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  • Lindgren, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Psychosis is usually preceded by a prodromal period. This phase is characterized by psychotic-like symptoms, attenuated positive symptoms not severe enough to reach a psychotic level. For example, a person may hear voices that are not real. The objective of this study was to investigate whether it is possible and useful to screen for psychosis risk in an unselected clinical adolescent population seeking help for psychiatric symptoms. By finding which symptoms predict transition to a severe psychiatric illness, these risk symptoms can be identified early, enabling effective intervention. This study collected data on adolescent psychiatric patients aged 15 18 years in Helsinki during the years of 2003 2004 and 2007 2008. The participants were screened using the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ) for prepsychotic symptoms, completed by 731 adolescents. The Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) was administered to 174 adolescents to ascertain their psychosis risk status, and broad cognitive testing was done. The participants were followed via patient files and the national hospital discharge register for 3 9 years. A third of the adolescents were identified as psychosis risk patients, but psychosis incidence during follow-up was low, and psychosis risk was not specifically predictive of psychosis. Hospital admissions for psychotic disorder were predicted by the depersonalization symptom intensity of the questionnaire and the positive symptom intensity of the interview. In addition, psychosis risk status predicted psychiatric hospitalizations overall during the following years. Visuospatial performance was poorer among the adolescents with a psychosis risk compared to other patients. Particularly poorer verbal performance was associated with stronger negative symptoms among adolescent patients, regardless of the psychosis risk status. Psychosis risk was associated with suicidal ideation among the adolescent psychiatric patients, but did not predict an increased risk of severe, hospital-treated self-harm during follow-up. The best predictor of intentional self-harm was emotional inexpressivity. Psychotic-like symptoms are common in general adolescent psychiatric services, but the development of psychosis is rare, and predicting psychosis with psychotic-like symptoms is not possible in the clinical environment. However, identifying and treating psychotic-like symptoms is important, as not only are they often distracting experiences in themselves, they can also be associated with cognitive deficits and suicidality, predict hospitalizations, and thus indicate a more serious disorder.
  • Juntumaa, Rauno (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on kuvata, millaista psykoanalyysissa tapahtuva oppiminen voisi olla. Oppiminen ei esiinny S. Freudin psykodynaamisten käsitteiden joukossa, mutta käyttäytymisterapeuttisen teorian käsitteisiin se on kuulunut. Tutkimuksen viitekehys perustuu psykoanalyyttisen teorian lisäksi J. Mezirowin teoriaan pohtivasta (reflektiivisestä) ja muuntavasta (transformatiivisesta) oppimisesta, näkemyksiin ilman tietoista tarkoitusta tapahtuvasta (implisiittisestä) oppimisesta sekä emotionaalisista tekijöistä oppimisessa. Empiirisenä aineistona oli viiden psykoanalyysissa olleen henkilön seitsemän vuoden seurantaan perustuvat videohaastattelut, yhteensä 60 tuntia, Helsingin Psykoterapiaprojektin aineistosta. Haastateltavat kertoivat itsekäsityksestään, kokemuksistaan ja suhteistaan läheisiinsä, työhönsä sekä analyytikkoon. Tuloksissa esitetään haastateltavien pohdintoja, reflektiota, heidän muutos- ja oppimiskokemuksistaan sekä tunnetiloistaan. Oppimiseen liittyviä ajatus- ja tunneyhteyksiä esitetään rinnakkain. Kunkin henkilön muutoksia kuvataan myös kaavioin. Oppiminen ilmeni kerrontana uusista ”perspektiiveistä”, kokemuksille annetuista uusista merkityksistä ja tulkinnoista. Tunnetilojen hallinta, ihmissuhteet ja kyky tehdä työtä paranivat. Oppimisessa olivat olennaista itsekäsityksen muutos ja tunnetilojen pohdinta. Sekä reflektiivinen että implisiittinen oppiminen olivat tärkeitä ja tukivat toisiaan. Ne näyttävät edistävän psyykkistä hyvinvointia. Oppimisen käsite toimii käsitteellisenä siltana naapuritieteisiin. Psykoanalyysista voidaan puhua oppimisen kielellä ilman psykoanalyyttisia termejä. Aikaisemmin psykoanalyysia on pidetty psyykkisen toiminnan teoriana ja häiriöiden hoito- ja tutkimusmenetelmänä. Nyt sitä voidaan pitää myös oppimisprosessina. Avainsanat: Psykoanalyysi, reflektiivinen oppiminen, implisiittinen oppiminen, transformatiivnen oppiminen, laadullinen analyysi
