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  • Janzon, Max (Max Janzon, 2014)
    Abstract The study offers a strong constructivist reading on Finnish border security. The objective of the study is to realize border security culture. Realizing Finnish border security culture implies constructing Finnish border territoriality and its social meanings thereof, and reconstructing the patterns of valorization. The first research objective is to construct the shared ideas and assumptions of Finnish border security by constructing border territoriality. The second research objective is to define socially constructed spatial strategy. The third research objective is to realize border security culture and implies framing the social practices that confirm social meanings and patterns. Accordingly, the study has three research objectives and three research questions. The first research question is about how Finnish border security is socially constructed. The second research question concerns Finnish socially constructed border strategy. The third research question asks the question of what about border security culture is realized. The empirical agenda of the study is concluded with a main empirical argument regarding border security culture realized. Border security culture is regarded constructivist and thus as a holistically embedded social structure, which by social constructivism is made known, obvious and then understandable. Social constructivism is treated as a metapractice of border security culture and derives its character from the perceived logical and pragmatic relationship to its object of inquiry. Scientific realism in this study is understood in terms of constitutive realism. Constitutive realism draws from the assumption that there is social knowledge and that this social knowledge is expressed in and by social structures. The epistemological position argues for a constitutive framing of Finnish border security that draws from practical knowledge and its contextual horizon. For empirical purposes, the study applies constitutive framing. The act of constitutive framing produces specific frames by organizing and interpreting the language used to communicate border security meaning, patterns, and practices. A total of twenty Finnish border security professionals in senior or executive positions were interviewed for the study. Border security culture in this study is understood to constitute spatial strategy and bordering practices shared by border security professionals. For the purpose of realizing border security culture, the study develops a constructivist argument according to which constructing border security is by application of securitization theory wedded to border security professionals and by using territorialization theory rooted in how border security professionals construct territoriality. Rooted in the social ontology of international border security, the social constructivist argument forms a territorial political sociology that develops by combining the securitizing practices of border security agents and their shared territoriality. According to the empirical agenda, the master constructs of Finnish border security are Eastborderness, Schengenization, Integration, and Cooperation. Eastborderness and Schengenization are acts for communicating territoriality while integrated and cooperational borderwork are acts for enforcing territoriality. The two patterns of valorization that emerge are territorial consciousness and (securitized) spatial order. The pattern of territorial consciousness constitutes pragmatic and constructive territoriality. The pattern of securitized spatial order constitutes coherent and coordinated spatial order. While pragmatic and constructive territoriality are influential acts for communicating border territoriality, coherent and coordinated spatial order are influential acts for enforcing territoriality. Such influential territoriality constitutes effectively a socially constructed convincing border strategy. Border security culture is then realized by the practices that confirm shared meanings and shared patterns. The practices of eastbordering, social bordering, and spatial bordering confirm Finnish border strategy. Further, these bordering practices constitute influential bordering culture and Finnish (and European) border security culture realized. The main empirical argument regarding a border security culture realized is as follows. Rooted in convincing border strategy, the practices of eastbordering, social bordering, and spatial bordering inhere in and constitute an influential bordering culture, and thereby Finnish (and European) border security culture is realized. Eastbordering refers to the practices of Finnish-Russian border security cooperation, while social bordering constitutes Frontex-like border security. Spatial bordering practices define networked border security. Finnish-Russian border security cooperation, Frontex-like border security, and networked border security constitute influential border security culture, while inhering acts for communicating and enforcing territoriality effectively influence interactions at the security borders.
