Väitöskirjat

Recent Submissions

  • Vanhatalo, Anni (2018)
    Plants synthesise thousands of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) as part of their secondary metabolism. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) particularly produces mono- and sesquiterpenes, which are mainly stored in oleoresin in resin ducts. In this study, the monoterpene emission rate from stems was found to increase as a function of increasing resin pressure, which was positively correlated with the air temperature and foliage transpiration rate. Monoterpene synthase activity describes the maximum monoterpene production potential. The seasonal cycle and needle age were observed to explain the majority of the variation in needle monoterpene synthase activities, monoterpene storage pools and monoterpene emissions from shoots. Variation in the monoterpene concentration between seasons, different needle age classes and different trees was observed to be minor. Monoterpene synthase activity was higher in <1-year-old needles compared to older ones. Within a single tree, the compound-specific composition of monoterpene synthase activities and monoterpene storages was not reflected in the composition of emissions. For example, the share of δ-3-carene was substantially higher in the emissions than in the storage pools and synthase activities. An automated enclosure measurement system including a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer was utilized to follow the VOC emissions from the woody compartments of trees over several years. This was the first study to quantify such emissions for an extended period. Scots pine stems were observed to emit monoterpenes and methanol into the ambient air. The fluxes displayed a seasonal cycle: methanol emissions were highest in the midst of the growing season, whereas monoterpene emissions peaked not only on the hottest summer days, but also in the spring when the photosynthetic capacity of trees recovered. The emissions of some monoterpenes exhibited distinct diurnal patterns in their enantiomeric compositions. The above-canopy air terpene concentrations reflected the emission rates from trees, the atmospheric reactivities of the compounds, the tree species composition of the measurement site and the abundances of different tree chemotypes.
  • Helle, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The present study analyses the contextual theology of the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences (FABC). The FABC can validly be considered as the most authoritative representative of the Catholic Church in Asia since the time of the inception of the FABC, which took place after Pope Paul VI’s 1970 visit to Manila. The method of this study is systematic analysis and critical evaluation of the relevant FABC documents in order to locate the constitutive underpinnings of the theology of the FABC. The sources for this study consist of the most important documents produced by the FABC in the period from 1970 to 2012. The present study argues that the FABC’s contextual theology can best be understood as an interplay between the traditional sources of Catholic faith (Scripture and Tradition) their magisterial interpretation (with special reference to the documents of the Second Vatican Council) and Asian contextual realities (Asian religions, Asian cultures, and Asian socio-political realities, especially the poor). The importance of Vatican II is significant; the FABC could not have come into existence without the reforms and openness introduced by the Council. The FABC’s theological orientations can therefore be described as Asia’s continuing Vatican II. The approach of the FABC to theology is primarily inductive; this approach is seen when the FABC analyses the concepts of “being Asian” and “Asianness”. The FABC’s clearly expressed goal for the Church in Asia is “to become truly Asian in all things”. In pursuit of this goal, the Asian bishops especially employ the concept of Asianness. In using this broad term, at certain points the FABC can be viewed as representing an essentialist understanding of this concept. On the other hand, in choosing Asianness as an important concept and goal, the FABC belongs to a larger theological trend of emerging Asianness, which can be considered as one of the most significant theological trends today. In the thought of the FABC, one major component of Asianness is the concept of harmony. The FABC argues that harmony is a significant and inherently element in the process of becoming truly Asian. The importance of Asianness for the theology of the FABC is also shown in an analysis of the concept of truth in the FABC theology. The FABC strives for an Asian understanding of truth, which the FABC argues is universal, practical and non-exclusivist. In this discussion of the understanding of truth the Asian bishops introduce a “wayfaring” aspect into theology, which the bishops claim is a dimension which is significantly present in Asian theology. The concept of wayfaring theology implies a process during which the Church’s understanding of truth and faith will increase. In the opinion of the FABC, the “wayfaring theology” represents a genuine Catholic articulation of faith. This kind of articulation of faith and theology is both truly Asian and truly Catholic. The FABC also Asian contextual realities: the religions, cultures, and socio-political realities of Asia, especially the poor. The FABC welcomes all these realities as dialogue partners with the Church. In this dialogue, Asian contextual realities are accepted as theological sources (loci) in addition to the traditional sources of Scripture and Tradition. The dialogue with these contextual realities becomes a mutually enriching process in which both the Church and Asian contextual realities learn from each other and contribute to each other. Regarding the relationship with Asian religions, the FABC represents an understanding of that relationship which can be termed “dialogical fulfilment, in which the Church also can learn from other religions, and the adherents of religions are accepted as co-pilgrims on the way towards the Kingdom of God. In addition, even after the introduction of the Gospel the salvific function of these religions remains. In this understanding the FABC represents a different point of view than that of the Roman Magisterium. However, in the last analysis, an