  • Ehrling, Leena-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    In the field of psychiatry semi-structured interview is one of the central tools in assessing the psychiatric state of a patient. In semi-structured interview the interviewer participates in the interaction both by the prepared interview questions and by his or her own, unstructured turns. It has been stated that in the context of psychiatric assessment interviewers' unstructured turns help to get focused information but simultaneously may weaken the reliability of the data. This study examines the practices by which semi-structured psychiatric interviews are conducted. The method for the study is conversation analysis, which is both a theory of interaction and a methodology for its empirical, detailed analysis. Using data from 80 video-recorded psychiatric interviews with 16 patients and five interviewers it describes in detail both the structured and unstructured interviewing practices. In the analysis also psychotherapeutic concepts are used to describe phenomena that are characteristic for therapeutic discourse. The data was received from the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study (HPS). HPS is a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of four forms of psychotherapy in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. A total of 326 patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: solution-focused therapy, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy, and long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. The patients assigned to the long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy group and 41 patients self-selected for psychoanalysis were included in a quasi-experimental design. The primary outcome measures were depressive and anxiety symptoms, while secondary measures included work ability, need for treatment, personality functions, social functioning, and life style. Cost-effectiveness was determined. The data were collected from interviews, questionnaires, psychological tests, and public health registers. The follow-up interviews were conducted five times during a 5-year follow-up. The study shows that interviewers pose elaborated questions that are formulated in a friendly and sensitive way and that make relevant patients' long and story-like responses. When receiving patients' answers interviewers use a wide variety of different interviewing practices by which they direct patients' talk or offer an understanding of the meaning of patients' response. The results of the study are two-fold. Firstly, the study shows that understanding the meaning of mental experiences requires interaction between interviewer and patient. It is stated that therefore semi-structured interview is both relevant and necessary method for collecting data in psychotherapy outcome study. Secondly, the study suggests that conversation analysis, enriched with psychotherapeutic concepts, offers methodological possibilities for psychotherapy process research, especially for process-outcome paradigm.
  • Lehtimaja, Inkeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study describes how students influence their possibilities of participating in whole-class conversation. The main objective is to investigate the verbal and non-verbal resources used by students to modify the participant roles of the ongoing conversation. The resources studied are attention-getting devices such as hand-raising and address terms, recycling and other forms of collaborative talk, means of reference to persons, such as pronouns, as well as gaze and other embodied resources. The theoretical and methodological framework adopted in this study is that of conversation analysis. The data consist of ten videotaped lessons of Finnish as a second language in three secondary schools (grades 7 9) in southern Finland; the number of students per group varies from five to ten. Finnish has a triple role in the data as the medium of teaching, the target language, and the lingua franca used by the participants. The findings show that the multi-party context of the classroom conversation is both a disadvantage and an affordance for student participation. The students possess multiple tools to overcome and deal with the encumbrances posed by the large number of participants. They combine various techniques in order to actively compete for public turns, and they monitor the ongoing conversation carefully to adjust their participation to the activities of other participants. Sometimes the whole-class conversation splits into two separate conversations, but participants usually orient to the overlapping nature of the talk and tend to bring the conversations together rapidly. On the other hand, students skilfully make use of other participants and their talk to increase and diversify their own possibilities to participate. For example, they recycle elements of each other s turns or refer to the currently speaking student in order to gain access to the conversation. Students interact with each other even during the public whole-class conversation. Students orient to one another often even when talking to the teacher, but they also address talk directly to one another, as part of the public conversation. In this way students increase each other s possibilities of participation. The interaction is constantly multi-layered: in addition to the pedagogic agenda, the students orient to social goals, for example, by teasing each other and putting on humorous performances for their peer audience. The student student participation arises spontaneously from a genuine need to communicate and thus represents authentic language use: by talking to each other, often playfully, the students appropriate Finnish vocabulary, grammar, and expressions. In this way the structure of the interaction reflects the particular nature of Finnish as a second language lessons: all talk serves the pedagogic goal of enabling students to communicate in the target language.
