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  • Tuomenvirta, Heikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Gozdecka, Dorota Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This dissertation s main research questions concern common European principles of democracy in regard to religious freedom. It deals with the modern understanding of European democracy and is a combination of interdisciplinary research on law, culture, politics and philosophy. The main objective of this research is to identify common European legal principles and standards applying to religious freedom and compare them with standards and approaches in particular states. The bases for the analysis are the principles of equality and religious pluralism. It approaches issues such as the problems of defining religion and the pursuit of religious equality vis-à-vis principles of establishment or quasi-establishment of traditional European religions. In analytical part it critically approaches the commitment of European countries to principles of equality and religious pluralism on examples of selected problematic areas. These areas include women s reproductive rights, problems of blasphemy and hate speech and relationships between religion and education. It evaluates the impact of various legal regulations in Europe and their influence on religious or non-religious individuals. Finally, in the theoretical part the research deals with the sustainable model of democracy in the multicultural era. It evaluates the possibilities for extending the legal system s flexibility towards other legal systems, such as Sharia law. Finally, it joins more general discussion on European values, commitment of European states to these values and further perspectives for European integration on axiological level. The analysis shows that currently European consensus and commitment to values of equality and religious pluralism lacks consistency. Even religion itself is not uniformly understood. The question whether the state should remain neutral towards doctrines and to what degree has neither been approached with sufficient coherence. While traditional Christian religions still enjoy a wide margin of religious freedom, even in public sphere, new religious movements or culturally new religions are often restrained. Without common commitment to European values, the principle of pluralism and equality is bound to be applied selectively. It is important that the model of European democracy adjusts to the conditions of religious pluralism. Without coherence in application of democratic principles and rights, Europe is bound to be plagued by guilty conscience of double standardisation and emptiness of the European soul .
  • Sundström, Anu-Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Atmospheric aerosol particles affect public health, environment, weather and climate in various ways, and therefore the importance on obtaining information about their spatial and temporal variation is evident. Remote sensing measurements have particular capability to provide broad horizontal and/or vertical view on the ambient aerosol field from local to global scales. They also can provide observations over remote areas where carrying out in situ measurements is not possible. The aim of this Thesis, is to explore both ground-based and spaceborne remote sensing measurement techniques for monitoring aerosol particles, and their applications on air quality as well as climate studies. In the first part of this Thesis the potential of a ground-based ceilometer-type lidar to be used as an aerosol measurement device is investigated. Ceilometers are originally designed for observing cloud heights, and at the time of the study they were not commonly used to monitor aerosols. The results obtained in this study indicate that the absolute accuracy of a ceilometer-type lidar is sufficient for quantitative aerosol measurements in some applications. The first study using an improved version of the AATSR (Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) satellite algorithm shows that aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be retrieved with sufficient accuracy over Eastern China, where the aerosol conditions are highly variable and therefore challenging from the satellite remote sensing point of view. In addition, the improved version of the algorithm provides also valuable information about the fine mode particle contribution to the total AOD. The satellite based AOD data is also used to evaluate the performance of a coupled climate-aerosol model. The comparison of ECHAM5-HAM model and satellite-based AOD (from MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer) showed that, with few exceptions, the model reproduced relatively well the spatiotemporal variation of AOD over India and China. In this Thesis it is also shown that satellite data can be used to derive such climatically relevant quantities that are not directly available in common retrieval products (such as e.g. AOD). By combining coincident observations from two different satellite instruments, an observation-based estimate of the clear-sky shortwave aerosol direct radiative effect ADRE (at the top of the atmosphere) can be established. Results of the case study over Eastern China show that, overall, the satellite-based estimates of ADRE, aerosol-free fluxes, and their spatial variation are in agreement with model-based values.
