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  • Kornak, Jacek (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The subject of this study is the term: queer which I analyse as a political concept. In many English-speaking countries queer has been a common abusive term for homosexuals and other sexually non-normative individuals. From around the end of the 1980s the term was picked up by many activists and academics as a tool for political engagement. Initially queer was politicized in the context of the AIDS crisis but soon afterwards, the term was used to address political, social and cultural marginalization of sexual minorities. Queer has ever since remained one of the most significant concepts in contemporary sexual minority politics. I examine how queer became a powerful political signifier and I study political messages that the term carried. My study focuses on multiple uses of queer , rising from various forms of direct political activism to numerous academic publications. I argue that the term often functioned as a type of alternative identity, a basis of community, an incitement for political action and even a philosophical category. Rather than trying to establish common elements between the uses of queer , I present the multiplicity of routes by which queer was mobilized politically. The research here described investigates an underexplored topic in the academic literature, as most publications to this day offer analyses of queer theories or activism, while the very concept queer has often been overlooked. By discussing the political uses of the term, my study therefore goes beyond the scope of so-called queer theory. Instead, I analyse these theories from a novel standpoint, reflecting on the conceptual politics that queer performs in various texts. This thesis traces the conceptual change that queer underwent to become an umbrella term for various political claims. At the end of the 1980s, queer was used by ACT UP activists and, subsequently, by other groups and individuals to express disagreement with mainstream U.S. sexual politics. From about 1991 queer enters academia. I study texts by Teresa de Lauretis, Michael Warner, Judith Butler, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Lee Edelman and several others. I offer conceptual analyses of their use of queer as a political concept. I also engage in discussion about the consequences of certain political claims for sexual minorities. My findings indicate that queer was one of the central concepts used in academic debates concerning sexual minorities in the 1990s. For instance, Teresa de Lauretis used the term to criticize the previous lesbian and gay discourse and to incite development of a new language that would accommodate the multiplicity of experiences of lesbian and gay people. Judith Butler used the term to address intersections of sex, class and race. For Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick queer is a specific deconstructive term, whereas for Jack (Judith) Halberstam it is an anarchic term that opens a horizon of an alternative politics. Over the past recent decades there have been countless uses of queer as a political concept. My thesis analyses the most influential ones. I present a variety of political purposes the concept serves and point out the importance of this concept within contemporary sexual minority movement and thought.
  • Sjöblom, Solveig (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that causes soft-rot in potato and other crops. The main virulence determinants, the extracellular plant cell wall -degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), lead to plant tissue maceration. In order to establish a successful infection the production of PCWDEs are controlled by a complex regulatory network, including both specific and global activators and repressors. One of the most important virulence regulation systems in Ecc is mediated by quorum sensing (QS), which is a population density -dependent cell-to-cell communication mechanism used by many Gram-negative bacteria. In these bacteria N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHSL), act as diffusible signaling molecules enabling communication between bacterial cells. The AHSLs are structurally diverse and differ in their acyl chain length. This gives the bacteria signaling specificity and enables the recognition and communication within its own species. In order to detect and respond to the AHSLs the bacteria use QS regulators, LuxR-type proteins. The aim of this study was to get a deeper understanding of the Ecc QS system. In the first part of the study we showed that even different strains of Ecc use different dialects and of physiological concentrations, only the cognate AHSL with the correct acyl chain is recognized as a signal that can switch on virulence genes. The molecular basis of the substrate specificity of the AHSL synthase ExpI was investigated in order to recognize the acyl chain length specificity determinants of distinct AHSL synthases. Several critical residues that define the size of the substrate-binding pocket were identified. We demonstrated that in the ExpISCC1 mutations M127T and F69L are sufficient to change the N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone producing ExpISCC1 to an N-3-oxooctanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL) producing enzyme. In the second study the means of sensing specificity and response to the AHSL signaling molecule were investigated. We demonstrated that the AHSL receptor ExpR1 of Ecc strain SCC3193 has strict specificity for the cognate AHSL 3-oxo-C8-HSL. In addition we identified a second AHSL receptor ExpR2 with a novel property to sense AHSLs with different acyl chain lengths. In the absence of AHSLs ExpR1 and ExpR2 were found to act synergistically to repress the virulence gene expression. This repression was shown to be released by addition of AHSLs and appears to be largely mediated by the global negative regulator RsmA. In the third study random transposon mutagenesis was used to widen the knowledge of the Ecc QS regulon. Two new QS-controlled target genes, encoding a DNA-binding regulator Hor and a plant ferredoxin-like protein FerE, were identified. The QS control of the identified genes was executed by the QS regulators ExpR1 and ExpR2 and as expression of PCWDE genes mediated by the RsmA repressor. Hor was shown to contribute to bacterial virulence at least partly through its control of PCWDE production, while FerE was shown to contribute to oxidative stress tolerance and in planta fitness of the bacteria. In addition our results suggest that QS is central to the control of oxidative stress tolerance in Ecc. In conclusion, these results indicate that Ecc strain SCC3193 is able to react and respond both to the cognate AHSL signal and the signals produced by other bacterial species, in order to control a wide variety of functions in the plant pathogen Ecc.