  • Eskelinen-Rönkä, Päivikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Oksanen-Lyytikäinen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The idea of this research was to articulate the meanings of costume and costume design through three contemporary operas Helsinkiin 2005, Le Saxophone 2011 ja Kohtaus kadulla 2013 process descriptions. The aim of this study was to research the meaning of costume and costume design in different opera contexts from the point of view of the costume design-er, but also from the viewpoint of the composer, stage director, performers and the audience. These meanings are considered in the entirety of the above-mentioned operas. Besides will be asked, how do production, performing context and the quality of the collaboration and interaction influence to the artistic pro-cesses from the viewpoint of costume design. As the basis of the multiple case study there was fenomenographic and semi-otic approach to the opera phenomena and producing and interpreting the mean-ings of the costume. The meanings of the costume were to be introduced by adapting methods of craft science, practice-led and artistic research. As main research material was used artists descriptions of their processes, diaries, notes and visual documents like sketches and photographs of the productions. Also material collected by interviewing and inquiry methods was used. As the research result I pronounce the context-based meaning of the costume. The role and meaning of the costume changes according to which phase of the process and from whose viewpoint it is considered. The meaning of the costume is different to different artists or producers and it changes during the processes. To the director costuming can give, besides visual stage picture, tools to create action with, and to the performer it for example will function as a help to create the character and as a protection during performances. To the audience costume tells of the backgrounds or the nature of the characters or something from the stories behind the artwork. When compared, the sketches produced during the artistic processes and the photographs taken from the stages, it was clearly to be seen that the costume sketches had their impact to the stage picture. Through the sketches of the com-poser it was to be noticed that the creative processes in different arts to some extent remind each other. The documentation and analyzing documents of the artistic processes opens up a great chance to create a picture of what happens during art making.
  • Ervasti, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Teachers' work is considered stressful, but the extent to which factors related to the school setting are associated with teacher sick leave remains unknown. This study examined the association between pupil-related psychosocial factors, the school setting, and teacher sick leave. The general framework of this study was based on work stress models that propose that psychosocial factors affect health when the demands of the psychosocial work environment exceed the resources of the employee. Survey data and register data were collected independently from teachers and pupils during a period from 2003 to 2006. Data were collected from 1) the School Health Promotion Study (2004-2005) by the National Institute for Health and Welfare, and from 2) the Finnish Public Sector Study (FPSS) by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, which focuses on the health of municipal employees in 10 towns. The FPSS data are linked to employer register data as well as to register data from other sources. In four of the five articles (sub-studies) that comprise this thesis, register data on teacher sick leave served as an outcome variable. Either data from pupil surveys or from other registers were then linked to these data. In one study, survey data on teacher health, health-risk behaviors, and violent situations at work were used as outcome variables. The number of teachers in these studies varied between 2291 and 8089, depending on the availability of the data. Multilevel regression models served to examine the risk of short-term (1 to 3 days) and long-term (over 3 days) sick leave episodes, the risk of diagnosis-specific absences, or the risk of health problems, health-risk behaviors, and encountering workplace violence among teachers in all comprehensive education or in lower secondary schools only. The study designs were cross-sectional, except for one prospective study. Pupil-related psychosocial factors at school, namely vandalism of school property, bullying, truancy, and school satisfaction, were based on pupils' survey responses aggregated at the school level. Pupil vandalism, bullying at school, and school dissatisfaction were related to increased risk for sick leave among teachers. Vandalism and bullying at school were associated with teachers' short-term sick leave. Pupils' low school satisfaction was associated with teachers' long-term sick leave. In diagnosis-specific analyses, pupils' low school satisfaction predicted teachers' sick leave due to psychiatric diagnoses, more specifically, to neurotic and stress-related disorders. Special needs education seems to pose a challenge for teacher well-being. Male special education teachers were at higher risk for short-term and long-term sick leave than were male teachers in general education. Male special education teachers' risk for encountering mental abuse was three-fold, and their risk for encountering physical violence was five-fold higher than that among male teachers in general education. Although female special education teachers did not differ from female general education teachers with regard to sick leave, they were at greater risk for encountering mental abuse and physical violence than were their female colleagues in general education. The percentage of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in general education schools was also associated in a gradient manner with all teachers' risk for sick leave. In particular, when the school had few teacher resources in terms of large number of pupils per teacher (>15.3), the risk for long-term absences among teachers rose with increases in the numbers of pupils at school with SEN. Although teachers' sick leave varied significantly between the schools studied, the between-school variation in absences due to illness stemmed largely from pupil-related factors and factors related to the school setting. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that pupil-related psychosocial factors, such as pupils' problem behavior, school dissatisfaction, and violent or threatening situations in schools, affect teacher health as reflected by their taking sick leave. Attention should focus on teacher well-being, especially in schools characterized by such stressors. Possible actions may include teacher training and interventions to improve psychosocial environments in schools, but also strengthening teacher resources (i.e., reducing the ratio of pupils to teaching staff), especially in schools where the percentage of pupils with SEN is high.