inclusivist undertone remains in the theology of religions of the FABC. The FABC’s understanding of Asian cultures is predominantly positive; at certain points the bishops even evince a kind of cultural romanticism. On the other hand, the bishops also provide critical means for the dialogue between the Gospel and cultures: this dialogue is intended to lead to inculturation. In order for inculturation to be successful, the process of inculturation needs the help of the Paschal Mystery, which means that both the Church and cultures need to be purified by the Gospel of Christ. When the Gospel meets a culture, something “new” is born out of the encounter, but the ”new” essentially grows out of both the Gospel and a culture. This “new” must be faithful to the genuine Catholic tradition and at the same time be relevant and capable of making the Gospel come alive in various Asian contexts. The third important contextual reality for the FABC are the poor of Asia, who are of indispensable help for the Church so that it can truly become an Asian Church. The Church must dialogue with the poor and give up its authoritarianism and also become the Church of the poor -- and even a poor Church. When developing its ecclesiology, the FABC argues that in order to become a truly Asian Catholic Church, the Church must adopt an Asian face of Jesus. Presenting Jesus in an Asian way implies using Asian cultural concepts, terms and symbols, and in a manner which resonates with the vision of life of the peoples of Asia. By this, the FABC strives to present a Jesus who is not a stranger to the Asian continent. An Asian Catholic Church will then do its mission in Asia to (ad) Asian peoples, among (inter) Asian peoples and with (cum) Asian peoples. The title of the present study, Towards a Truly Catholic and a Truly Asian Church : An Asian Wayfaring Theology of the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences (FABC) 1970-2012, reflects the understanding of the Asian Catholic bishops that their theology is a new enterprise marked by a certain experimental character, a certain ambiguity, uncertainty and tenuousness. It is not yet a finished product; rather, it is a pilgrimage. Living and proclaiming the Gospel according to this paradigm, the Asian Church discovers its identity as a truly Catholic and a truly Asian Church.
  • Mahiout, Selma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this thesis study was to gain more information on the physiological and toxicological functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The effects of two novel selective AHR modulators (SAHRMs) were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the involvement of the AHR in the avoidance of novel food was examined. The AHR is an evolutionarily ancient, apparently over 600-million-year-old protein. It is a ligand-activated transcription factor that modulates the expression of various genes within cells. One of the most studied groups of compounds that activate the AHR are dioxins. They are environmental contaminants primarily formed as by-products of various industrial processes, and many of them are toxic. Dioxins are chemically very persistent and lipid soluble, and thus accumulate in the food chain. Therefore, humans are also exposed to small amounts from food. In Finland, the most common source of dioxins is fatty wild fish from the Baltic Sea. The AHR has been recognised as the mediator of dioxin-induced toxicity for decades. More recently, it has also been shown to be involved in several physiological functions of the body, including the regulation of reproduction, foetal development, the immune system and autoimmunity. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of both the toxicological and physiological functions of the AHR remains incomplete. As a consequence, for instance, human health risk assessment of dioxins is challenging. Furthermore, better understanding of the physiological effects of the AHR could help elucidate the aetiology and pathogenesis of certain diseases, and therefore also benefit the discovery of novel pharmacological therapies. As lead compounds for drug discovery, SAHRMs are particularly interesting. They only elicit subsets of AHR-mediated effects, often without the major toxic outcomes of dioxins. Moreover, they could be valuable tools in elucidating the so far incompetently understood, multifaceted physiological roles of AHR, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. This thesis research had two main objectives. The first was related to studying the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of two novel SAHRMs, which are intended as drug compounds for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. The aim was to determine whether they appear suitable for pharmacological use from the pre-clinical safety perspective. Furthermore, finding out the extent to which their effects resemble or differ from those of the most toxic dioxin, TCDD, was of interest. The second objective was to accumulate more knowledge on a peculiar novel food avoidance behaviour, previously characterised in rats and mice after exposure to TCDD. This behaviour resembles a recognised behaviour model, conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which is also exhibited in humans, for instance in conjunction with nausea related to cancer treatment. The aim here was to verify whether the aforementioned rodent response is a physiological effect of the AHR or, more specifically, a consequence of TCDD exposure. Based on the results, the novel SAHRMs are very effective AHR activators, both in vitro and in vivo, and are in fact comparable to TCDD. However, their toxicity profiles are distinct from that of TCDD, and they appear considerably less toxic in rats. Therefore, the novel SAHRMs appear promising as possible drug compounds, and also highly interesting as tools for AHR research. Despite the differences in toxicity, one of the novel SAHRMs, as well as all of the three other AHR activators tested in this study, induced a strong avoidance response resembling that previously observed to TCDD, but shorter lasting. In addition, the reaction was not inducible in AHR knock-out rats. Thus, this study confirmed that the novel food avoidance behaviour is mediated by the AHR. The effect appears protective against potentially harmful ingested foods, and is therefore another physiological function of the AHR.
