Browsing by Organization "TTS Institute"

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  • Kirkkari, Anna-Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Naked oat (Avena sativa f.sp. nuda L.) is the highest quality cereal in northern growing conditions. However the cultivation area of naked oat is remarkably small. Major challenges for naked oat production are to observe its nakedness. The caryopsis of naked oat is sensitive to mechanical damage at harvest, especially at high grain moisture content. The greater the grain moisture content of naked oat at harvest, the more loses of germination capacity was caused by threshing. For producing high quality naked oat seed, it is recommended that harvesting be done at as low grain moisture content as possible. However, if this is not possible, better germination can be ensure with gentle harvest by reducing the cylinder speed. In spite of conventional oat s excellent fat and amino acid composition in animal feed use, as far as nutritional value is concerned, the total energy yield of oat is weaker than other cereals because of the hulls. Also with naked oat the dehulling is not complete, while hull content on different cultivars mostly varied between one to six percent. In addition to genotype, environmental conditions markedly control the expression of nakedness. Thresher settings had only limited effects on hull content. The function of hulls is to protect the groat, but this was confirmed only for Finnish, small grain, cultivar Lisbeth. The oat kernel is generally covered with fine silky hairs termed trichomes. The trichomes of naked oat are partly lost during threshing and handling of grains. Trichomes can cause itchiness in those handling the grains and also accumulate and form fine dust and can block-up machinery. The cultivars differed considerably in pubescence. Some thresher settings, including increased cylinder speed, slightly increased grain polishing such that grains had some areas completely free of trichomes. Adjusting thresher settings was generally not an efficient means of solving the problems associated with naked oat trichomes. The main differences in cultivation costs between naked and conventional oat lie in the amount of seeds required and the drying costs. The main differences affecting the economic result lie in market prices, yield level and feed value. The results indicate that naked oat is financially more profitable than conventional oat, when the crop is sold at a specific price at all yield levels and when the crop is used as feed at highest yield level. At lower yield levels, conventional oat is, in spite of its lower feed value, the more profitable option for feed use. Dehulled oat did not achieve the same economic result as naked oat, as the cost of dehulling, including the hull waste, was considerable. According to this study naked oat can be cultivated successfully under northern conditions, when taking into consideration the soft, naked grain through cultivation chain.