  • Onatsu-Arvilommi, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Alkio, Martti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This thesis discusses the use of sub- and supercritical fluids as the medium in extraction and chromatography. Super- and subcritical extraction was used to separate essential oils from herbal plant Angelica archangelica. The effect of extraction parameters was studied and sensory analyses of the extracts were done by an expert panel. The results of the sensory analyses were compared to the analytically determined contents of the extracts. Sub- and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was used to separate and purify high-value pharmaceuticals. Chiral SFC was used to separate the enantiomers of racemic mixtures of pharmaceutical compounds. Very low (cryogenic) temperatures were applied to substantially enhance the separation efficiency of chiral SFC. The thermodynamic aspects affecting the resolving ability of chiral stationary phases are briefly reviewed. The process production rate which is a key factor in industrial chromatography was optimized by empirical multivariate methods. General linear model was used to optimize the separation of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters from esterized fish oil by using reversed-phase SFC. Chiral separation of racemic mixtures of guaifenesin and ferulic acid dimer ethyl ester was optimized by using response surface method with three variables per time. It was found that by optimizing four variables (temperature, load, flowate and modifier content) the production rate of the chiral resolution of racemic guaifenesin by cryogenic SFC could be increased severalfold compared to published results of similar application. A novel pressure-compensated design of industrial high pressure chromatographic column was introduced, using the technology developed in building the deep-sea submersibles (Mir 1 and 2). A demonstration SFC plant was built and the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A was purified to meet the requirements of US Pharmacopoeia. A smaller semi-pilot size column with similar design was used for cryogenic chiral separation of aromatase inhibitor Finrozole for use in its development phase 2.
  • Ossola, Bernardino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Parkinson´s disease (PD) is a debilitating age-related neurological disorder that affects various motor skills and can lead to a loss of cognitive functions. The motor symptoms are the result of the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. The factors that influence the pathogenesis and the progression of the neurodegeneration remain mostly unclear. This study investigated the role of various programmed cell death (PCD) pathways, oxidative stress, and glial cells both in dopaminergic neurodegeneration and in the protective action of various drugs. To this end, we exposed dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) to 6-OHDA, which produces oxidative stress and activates various PCD modalities that result in neuronal degeneration. Additionally, to explore the role of glia, we prepared rat midbrain primary mixed-cell cultures containing both neurons and glial cell types such as microglia and astroglia and then exposed the cultures to either MPP plus or lipopolysaccharide. Our results revealed that 6-OHDA activated several PCD pathways including apoptosis, autophagic stress, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and perhaps paraptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, we found that minocycline protected SH-SY5Y cells from 6-OHDA by inhibiting both apoptotic and non-apoptotic PCD modalities. We also observed an inconsistent neuroprotective effect of various dietary anti-oxidant compounds against 6-OHDA toxicity in vitro in SH-SY5Y cells. Specifically, quercetin and curcumin exerted neuroprotection only within a narrow concentration range and a limited time frame, whereas resveratrol and epigallocatechin 3-gallate provided no protection whatsoever. Lastly, we found that molecules such as amantadine may delay or even halt the neurodegeneration in primary cell cultures by inhibiting the release of neurotoxic factors from overactivated microglia and by enhancing the pro-survival actions of astroglia. Together these data suggest that the strategy of dampening oxidative species with anti-oxidants is less effective than preventing the production of toxic factors such as oxidative and pro-inflammatory molecules by pathologically activated microglia. This would subsequently prevent the activation of various PCD modalities that cause neuronal degeneration.