  • Päivärinne, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Jean Barbeyrac, traducteur et homme de lettres presents a micro-historical case study of an influential translator, with special reference to the concepts of visibility, agency and norms. The relations between these three sociological concepts are also analysed. The research combines sociology and history in studying the life and works of Jean Barbeyrac (1674-1744). The basic material consists of the works of this translator, who was also a university teacher and a central figure of the République des lettres. Most important are his two French translations from Latin: Samuel Pufendorf’s Droit de la nature et des gens (1706) and Hugo Grotius’ Droit de la guerre et de la paix (1725), together with other published writings by him and critiques of his translations. An important source alongside the published works is the translator’s correspondence, which has been collected for this study from different archives and transcribed from manuscripts. The correspondence has been published as part of the University of Lausanne project “lumières.lausanne” (see http://lumieres.unil.ch). The corpus gives a comprehensive picture of both the professional profile of the translator and his personal life, his career and the various connections he maintained in his international network. The research extends the material basis for translation history studies in that the translated works are academic non-fiction forming the theoretical basis of modern international law. It can be seen that, in the case of these works, this is a matter of intracultural translation, since the original Latin works were mainly aimed at the same scholarly audience as the translations themselves, so the intercultural dimension often highlighted in translation studies is not so relevant in this case. The study emphasizes the role of paratexts as a source of sociological and historical knowledge; both the prefaces and footnotes of the works (peritexts), as well as paratexts outside the translations (epitexts) such as criticism and correspondence, are essential. One of the conclusions of this study is that, in the case of Barbeyrac, it was not the translation strategy that was a decisive factor in his high visibility, but rather the rich use of paratexts. This visibility was partly created by reforming the paratextual practices of academic writing, in this case via unusually strong agency and partial norm-breaking. As for the norms of translation, one of the results of the research is that, in the early modern times in Barbeyrac’s most important cultural field, the République des Lettres, there was a relatively broad spectrum of different accepted ways of translating academic writings. Translation was seen as a worthwhile act to make knowledge and literature available to wider audiences. The commentary translation, represented in the way Barbeyrac used his own voice as part of his works (in prefaces, notes), as well as his extensive agency in various roles in his field, brought him a great deal of visibility and appreciation as a translator.