  • Hattula, Katarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Rab8 and its interacting proteins as regulators of cell polarization During the development of a multi-cellular organism, progenitor cells have to divide and migrate appropriately as well as organize their differentiation with one another, in order to produce a viable embryo. To divide, differentiate and migrate cells have to undergo polarization, a process where internal and external components such as actin, microtubules and adhesion receptors are reorganized to produce a cell that is asymmetric, with functionally different surfaces. Also in the adult organism there is a continuous need for these processes, as cells need to migrate in response to tissue damage and to fight infection. Improper regulation of cell proliferation and migration can conversely lead to disease such as cancer. GTP-binding proteins function as molecular switches by cycling between a GTP-bound (active) conformation and a GDP-bound (inactive) conformation. The Ras super-family of small GTPases are found in all eukaryotic cells. They can be functionally divided into five subfamilies. The Ras family members mainly regulate gene expression, controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Ras was in fact the first human oncogene to be characterized, and as much as 30% of all human tumors may be directly or indirectly caused by mutations of Ras molecules The Rho family members mainly regulate cytoskeletal reorganization. Arf proteins are known to regulate vesicle budding and Rab proteins regulate vesicular transport. Ran regulates nuclear transport as well as microtubule organization during mitosis. The focus of the thesis of Katarina Hattula, is on Rab8, a small GTPase of the Rab family. Activated Rab8 has previously been shown to induce the formation of new surface extensions, reorganizing both actin and microtubules, and to have a role in directed membrane transport to cell surfaces. However, the exact membrane route it regulates has remained elusive. In the thesis three novel interactors of Rab8 are presented. Rabin8 is a Rab8-specific GEF that localizes to vesicles where it presumably recruits and activates its target Rab8. Its expression in cells leads to remodelling of actin and the formation of polarized cell surface domains. Optineurin, known to be associated with a leading cause of blindness in humans (open-angle glaucoma), is shown to interact specifically with GTP-bound Rab8. Rab8 binds to an amino-terminal region and interestingly, the Huntingtin protein binds a carboxy-terminal region of optineurin. (Aberrant Huntingtin protein is known to be the cause Huntington s disease in humans.) Co-expression of Huntingtin and optineurin enhanced the recruitment of Huntingtin to Rab8-positive vesicular structures. Furthermore, optineurin promoted cell polarization in a similar way to Rab8. A third novel interactor of Rab8 presented in this thesis is JFC1, a member of the synaptogamin-like protein (Slp) family. JFC1 interacts with Rab8 specifically in its GTP-bound form, co-localizes with endogenous Rab8 on tubular and vesicular structures, and is probably involved in controlling Rab8 membrane dynamics. Rab8 is in this thesis work clearly shown to have a strong effect on cell shape. Blocking Rab8 activity by expression of Rab8 RNAi, or by expressing the dominant negative Rab8 (T22N) mutant leads to loss of cell polarity. Conversely, cells expressing the constitutively active Rab8 (Q67L) mutant exhibit a strongly polarized phenotype. Experiments in live cells show that Rab8 is associated with macropinosomes generated at ruffling areas of the membrane. These macropinosomes fuse with or transform into tubules that move toward the cell centre, from where they are recycled back to the leading edge to participate in protrusion formation. The biogenesis of these tubules is shown to be dependent on both actin and microtubule dynamics. The Rab8-specific membrane route studied contained several markers known to be internalized and recycled (1 integrin, transferrin, transferrin receptor, cholera toxin B subunit (CTxB), and major histocompatibility complex class I protein (MHCI)). Co-expression studies revealed that Rab8 localization overlaps with that of Rab11 and Arf6. Rab8 is furthermore clearly functionally linked to Arf6. The data presented in this thesis strongly suggests a role for Rab8 as a regulator for a recycling compartment, which is involved in providing structural and regulatory components to the leading edge to participate in protrusion formation.
