Browsing by Subject "lastentaudit, gastroenterologia"

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  • Haveri, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Mammalian gastrointestinal tract and liver are self-renewing organs that are able to sustain themselves due to stem cells present in their tissues. In constant, inflammation-related epithelial damage, vigorous activation of stem cells may lead to their uncontrolled proliferation, and further, to cancer. GATA-4, GATA-5, and GATA-6 regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in many mammalian organs. Lack of GATA-4 or GATA-6 leads to defective endodermal development and cell differentiation. GATA-4 and GATA-5 are considered the ones with tumor suppressive functions, whereas GATA-6 is more related to tumor promotion. In the digestive system their roles in inflammation and tumor-related molecular pathways remain unclear. In this study, we examined the GATA-related molecular pathways involved in normal tissue organization and renewal and in inflammation-related epithelial repair in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. The overall purpose of this study was to elucidate the relation of GATA factors to gastrointestinal and hepatic disease pathology and to evaluate their possible clinical significance in tumor biology. The results indicated distinct expression patterns for GATA-4, GATA-5, and GATA-6 in the human and murine gastrointestinal tract and liver, and their involvement in the regulation of intestine-specific genes. GATA-5 was confined to the intestines of suckling mice, suggesting an association with postnatal enzymatic changes. GATA-4 was upregulated in bowel inflammation concomitantly with TGF-β signaling. In gastrointestinal tumors, GATA-4 was restricted to benign neoplasias of the stomach, while GATA-6 was detected especially at the invasive edges of malignant tumors throughout the gut. In the liver, GATA-4 was upregulated in pediatric tumors along with erythropoietin (Epo), which was detected also in the sera of tumor patients. Furthermore, GATA-4 was enhanced in areas of vigorous hepatic regeneration in patients with tyrosinemia type I. These results suggest a central role for GATA-4 in pediatric tumor biology of the liver. To conclude, GATA-4, GATA-5, and GATA-6 are associated with normal gastrointestinal and hepatic development and regeneration. The appearance of GATA-4 along with TGF-β-signaling in the inflammatory bowel suggests a protective role in the response to inflammation-related epithelial destruction. However, in extremely malignant pediatric liver tumors, GATA-4 function is unlikely to be tumor-suppressing, probably due to the nature of the very primitive multipotent tumor cells. GATA-4, along with its possible downstream factor Epo, could be utilized as novel hepatic tumor markers to supplement the present diagnostics. They could also serve a function in future biological therapies for aggressive pediatric tumors.
  • Mäkitalo, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a family of 23 metalloendopeptidases, collectively capable of degrading all components of the extracellular matrix. MMPs have been implicated in several inflammatory processes such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, and even carcinomas. They are also involved in several beneficial activities such as epithelial repair. MMPs are inhibited by endogenous tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP). In this study, MMPs were investigated in intestinal mucosa of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), chronic intestinal disorders. The main focus was to characterize mucosal inflammation in the intestine, but also cutaneous pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), to assess similarites with IBD inflammation. MMPs and TIMPs were mainly examined in colonic mucosa, in adult Crohn s disease (CD), and paediatric CD, ulcerative colitis (UC), and indeterminate colitis (IC). Ileal pouch mucosa of proctocolectomized paediatric onset IBD patients was also investigated to characterize pouch mucosa. The focus was on finding specific MMPs that could act as markers to differentiate between different IBD disorders, and MMPs that could be implied as markers for tissue injury, potentially serving as targets for MMP-inhibitors. All examinations were performed using immunohistochemistry. The results show that immunosuppressive agents decrease stromal expression of MMP-9 and -26 that could serve as specific targets for MMP-inhibitors in treating CD. In paediatric colonic inflammation, MMP-10 and TIMP-3 present as molecular markers for IBD inflammation, and MMP-7 for CD. MMP expression in the the pouch mucosa could not be classified as strictly IBD- or non-IBD-like. For the first time, this study describes the expression of MMP-3, -7, -9, -12, and TIMP-2 and -3 in pouch mucosa. The MMP profile in PG bears resemblance to both intestinal IBD inflammation and cutaneous inflammation. Based on the results, MMPs and their inhibitors emerge as promising tools in the differential diagnosis of IBD and characterization of the disease subtype, although further research is necessary. Furthermore, the expression of several MMPs in pouch has been described for the first time. While further research is warranted, the findings contribute to a better understanding of events occurring in IBD mucosa, as well as pyoderma gangrenosum.