  • Heiskanen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Remote sensing provides methods to infer land cover information over large geographical areas at a variety of spatial and temporal resolutions. Land cover is input data for a range of environmental models and information on land cover dynamics is required for monitoring the implications of global change. Such data are also essential in support of environmental management and policymaking. Boreal forests are a key component of the global climate and a major sink of carbon. The northern latitudes are expected to experience a disproportionate and rapid warming, which can have a major impact on vegetation at forest limits. This thesis examines the use of optical remote sensing for estimating aboveground biomass, leaf area index (LAI), tree cover and tree height in the boreal forests and tundra taiga transition zone in Finland. The continuous fields of forest attributes are required, for example, to improve the mapping of forest extent. The thesis focus on studying the feasibility of satellite data at multiple spatial resolutions, assessing the potential of multispectral, -angular and -temporal information, and provides regional evaluation for global land cover data. Preprocessed ASTER, MISR and MODIS products are the principal satellite data. The reference data consist of field measurements, forest inventory data and fine resolution land cover maps. Fine resolution studies demonstrate how statistical relationships between biomass and satellite data are relatively strong in single species and low biomass mountain birch forests in comparison to higher biomass coniferous stands. The combination of forest stand data and fine resolution ASTER images provides a method for biomass estimation using medium resolution MODIS data. The multiangular data improve the accuracy of land cover mapping in the sparsely forested tundra taiga transition zone, particularly in mires. Similarly, multitemporal data improve the accuracy of coarse resolution tree cover estimates in comparison to single date data. Furthermore, the peak of the growing season is not necessarily the optimal time for land cover mapping in the northern boreal regions. The evaluated coarse resolution land cover data sets have considerable shortcomings in northernmost Finland and should be used with caution in similar regions. The quantitative reference data and upscaling methods for integrating multiresolution data are required for calibration of statistical models and evaluation of land cover data sets. The preprocessed image products have potential for wider use as they can considerably reduce the time and effort used for data processing.
  • Gonsamo Gosa, Alemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    A wide range of models used in agriculture, ecology, carbon cycling, climate and other related studies require information on the amount of leaf material present in a given environment to correctly represent radiation, heat, momentum, water, and various gas exchanges with the overlying atmosphere or the underlying soil. Leaf area index (LAI) thus often features as a critical land surface variable in parameterisations of global and regional climate models, e.g., radiation uptake, precipitation interception, energy conversion, gas exchange and momentum, as all areas are substantially determined by the vegetation surface. Optical wavelengths of remote sensing are the common electromagnetic regions used for LAI estimations and generally for vegetation studies. The main purpose of this dissertation was to enhance the determination of LAI using close-range remote sensing (hemispherical photography), airborne remote sensing (high resolution colour and colour infrared imagery), and satellite remote sensing (high resolution SPOT 5 HRG imagery) optical observations. The commonly used light extinction models are applied at all levels of optical observations. For the sake of comparative analysis, LAI was further determined using statistical relationships between spectral vegetation index (SVI) and ground based LAI. The study areas of this dissertation focus on two regions, one located in Taita Hills, South-East Kenya characterised by tropical cloud forest and exotic plantations, and the other in Gatineau Park, Southern Quebec, Canada dominated by temperate hardwood forest. The sampling procedure of sky map of gap fraction and size from hemispherical photographs was proven to be one of the most crucial steps in the accurate determination of LAI. LAI and clumping index estimates were significantly affected by the variation of the size of sky segments for given zenith angle ranges. On sloping ground, gap fraction and size distributions present strong upslope/downslope asymmetry of foliage elements, and thus the correction and the sensitivity analysis for both LAI and clumping index computations were demonstrated. Several SVIs can be used for LAI mapping using empirical regression analysis provided that the sensitivities of SVIs at varying ranges of LAI are large enough. Large scale LAI inversion algorithms were demonstrated and were proven to be a considerably efficient alternative approach for LAI mapping. LAI can be estimated nonparametrically from the information contained solely in the remotely sensed dataset given that the upper-end (saturated SVI) value is accurately determined. However, further study is still required to devise a methodology as well as instrumentation to retrieve on-ground green leaf area index . Subsequently, the large scale LAI inversion algorithms presented in this work can be precisely validated. Finally, based on literature review and this dissertation, potential future research prospects and directions were recommended.