  • Rinttilä, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common multifactorial functional intestinal disorder, the pathogenesis of which is not completely understood. Increasing scientific evidence suggests that microbes are involved in the onset and maintenance of IBS symptoms. The microbiota of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract constitutes a massive and complex ecosystem consisting mainly of obligate anaerobic microorganisms making the use of culture-based methods demanding and prone to misinterpretation. To overcome these drawbacks, an extensive panel of species- and group-specific assays for an accurate quantification of bacteria from fecal samples with real-time PCR was developed, optimized, and validated. As a result, the target bacteria were detectable at a minimum concentration range of approximately 10 000 bacterial genomes per gram of fecal sample, which corresponds to the sensitivity to detect 0.000001% subpopulations of the total fecal microbiota. The real-time PCR panel covering both commensal and pathogenic microorganisms was assessed to compare the intestinal microbiota of patients suffering from IBS with a healthy control group devoid of GI symptoms. Both the IBS and control groups showed considerable individual variation in gut microbiota composition. Sorting of the IBS patients according to the symptom subtypes (diarrhea, constipation, and alternating predominant type) revealed that lower amounts of Lactobacillus spp. were present in the samples of diarrhea predominant IBS patients, whereas constipation predominant IBS patients carried increased amounts of Veillonella spp. In the screening of intestinal pathogens, 17% of IBS samples tested positive for Staphylococcus aureus, whereas no positive cases were discovered among healthy controls. Furthermore, the methodology was applied to monitor the effects of a multispecies probiotic supplementation on GI microbiota of IBS sufferers. In the placebo-controlled double-blind probiotic intervention trial of IBS patients, each supplemented probiotic strain was detected in fecal samples. Intestinal microbiota remained stable during the trial, except for Bifidobacterium spp., which increased in the placebo group and decreased in the probiotic group. The combination of assays developed and applied in this thesis has an overall coverage of 300-400 known bacterial species, along with the number of yet unknown phylotypes. Hence, it provides good means for studying the intestinal microbiota, irrespective of the intestinal condition and health status. In particular, it allows screening and identification of microbes putatively associated with IBS. The alterations in the gut microbiota discovered here support the hypothesis that microbes are likely to contribute to the pathophysiology of IBS. The central question is whether the microbiota changes described represent the cause for, rather than the effect of, disturbed gut physiology. Therefore, more studies are needed to determine the role and importance of individual microbial species or groups in IBS. In addition, it is essential that the microbial alterations observed in this study will be confirmed using a larger set of IBS samples of different subtypes, preferably from various geographical locations.
  • Hepola, Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Individual housing, deprivation of sucking behaviour, and low milk intake are considered to be some of the factors which may reduce calf welfare. This thesis consists of three experiments that examined the effects of various rearing strategies on feed intake, growth, oral behaviour, and welfare of young dairy calves. Results concerning group (outside or inside the barn) and individual rearing of calves, keeping cows and calves together for a longer period than colostrum feeding, and water drinking on ad libitum milk replacer feeding are presented. In addition, meta-analyses from the three above mentioned experiments were conducted to evaluate relationships between intakes of different feeds, and feed intake and growth before and after weaning off milk. The aim of the first experiment was to compare feeding behaviour and the performance of young dairy calves in warm and cold group housing systems. In addition, housing calves individually and in groups inside the barn was compared. Group rearing may socially facilitate calves to start eating dry feeds and ruminating earlier than individual housing. Cross sucking problems in calf groups can be reduced by feeding and management factors. Group-housed calves can cope with the changing temperatures in an unheated production system if they are under careful management. Low temperatures can, however, decrease the time spent eating, and may thus affect growth, at least if the eating place is outside, and separated from the lying area which is in shelter. In the second experiment the effect of five weeks of restricted suckling (twice a day suckling two hours after the cows were milked) followed by three weeks of even more restricted suckling (once a day) was compared to abrupt weaning after five weeks of restricted suckling to see if the former had less effect on feed intake, growth and weaning behaviour of the calves. When the calves were weaned at five weeks of age, they did not eat dry feed in sufficient amounts to compensate for the loss of milk provision. Consequently, the calves abruptly weaned at the age of five weeks lost weight after weaning. Therefore, from a calf welfare point of view total weaning at the age of five weeks from high milk allowance is not recommended since calves had difficulties in coping in that situation. Five weeks of twice a day suckling, followed by three weeks of once a day suckling reduces the decline in energy intake and growth following weaning. However, weaning from suckling the dam affected calves’ behaviour, both at the age of five and eight weeks, by increasing calves’ restlessness and vocalizations after weaning. In the third experiment the objective was firstly to examine water intake of calves fed acidified milk replacer ad libitum during the milk feeding and weaning stages. Secondly, the objective was to determine whether the method of water delivery (open bucket or nipple) impacted water and feed intake and growth during these periods, or oral behaviour during weaning. Calves consumed very little water when they had ad libitum access to acidified milk replacer, but after weaning the calves increased their water intake very quickly. No differences in water intake between the two water sources were noted either before or after abrupt weaning. Calves did, however, have some difficulties in using water nipples, which appeared as atypical drinking behaviours. Meta-analysis indicated that concentrate and hay intakes decreased by increased milk intake during the final part of the milk feeding period. Milk intake at the age of 2-5 and 6-8 weeks clearly increased growth, more at the age of 2-5 weeks than at the age of 6-8 weeks. There was a positive relationship between concentrate intake before and after weaning. In addition, a positive relationship was found between water and concentrate intake after weaning. Results from feed intake and growth data does not always reveal the possible differences in rearing systems for young dairy calves in terms of animal welfare as was seen in these experiments. Therefore, behaviour should also be taken into account when comparing rearing strategies for dairy calves.