  • Furuhjelm, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Holmström, Eero (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Understanding radiation effects in silicon (Si) is of great technological importance. The material, being the basis of modern semiconductor electronics and photonics, is subjected to radiation already at the processing stage, and in many applications throughout the lifetime of the manufactured component. Despite decades of research, many fundamental questions on the subject are still not satisfactorily answered, and new ones arise constantly as device fabrication shifts towards the nanoscale. In this study, methods of computational physics are harnessed to tackle basic questions on the radiation response of bulk and nanostructured Si systems, as well as to explain atomic-scale phenomena underlying existing experimental results. Empirical potentials and quantum mechanical models are coupled with molecular dynamics simulations to model the response of Si to irradiation and to characterize the created crystal damage. The threshold displacement energy, i.e., the smallest recoil energy required to create a lattice defect, is determined in Si bulk and nanowires, in the latter system also as a function of mechanical strain. It is found that commonly used values for this quantity are drastically underestimated. Strain on the nanowire causes the threshold energy to drop, with an effect on defect production that is significantly higher than in an another nanostructure with similar dimensions, the carbon nanotube. Simulating ion irradiation of Si nanowires reveals that the large surface area to volume ratio of the nanostructure causes up to a three-fold enhancement in defect production as compared to bulk Si. Amorphous defect clusters created by energetic neutron bombardment are predicted, on the basis of their electronic structure and abundance, to cause a deleterious phenomenon called type inversion in Si strip detectors in high-energy physics experiments. The thinning of Si lamellae using a focused ion beam is studied in conjunction with experiment to unravel the cause for the failure of the thinning method for very thin samples. Simulations predict a mechanism of erosion of the structure which is observed as catastrophic shrinkage of the sample in experiment. The results of the thesis contribute to the understanding of fundamental questions of radiation effects in Si as well as provide explanations to known experimental conundrums. At the same time, the results unambiguously indicate that further experimental testing is needed in order to ultimately evaluate the accuracy of the theoretical predictions.
  • Järvi, Tommi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Nanotechnology applications are entering the market in increasing numbers, nanoparticles being among the main classes of materials used. Particles can be used, e.g., for catalysing chemical reactions, such as is done in car exhaust catalysts today. They can also modify the optical and electronic properties of materials or be used as building blocks for thin film coatings on a variety of surfaces. To develop materials for specific applications, an intricate control of the particle properties, structure, size and shape is required. All these depend on a multitude of factors from methods of synthesis and deposition to post-processing. This thesis addresses the control of nanoparticle structure by low-energy cluster beam deposition and post-synthesis ion irradiation. Cluster deposition in high vacuum offers a method for obtaining precisely controlled cluster-assembled materials with minimal contamination. Due to the clusters small size, however, the cluster-surface interaction may drastically change the cluster properties on deposition. In this thesis, the deposition process of metal and alloy clusters on metallic surfaces is modelled using molecular dynamics simulations, and the mechanisms influencing cluster structure are identified. Two mechanisms, mechanical melting upon deposition and thermally activated dislocation motion, are shown to determine whether a deposited cluster will align epitaxially with its support. The semiconductor industry has used ion irradiation as a tool to modify material properties for decades. Irradiation can be used for doping, patterning surfaces, and inducing chemical ordering in alloys, just to give a few examples. The irradiation response of nanoparticles has, however, remained an almost uncharted territory. Although irradiation effects in nanoparticles embedded inside solid matrices have been studied, almost no work has been done on supported particles. In this thesis, the response of supported nanoparticles is studied systematically for heavy and light ion irradiation. The processes leading to damage production are identified and models are developed for both types of irradiation. In recent experiments, helium irradiation has been shown to induce a phase transformation from multiply twinned to single-crystalline nanoparticles in bimetallic alloys, but the nature of the transition has remained unknown. The alloys for which the effect has been observed are CuAu and FePt. It is shown in this thesis that transient amorphization leads to the observed transition and that while CuAu and FePt do not amorphize upon irradiation in bulk or as thin films, they readily do so as nanoparticles. This is the first time such an effect is demonstrated with supported particles, not embedded in a matrix where mixing is always an issue. An understanding of the above physical processes is essential, if nanoparticles are to be used in applications in an optimal way. This thesis clarifies the mechanisms which control particle morphology, and paves way for the synthesis of nanostructured materials tailored for specific applications.