  • Vaara, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as an abrupt decrease in kidney function, is frequent among intensive care unit (ICU) patients and increases their morbidity and mortality. Severe AKI is treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT). Of all general ICU patients, 3% to 8% receive RRT for AKI. Patients with RRT have high mortality rates, up to 50% to 60%; as such, improvements in their treatment are clearly warranted. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence and outcome of critically ill patients receiving RRT for AKI in Finland. The association of ICU size and presence of fluid overload at RRT initiation with outcome were investigated and the provided RRT described. Additionally, the quality of published pharmacokinetic studies in patients receiving continuous RRT was studied. The population-based incidence of RRT for AKI, the outcome of these patients, and outcome-associated factors were evaluated first in a retrospective cohort including 24 904 adult patients treated in 24 Finnish ICUs during 2007-2008, of which 1686 (6.8%) received RRT for AKI. The population-based incidence of RRT for AKI was 20 per 100 000 adults per year. The hospital mortality of RRT-treated patients was 35%, and the 6-month mortality was 49%. Patients with RRT who were treated in small central hospitals had higher crude and adjusted hospital mortality rates compared to those treated in larger hospitals. Second, a prospective cohort study included 296 adult patients with RRT in 17 Finnish ICUs over a five-month period in 2011-2012. The 90-day mortality of RRT-treated patients was 39%. Presence of fluid overload at RRT initiation was associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality. RRT was initiated after a median of 14 hours from ICU admission in the presence of a median of three indications. Initially, 73% of the patients received continuous RRT and the used continuous RRT dose was in line with the current recommendations. Altogether 49 original publications reporting pharmacokinetic results of adult critically ill patients receiving continuous RRT were included in a systematic review. The general quality of these studies was moderate, while the reporting of RRT-related parameters remained inadequate. The used continuous RRT dose was mainly according to recommendations. In summary, the population-based incidence of RRT for AKI was broadly in line with reports from other regions. The mortality rates of these patients were high compared to other ICU-treated syndromes, but lower than previously reported for this patient group. Patients treated with RRT in small ICUs and those with fluid overload at RRT initiation demonstrated worse outcome. The reporting of parameters related to continuous RRT in pharmacokinetic studies was inadequate.
  • Kangas, Hanna-Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    ‪This dissertation examines the impacts of energy and climate policies on the energy and forest sectors, focusing on the case of Finland. The thesis consists of an introduction article and four separate studies. The dissertation was motivated by the climate concern and the increasing demand of renewable energy. In particular, the renewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets of the European Union were driving this work. In Finland, both forest and energy sectors are in key roles in achieving these targets. In fact, the separation between forest and energy sector is diminishing as the energy sector is utilizing increasing amounts of wood in energy production and as the forest sector is becoming more and more important energy producer.‬ ‪The objective of this dissertation is to find out and measure the impacts of climate and energy policies on the forest and energy sectors. In climate policy, the focus is on emissions trading, and in energy policy the dissertation focuses on the promotion of renewable forest-based energy use. The dissertation relies on empirical numerical models that are based on microeconomic theory. Numerical partial equilibrium mixed complementarity problem models were constructed to study the markets under scrutiny. The separate studies focus on co-firing of wood biomass and fossil fuels, liquid biofuel production in the pulp and paper industry, and the impacts of climate policy on the pulp and paper sector.‬ ‪The dissertation shows that the policies promoting wood-based energy may have have unexpected negative impacts. When feed-in tariff is imposed together with emissions trading, in some plants the production of renewable electricity might decrease as the emissions price increases. The dissertation also shows that in liquid biofuel production, investment subsidy may cause high direct policy costs and other negative impacts when compared to other policy instruments. The results of the dissertation also indicate that from the climate mitigation perspective, perfect competition is the favored wood market competition structure, at least if the emissions trading system is not global.‬ ‪In conclusion, this dissertation suggests that when promoting the use of wood biomass in energy production, the favored policy instruments are subsidies that promote directly the renewable energy production (i.e. production subsidy, renewables subsidy or feed-in premium). Also, the policy instrument should be designed to be dependent on the emissions price or on the substitute price. In addition, this dissertation shows that when planning policies to promote wood-based renewable energy, the goals of the policy scheme should be clear before decisions are made on the choice of the policy instruments.‬