  • Puputti, Marjut (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    In the present study we investigated expression and amplification of KIT, PDGFRA, VEGFR2 and EGFR in glioblastomas and in lower grade gliomas, and analyzed the hot spot mutation sites of KIT, PDGFRA and EGFR genes for presence of mutations in glioblastoma. Furthermore, we evaluated expression of KIT, SCF and VEGFR2 in paediatric brain tumors and in tumour endothelial cells, and studied the intratumoral heterogeneity of EGFR and KIT amplifications in primary glioblastomas and astrocytomas. Mutations turned out to be infrequent in these genes suggesting that neither primary nor secondary glioblastomas are usually driven by KIT or PDGFRA mutations, or by EGFR kinase domain mutations. Amplifications of KIT, VEGFR2, PDGFRA and EGFR turned out to be frequent in glioblastoma. KIT was amplified in 47% and VEGFR2 in 39% out of the 43 primary glioblastomas investigated, and PDGFRA in 29%. Presence of KIT, PDGFRA and VEGFR2 amplifications were strongly associated (p < 0.0001 for each pair wise comparison) suggesting co-amplification. We investigated presence of gene amplifications also in other types of gliomas either in tumour samples collected at the time of the diagnosis or in samples collected at the time of tumour recurrence. In tumour tissue samples collected at the time of the diagnosis KIT and PDGFRA amplifications turned out to be more frequent in anaplastic astrocytomas than in astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Amplified KIT was more frequently present in recurrent gliomas than in newly diagnosed. Pilocytic astrocytomas studied did not harbour amplification of KIT. KIT expression was common in tumour endothelial cells in pilocytic astrocytomas, and endothelial cell KIT was frequently activated. Tumour endothelial cell KIT expression was associated with a young age at the time of the diagnosis. Ependymomas also frequently expressed KIT in endothelial cells, and its expression tended to be associated with a young age at the time of the diagnosis. Finally, we investigated heterogeneity of KIT and EGFR amplification and their protein products in gliomas by studying several tissue blocks from each tumour. EGFR amplification was found in ten out of the 15 glioblastomas studied when analysis was carried out from only one tissue block, and in 11 cases when all available tissue blocks were analyzed. KIT was amplified in six out of the 15 index glioblastoma tissue blocks, but in 10 glioblastomas when all tissue blocks were analyzed. These findings suggest that glioblastomas show marked heterogeneity in KIT amplifications and that heterogeneity is less for EGFR amplifications.
  • Bräutigam, Tobias (2008)
    The doctoral dissertation deals with conflicts between access rights to public information and other legally protected interests, such as trade secrets or national security in comparative perspective. While the dissertation develops an own approach to comparative law, it focuses on the German Informationsfreiheitsgesetz (IFG) in substance matters. The German IFG is contrasted with two other laws, namely the Finnish Julkisuuslaki (JL) and the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) of the USA. After a brief introduction, a methodological chapter takes up the most essential question of comparative law: How to compare? The methodology is developed by analysing two challenges of comparative law. The first challenge is presented by what I term the off-the-shelf critique, i.e. a critique that applies to all comparative legal monographs. Comparing law can never fully succeed because it can always be attacked for being too shallow or for including too many details. There is no happy medium. The second critique is more fundamental and denies the possibility of meaningful comparison at all, mainly for epistemological reasons. This doctoral dissertation deals with those problems in the following way. To begin with, access to documents is defined narrowly. Secondly, the legal culture is seen as a key to understand different freedom of information laws. Further, before starting to compare, a neutral description of the Act in question is done. Fourthly, throughout the work I point the reader to the idiosyncrasy of the legal terms of different jurisdictions by e.g. marking the terms in italics. Finally and most importantly, I will concentrate on conflicts of different legally protected interests. The FOIA of the USA and the Finnish JL are analysed according to this methodology. Both chapters start with an analysis of the legal culture influencing access to information and go on to outline the main characteristics of the respective Acts. The main part of those chapters is devoted to an analysis of five central conflicts. Those conflicts concern national security, procedural rights, privacy, trade secrets and challenges of administrative procedure with access rights of citizens. The last chapter applies the same methodology to the German IFG, and compares this law with the findings of the FOIA of the USA and the Finnish JL in order to answer the question whether the German act is up to the international standard. In the dissertation, freedom of information laws are classified in three categories. While the FOIA and especially the JL have evolved to the highest categories, the IFG has several weaknesses that make it poorly fit for the information age.