  • Teikari, Jonna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The Baltic Sea is a shallow brackish water ecosystem. It is naturally prone to eutrophication, and massive cyanobacterial blooms are an annual phenomenon in this region. Blooms are toxic to humans and animals, and cause economical losses and harm for recreational users. Almost all cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic organisms, and many bloom-forming Baltic Sea cyanobacteria can additionally fix atmospheric nitrogen. Inorganic phosphorus is usually the first and most important growth-limiting factor. Monitoring the external phosphorus inflow is strictly implemented by the coastal states, but uneven point load still occurs. In addition, a heavy and long-term phosphorus load has resulted in substantial phosphorus reservoirs in the sediments and phosphorus can be circulated back to the waterbody. Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are dominated by Aphanizomenon sp., Dolichospermum sp., and Nodularia spumigena, of which Dolichospermum sp. and N. spumigena can produce toxins. Due to their evolutionary history, Dolichospermum sp. is more abundant in the less saline coastal regions, whereas N. spumigena dominates in the open sea. This work studied the effects of changing environmental conditions on the distribution and niche adaptation strategies of toxic and bloom-forming Baltic Sea cyanobacteria using state-of-the-art sequencing and molecular biology methods. Climate change models have predicted that the salinity of the Baltic Sea will possibly decline in the future, and thus the behavior of Dolichospermum sp. and N. spumigena was studied in unfavorable salinities. Comparative genomic analysis showed that Dolichospermum sp. has high synteny between its freshwater counterparts, and possibly therefore the strain was unable to proliferate in moderate salinities. Salt addition induced massive transcriptional shifts, especially within the photosynthesis and nitrogen-fixing pathways. Moreover, moderate salinity increased the production of microcystins and triggered the oxidative stress response. On the contrary, N. spumigena thrived in higher salinities, and its growth and metabolism were hindered by freshwater. Unique sigma factors and an elevated number of transposases were identified in the genome of N. spumigena, suggesting a high genetic capacity to adapt to changing salinities and brackish water conditions. The growth and metabolism of Dolichospermum sp. and N. spumigena were arrested under limited availability of inorganic phosphorus. Both strains upregulated the genes in the pho regulon, indicating that these genes can be used for determining the phosphorus status of cyanobacterial blooms. All studied strains of N. spumigena from the Baltic Sea carried the phnC-M gene cluster, which is responsible for the transport and utilization of the highly stable phosphonates. Naturally produced phosphonates were an additional phosphorus source for N. spumigena cyanobacteria, and produced a competitive advantage in phosphorus-limited conditions. However, methane, an organic remnant of methylphosphonate was released to the gaseous environment. Blooms of N. spumigena cyanobacteria may thus explain the elevated summertime methane concentration in the Baltic Sea. The results presented in this thesis suggest that cyanobacterial blooms will continue to appear in the future if sufficient amount of phosphorus is present but community composition may shift towards freshwater species as a consequence of climate change.
  • Pietilä, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    In this dissertation I examine the transformation of Finnish university organisations. The global science policy emphasis on research excellence and the construction of universities as competitors in the higher education and research market have encouraged universities to coordinate their research activities and to develop career paths for academics. Globally-spread policy trends define what a successful research university should look like. By adopting the global policy trends, universities express themselves as progressive, modern research organisations with attractive career opportunities. In the study I focus on two administrative phenomena in Finnish academia: the establishment of so-called research profiles and tenure track career systems. The research problem is three-fold: How do the research profiles and tenure track systems demonstrate the change of Finnish universities into more coherent, complete organisations? What internal tensions do the changes produce at universities? How do academic leaders and academics in different academic fields respond to the establishment of research profiles and tenure track systems? The theoretical framework of the study combines organisation and management studies, and higher education research. The study draws on the observation that many traditional institutions, such as universities, are adopting management-oriented organisational forms and practices. Scholars, such as Nils Brunsson and Kerstin Sahlin-Andersson (2000), and Georg Krücken and Frank Meier (2006) have drawn such an inference. The dissertation comprises three refereed journal articles and a summary article. The main data consist of research interviews of academic leaders and academics working in tenure track positions at Finnish universities. The academic leader interviewees were rectors, deans and department heads, who worked in a range of academic fields. I argue that the establishment of both research profiles and tenure track career systems contributes to transforming Finnish universities into more uniform organisations. At universities, the reforms have been used as strategic instruments to pursue certain goals. The goals include the strengthening of universities’ position as research institutions and attracting academics from the international labour market. However, several things cause internal tensions, when universities position themselves as coherent entities. These include universities’ internal heterogeneity, and the dependence of academic career progression, and publication and funding processes on several actors, who have different goals. The findings also highlight the gap between the portrayed rational processes of tenure track and the everyday life experienced by academics who work in the career path. The work performance of academics was carefully monitored, but the evaluation criteria were often interpreted as being extensive and too ambiguous, and the evaluation processes were often interpreted as being unestablished. The dissertation contributes to discussion on how universities structurally and symbolically adapt when they face multiple pressures and opportunities. It also demonstrates how academic leaders and academics deal with globally diffusing policy ideas by reproducing and transforming them.