  • Jansson, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Neutron irradiation induces structural nano-scale changes in steels that in the long term cause degradation of the mechanical properties of the materials. These processes are important to understand to e.g. ensure the integrity of the steel wall of the reactor pressure vessel during the operational life-time of a nuclear power plant. In this thesis, some of the irradiation defects have been studied by using as a model alloy the iron-carbon (Fe-C) system, as iron and carbon are the basic elements in any steel. The interactions between C and vacancy (V) clusters and between C and self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters have been studied using Molecular Dynamics simulation techniques. This way C-V clusters, such as C2V and CV2, able to trap large SIA clusters, have been identified and characterized. Using Object Kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC), an model for the radiation-induced nanostructure evolution in Fe-C has been constructed. The model was validated by reproducing experimental data in terms of V and SIA cluster densities and mean sizes from irradiation experiments at low (340 K) and high operational temperature of light water reactors (560 K), as well as reproducing data from post-irradiation annealing up to 780 K. The new model has allowed a deeper understanding of the effect of carbon on the irradiation defect evolution. It was found that the effect of the immobile C-V complexes can be introduced using generic traps for SIA and vacancy clusters. These generic traps have a binding energy that depends on the size of the trapped cluster, which is supported by previously performed atomistic studies. Different trap regimes need to be used at low and high temperatures to account for the different populations of 1/2 <111> and <100> SIA loops at different temperatures, as observed in previous TEM studies. The traps are found to have an important function as nucleation points that promote the growth of larger clusters. The nanostructure evolution model, which is the main result of this thesis, is fully based on physical considerations and only uses a few parameters for calibration. The model is found to be capable of reproducing the experimental trends both at 340 K, 560 K and for annealing up to 700 K; thereby providing insight into the physical mechanisms of importance to determine the type of nanostructural evolution undergone by Fe alloys during irradiation.
  • Smolander, Sampo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    This work develops methods to account for shoot structure in models of coniferous canopy radiative transfer. Shoot structure, as it varies along the light gradient inside canopy, affects the efficiency of light interception per unit needle area, foliage biomass, or foliage nitrogen. The clumping of needles in the shoot volume also causes a notable amount of multiple scattering of light within coniferous shoots. The effect of shoot structure on light interception is treated in the context of canopy level photosynthesis and resource use models, and the phenomenon of within-shoot multiple scattering in the context of physical canopy reflectance models for remote sensing purposes. Light interception. A method for estimating the amount of PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) intercepted by a conifer shoot is presented. The method combines modelling of the directional distribution of radiation above canopy, fish-eye photographs taken at shoot locations to measure canopy gap fraction, and geometrical measurements of shoot orientation and structure. Data on light availability, shoot and needle structure and nitrogen content has been collected from canopies of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Shoot structure acclimated to light gradient inside canopy so that more shaded shoots have better light interception efficiency. Light interception efficiency of shoots varied about two-fold per needle area, about four-fold per needle dry mass, and about five-fold per nitrogen content. Comparison of fertilized and control stands of Norway spruce indicated that light interception efficiency is not greatly affected by fertilization. Light scattering. Structure of coniferous shoots gives rise to multiple scattering of light between the needles of the shoot. Using geometric models of shoots, multiple scattering was studied by photon tracing simulations. Based on simulation results, the dependence of the scattering coefficient of shoot from the scattering coefficient of needles is shown to follow a simple one-parameter model. The single parameter, termed the recollision probability, describes the level of clumping of the needles in the shoot, is wavelength independent, and can be connected to previously used clumping indices. By using the recollision probability to correct for the within-shoot multiple scattering, canopy radiative transfer models which have used leaves as basic elements can use shoots as basic elements, and thus be applied for coniferous forests. Preliminary testing of this approach seems to explain, at least partially, why coniferous forests appear darker than broadleaved forests in satellite data.
