Browsing by Organization "University of Turku, Department of Anesthesiology"

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  • Mildh, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Opioids are most commonly used for treatment of severe pain. However, the fear of respiratory depression has restricted the use of opioids. Depending on the monitoring system used, different modes of opioid respiratory effects have been noted in previous studies. All opioids also cause alterations in hemodynamics at least to some extent. The main goal of this series of investigations was to elucidate the native ventilatory and hemodynamic effects of different opioids. Studies I-IV each involved 8 healthy male volunteers. Study V involved 13 patients with lower or upper extremity traumas. The opioids studied were morphine, oxycodone, pethidine, fentanyl, alfentanil, tramadol and ketamine. The respiratory parameters used in this study were breathing pattern measured with respiratory inductive plethysmography, gas exchange measured with indirect calorimetry, blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry. Hemodynamics was measured with arterial blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen consumption. Plasma catecholamine and histamine concentrations were also determined. All opioids studied caused an alteration in respiratory function. Respiratory rate, alveolar ventilation and minute ventilation decreased, while tidal volume increased in most situations. Breathing pattern was also significantly affected after opioid administration. The respiratory depression caused by oxycodone was deeper than the one caused by same dose of morphine. An equianalgesic dose of tramadol caused markedly smaller respiratory depression compared to pethidine. The potency ratio for respiratory depression of fentanyl and alfentanil is similar to analgesic potency ratio studied elsewhere. Racemic ketamine attenuated the respiratory depression caused by fentanyl, if measured with minute ventilation. However, this effect was counteracted by increased oxygen consumption. Supplemental oxygen did not offer any benefits, nor did it cause any atelectasis when given to opioid treated trauma patients. Morphine caused a transient hemodynamic stimulation, which was accompanied by an increase in oxygen consumption. Oxycodone, alfentanil, fentanyl, tramadol and pethidine infusions had minimal effects on hemodynamics. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were increased after high dose opioid administration. Plasma histamine concentrations were not elevated after morphine nor oxycodone administration. Respiratory depression is a side effect noted with all opioids. The profile of this phenomenon is quite similar with different opioid-receptor agonists. The hemodynamic effects of opioids may vary depending on the opioid used, morphine causing a slight hemodynamic stimulation. However, all opioids studied could be considered hemodynamically stable.