  • Kazlauskaitė, Rūta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    A complex shared Polish-Lithuanian past raises historical as well as political controversy. The tensions emerge in the divergent narratives, maintained by the two nations, of their shared past, in school-history education. This research examines the conceptual roots for how the past – that is shared, but remembered differently – has been taught in school-history education in Poland and Lithuania. For this task, I study the metaphorical models that shape textbook presentation of the past. The embodied, conceptual metaphor theory of Lakoff and Johnson provides the framework for examining the metaphors that shape an understanding of both cognition and the past on a meta-theoretical level. I focus on visual metaphors, which structure the textbook presentation of the past, because such metaphors participate in conceptualizing cognition as making representations by a disembodied mind, distanced from the world. My theoretical approach, enactive embodiment, posits a radically different understanding of cognition. Even though evidence for the embodiment of mind abounds, the implications of this research have not yet entered the public consciousness. There remains a lack of understanding of the practical implications of research on embodied cognition, which forms the gap this project aims to address. The research materials – Polish and Lithuanian school-history textbooks and interviews with their authors – serve as a “laboratory” for application and further development of these insights from cognitive science. The thesis investigates the use of metaphors in school-history textbooks and interview materials aiming to identify the metaphorical models, which shape ways of thinking about and engagement with the past. Finally, the 5 features of school-history textbooks that I focus on in this work address issues of: 1) truth in the light of 2) competing accounts of history that 3) sharply distinguish fact from fiction; moreover, in concentrating on: 4) narratives of the nation-state and 5) the arrangement of narrative in a linear sequence of static states, what is left out is the lived, experiential past of embodied persons of past times and places. The contribution this dissertation thus offers is to show how the rethinking of the truth of the past – in embodied terms – opens up potential new avenues for conceiving of historical truth and for teaching it in school-history.
  • Annanmäki, Tua (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder, affecting approximately 1% of the population aged over 60 years. According to current knowledge, there are both genetic and environmental risk factors for this disease. High plasma uric acid level has been shown to reduce the risk of PD and also to decelerate the progression of motor symptoms in patients with PD. In this study, 40 PD patients and 28 spouse controls were recruited to examine whether patients have low plasma and daily urine uric acid levels relative to the controls. Also neuropsychological testing was performed on patients both at baseline and after three years of follow-up to determine whether cognition is associated with the uric acid levels and whether low levels of uric acid at baseline predict future cognitive decline. An electroencephalogram with evoked response potentials (EEG-ERP) was given to a subsample of patients and controls to examine neurophysiological differences between the groups and to investigate whether cognitive alterations are reflected in patients’ EEG-ERP measurements. PD patients had lower levels of plasma uric acid than controls. Low plasma and urine uric acid levels were associated with poor achievement in neuropsychological tests measuring visuospatial and visuoconstructive abilities, sustaining attention and executive control. After three years of follow-up, only minor cognitive decline was noted in patients. Cognition did not seem to be associated with past or present uric acid levels. On the other hand, the stability of the patient sample made it difficult to assess the effect of uric acid on the prognosis of cognitive decline in PD. The EEG-ERP study revealed that PD patients had longer latency and poorer habituation of the evoked response potential N100 than healthy controls. In the patient group, the neurophysiological changes were associated with poor achievement in a neuropsychological test measuring visual working memory, but not with uric acid levels.
  • Kaakkurivaara, Tomi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the use of portable bearing capacity measurement devices and alternative fly ash structures to improve forest road quality and rehabilitation practices. So far, few tools have proved suitable for practical evaluation of forest road trafficability. Bearing capacity is the main component of trafficability and bearing capacity measurements are rarely conducted on forest roads. Replacing subjective criteria with objective measurement methods is the first step towards avoiding rutting damages as well as improving rehabilitation decisions. Three bearing capacity measuring devices were tested for predicting forest road rutting in the context of bearing capacity improvements with fly ash structures. Modulus of elasticity (E-modulus) was used as the measurement unit. E-modulus was used to quantify road stiffness as measured by two portable measurement devices and one trailer-mounted device. A light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) and a dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) were used to challenge the conventional falling weight deflectometer (FWD). Test sections were located on forest roads with both mineral and peat subgrades. The comparison showed logical correlations between the measured E-modulus values, and reliable regression models are presented for the differences between measuring devices. In most cases DCP and LFWD can be utilized on forest roads instead of the expensive FWD. The measurement results for the portable devices and the FWD were compared to rutting, as represented by the increases in rut depth per passing truck (mm/pass) measured by mobile laser scanning (MLS). The devices were used to quantify the relationships between the E-modulus and rutting. Rutting threshold values were then based on these relations. A rough rutting susceptibility table was outlined to aid forestry professionals to estimate the rutting damage risk per timber truck on forest roads during periods of thaw-weakening. Growing bioenergy production and consumption has resulted in an increase in the amount of fly ash produced by the forestry sector. At the same time the cost for ash deposition at land-fills has increased considerably. Utilizing fly ash in forest roads is therefore seen as a potentially cost-efficient alternative for improving bearing capacity. The fly ash part of the study investigated therefore road rehabilitation work from both technical and economical perspectives. Four different rehabilitation methods were tested using wood- and peat-based fly ash. The four rehabilitation methods involved two structures mixed with aggregate and two structures with uniform fly ash. The resulting bearing capacity of the rehabilitated road sections was improved compared to the reference sections, especially for the mixed structures. The improvements were verified by statistical comparisons. The study also defined the various work phases of rehabilitation and estimated construction costs based on phase-specific machine productivities. Cost calculation equations were established for earthwork and the transportation of construction materials. The lowest construction costs were calculated for a 250-mm thick uniform layer of fly ash structure, however, a 500-mm thick uniform layer of fly ash provided the lowest total costs when taking into consideration the alternative cost for landfill deposition.