  • Aatola, Piia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Aatola, P. 2013. Putting a Price on Carbon Econometric Essays on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and its Impacts. ABSTRACT This dissertation examines the main instrument of the European Union climate policy, the emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) during its first years. Emission trading provides a cost-efficient way to reduce emissions. It creates a price on carbon dioxide and thereby incentives for cleaner production. The four empirical studies in this dissertation provide new information on the price determination in the emissions trading market, market efficiency and market interactions with the electricity markets. This information is useful for many purposes. It benefits the market participants who make choice between trading of emission allowances in the market and abatement of emissions. For the authorities and policy planners the price signal and the efficiency of the markets reveal unique real-time information on marginal abatement costs, impacts of policy decisions and impacts of institutional design of this policy instrument. To be a well-functioning policy instrument the EU ETS should create a credible price signal and efficient markets for trading allowances. The objective of this dissertation is to analyze the EU ETS markets and the price of the European Union emissions allowance, EUA, with econometric time series models. A large data set on market fundamentals is used to analyze the price series. The results of this dissertation reveal that EU ETS is functions well. Carbon has a price that reflects to a large extent the market fundamentals in the study period. The markets are maturing even if not fully informational efficient yet. Interactions with electricity markets are close. The impact of price of carbon on the price of electricity is positive but spatially uneven. In the long run, also climate change affects the electricity bill. The first study of this dissertation investigates the price determination in the market. The empirical results based on years 2005-2011 show that the price of the EUA is largely determined by the market fundamentals. Especially the price of coal, gas, oil and the price of German electricity are reflected in the price of EUA. In the second study we build up forecasting models and use a trading simulation to study the informational efficiency of the market. Results reveal that the market is not fully efficient but maturing. There might have been possibilities to make economic profit during the second period in the EU ETS market. The last two papers focus on the interaction of emissions trading with electricity markets. The third study looks at the impact of EUA price on the integrating European electricity markets. The electricity markets are integrating but the positive impact of carbon price on the electricity price is uneven depending on the fuel mix in regional electricity markets. The last study analyses the impact of increasing mean temperature due to climate change and the EUA price on the electricity bill in the EU. Warming climate affect the electricity bill unevenly: in the southern European countries the bill is expected to increase due to the increased demand for cooling, whereas the northern and central parts of the continent may face decreasing costs as the winters get warmer. Keywords: Climate change, EU ETS, price determination, market efficiency, electricity market, time series econometrics
  • Siltala, Sakari (2013)
    This monograph demonstrates how the Finnish cooperative movement tried to assimilate capitalism, but got itself assimilated instead. The study examines the role of cooperatives during the period of fundamental structural changes in the Finnish business system 1982 - 2004. This period saw the breakthrough of competitive capitalism and the dissolution of cooperative capitalism, i.e. an economic system permeated by cartels and multilevel cooperation in business life. The monograph is an empirical case study focusing on Metsäliitto (Metsä Group), one of the biggest European forest industry corporations and producer cooperatives (annual turnover 8,8 billion in 2002, owned by 125 000 private Finnish forest owners). The main sources of the study are the documents of the archives of Metsäliitto, MTK (The Central Union of Agricultural Producers and Forest Owners) and Metsäteollisuus ry (Finnish Forest Industries Federation) and the interviews of 65 representatives of the aforementioned organizations and other business leaders. The study uses an actor-structure-approach, where Metsäliitto is the actor defining the viewpoint, and the established cooperative capitalism the surrounding structure. The essential findings and results are connected with international discussions on national business systems and varieties of capitalism. Throughout the 20th century Finland lived of forests, cartels and cooperatives. The three elements supporting the business system combine in the case of Metsäliitto. This makes it a revealing example when studying the dissolution of cooperative capitalism. The monograph provides new information on the role of Finland s most important industry and export sector and the cooperative movement during the transformation of the national business system. The thesis shows how Finnish cooperative capitalism broke under both internal and external pressures alike. Internally, it was challenged by another form of economic cooperation with long traditions, the cooperative movement. Metsäliitto aspired to dominate the roundwood markets of the country and to force other forest industry enterprises under the cooperative´s raw material hegemony and Metsäliitto-led cooperation. Externally, cooperative capitalism was broken down by expanding regime of economic neoliberalism, European integration and the resultant stricter competition laws and -policies. The monograph examines the difficult adjustment of the cooperatives to the competitive capitalism, the breakthrough of which Metsäliitto itself assisted. This adjustment is connected to a worldwide trend, the hybridization of cooperatives, i.e. the expansion of ownership rights to non-members, the mutation towards investor-oriented firms, and the dissolution of the cooperative ideology.