  • De Simone, Emiliano (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    It is well known that an integrable (in the sense of Arnold-Jost) Hamiltonian system gives rise to quasi-periodic motion with trajectories running on invariant tori. These tori foliate the whole phase space. If we perturb an integrable system, the Kolmogorow-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem states that, provided some non-degeneracy condition and that the perturbation is sufficiently small, most of the invariant tori carrying quasi-periodic motion persist, getting only slightly deformed. The measure of the persisting invariant tori is large together with the inverse of the size of the perturbation. In the first part of the thesis we shall use a Renormalization Group (RG) scheme in order to prove the classical KAM result in the case of a non analytic perturbation (the latter will only be assumed to have continuous derivatives up to a sufficiently large order). We shall proceed by solving a sequence of problems in which theperturbations are analytic approximations of the original one. We will finally show that the approximate solutions will converge to a differentiable solution of our original problem. In the second part we will use an RG scheme using continuous scales, so that instead of solving an iterative equation as in the classical RG KAM, we will end up solving a partial differential equation. This will allow us to reduce the complications of treating a sequence of iterative equations to the use of the Banach fixed point theorem in a suitable Banach space.
  • Kärkkäinen, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 1999)
  • Kukkonen, Sami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Gholami, Khalil (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The present study addressed the epistemology of teachers’ practical knowledge. Drawing from the literature, teachers’ practical knowledge is defined as all teachers’ cognitions (e.g., beliefs, values, motives, procedural knowing, and declarative knowledge) that guide their practice of teaching. The teachers’ reasoning that lies behind their practical knowledge is addressed to gain insight into its epistemic nature. I studied six class teachers’ practical knowledge; they teach in the metropolitan region of Helsinki. Relying on the assumptions of the phenomenographic inquiry, I collected and analyzed the data. I analyzed the data in two stages where the first stage involved an abductive procedure, and the second stage an inductive procedure for interpretation, and thus developed the system of categories. In the end, a quantitative analysis nested into the qualitative findings to study the patterns of the teachers’’ reasoning. The results indicated that teachers justified their practical knowledge based on morality and efficiency of action; efficiency of action was found to be presented in two different ways: authentic efficiency and naïve efficiency. The epistemic weight of morality was embedded in what I call “moral care”. The core intention of teachers in the moral care was the commitment that they felt about the “whole character” of students. From this perspective the “dignity” and the moral character of the students should not replaced for any other “instrumental price”. “Caring pedagogy” was the epistemic value of teachers’ reasoning in the authentic efficiency. The central idea in the caring pedagogy was teachers’ intentions to improve the “intellectual properties” of “all or most” of the students using “flexible” and “diverse” pedagogies. However, “regulating pedagogy” was the epistemic condition of practice in the cases corresponding to naïve efficiency. Teachers argued that an effective practical knowledge should regulate and manage the classroom activities, but the targets of the practical knowledge were mainly other “issues “or a certain percentage of the students. In these cases, the teachers’ arguments were mainly based on the notion of “what worked” regardless of reflecting on “what did not work”. Drawing from the theoretical background and the data, teachers’ practical knowledge calls for “praxial knowledge” when they used the epistemic conditions of “caring pedagogy” and “moral care”. It however calls for “practicable” epistemic status when teachers use the epistemic condition of regulating pedagogy. As such, praxial knowledge with the dimensions of caring pedagogy and moral care represents the “normative” perspective on teachers’ practical knowledge, and thus reflects a higher epistemic status in comparison to “practicable” knowledge, which represents a “descriptive” perception toward teachers’ practical knowledge and teaching.