  • Sosa, Takemi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The Finnish composer Magnus Lindberg (b. 1958) is one of the leading figures in the field of contemporary classical music. Curiously, despite the fascinating characteristics of Lindberg’s works and the several interesting subjects his music brings up, his works have not been widely researched. This study, "Magnus Lindberg: Musical Gesture and Dramaturgy in Aura and the Symphonic Triptych," examines Lindberg’s technical and aesthetic thinking by analyzing his significant works of the 1990s: Aura (1994) and the Symphonic Triptych, which includes Feria (1997), Cantigas (1997–99), and Parada (2001). The main purpose of the study is to demonstrate the composer’s construction of gesture and dramaturgy from the viewpoint of musical dramaturgy. The analyses focus on Lindberg’s strategic design, which is called dramaturgical cohesion in narrative. The main theoretical framework is musical narrative (see, for example, Tarasti 1994, Almén 2008, Grabócz 2008). Methodologically, the research is based on an approach that combines musical narrative with “traditional analysis,” by which I mean examining the form and structure of a work. Musical narrative in turn draws ideas from the study of theater and literature. My idea of musical gesture and dramaturgy is based on this combined analytical method. An essential concept here is dramaturgy, which is anchored to the theory of drama, especially the model of tragedy based on Aristotle’s Poetics. This model consists of five parts of drama (exposition, rising action, peripeteia, falling action, and dénoument) and the climax. The precise examination of a climax refers to the idea of telos. Telos, meaning the goal of a linear process, is a central aspect of a syntagmatic relationship. And as a culmination that unifies structural levels, telos is also central to paradigmatic relationships. Musical gesture refers to a musical event that plays the main role in a composition’s functional units. Musical gestures are subordinate to dramaturgical cohesion or hierarchical structure. In order to focus on telos and its function in a dramaturgical structure as a whole, it is important to examine the relationship between telos and gestures. For this analysis, I use the orchestral scores of four Lindberg works together with sound materials (CDs) and the composer’s drafts of compositions in order to find and identify gestures, telos, and elements of narrativity. In addition, the interviews that I conducted with Lindberg and selections from his writings reflect the composer’s aesthetic-technical and dramaturgical thinking. The most significant finding is that a certain dramaturgical structure, which I call “the Lindberg dramaturgy,” is found in all four works analyzed here. This structure is associated with Aristotelian dramaturgy. Lindberg’s music opens with an exposition (the opening gesture), in which the basic material is presented. The musical process develops toward chaos, which must somehow be resolved. Music is now in a state of saturation; the musical motion slows down and musical tension heightens. As a result of the saturation, an explosion occurs. Finally, a unison, a tonality, or some kind of ending gesture with a long note or fadeout follows the explosion – Lindberg’s catharsis (=cleansing). I claim that the musical narrative of Aura and the Symphonic Triptych are based on this formula. The process to the telos is indicated by the vision of narrativity moving from chaos to clarity, a concept on which the dramaturgy of these four works is based.