  • Arppe, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Andersen, Claus Elholm (University of Helsinki, 2015)
    You have to be on your guard - On Literariness in Karl Ove Knausgård's My Struggle This dissertation is a discussion of literariness in Karl Ove Knausgård,s novel My Struggle (2009-2011). I argue that My Struggle first and foremost is a novel and should be read accordingly. Though Knausgård might challenge the genre of the novel as we know it, I show how he does so within the framework of one of the strongest traditions in the 20th century. This tradition includes writers such as Proust, Joyce, and Thomas Mann, all of whom, like Knausgård, have sought to challenge the novel as such. Thus, Knausgård is stretching the limits of what a novel can be by taking his point of departure in the challenge that already exists in the genre. Read this way, Knausgård expands the limits of what a novel is and can do, so it becomes impossible to ignore him as a novelist. The dissertation is based on five articles published, or accepted for publication, in peer-reviewed academic journals. Combined, these articles show how Knausgård as a writer belongs to a literary tradition that can be seen as an extension of literary modernism. In each article, I identify what I have named the central paradox of the novel that Knausgård wants to write honestly about his life, but can only do so in the form of a novel and by using the literary devices from the world of fiction. It is through the analysis of this central paradox that I portray the literariness of the novel. Aside from the five articles, the dissertation also consists of a cap or a summarizing report where I place the articles in relation to the existing scholarship on Knausgård and explain my theoretical framework and why I consider it important to read My Struggle as novel. Here, I argue that the dissertation is in clear opposition to the majority of what has previously been written on Knausgård, where the focus has been on how Knausgård plays with reality and fiction instead of striving to understand what the novel is trying to say.
  • Räsänen, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Day by day more and more. Repetitive constructions in Finnish The study describes syntactic repetition in Finnish. Under investigation are short repetitive constructions in which the construction is connected by a morpheme, for example, päivä päivältä day by day , uudelleen ja uudelleen again and again . The study is a qualitative corpus-based study. It has three study questions. First, the study analyses the grammatical structure of repetitive constructions. Secondly, repetition is an iconic phenomenon, and the study investigates the motivation for repetition. Why and where is repetition used? Thirdly, the study will tentatively explain the syntactic productivity of the constructions. Syntactic repetition has semantic and pragmatic functions of which three are the most interesting. Firstly, it changes the aspectual interpretation of utterances. Durative situations become continuative, and semelfactive iterative. Secondly, repetition is also used to intensify expressions. Thirdly, repetition can be used to express superlative meanings. Repetition has many pragmatic functions. For example, it carries affective meanings in conversation. Repetition can also be used as an expressive tool in narrative contexts.
