Browsing by Subject "lääketiede, anestesiologia"

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  • Förster, Johannes G (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Continuous epidural analgesia (CEA) and continuous spinal postoperative analgesia (CSPA) provided by a mixture of local anaesthetic and opioid are widely used for postoperative pain relief. E.g., with the introduction of so-called microcatheters, CSPA found its way particularly in orthopaedic surgery. These techniques, however, may be associated with dose-dependent side-effects as hypotension, weakness in the legs, and nausea and vomiting. At times, they may fail to offer sufficient analgesia, e.g., because of a misplaced catheter. The correct position of an epidural catheter might be confirmed by the supposedly easy and reliable epidural stimulation test (EST). The aims of this thesis were to determine a) whether the efficacy, tolerability, and reliability of CEA might be improved by adding the α2-adrenergic agonists adrenaline and clonidine to CEA, and by the repeated use of EST during CEA; and, b) the feasibility of CSPA given through a microcatheter after vascular surgery. Studies I IV were double-blinded, randomized, and controlled trials; Study V was of a diagnostic, prospective nature. Patients underwent arterial bypass surgery of the legs (I, n=50; IV, n=46), total knee arthroplasty (II, n=70; III, n=72), and abdominal surgery or thoracotomy (V, n=30). Postoperative lumbar CEA consisted of regular mixtures of ropivacaine and fentanyl either without or with adrenaline (2 µg/ml (I) and 4 µg/ml (II)) and clonidine (2 µg/ml (III)). CSPA (IV) was given through a microcatheter (28G) and contained either ropivacaine (max. 2 mg/h) or a mixture of ropivacaine (max. 1 mg/h) and morphine (max. 8 µg/h). Epidural catheter tip position (V) was evaluated both by EST at the moment of catheter placement and several times during CEA, and by epidurography as reference diagnostic test. CEA and CSPA were administered for 24 or 48 h. Study parameters included pain scores assessed with a visual analogue scale, requirements of rescue pain medication, vital signs, and side-effects. Adrenaline (I and II) had no beneficial influence as regards the efficacy or tolerability of CEA. The total amounts of epidurally-infused drugs were even increased in the adrenaline group in Study II (p=0.02, RM ANOVA). Clonidine (III) augmented pain relief with lowered amounts of epidurally infused drugs (p=0.01, RM ANOVA) and reduced need for rescue oxycodone given i.m. (p=0.027, MW-U; median difference 3 mg (95% CI 0 7 mg)). Clonidine did not contribute to sedation and its influence on haemodynamics was minimal. CSPA (IV) provided satisfactory pain relief with only limited blockade of the legs (no inter-group differences). EST (V) was often related to technical problems and difficulties of interpretation, e.g., it failed to identify the four patients whose catheters were outside the spinal canal already at the time of catheter placement. As adjuvants to lumbar CEA, clonidine only slightly improved pain relief, while adrenaline did not provide any benefit. The role of EST applied at the time of epidural catheter placement or repeatedly during CEA remains open. The microcatheter CSPA technique appeared effective and reliable, but needs to be compared to routine CEA after peripheral arterial bypass surgery.
  • Mäkinen, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Background: The national resuscitation guidelines were published in Finland in 2002 and are based on international guidelines published in 2000. The main goal of the national guidelines, available on the Internet free of charge, is early defibrillation by nurses in an institutional setting. Aim: To study possible changes in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practices, especially concerning early defibrillation, nurses and students attitudes of guideline implementation and nurses and students ability to implement the guideline recommendations in clinical practices after publication of the Current Care (CC) guidelines for CPR 2002. Material and methods: CPR practices in Finnish health centres; especially concerning rapid defibrillation programmes, as well as the implementation of CC guidelines for CPR was studied in a mail survey to chief physicians of every health centre in Finland (Study I). The CPR skills using an automated external defibrillator (AED) were compared in a study including Objective stuctured clinical examination (OSCE) of resuscitation skills of nurses and nursing students in Finnish and Swedish hospital and institution (Studies II, III). Attitudes towards CPR-D and CPR guidelines among medical and nursing students and secondary hospital nurses were studied in surveys (Studies IV, V). The nurses receiving different CPR training were compared in a randomized trial including OSCE of CPR skills of nurses in Finnish Hospital (Study VI). Results: Two years after the publication, 40.7% of Finnish health centres used national resuscitation guidelines. The proportion of health centres having at least one AED (66%) and principle of nurse-performed defibrillation without the presence of a physician (42%) had increased. The CPR-D training was estimated to be insufficient regarding basic life support and advanced life support in the majority of health centres (Study I). CPR-D skills of nurses and nursing students in two specific Swedish and Finnish hospitals and institutions (Study II and III) were generally inadequate. The nurses performed better than the students and the Swedish nurses surpassed the Finnish ones. Geriatric nurses receiving traditional CPR-D training performed better than those receiving an Internet-based course but both groups failed to defibrillate within 60 s. Thus, the performance was not satisfactory even two weeks after traditional training (Study VI). Unlike the medical students, the nursing students did not feel competent to perform procedures recommended in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines including the defibrillation. However, the majority of nursing students felt confident about their ability to perform basic life support. The perceived ability to defibrillate correlated significantly with a positive attitude towards nurse-performed defibrillation and negatively with fear of damaging the patient s heart by defibrillation (Study IV). After the educational intervention, the nurses found their level of CPR-D capability more sufficient than before and felt more confident about their ability to perform defibrillation themselves. A negative attitude toward defibrillation correlated with perceived negative organisational attitudes toward cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. After CPR-D education in the hospital, the majority (64%) of nurses hesitated to perform defibrillation because of anxiety and 27 % hesitated because of fear of injuring the patient. Also a negative personal attitude towards guidelines increased markedly after education (Study V). Conclusions: Although a significant change had occurred in resuscitation practices in primary health care after publication of national cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines the participants CPR-D skills were not adequate according to the CPR guidelines. The current way of teaching is unlikely to result in participants being able to perform adequate and rapid CPR-D. More information and more frequent training are needed to diminish anxiety concerning defibrillation. Negative beliefs and attitudes toward defibrillation affect the nursing students and nurses attitudes toward cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. CPR-D education increased the participants self-confidence concerning CPR-D skills but it did not reduce their anxiety. AEDs have replaced the manual defibrillators in most institutions, but in spite of the modern devices the anxiety still exists. Basic education does not provide nursing students with adequate CPR-D skills. Thus, frequent training in the workplace has vital importance. This multi-professional program supported by the administration might provide better CPR-D skills. Distance learning alone cannot substitute for traditional small-group learning, tutored hands-on training is needed to learn practical CPR-D skills. Standardized testing would probably help controlling the quality of learning. Training of group-working skills might improve CPR performance.