  • Berka, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This dissertation explores the governance, local impacts and costs of community-owned renewable energy (CRE). The objective is to understand if and in what context collective local ownership models represent a feasible and effective means to operationalising a more ‘sustainable development’ in the renewable energy sector and beyond. The articles draw on a range of fields, from energy governance and project economics to impact evaluation. Specific methodologies used are systematic literature review, discourse analysis, historical institutional analysis and risk-extended net present valuation. Unique contributions of this work are a meta-level understanding of the community energy sector in the UK and an understanding of its emergence in context of technological and institutional change. In addition, it provides an explicit assessment of Quality of Evidence problems in this subfield of energy and social science research, placing it firmly in the context of current literature and methods in project economics and impact evaluation. Findings show that ownership patterns in the energy sector are precarious and subject to changing narratives that emerge in response to domestic socio-economic and political dilemma’s, exogenous shocks, and emerging economic schools of thought. CRE projects have the potential to generate a variety of positive local impacts that vary depending on the motivation and management of projects and project revenues. Under certain conditions CRE can empower community organisations to address systemic socio-economic problems in the public domain. Finally, in a competitive market setting and where CRE is implemented by newly-established grassroots organisations, projects face a range of risks that commercial projects do not, and that erode their financial viability. As such, the development and expansion of community renewable energy as a substantial proportion of the energy sector requires policy makers to assign it special status and provide policy support on the basis of its local social, economic and environmental benefits. Policy support for community renewable energy requires a willingness to integrate energy and social policy domains.
  • Zhou, Putian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    A large amount of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are emitted from boreal forests. Once emitted, BVOCs can be oxidized in the air, participate in particle formation and growth and thus indirectly affect local, regional and global climate. BVOCs act as a bridge between the biosphere and the atmosphere including atmospheric chemistry in both gas and particle phases. In this thesis we studied the in-canopy sources and sinks of BVOCs, the roles of BVOCs in gas and particle phases, as well as the impact of aerosol dynamics on the vertical aerosol fluxes in the planetary boundary layer. Several findings in this thesis are shown below: (1) By using a newly implemented gas dry deposition model in a one-dimensional chemical transport model SOSAA (model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours, Sulphuric Acid and Aerosols) we simulated the in-canopy source and sink terms of 12 featured BVOCs. According to the strength of individual terms, BVOCs were classified into five categories: Cemis in which most of the emitted gases are transported out of the canopy, Cemis-chem in which most of the emitted gases are quickly oxidized inside the canopy, Cemis-depo in which emissions are comparable to deposition, Cdepo in which the dominant deposition sink leads to downward fluxes and Cchem-depo in which the chemical production compensates a part of deposition. (2) High upward fluxes of formic acid over a boreal forest were observed. The required unknown precursors and emission sources were quantified to explain the missing sources inside the canopy. (3) The simulated O3 concentration change due to chemical reactions related to BVOCs was in average less than 10% of the deposition sink. (4) The highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules (HOMs) play a dominant role in the growth of new particles over the sub-Arctic forest region at the Pallas Atmosphere-Ecosystem Supersite and account for ∼ 75% of total SOA mass during new particle formation events. (5) The modelled vertical aerosol fluxes above the canopy caused by aerosol dynamics were comparable or sometimes exceeded that caused by particle dry deposition. This introduced large biases between measured flux and the particle dry deposition flux. The findings (1), (2), (3), (5) were obtained over the boreal forest at SMEAR (Station for Measuring ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) II. This thesis provides a new numerical tool to analyse detailed sources and sinks of BVOCs, which can be applied in other ecosystems and further implemented in large-scale models.
  • Kettunen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Fungi are one of the most diverse groups of organisms, but their fossil record is scarce compared with that of plants and animals. However, many fossils of microfungi have survived as inclusions in amber, which is fossilized resin produced by ancient trees millions of years ago. Some of these fossils were already discovered and described during the 19th century. There are important sources of Palaeogene amber in Europe: the Baltic and Bitterfeld deposits. Baltic amber is about 43–25 Ma old (Eocene), whereas Bitterfeld amber is slightly younger (approx. 24 Ma, Oligocene). The aim of this thesis was to increase our knowledge of the microfungi preserved in the Baltic and Bitterfeld ambers. The material studied included both historic collections and previously unstudied amber specimens. The approach led to several advances in the field of palaeomycology. The systematic affinities of the microfungi described by Robert Caspary and Richard Klebs over a century ago were reassessed. None of these historical specimens belong to the extant fungal genera they were originally assigned to. Amended descriptions were provided for the historical specimens, and several new types of fungi were described from novel amber specimens. These included the first fossils of lichen-associated filamentous fungi. The results demonstrate that relatively few fossil microfungi in amber can be identified accurately enough to be used as minimum age constraints in dating phylogenetic trees of different fungal lineages. All the fossil fungi studied grew either on or in the immediate vicinity of resin-producing trees, which made them likely candidates for preservation in amber.