  • Paukkeri, Pirkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The study investigates actions by recipients in spontaneous Russian conversations by focusing on DA, NU and TAK, when they are used as responses to the main speaker's larger on-going turn. The database for the study consists of some 7 hours of spontaneous conversations. The participants of the conversations come from different parts of Russia. The use of DA, NU and TAK was analyzed by applying the method of ethnomethodological conversation analysis from the point of view of the type of the context, the sequential placement of the response and its manner of production. The particles were analyzed both in contexts in which they responded to an informing and in affective contexts. The particles NU and TAK were used by the speakers almost exclusively in informing contexts, whereas DA was the central response type in affective contexts. DA was also the most common response to information with affective implications. The information, to which the particle NU provided as response, was often unspesific and projected a spesification or explanation by its speaker as the next action. DA and TAK, by contrast, treated the information as one that could be followed and was sufficient in its local context. As a response to parenthetical information NU responded to information that was only loosely connected with the mainline of talk. The particle DA, by contrast, was used as a response to such parenthetical information, which was more crucial for the larger on-going activity. Only NU was used as a response that invited the main speaker to continue a turn that she or he had offered as possibly complete. NU was also used by the recipient after her or his own contribution as a continuer. In affective contexts, DA expressed, depending on its more spesific context, not only agreement but also other functions, such as giving up arguing or prior knowledge on the topic being discussed. In addition DA responses were used to display empathy and identification with the state of affairs expressed by the co-participant. NU, by contrast, was seldom used as a response to a turn that expressed affect. When it was used in affective contexts, it displayed agreement with the co-participant or just registered an assessment by her or him.
  • Chernenko, Anton (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Communication is probably one of the major means of life maintenance. Communication involves the use of signals, which can be visual, audial, olfactory etc. Organisms communicate in many different contexts, ranging from establishing own identity, foraging for food, finding a mate, protecting their territory, to more sophisticated ones such as engaging in social behaviour. Recognition is the action or process of recognizing or being recognized. Recognition based on olfactory cues is perhaps best known from many insect species and is mediated by a wide range of volatile compounds, e.g. esters or terpenes, or non-volatile compounds such as cuticular hydrocarbons. In insects cuticular hydrocarbons are often the main agents involved in species recognition, predator avoidance, fertility and dominance signalling, cues that help parasites intrude their host nests but also those that help hosts to fend off the parasites; and also as cues facilitating sexual selection. In social insects in addition to above mentioned, cuticular hydrocarbons are involved in coordinating division of labour and nest mate recognition. The aim of my thesis was to study recognition system underlining social behaviour in Formica ants such as recognition of con- and hetero-specifics, e.g. nestmates and social parasites, and their brood as well as to examine cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of males and females. The results show that queens of potential social parasites have a very low chance to invade host colonies of Formica ants and become fully integrated. Moreover, social parasitism pressure, beside from affecting how the parasites are discriminated against, may also have an effect on the host kin recognition system and lead to rejection errors of descendant brood. Thus selection mediated by temporary social parasitism may drive enhanced recognition abilities. Colony kin structure does not seem to have any effect on recognition system towards con-specific non-nestmate and nestmate queens as both low- and high-relatedness colonies were as stringent towards unrelated individuals, although colonies with presumably high genetic diversity also showed significantly greater chemical diversity based on chemical profiles of sexuals. Hence nest mate recognition entails more complex interactions between individual genotypes and colony recognition cue phenotype than previously assumed. This thesis provides important insights on host-parasite interactions and highlights the complex interactions between different selection regimes affecting recognition system.
  • Mantere, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This study is part of an ongoing collaborative bipolar research project, the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS). The JoBS is run by the Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research of the National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, and the Department of Psychiatry, Jorvi Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH), Espoo, Finland. It is a prospective, naturalistic cohort study of secondary level care psychiatric in- and outpatients with a new episode of bipolar disorder (BD). The second report also included 269 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients from the Vantaa Depression Study (VDS). The VDS was carried out in collaboration with the Department of Psychiatry of the Peijas Medical Care District. Using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), all in- and outpatients at the Department of Psychiatry at Jorvi Hospital who currently had a possible new phase of DSM-IV BD were sought. Altogether, 1630 psychiatric patients were screened, and 490 were interviewed using a semistructured interview (SCID-I/P). The patients included in the cohort (n=191) had at intake a current phase of BD. The patients were evaluated at intake and at 6- and 18-month interviews. Based on this study, BD is poorly recognized even in psychiatric settings. Of the BD patients with acute worsening of illness, 39% had never been correctly diagnosed. The classic presentations of BD with hospitalizations, manic episodes, and psychotic symptoms lead clinicians to correct diagnosis of BD I in psychiatric care. Time of follow-up elapsed in psychiatric care, but none of the clinical features, seemed to explain correct diagnosis of BD II, suggesting reliance on cross- sectional presentation of illness. Even though BD II was clearly less often correctly diagnosed than BD I, few other differences between the two types of BD were detected. BD I and II patients appeared to differ little in terms of clinical picture or comorbidity, and the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity was strongly related to the current illness phase in both types. At the same time, the difference in outcome was clear. BD II patients spent about 40% more time depressed than BD I patients. Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity of BD and MDD differed somewhat qualitatively. Overall, MDD patients were likely to have more anxiety disorders and cluster A personality disorders, and bipolar patients to have more cluster B personality disorders. The adverse consequences of missing or delayed diagnosis are potentially serious. Thus, these findings strongly support the value of screening for BD in psychiatric settings, especially among the major depressive patients. Nevertheless, the diagnosis must be based on a clinical interview and follow-up of mood. Comorbidity, present in 59% of bipolar patients in a current phase, needs concomitant evaluation, follow-up, and treatment. To improve outcome in BD, treatment of bipolar depression is a major challenge for clinicians.