  • Byholm, Patrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Latva-Karjanmaa, Tarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The European aspen (Populus tremula) is a keystone species for biodiversity in boreal forests. However, the future of aspen may be threatened, because large aspens have mostly been removed from managed forests, whereas regeneration and the long-term persistence of mature trees are subjects of concern in protected areas. Aspen is a pioneer tree, and it can reproduce both sexually by seed and asexually by root suckers. Through asexual reproduction aspen forms clones, groups of genetically identical trees (ramets). In my thesis, I have studied the structure of aspen populations in terms of number, size, clonal and demographic properties. Additionally, I have investigated the emergence and survival of seedlings as well as the seed quantity and quality in crosses between the European and hybrid aspen. To study the regeneration and population structure, mature aspens were recorded in old-growth and managed forests in eastern Finland based on a large-scale inventory (11 400 ha). In addition, small aspen trees were surveyed on sample plots. Clonal structure was investigated both by morphological characters and by DNA-based markers (microsatellites). Seedling emergence and survival was studied with two sowing experiments. With crosses between European and hybrid aspens we wanted to study whether elevated temperatures due to climate change would benefit the different crosses of European and hybrid aspen unequally and thus affect the gene flow between the two species. The average volumes of mature aspen were 5.3 m3/ha in continuous old-growth, and 0.8 m3/ha in managed forests. Results indicate also that large aspen trees in managed forests are a legacy of the past less intensively managed forest landscapes. Long-term persistence of aspen in protected areas can only be secured by restoration measures creating sufficiently large gaps for regeneration. More emphasis should be given to sparing aspens in thinnings and to retaining of mature aspens in regeneration cutting in managed forests. Aspen was found to be spatially aggregated in the landscape. This could be explained by site type, disturbance history and / or limitations in seed dispersal. Clonal structure does not explain the spatial aggregation, since average size of the clones was only 2.3 ramets, and most clones (70 %) consisted of just one ramet. The small size of the clones suggests that most of them are relatively young. Therefore, sexual reproduction may be more common than has previously been thought. Seedling emergence was most successful in mineral soil especially, when the site had been burned. Only few seedlings occurred on humus. Survival of the seedlings was low, and strongly dependent on moisture, but also on seedbed conditions. The seeds were found to maintain their germinability longer than has earlier been thought to be possible. Interspecific crosses produced more seeds with higher quality than intraspecific crosses. When temperature was elevated, germination of hybrid aspen seeds increased more than seeds from P. tremula x P. tremula crosses. These results suggest that hybrid aspen may have a significant genetic impact on the European aspen, and this effect may become strengthened by climate warming.
  • Linna, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of this thesis was to study the impact of eating disorders on young women's reproductive and psychological health in both clinical and population-based settings. Two samples of women were utilized to meet these goals. First, women treated at the eating disorder clinic of Helsinki University Central Hospital during 1995-2010 (n=2257) were compared with matched controls drawn from the Central Population Register (n=9028). Register-based measures of general reproductive outcomes, course of pregnancy and childbirth, and perinatal health outcomes were compared across these two groups in Studies I and II. Second, twins born in Finland during 1975-1979 (FinnTwin16, n=2825 women) were assessed at the age of 22-28 years by means of a mailed questionnaire that included several measures of psychological health as well as a screen for eating disorders, followed by diagnostic interviews. Studies III-V compared the twins with a history of lifetime eating disorders with their unaffected twin sisters and healthy women to evaluate recovery rates and psychological outcomes. The probability of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in the twin sample five years after the onset of the illness was 67% and 57%, respectively. Many of the women treated for an eating disorder had experienced reproductive health problems at follow-up, but most of them had no complications in pregnancy or childbirth. In the clinical sample, an increased likelihood of remaining childless was found among women with anorexia nervosa, whereas women with bulimia nervosa were more likely to experience induced abortion, and miscarriage was common among women with binge eating disorder (BED) in comparison with the controls. Maternal anorexia nervosa and BED were related to abnormal patterns of fetal growth during pregnancy. Significantly, severe perinatal health complications were observed in women treated for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. The psychological outcomes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were more favorable in the twin cohort than previously reported. Recovery was slow and gradual, but most women with anorexia nervosa reached the level of their unaffected twin sisters in terms of psychological health over time. The course of bulimia nervosa was marked by a more gradual easing of symptoms. Body dissatisfaction and psychosomatic symptoms seemed to be the most persistent residua of both illnesses. Overall, the outcome was poor for some, but favorable for most women with a history of eating disorders. Several reproductive health problems were observed among women who had received treatment, suggesting the need for enhanced monitoring of pregnancies among these women. However, in the twin cohort, most women with a history of eating disorders proceeded towards recovery, did not experience reproductive impairment, and, on measures of psychological health, resembled their unaffected twin sisters more closely over time.