  • af Hällström, Taija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in men. In 2004, 5237 new cases were diagnosed and altogether 25 664 men suffered from prostate cancer in Finland (Suomen Syöpärekisteri). Although extensively investigated, we still have a very rudimentary understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to the frequent transformation of the prostate epithelium. Prostate cancer is characterized by several unique features including the multifocal origin of tumors and extreme resistance to chemotherapy, and new treatment options are therefore urgently needed. The integrity of genomic DNA is constantly challenged by genotoxic insults. Cellular responses to DNA damage involve elegant checkpoint cascades enforcing cell cycle arrest, thus facilitating damage repair, apoptosis or cellular senescence. Cellular DNA damage triggers the activation of tumor suppressor protein p53 and Wee1 kinase which act as executors of the cellular checkpoint responses. These are essential for genomic integrity, and are activated in early stages of tumorigenesis in order to function as barriers against tumor formation. Our work establishes that the primary human prostatic epithelial cells and prostatic epithelium have unexpectedly indulgent checkpoint surveillance. This is evidenced by the absence of inhibitory Tyr15 phosphorylation on Cdk2, lack of p53 response, radioresistant DNA synthesis, lack of G1/S and G2/M phase arrest, and presence of persistent gammaH2AX damage foci. We ascribe the absence of inhibitory Tyr15 phosphorylation to low levels of Wee1A, a tyrosine kinase and negative regulator of cell cycle progression. Ectopic Wee1A kinase restored Cdk2-Tyr15 phosphorylation and efficiently rescued the ionizing radiation-induced checkpoints in the human prostatic epithelial cells. As variability in the DNA damage responses has been shown to underlie susceptibility to cancer, our results imply that a suboptimal checkpoint arrest may greatly increase the accumulation of genetic lesions in the prostate epithelia. We also show that small molecules can restore p53 function in prostatic epithelial cells and may serve as a paradigm for the development of future therapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer We hypothesize that the prostate has evolved to activate the damage surveillance pathways and molecules involved in these pathways only to certain stresses in extreme circumstances. In doing so, this organ inadvertently made itself vulnerable to genotoxic stress, which may have implications in malignant transformation. Recognition of the limited activity of p53 and Wee1 in the prostate could drive mechanism-based discovery of preventative and therapeutic agents.
  • Molari, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    In the course of my research for my thesis The Q Gospel and Psychohistory, I moved on from the accounts of the Cynics ideals to psychohistorical explanations. Studying the texts dealing with the Cynics and the Q Gospel, I was amazed by the fact that these texts actually portrayed people living in greater poverty than they had to. I paid particular attention to the fact that the Q Gospel was born in traumatising, warlike circumstances. Psychiatric traumatology helped me understand the Q Gospel and other ancient documents using historical approaches in a way that would comply with modern behavioural science. Even though I found some answers to the questions I had posed in my research, the main result of my research work is the justification of the question: Is it important to ask whether there is a connection between the ethos expressed by means of the religious language of the Q Gospel and the predominantly war-related life experiences typical to Palestine at the time. As has been convincingly revealed by a number of studies, traumatic events contribute to the development of psychotic experiences. I approached the problematic nature, significance and complexity of the ideal of poverty and this warlike environment by clarifying the history of psychohistorical literary research and the interpretative contexts associated with Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Melanie Klein. It is justifiable to question abnormal mentality, but there is no reliable return from the abnormal mentality described in any particular text to the only affecting factor. The popular research tendency based on the Oedipus complex is just as controversial as the Oedipus complex itself. The sociological frameworks concerning moral panics and political paranoia of an outer and inner danger fit quite well with the construction of the Q Gospel. Jerrold M. Post, M.D., Professor of Psychiatry, Political Psychology and Interna-tional Affairs at George Washington University, and founder and director of the Center for the Analysis of Personality and Political Behavior for the Central Intelligence Agency, has focused on the role played by charisma in the attracting of followers and detailed the psychological styles of a "charismatic" leader. He wrote the books Political Paranoia and Leaders and Their Followers in a Dangerous World: the Psychology of Political Behavior among others. His psychoanalytic vocabulary was useful for my understanding of the minds and motivations involved in the Q Gospel s formation. The Q sect began to live in a predestined future, with the reality and safety of this world having collapsed in both their experience and their fantasies. The deep and clear-cut divisions into good and evil that are expressed in the Q Gospel reveal the powerful nature of destructive impulses, envy and overwhelming anxiety. Responsible people who influenced the Q Gospel's origination tried to mount an ascetic defense against anxiety, denying their own needs, focusing their efforts on another objective (God s Kingdom) and a regressive, submissive earlier phase of development (a child s carelessness). This spiritual process was primarily an ecclesiastic or group-dynamical tactic to give support to the power of group leaders.