  • Kansikas, Minttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The most common inherited cancer syndrome, Lynch syndrome (LS), is caused by a defected post-replicative DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. Human MMR is initiated by the binding of a heterodimeric mismatch recognition factor MutSα (MSH2+MSH6) or MutSβ (MSH2+MSH3), followed by the assembly of the repairosome by MutLα (MLH1+PMS2). In addition to sharing a common heterodimerisation protein, the roles of MutSα and MutSβ have been suggested to overlap in the repair of small insertion deletion loops. A germline mutation in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is most commonly the cause of LS. Mutation carriers have a significantly increased risk for colon and endometrial cancers in particular, although tumorigenesis is thought to only commence upon losing the healthy allele. The clinical importance of identifying LS patients is reflected by the significantly increased cancer risk of LS mutation carriers and the effectiveness of LS associated cancer surveillance. The clinical diagnosis of LS relies on tumour pathological analyses, the identification of an MMR gene variation by mutation analysis and the subsequent pathogenicity assessment of the variation. However, the clinical significance of non-truncating genetic alterations can be difficult to interpret as they are associated to a variety of clinical phenotypes, ranging from the lack of adverse effects to a highly increased cancer risk. Due to the unknown functional significance of such variants, functional assessment is required for their pathogenicity assessment. Hence, biological tools used to assess the pathogenicity of MMR gene variations can be central to identifying LS patients. The aim of the studies in this thesis was to understand how MMR proteins and MMR gene alterations affect the MMR mechanism and contribute to LS. The role and significance of the wild type and variant MMR proteins were analysed in a homologous human MMR system by an in vitro MMR assay. Three different substrate molecules consisting of a GT mismatch, a single or a two nucleotide loop were used to study the substrate specificities and MMR efficiencies of the MutS protein complexes. Even though MutSβ does not participate in mononucleotide loop repair, it was shown to exceed MutSα in dinucleotide loop repair indicating that dinucleotide microsatellite instability in the absence of mononucleotide instability is indicative of MSH3 defects. Furthermore, the introduction of a dinucleotide loop substrate to our assay allowed the novel pathogenicity assessment of an MSH3 variation. Functional variant pathogenicity assessment of MMR gene variations linked to atypical clinical features also confirmed the pathogenicity of two novel MSH6 variations and one biallelic MLH1 variation. The compound contribution of MMR gene VUS pairs, as found in LS cancer patients, was assessed and a subtle compound effect of two MSH2 variations that appear MMR proficient when assayed individually was shown. Also, the application of MMR gene variants with known molecular effects to verify a variation pathogenicity assessment model helped describe the model appropriate for MLH1 and MSH2 variations. Finally, we established MMR gene specific knockdown cell lines to investigate the effect of reduced MMR gene expression on the MMR efficiency. The knockdown clones retaining 50% of MSH2 or MSH6 mRNA expression demonstrated significantly reduced in vitro MMR efficiencies whilst a decrease was also detectable in MLH1 knockdown extracts. The knowledge of the gene specific mRNA expression levels that can be detected as MMR deficient, presents the opportunity to develop the assay to recognise LS from non-cancerous cells.
  • Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Schmidt, Michel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Puolakka, Kalle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This study focuses on two philosophical issues related to the interpretation of art. Firstly, it considers the role of authorial intentions in interpretation. Secondly, the study raises the issue of relativism in interpretation through a discussion of the relativistic tendencies apparent in the views of three major figures of contemporary philosophy: Joseph Margolis, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and Richard Rorty. The major goal of the thesis is to develop a theory of interpretation supporting the role of authorial intentions in interpretation on the basis of Donald Davidson s late philosophy of language and the holistic account of interpretation that underlies different parts of his philosophy. It is my belief that an intentionalist view of interpretation built on Davidsonian elements manages to form the most convincing defense of that interpretive position against the skepticism present in the views of Margolis, Gadamer, and Rorty. The theoretical issues addressed in the thesis are illuminated by discussions of case-examples, most importantly Richard Wagner s The Valkyrie, Thomas Adés America: A Prophecy, and some symphonies by Dimitri Shostakovich. In chapter one, I present a critical discussion of Margolis robust relativism. While finding Margolis criticism of the self-refutive argument plausible, I, nevertheless, argue that the relativistic logic Margolis offers should not be favored in interpretation. The first parts of chapter two outline Davidsonian intentionalism by presenting a reading of Davidson s later work in philosophy of language and mind, and by indicating its relationship to Davidson s views of literature. Then, I shall compare Davidson s ideas with some recent modest forms of intentionalism found in analytic aesthetics, and argue that Davidsonian intentionalism is in many respects more satisfactory compared to them. Chapter three engages Gadamer s hermeneutics by defending E.D. Hirsch s criticism of Gadamer. Uncovering the shortcomings in the replies of Gadamer s followers to Hirsch s criticism serves as a basis for the defense of intentionalism in interpretation carried out in the chapter. That defense is then extended with a discussion of some recent hermeneutic readings of Davidson s views. Chapter four deals with the standing of intentionalism through Rorty s pragmatist approach to literature. By indicating the position of pragmatist notions of aesthetic experience and imagination in Davidsonian intentionalism, it is shown that an intentionalist approach need not be as impoverished with regard to the value Rorty attributes to literature as he assumes. The concluding chapter outlines some ways in which one can be a pluralist with regard to art and interpretation without falling into relativism.
