Browsing by Organization "Folkhälsan Research Center, Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Helsinki, Finland"

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  • Thorn, Lena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Background: One-third of patients with type 1 diabetes develop diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy. The diabetic complications are related to a high mortality from cardiovascular disease, impose a great burden on the health care system, and reduce the health-related quality of life of patients. Aims: This thesis assessed, whether parental risk factors identify subjects at a greater risk of developing diabetic complications. Another aim was to evaluate the impact of a parental history of type 2 diabetes on patients with type 1 diabetes. A third aim was to assess the role of the metabolic syndrome in patients with type 1 diabetes, both its presence and its predictive value with respect to complications. Subjects and methods: This study is part of the ongoing nationwide Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study. The study was initiated in 1997, and, thus far, 4,800 adult patients with type 1 diabetes have been recruited. Since 2004, follow-up data have also been collected in parallel to the recruitment of new patients. Studies I to III have a cross-sectional design, whereas Study IV has a prospective design. Information on parents was obtained from the patients with type 1 diabetes by a questionnaire. Results: Clustering of parental hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes (type 1 and type 2) was associated with diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, as was paternal mortality. A parental history of type 2 diabetes was associated with a later onset of type 1 diabetes, a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, and a metabolic profile related to insulin resistance, despite no difference in the distribution of human leukocyte antigen genotypes or the presence of diabetic complications. A maternal history of type 2 diabetes, seemed to contribute to a worse metabolic profile in the patients with type 1 diabetes than a paternal history. The metabolic syndrome was a frequent finding in patients with type 1 diabetes, observed in 38% of males and 40% of females. The prevalence increased with worsening of the glycemic control and more severe renal disease. The metabolic syndrome was associated with a 3.75-fold odds ratio for diabetic nephropathy, and all of the components of the syndrome were independently associated with diabetic nephropathy. The metabolic syndrome, independent of diabetic nephropathy, increased the risk of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular and diabetes-related mortality over a 5.5-year follow-up. With respect to progression of diabetic nephropathy, the role of the metabolic syndrome was less clear, playing a strong role only in the progression from macroalbuminuria to end-stage renal disease. Conclusions: Familial factors and the metabolic syndrome play an important role in patients with type 1 diabetes. Assessment of these factors is an easily applicable tool in clinical practice to identify patients at a greater risk of developing diabetic complications.