  • Lunttila, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Almost all information on astrophysical objects is obtained through observation of electromagnetic radiation. The observed radiation has been altered in interactions with matter, and understanding the transport of radiation is a key prerequisite for understanding the physical conditions in the observed objects. The transport of radiation is described by the radiative transfer equation. Owing to its complex nature, solving the radiative transfer equation is difficult, and it is usually necessary to resort to numerical calculations. In this thesis, the focus is on the modelling of radiation transport in interstellar clouds. The dense gas and dust in interstellar clouds scatter, absorb, and emit radiation, and understanding the radiative transfer effects is crucial in the interpretation of observations. Four of the five articles that are contained in this thesis concern various applications of radiative transfer modelling. Two articles focus on the modelling of spectral line radiation. We study the use of OH Zeeman splitting observations in the determination of magnetic field strengths in molecular clouds. The role of magnetic fields in the process of star formation is still largely an open question with two competing models: the turbulence dominated scenario where magnetic fields are weak, and the ambipolar diffusion driven model with stronger magnetic fields. By combining magneto-hydrodynamical calculations with radiative transfer simulations, we show that the turbulence dominated scenario is consistent with the observed magnetic field strengths. Two articles concern the dust radiative transfer. We study the dust density distribution and grain properties in the dust envelope surrounding the carbon star IRC +10216. By modelling the surface brightness distribution of the scattered light in the dust envelope, we can infer the mass-loss history of the star and improve models of newly formed dust grains. In another article we use magneto-hydrodynamical calculations and radiative transfer simulations to study the reliability of cloud core mass estimates. Observations of dust thermal emission at the far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths are commonly used to determine the masses of molecular cloud cores. By constructing synthetic observations of a model cloud and comparing the estimated masses to the true masses that are obtained directly from the cloud model, we can determine the robustness of mass estimates. Instead of focusing on the applications of radiative transfer modelling, one article describes new numerical methods for efficient radiative transfer simulations. We describe new algorithms for radiative transfer on hierarchical grids. The new algorithms, in particular the use of sub-iterations, are faster by a factor of several compared to the old methods.
  • Niskanen, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a chemical, gas-phase thin film deposition method. It is known for its ability for accurate and precise thickness control, and uniform and conformal film growth. One area where ALD has not yet excelled is film deposition at low temperatures. Also deposition of metals, besides the noble metals, has proven to be quite challenging. To alleviate these limitations, more aggressive reactants are required. One such group of reactants are radicals, which may be formed by dissociating gases. Dissociation is most conveniently done with a plasma source. For example, dissociating molecular oxygen or hydrogen, oxygen or hydrogen radicals are generated. The use of radicals in ALD may surmount some of the above limitations: oxide film deposition at low temperatures may become feasible if oxygen radicals are used as they are highly reactive. Also, as hydrogen radicals are very effective reducing agents, they may be used to deposit metals. In this work, a plasma source was incorporated in an existing ALD reactor for radical generation, and the reactor was used to study five different Radical Enhanced ALD processes. The modifications to the existing reactor and the different possibilities during the modification process are discussed. The studied materials include two metals, copper and silver, and three oxides, aluminium oxide, titanium dioxide and tantalum oxide. The materials were characterized and their properties were compared to other variations of the same process, utilizing the same metal precursor, to understand what kind of effect the non-metal precursor has on the film properties and growth characteristics. Both metals were deposited successfully, and silver for the first time by ALD. The films had low resistivity and grew conformally in the ALD mode, demonstrating that the REALD of metals is true ALD. The oxide films had exceptionally high growth rates, and aluminium oxide grew at room temperature with low cycle times and resulted in good quality films. Both aluminium oxide and titanium dioxide were deposited on natural fibres without damaging the fibre. Tantalum oxide was also deposited successfully, with good electrical properties, but at slightly higher temperature than the other two oxides, due to the evaporation temperature required by the metal precursor. Overall, the ability of REALD to deposit metallic and oxide films with high quality at low temperatures was demonstrated.