  • Lindfors, Anders (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a broad range of effects concerning life on Earth. Soon after the mid-1980s, it was recognized that the stratospheric ozone content was declining over large areas of the globe. Because the stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth from harmful UV radiation, this lead to concern about possible changes in the UV radiation due to anthropogenic activity. Initiated by this concern, many stations for monitoring of the surface UV radiation were founded in the late 1980s and early 1990s. As a consequence, there is an apparent lack of information on UV radiation further in the past: measurements cannot tell us how the UV radiation levels have changed on time scales of, for instance, several decades. The aim of this thesis was to improve our understanding of past variations in the surface UV radiation by developing techniques for UV reconstruction. Such techniques utilize commonly available meteorological data together with measurements of the total ozone column for reconstructing, or estimating, the amount of UV radiation reaching Earth's surface in the past. Two different techniques for UV reconstruction were developed. Both are based on first calculating the clear-sky UV radiation using a radiative transfer model. The clear-sky value is then corrected for the effect of clouds based on either (i) sunshine duration or (ii) pyranometer measurements. Both techniques account also for the variations in the surface albedo caused by snow, whereas aerosols are included as a typical climatological aerosol load. Using these methods, long time series of reconstructed UV radiation were produced for five European locations, namely Sodankylä and Jokioinen in Finland, Bergen in Norway, Norrköping in Sweden, and Davos in Switzerland. Both UV reconstruction techniques developed in this thesis account for the greater part of the factors affecting the amount of UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Thus, they are considered reliable and trustworthy, as suggested also by the good performance of the methods. The pyranometer-based method shows better performance than the sunshine-based method, especially for daily values. For monthly values, the difference between the performances of the methods is smaller, indicating that the sunshine-based method is roughly as good as the pyranometer-based for assessing long-term changes in the surface UV radiation. The time series of reconstructed UV radiation produced in this thesis provide new insight into the past UV radiation climate and how the UV radiation has varied throughout the years. Especially the sunshine-based UV time series, extending back to 1926 and 1950 at Davos and Sodankylä, respectively, also put the recent changes driven by the ozone decline observed over the last few decades into perspective. At Davos, the reconstructed UV over the period 1926-2003 shows considerable variation throughout the entire period, with high values in the mid-1940s, early 1960s, and in the 1990s. Moreover, the variations prior to 1980 were found to be caused primarily by variations in the cloudiness, while the increase of 4.5 %/decade over the period 1979-1999 was supported by both the decline in the total ozone column and changes in the cloudiness. Of the other stations included in this work, both Sodankylä and Norrköping show a clear increase in the UV radiation since the early 1980s (3-4 %/decade), driven primarily by changes in the cloudiness, and to a lesser extent by the diminution of the total ozone. At Jokioinen, a weak increase was found, while at Bergen there was no considerable overall change in the UV radiation level.