  • Larivaara, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Since the late 1990s Russia has seen rapid social change in terms of population decline and low fertility. The health service system has been reformed. A mandatory health insurance system has been constructed and the development of the private sector has taken place. In the field of reproductive health services attitudes towards maternity care, birth control, and termination of pregnancy have undergone considerable change. At the same time new technologies have become available. Access to reliable contraception has improved and the number of induced abortions has declined, but the use of unreliable birth control methods continues to be common practice. Previous studies have reported that many patients are dissatisfied with the quality of health services in the public sector. ---- Relatively little is known about reproductive health providers' knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning family planning. Information about providers' roles in reproductive health promotion is scarce and scattered. Previous literature points to missed opportunities in reproductive health counselling and low patient involvement in clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to increase the current understanding of the obstacles that limit the extent and effectiveness of reproductive health counselling in the public sector out-patient services in urban Russia. The specific aims were (1) to describe how the delivery of women's reproductive health services is organised in St Petersburg, (2) to analyse the challenges in women's reproductive health services as perceived by health administrators and practising gynaecologists, (3) to analyse gynaecologists' views and practices concerning preventing, planning, and monitoring pregnancy, and (4) to examine gynaecologists' perceptions of the provider-patient relationship. The data of this study are qualitative, consisting of semi-structured interviews and observations. The data were collected between January and May 2005. The data collection consisted of four parts: (1) semi-structured background interviews with administrative personnel and medical professors (N=9), and managers of women's out-patient clinics (N=9), (2) a pilot study involving observations (N=3) and semi-structured interviews (N=2) at a women's out-patient clinic, (3) observations (N=17) and semi-structured interviews (N=12) at two women's out-patient clinics, and (4) visits and comparison interviews (N=4) at five women's out-patient clinics. The main method of data analysis was content analysis. The women's clinics provided a variety of services ranging from preventative gynaecological check-ups and contraceptive counselling to monitoring of pregnancies and treatment of gynaecological complaints. More than 40 per cent of the patient visits concerned monitoring pregnancy, whereas contraceptive counselling was the primary purpose of the visit in only a small number of cases. Women's clinics suffered from a low level of formal funding, which has resulted in user charges in breach of the mandatory health insurance legislation. The clinics had also developed commercial services to improve their financial situation. Many of the study participants were concerned about equal access to health services and the decline of health promotion. The gynaecologists were well-informed about the latest contraceptive methods and had a positive attitude towards promoting their use. They offered contraceptive counselling to many patients, but the coverage was not 100 per cent among women of reproductive age. The depth of contraceptive counselling varied considerably. In about two-thirds of the observed cases patient involvement was low and counselling was provider-centred, but in approximately a third of the cases patient preferences influenced the clinical decision-making process. Gynaecologists regarded the use of reliable contraception as a means of protecting future fertility and avoiding terminations and as a sign of responsible and morally respectable womanhood. Gynaecologists held a medicalised view of pregnancy planning, promoting gynaecological examinations and diagnostic tests before pregnancy. In practice they emphasised specialist knowledge and risk management in monitoring pregnancy, although they thought their work should ideally combine medical expertise and maternal caretaking. The practising gynaecologists felt that there were many gaps in the provider-patient relationship and that patients did not pay enough attention to reproductive health matters. The gynaecologists expressed patient-centred and holistic ideas about patient work in interviews, but patient involvement was limited during the observed clinical encounters. The gynaecologists emphasised medical authority in interviews, but they also wished for warm and trusting provider-patient relationships. The study results suggest that mandatory health benefit packages should be defined in detail and that reforms are needed to the compensation provided by mandatory health insurance to women's clinics. The results indicate that gynaecologists need continuing education in patient-centred counselling and treatment and in how to involve patients in clinical decision-making. The results point to several implications for future research including the need to broaden models of the provider-patient relationship to incorporate mutual liking and trust in the existing models of patient involvement.