  • Lappalainen, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Screening in dog breeding refers to testing or examining individuals for hereditary diseases or faults. Results can help dog breeders in decision-making when selecting breeding material. Radiographic screening for canine elbow dysplasia (ED) began several decades ago, but genetic improvements have been modest. Several reasons for slow progress exist; perhaps one of the most important is that affected individuals continue to be used for breeding. On the other hand, disorders like lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LTV) in several dog breeds and intervertebral disc calcifications in Dachshunds are not widely screened even though this would reduce the incidence of debilitating orthopaedic and neurological diseases caused by these disorders. The aim of this study was to initiate radiographic screening protocols for intervertebral disc calcifications and LTV in Finland and to revise the existing Finnish screening protocol for ED. Breeds used were the miniature long-haired and wire-haired Dachshund, Belgian shepherd dog, Labrador retriever and German shepherd dog. The imaging methods applied were radiography and computed tomography (CT). Occurrence of intervertebral disc calcifications was higher in Finnish miniature Dachshunds than previously reported; 76% of longhaired and 87% of wirehaired variety had at least one calcification. Therefore screening protocol excluding every dog with calcifications from breeding would not be possible. The number of calcifications varied between none and 13, and therefore radiographic screening, together with favouring dogs with fewer calcified discs in breeding, is suggested. Accuracy of the Finnish screening protocol for mild (grade 1) ED differed between the two breeds studied. In Belgian shepherd dogs, the Finnish protocol based mainly on evaluation of osteophytes was inaccurate, as 47% of the joints free of ED were incorrectly graded as dysplastic and 40% of dysplastic joints were graded as normal. On the other hand, assessment of the radiographic signs indicative of medial coronoid process disease proved to be accurate in this breed; sensitivity and specificity of blurring of the cranial border of the medial coronoid process were 80% and 90%, respectively. In Labrador retrievers, the Finnish protocol proved to be accurate, as sensitivity of grading was 79% and specificity 92%. Osteophytes seen in the supplemental craniocaudal oblique radiographic projection was the most reliable sign of ED in Labrador retrievers with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 92%. Adding this view might be a valuable addition to the screening protocol. Labrador retrievers with grade 1 ED should not be used for breeding since most of them have ED, as was clearly demonstrated in the study. LTV was common in Finnish German shepherd dogs studied with occurrence of 40%. A laterolateral (LL) radiograph appeared to be a useful supplement to the currently used ventrodorsal (VD) radiograph in diagnosis of LTV. Sensitivity of the diagnosis based on the VD projection alone was 90% increasing to 100% when LL projection was used together with the VD projection. Additionally, diagnosis of the eighth lumbar vertebra (L8) was only possible based on the LL projection. It is therefore suggested for inclusion in the radiographic screening protocol. The L8 resembled an LTV, and is therefore proposed as a part of the LTV-complex and for consideration when screening for LTV.
  • Matikainen, Tanja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Title: The principle of adequate financial resources acting as a guarantor for local self-government: A study on the application of the principle of adequate financial resources In Finland local authorities are responsible for providing welfare services. The state has delegated the provision of welfare services to local authorities, while the state is responsible for law drafting and providing the municipalities with adequate funding for their statutory responsibilities. The central and local governments thus share the responsibility for ensuring the realization of basic rights. Local authorities have the right to levy taxes to ensure municipal financial independence. Municipalities are entitled to central government transfers for their statutory duties. The financial responsibility for the statutory responsibilities is divided between the central and the local government. The local government tax base and the level of central government transfers have been cut down drastically. Statutory obligations have not, however, diminished at the same time; on the contrary, local government has been given new tasks and existing ones have expanded. This has resulted in a significant imbalance in the local government economy. The principle of adequate financial resources is recognized in the European Charter of Local Self-Government in Article 9.2. According to the provision, local authorities' financial resources shall be commensurate with the responsibilities provided for by the constitution and the law. The principle was put into practice in Finland during the reform of basic rights. Since then, the principle has consistently been adopted in the statements of the Constitutional Law Committee and the Administration Committee. The study examines the implementation of the principle of adequate financial resources: the principle as a guarantor of local self-government. The first research task is to clarify the content as well as the status of the principle of adequate financial resources as part of the legal order. The second research task is to investigate the financial relations between the central and the local government in terms of principle of adequate financial resources. The third research task is to figure out how the principle of adequate financial resources is applied and complied with in Finland and the other Nordic countries. The research is of a legal nature with a focus on local government law. Local government law in this study is understood functionally, i.e. local government law is that part of the legal order which in an essential way concerns local government activities and tasks. The main research method is practical jurisprudence; comparative law is also used as a secondary method in the study. The results show that the principle of adequate financial resources has a demonstrable status as a constitutional principle, and in addition, the principle has the required institutional support of a provision. There are problems in the realization of the principle, however, and thus it cannot be stated that the principle is realized at this time. The financial cost impacts are systematically underestimated in government proposals, which cause problems for municipal finances. Cuts in the local government tax base are compensated with central government transfers, in which case the revenue previously belonging to the field of self-government switches over to the field of political policy-making and becomes a target for cuts. The central government transfer system is no longer considered as the basis for a financial relation between central and local governments, which causes problems. In addition, the program procedure for basic public services does not have the effectiveness it should for the realization of the principle. For these reasons findings suggest that § 121 of the Finnish Constitution should be amended with a provision of the principle of adequate financial resources.