  • Holopainen, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    In this paper both documentary and natural proxy data have been used to improve the accuracy of palaeoclimatic knowledge in Finland since the 18th century. Early meteorological observations from Turku (1748-1800) were analyzed first as a potential source of climate variability. The reliability of the calculated mean temperatures was evaluated by comparing them with those of contemporary temperature records from Stockholm, St. Petersburg and Uppsala. The resulting monthly, seasonal and yearly mean temperatures from 1748 to 1800 were compared with the present day mean values (1961-1990): the comparison suggests that the winters of the period 1749-1800 were 0.8 ºC colder than today, while the summers were 0.4 ºC warmer. Over the same period, springs were 0.9 ºC and autumns 0.1 ºC colder than today. Despite their uncertainties when compared with modern meteorological data, early temperature measurements offer direct and daily information about the weather for all months of the year, in contrast with other proxies. Secondly, early meteorological observations from Tornio (1737-1749) and Ylitornio (1792-1838) were used to study the temporal behaviour of the climate-tree growth relationship during the past three centuries in northern Finland. Analyses showed that the correlations between ring widths and mid-summer (July) temperatures did not vary significantly as a function of time. Early (June) and late summer (August) mean temperatures were secondary to mid-summer temperatures in controlling the radial growth. According the dataset used, there was no clear signature of temporally reduced sensitivity of Scots pine ring widths to mid-summer temperatures over the periods of early and modern meteorological observations. Thirdly, plant phenological data with tree-rings from south-west Finland since 1750 were examined as a palaeoclimate indicator. The information from the fragmentary, partly overlapping, partly nonsystematically biased plant phenological records of 14 different phenomena were combined into one continuous time series of phenological indices. The indices were found to be reliable indicators of the February to June temperature variations. In contrast, there was no correlation between the phenological indices and the precipitation data. Moreover, the correlations between the studied tree-rings and spring temperatures varied as a function of time and hence, their use in palaeoclimate reconstruction is questionable. The use of present tree-ring datasets for palaeoclimate purposes may become possible after the application of more sophisticated calibration methods. Climate variability since the 18th century is perhaps best seen in the fourth paper study of the multiproxy spring temperature reconstruction of south-west Finland. With the help of transfer functions, an attempt has been made to utilize both documentary and natural proxies. The reconstruction was verified with statistics showing a high degree of validity between the reconstructed and observed temperatures. According to the proxies and modern meteorological observations from Turku, springs have become warmer and have featured a warming trend since around the 1850s. Over the period of 1750 to around 1850, springs featured larger multidecadal low-frequency variability, as well as a smaller range of annual temperature variations. The coldest springtimes occurred around the 1840s and 1850s and the first decade of the 19th century. Particularly warm periods occurred in the 1760s, 1790s, 1820s, 1930s, 1970s and from 1987 onwards, although in this period cold springs occurred, such as the springs of 1994 and 1996. On the basis of the available material, long-term temperature changes have been related to changes in the atmospheric circulation, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (February-June).
  • Simola, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to acquire thermotolerance. A moderately high temperature activates heat shock genes and triggers thermotolerance towards otherwise lethal high temperature. The focus of this work is the recovery mechanisms ensuring survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells after thermal insult. Yeast cells, first preconditioned at 37˚C, can survive a short thermal insult at 48-50˚C and are able to refold heat-denatured proteins when allowed to recover at physiological temperature 24˚C. The cytoplasmic chaperone Hsp104 is required for the acquisition of thermotolerance and dissolving protein aggregates in the cytosol with the assistance of disaccharide trehalose. In the present study, Hsp104 and trehalose were shown to be required for conformational repair of heat-denatured secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. A reporter protein was first accumulated in the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum and heat-denatured by thermal insult, and then failed to be repaired to enzymatically active and secretion-competent conformation in the absence of Hsp104 or trehalose. The efficient transport of a glycoprotein CPY, accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum, to the vacuole after thermal insult also needed the presence of Hsp104 and trehalose. However, proteins synthesized after thermal insult at physiological temperature were secreted with similar kinetics both in the absence and in the presence of Hsp104 or trehalose, demonstrating that the secretion machinery itself was functional. As both Hsp104 and trehalose are cytosolic, a cross-talk between cytosolic and luminal chaperone machineries across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane appears to take place. Global expression profiles, obtained with the DNA microarray technique, revealed that the gene expression was shut down during thermal insult and the majority of transcripts were destroyed. However, the transcripts of small cytosolic chaperones Hsp12 and Hsp26 survived. The first genes induced during recovery were related to refolding of denatured proteins and resumption of de novo protein synthesis. Transcription factors Spt3p and Med3p appeared to be essential for acquisition of full thermotolerance. The transcription factor Hac1p was found to be subject to delayed up-regulation at mRNA level and this up-regulation was diminished or delayed in the absence of Spt3p or Med3p. Consequently, production of the chaperone BiP/Kar2p, a target gene of Hac1p, was diminished and delayed in Δspt3 and Δmed3 deletion strains. The refolding of heat-denatured secretory protein CPY to a transport-competent conformation was retarded, and a heat-denatured reporter enzyme failed to be effectively reactivated in the cytoplasm of the deletion strains.