  • Salovaara, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Vaikka vuorovaikutteiset teknologiat yleensä kehitetään ennalta mietittyihin käyttötarkoituksiin, käyttäjät usein muokkaavat niitä omiin tarpeisiinsa sopiviksi. Tätä käyttötapoja muuttavaa muokkaamisprosessia kutsutaan appropriaatioksi. Appropriaatio on sekä sosiaalinen että kognitiivinen prosessi. Sen sosiaalisia piirteistä on tutkittu mm. teknologiakäytäntöjen muuttumista ja oppimista sekä appropriaatioita levittävien avainyksilöiden toimintaa. Sitä vastoin kognitiivisia piirteitä on tutkittu vähän. Tässä väitöskirjassa kehitään teoriaa appropriaatioille, joissa yksilöt keksivät teknologioille uusia, heille aiemmin tuntemattomia käyttötarkoituksia (repurposive appropriations). Erityisesti keskitytään kiertotapoihin (workarounds): tehtävätilanteisiin, joissa käyttäjä keksii korvata aiemman kokemuksensa pohjalta tutuksi tulleen teknologian toisella teknologialla, jonka hän ei ole aiemmin mieltänyt liittyvän kyseiseen tehtävään. Tämä väitöskirja on tutkimusotteeltaan eksploratiivinen. Se pohjautuu kognitiotieteeseen, erityisesti hajautetun kognition, ongelmanratkaisun ja luovuuden tutkimukseen. Empiirisenä pohjana on kolme kenttätutkimusta langattomista multimediaviestintäjärjestelmistä (mGroup, CoMedia ja Comeks) sekä www-kysely digitaalikameroiden käytöstä. Yhteistä näille teknologioille on arkikäyttö institutionaalisen kontekstin ulkopuolella ja se, että niillä tuotetaan visuaalista sisältöä pieninä kokonaisuuksina ilman korkean tason teknistä asiantuntemusta, esim. ohjelmointitaitoa. Väitöskirja ehdottaa, että approprioidessaan yksilö muodostaa mielessään uudenlaisen kytkennän (mapping) teknologisten, sosiaalisten ja fyysisten tilannetekijöiden välille. Näin hän oppii uuden ratkaisumallin (solution schema) teknologian käyttötavasta. Väitöskirja esittää kolme kognitiivista kytkemisprosessia, joilla voidaan selittää kiertotapojen kaltaisia appropriaatioita. Kytkemisistä ensimmäinen vaihtoehtoinen prossessi perustuu osittaisten ratkaisumallien tunnistamiseen yksilön ympäristössä. Muut kaksi perustuvat analogioiden tunnistamiseen ratkaisutapojen tai ratkaisuun sopivien välineiden välillä. Väitöskirja ehdottaa, että käyttäjien aiempi teknologinen asiantuntemus edesauttaa näitä kolmea kytkemisprosessia. Tulokset tarjoavat suunnittelusuosituksia ihmisen ja tietokoneen vuorovaikutuksen kehittämiseen sekä lähtökohtia uusiin kognitiotieteellisiin tutkimuksiin.
  • Siitonen, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)