  • Ojajärvi, Marjo (Suomalainen Teologinen Kirjallisuusseura, 2012)
    In this study, A Middle aged Man who is Falling in Love is Searching for Himself: A Study of Novels by André Brink, Jörn Donner, and Isaac Bashevis Singer, I examine the search for identity of middle aged men, who are married and who are in love with much younger women, from the point of view of ethical choices. In my research material I look at male characters with mid-life crises in Isaac Bashevis Singer's novel Shadows on the Hudson (1997), Jörn Donner's series of novels about the Anders family, especially Viimeinen kesä (1987), Itsenäisyyspäivä (1983) and Sattuman kauppaa (1993), and Andre Brink's States of Emergency (1988). My research an ethical and philosoph, is rather than a literary approach, and I primarily analyze my chosen texts from the perspective of moral philosophy. But having said that, my general goal in this research is to support the idea that it is useful and important that moral philosophy pays attention to literary works. In their stories of people´s lives novels offer concrete examples that deal with questions which moral philosophy approaches in a different way. This view is also proposed by Martha Nussbaum, Cora Diamond, and others. Applying moral philosophy opens new perspectives for reading literature, through which readers may enlarge their moral thinking, and the novels provide concrete narrative examples for understanding various concepts which are relevant in moral philosophy. I do not evaluate novels as such; I analyze the behavior of fictitious persons as moral agents in order to show how moral philosophical tools can be applied to novels in a way that is beneficial to a reader and also fruitful for a better understanding of these tools. The results of this research concern firstly the moral theoretical understanding of ethical situations of choice in relation to self knowledge, secondly ethical questions of falling in love and relationships as they occur in the life of the characters in the novels, and thirdly relations between literary fiction and ethical analysis. In dealing with ethical questions related to self understanding and the construction of personal identity, the examples constructed for theoretical purposes, and used in philosophical literature-, can be problematic because of the lack of personal depth and life orientation perspective. In such cases examples from fiction might well be more suitable for moral philosophical considerations. My goal is to demonstrate the usefulness of this kind of approach for moral philosophy, particularly in dealing with questions of self defeat, double life, weakness of will, the enchantment of love, fidelity, or friendship, with examples taken from various narrative contexts.
