhelming anxiety. Responsible people who influenced the Q Gospel's origination tried to mount an ascetic defense against anxiety, denying their own needs, focusing their efforts on another objective (God s Kingdom) and a regressive, submissive earlier phase of development (a child s carelessness). This spiritual process was primarily an ecclesiastic or group-dynamical tactic to give support to the power of group leaders.
  • Hildén, Timo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are special of position sensitive gas filled detectors used in several particle physics experiments. They are capable of sub- millimeter spatial resolution and energy resolution (FWHM) of the order of 20%. GEM detectors can operate with rates up to 50 kHz/mm2, withstand radiation excellently and can be manufactured up to square meter sizes. This thesis describes the Quality Assurance (QA) methods used in the assembly of 50 GEM detectors for the TOTEM T2 telescope at the LHC at CERN. Further development of optical QA methods used in T2 detector assembly lead into development of a unique large-area scanning system capable of sub-µm resolution. The system, its capability and the software used in the analysis of the scans are described in detail. A correlation was found between one of the main characteristics of the detector, the gas gain, and the results of the optical QA method. It was shown, that a qualitative estimation of the gain can be made based on accurate optical measurement of the microscopic features of the detector components. Ability to predict the performance of individual components of the detectors is extremely useful in large scale production of GEM based detectors.
  • Kankaanhuhta, Ville (Finnish Society of Forest Science, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Helsinki, School of Forest Sciences of the University of Eastern Finland, 2014)
    The purpose of this thesis was to find out what are the main factors that have to be taken into account in planning, controlling and improving the quality of forest regeneration activities. The forest regeneration services provided for the non-industrial privately-owned forests in Southern Finland by the local Forest Owners Associations (FOAs) were used as an example. Since the original assumptions of quality management were not completely valid in this context, Lillrank s classification of production processes was used. The classification fit well for this field of services, and a tentative framework for modelling and standardisation of forest regeneration service processes was proposed for further testing. The results of regeneration and costs varied considerably between the service providers at different levels. The jointly analysed inventory results and feedback provided a sound starting point for tackling the main causes of the statistical variation observed. The inventory results indicated that the selection of proper methods of regeneration and the way they were executed were the most common factors influencing the quality of service outcomes. The cost-quality analysis of the two most common chains of regeneration revealed an improvement potential for the cost-efficiency of these services. In the case of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) planting the regeneration costs were only weakly related to quality. As for direct seeding of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) direct seeding, a significant positive correlation was found. However, the selection of this chain of regeneration for the MT (Myrtillus type) and more fertile site types produced poor regeneration results. In the case of Norway spruce planting, the most important factor explaining the outcomes was soil preparation. Selection of mounding produced better results than patching and disc trenching. In the FOAs, the effect of quality management interventions was observable especially regarding the improvement of resource allocation and practices related to soil preparation.
  • Kymälainen, Hanna-Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Forsman, Pia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This thesis focuses on the issue of testing sleepiness quantitatively. The issue is relevant to policymakers concerned with traffic- and occupational safety; such testing provides a tool for safety legislation and -surveillance. The findings of this thesis provide guidelines for a posturographic sleepiness tester. Sleepiness ensuing from staying awake merely 17 h impairs our performance as much as the legally proscribed blood alcohol concentration 0.5 does. Hence, sleepiness is a major risk factor in transportation and occupational accidents. The lack of convenient, commercial sleepiness tests precludes testing impending sleepiness levels contrary to simply breath testing for alcohol intoxication. Posturography is a potential sleepiness test, since clinical diurnal balance testing suggests the hypothesis that time awake could be posturographically estimable. Relying on this hypothesis this thesis examines posturographic sleepiness testing for instrumentation purposes. Empirical results from 63 subjects for whom we tested balance with a force platform during wakefulness for maximum 36 h show that sustained wakefulness impairs balance. The results show that time awake is posturographically estimable with 88% accuracy and 97% precision which validates our hypothesis. Results also show that balance scores tested at 13:30 hours serve as a threshold to detect excessive sleepiness. Analytical results show that the test length has a marked effect on estimation accuracy: 18 s tests suffice to identify sleepiness related balance changes, but trades off some of the accuracy achieved with 30 s tests. The procedure to estimate time awake relies on equating the subject s test score to a reference table (comprising balance scores tested during sustained wakefulness, regressed against time awake). Empirical results showed that sustained wakefulness explains 60% of the diurnal balance variations, whereas the time of day explains 40% of the balance variations. The latter fact implies that time awake estimations also must rely on knowing the local times of both test and reference scores.