  • Vuorenmaa, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The present work provides a regional-scale assessment of the changes in acidifying deposition in Finland over the past 30 years and the current pattern in the recovery of acid-sensitive lakes from acidification in relation to changes in sulphate deposition. This information is needed for documenting the ecosystem benefits of costly emission reduction policies and further actions in air pollution policy. The development of sulphate deposition in Finland reflects that of European SO2 emissions. Before the 1990s, reductions in sulphur emissions in Europe had been relatively small and sulphate deposition showed no consistent trends. Due to emission reduction measures that were then taken, sulphate deposition started to clearly decline from the late 1980s. The bulk deposition of sulphate has declined 40-60% in most parts of the country during 1990-2003. The decline in sulphate deposition exceeded the decline of base cation deposition, which resulted in a decrease in acidity and acidifying potential of deposition over the 1990s. Nitrogen deposition also decreased since the late 1980s, but less than that of sulphate, and levelling off during the 1990s. Sulphate concentrations in all types of small lakes throughout Finland have declined from the early 1990s. The relative decrease in lake sulphate concentrations (average 40-50%) during 1990-2003 was rather similar to the decline in sulphate deposition, indicating a direct response to the reduction in deposition. There are presently no indications of elevated nitrate concentrations in forested headwater lakes. Base cation concentrations are still declining in many lakes, especially in south Finland, but to a lesser extent than sulphate allowing buffering capacity (alkalinity) to increase, being significant in 60% of the study lakes. Chemical recovery is resulting in biological recovery with populations of acid-sensitive fish species increasing. The recovery has been strongest in lakes in which sulphate has been the major acidifying agent, and recovery has been the strongest and most consistent in lakes in south Finland. The recovery of lakes in central Finland and north Finland is not as widespread and strong as observed in south. Many catchments, particularly in central Finland, have a high proportion of peatlands and therefore high TOC concentrations in lakes, and runoff-induced surges of organic acids have been an important confounding factor suppressing the recovery of pH and alkalinity in these lakes. Chemical recovery is progressing even in the most acidified lakes, but the buffering capacity of many lakes is still low and still sensitive to acidic input. Further reduction in sulphur emissions are needed for the alkalinity to increase in the acidified lakes. Increasing total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations are indicated in small forest lakes in Finland. The trends appear to be related to decreasing sulphate deposition and improved acid-base status of the soil, and the rise in TOC is integral to recovery from acidification. A new challenge is climate change with potential trends in temperature, precipitation and runoff, which are expected to affect future chemical and biological recovery from acidification. The potential impact on the mobilization and leaching of organic acids may become particularly important in Finnish conditions. Long-term environmental monitoring has evidently shown the success of international emission abatement strategies. The importance and value of integrated monitoring approach including physical, chemical and biological variables is clearly indicated, and continuous environmental monitoring is needed as a scientific basis for further actions in air pollution policy.
  • Artell, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Water recreation is an irreplaceable part of experiencing the aquatic environment, but is threatened by the eutrophication of inland and coastal waters. Time and resources are spent daily on visiting water recreation sites and long time investments are made on water recreation with purchases of recreation properties near water. In this thesis the value of water recreation is studied through econometric analysis on actual market behavior. In the first stage, value for day-to-day local water recreation is estimated using the travel cost method. Water clarity is found to affect swimming and fishing activities significantly, while boating is less sensitive to deteriorated local water quality. A one-meter improvement in water clarity would, on average, increase local day-to-day recreation benefits from swimming from 31 to 92 million euros annually, and from 43 to 130 million euros for fishing activities. In the second stage, the summer house markets are studied, representing a long term financial commitment to water recreation. The analysis employs data on unbuilt, waterfront summer house lots, where water quality is found capitalized in prices. Using a water usability index to describe quality, compared to the satisfactory quality category, good water quality lots have a price premium of 9 %. Excellent water quality lots have, on average, over 19 % higher prices than a lot at a satisfactory water body. Willingness to pay for water quality is found weakly non-linear. This implies that the protection of good quality water bodies is important, as the monetary losses from quality deterioration are larger than the benefits of improvement in general. The final study in the thesis examines the difference between subjective perception and objective scientific measures of water quality. For policies to have the intended effect, it is important that quality measures by which policy is defined and the perceived quality are either similar, or that the policy maker understands what the differences between the two measures are. Using survey data we find that one half of summer house owners assess water quality in a similar fashion with the official water usability index. The other half perceives quality systematically different with slight overestimation. In the case of travel cost studies, objective recreation-focused water quality measures reflect perceptions better when analyzing trips to nearby areas. For hedonic property pricing studies, price is not found to affect the probability of assessing quality differently. The result dissolves fears of causing econometric problems by the choice of quality measure. This thesis brings out new information on water recreation values in Finland and Europe using observed market behavior. Further, the thesis describes how the perception of water quality differs between the policy maker and the consumer. The thesis finds Finnish people as avid users of water resources willing to pay for better water quality, both in terms of increased traveling and through higher property prices. Economic grounds are found for the protection of water quality with applicable results for the implementation of the EU s Water and Marine Strategy Framework Directives.