  • Tanner, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The study is concerned with the models of interaction represented in Finnish as a second language (L2) textbook dialogues. The analysis focuses on service encounter dialogues and more specifically on the requests of goods and services in the service phase of the encounter. The main questions of the study are the following: What kinds of linguistic structures are used to realize the speech function of request in different service encounter dialogues? How do these requests differ from the requests used in similar authentic service encounters? Compared to the authentic data, how representative are the models given in textbook dialogues? What kinds of factors might account for the different linguistic realizations in textbooks and authentic data? What kind of interpersonal communication is realized in dialogues and what kind of model of situationally appropriate language use do the textbooks present to the reader? From a broader perspective, how is politeness construed in the dialogues? ----- The corpus for the study consists of 9 widely used Finnish L2 textbooks directed at adult learners. The comparative data for the study includes data collected from similar authentic service encounters: transcriptions of videotaped interaction (collected mainly by a project on service encounters conducted by The Institute for the Languages of Finland) and data gathered through observation of recurrent simple service encounters. Methodologically, the study combines different but intertwining frameworks: the broader background for the study is L2 textbook research, the analysis of the data draws on conversation analysis and on lexico-grammatical concepts from Finnish traditional grammar and from Halliday's functional grammar, the description of interpersonality, situational appropriateness and (im)politeness employs and adapts current, discursive approaches to politeness. The study shows that requests in textbook dialogues are often realized in ways that do not reflect the situational variation of authentic data: full clauses as requests are often used even in routine requests, often including the verb saanko ('may I have') or the modal verb voinko ('can/could I') in the interrogative; NP requests (e.g. a coffee, thanks) are used less frequently. On the other hand, textbook dialogues tend to use more explicit formulations such as haluan ('I want'), which can make requests emphatic and demanding. While the progression of grammar in the textbooks is undoubtedly a factor motivating the realizations of requests, choosing situationally atypical forms of requesting in dialogues, nevertheless, also affects interpersonal meanings and the way in which textbooks represent social reality. The study also combines the results of the detailed grammatical analysis with current politeness research. The main contribution of the study to the current discussion on politeness is that politeness research cannot be isolated from the analysis of a large and varied authentic corpus: to be able to determine the socially appropriate forms of requesting in certain types of service encounters (or in this case, in textbook dialogues simulating certain types of service encounters) and the forms that could be considered situationally impolite or overpolite, the researcher needs to study the kinds of structures that are typical in similar situation types in authentic data. The results of the study are applicable to Finnish L2 teaching and especially to Finnish L2 textbook writing. The study also suggests ways in which textbooks could be constructed to make them represent more appropriately the situational variation and interpersonal meanings present in authentic communication.
  • Buchert, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The research goal was to clarify how ministers in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland construct their identities when they confront family and sexual issues, particularly as seen in their narrations about their work and the factors that influence their ways of working. The approach was a narrative one placing the emphases was on the internal story. The research material consisted of interviews of 19 ministers and the written biographies of 3 ministers who had also been interviewed. The data was analysed narratively (analysis of the narrations and a narrative analysis). The life stories were classified on the basis of the logic in each, and five different internal story types were created: the persons on the road to recovery, those within safe boundaries, those who had learnt to be critical, those with an obligation to help, and those who had grown to be open. In all of the story types was evidented a conflict between the ministry of the Church and the way it was adapted to the lives of individuals experiencing family and sexual issues. On one hand, this was a source of stress at work, but on the other, it offered a chance to create new images of ministers struggling with family and sexual issues. Life experience was found to be important when the study subjects interpreted and dealt with family and sexual issues. Those on the road to recovery felt that becoming a Christian and the personal recovery that faith had made possible had a significant impact on their personal lives. This healing effect of faith was also a strengthening factor for them when they dealt with family and sexual issues. Typically, they approached work situations by taking into account their faith and the type of psychological knowledge that was acceptable within the boundaries set by it. Those within safe boundaries worked within the limits prescribed by the revivalist movement that they had grown up in, from their childhood onwards, and their experiences in adulthood had even strengthened their commitment to the movement. Typically, they were keen to proclaim the views of the movement in public, but they were also prone to stay silent if and when felt those views would cause an uproar. Those who had learnt to be critical had previously been holistically committed to the views expressed by the Church in family and sexual matters. It was their experiences in life that had led them into conflict with the teachings of the Church. Their approach to work was one of ambivalence resulting from a conflict between their current and previous views, which was further exacerbated by their irresolution concerning how a minister should act in these situations. Those with an obligation to help questioned the church teachings marriage as the only family ideal. When they met various kinds of families and sexual identities, and also when they adopted the identity of a helper, the foundation of their ministerial identity was the Two Commandments of Love. Their work was burdened, however, by a fear of how the Church and the parishioners would take their teaching. Those who had grown to be open were more sure of themselves than the other groups. Years in the ministry as well as life-long experience had made them into persons who were following paths of their own. Openly critical of the views on family and sexual issues proclaimed by the Church, they were keen to present their personal convictions and were able to defend these publicly when necessary. Search words: Narrative research, internal story, minister, church, family, sexuality.
  • Solasaari, Ulla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)