Browsing by Subject "lääketiede, epidemiologia"

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  • Kataja-Tuomola, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly worldwide. Obesity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors of type 2 diabetes: weight gain increases and weight loss decreases the risk. However, the effects of weight fluctuation are unclear. Reactive oxygen species are presumably part of the complicated mechanism for the development of insulin resistance and beta-cell destruction in the pancreas. The association of antioxidants with the risk of incident type 2 diabetes has been studied in longitudinal prospective human studies, but so far there is no clear conclusion about protective effect of dietary or of supplementary antioxidants on diabetes risk. The present study examined 1) weight change and fluctuation as risk factors for incident type 2 diabetes; 2) the association of baseline serum alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene concentration and dietary intake of antioxidants with the risk of type 2 diabetes; 3) the effect of supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene on the risk of incident type 2 diabetes; and on macrovascular complications and mortality among type 2 diabetics. This investigation was part of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prevention trial, which has undertaken to examine the effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on the development of lung cancer, other cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in male smokers aged 50-69 years at baseline. Participants were assigned to receive either 50 mg alpha-tocopherol, 20mg beta-carotene, both, or placebo daily in a 2 x 2 factorial design experiment during 1985-1993. Cases of incident diabetes were identified through a nationwide register of drug reimbursements of the Social Insurance Institution. At baseline 1700 men had a history of diabetes. Among those (n = 27 379) with no diabetes at baseline 305 new cases of type 2 diabetes were recognized during the intervention period and 705 during the whole follow-up to 12.5 years. Weight gain and weight fluctuation measured over a three year period were independent risk factors for subsequent incident type 2 diabetes. Relative risk (RR) was 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.17) for weight gain of at least 4 kg compared to those with a weight change of less than 4 kg. The RR in the highest weight fluctuation quintile compared to the lowest was 1.64 (95% CI 1.24-2.17). Dietary tocopherols and tocotrienols as well as dietary carotenoids, flavonols, flavones and vitamin C were not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Baseline serum alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene concentrations were not associated with the risk of incident diabetes. Neither alpha-tocopherol nor beta-carotene supplementation affected the risk of diabetes. The relative risks for participants who received alpha-tocopherol compared with nonrecipients and for participants who received beta-carotene compared with nonrecipients were 0.92 (95% CI 0.79-1.07) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.85-1.15), respectively. Furthermore, alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene supplementation did not affect the risk of macrovascular complications or mortality of diabetic subjects during the 19 years follow-up time. In conclusion, in this study of older middle-aged male smokers, weight gain and weight fluctuation were independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Intake of antioxidants or serum alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene concentrations were not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with of alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene did not prevent type 2 diabetes. Neither did they prevent macrovascular complications, or mortality among diabetic subjects.