  • Portaankorva, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    "Faith-based diplomacy and conflict resolution: Muslims and Christians building reconciliation." This dissertation examines how faith-based diplomacy and Muslim-Christian cooperation supports reconciliation. The portrayal of religions in the media is often linked with violence, and less attention is given to religious peace-building efforts to resolve conflicts. In this study the results of three articles (I, II, III) are analysed through John Paul Lederach's conflict transformation theory. The first article (I), "Reaching for peace between faiths. ‘A Common Word’ letter and ‘Yale Response’ building reconciliation between Christians and Muslims", deals Muslim leaders in an effort to begin a new dialogue between religions. Both letters affirmed the common ground of beliefs that can be found in Abrahamic religions: believing in God, loving your neighbour and building reconciliation. The second article (II) "Muslim and Christian leaders working together: Building reconciliation in the Sierra Leone conflict" examines the work of the Inter-Religious Council of Sierra Leone (IRCSL) from an interreligious peace-building perspective. The results of the study argue that Muslims and Christians have common values and common ground that they can use in the midst of conflict to mediate peace. The third article (III) "Between religions. Baptist converts in Sierra Leone and their Islamic and African traditional religious past" discusses Baptist converts who have broken with the past and left their former religious communities. Christian converts from Islam have been working together with Muslim leaders to resolve local conflicts at the grassroots level. This research argues that faith-based diplomacy supports conflict resolution in three stages: global interreligious dialogue, national religious leaders´ interaction, and grassroots-level daily life. The results of the study show the process of horizon fusion between faiths, as Hans-Georg Gadamer argues. In the midst of conflicts, the Muslim-Christian dialogue and interaction can lead to a new understanding of reconciliation and peace. The focus of the empirical research was Sierra Leone’s civil war of 1991–2002. The results of the study support John Paul Lederach’s conflict transformation argument that multitrack peace-building at the top level, middle level and grassroots level of a society help in conflict resolution. The religious leaders of Sierra Leone condemned the violence and were ready to apply restorative justice that gave them a special role as peace brokers. The cooperation between religious leaders and the role of religious rituals in the process of reconciliation brought a sense of safety amidst the chaos as well as hope for a better future. When a political system is fragile, people rely on religious institutions where religious actors show moral integrity. Faith-based diplomacy helps to resolve conflicts in divided societies by nonviolent means.
  • Österberg, Ira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This dissertation examines the role of rock songs as film music in Russian cinema and how one important film, Aleksej Balabanov’s Brother (Brat, 1997), reshaped film music conventions in the 1990s. The study is divided into two sections: the first is a historical examination of more than twenty films made between the late 1920s and the early 1990s, the second focuses on Brother and its use of music. The research questions are 1) How is music used in Brother? 2) How were rock songs used in Russian cinema prior to Brother? 3) What are the similarities and the differences between the two uses? The methodology of the research is based on film music narratology combined with traditional Russian formalist and structural-semiotic views of art-texts as structures. Central concepts are Claudia Gorbman’s (1987) diegetic and non-diegetic music and Guido Heldt’s (2013) theoretization on film music, authorship and subjectivity. The study shows that the use of rock songs in Soviet-era Russian films goes through three stages. First they are used as exceptions to the main musical idiom and presented as diegetic performances connected with youth, nowness, dance and humor. Then, in the youth films of Dinara Asanova, rock songs gradually become a more dominant part of the musical strategies. Finally, during perestroika underground rock songs are used as the main idiom and rock gains new connotations of the intelligentsia and the avant-garde, but the songs are still mainly connected to realistic motivation. Brother differs from its predecessors as it combines a rock compilation score with gangster action instead of focusing only on youth or high art thematics. The analysis uncovers that the rock songs represent the voice of the author, but they are ambivalent in their relationship to the diegesis. A struggle emerges between the author-narrator and the main character over the music and this can be read as a self-reflective commentary on the development of the use of rock in Russian cinema. The overall path of rock songs in Russian films can be seen as the evolution of a device, in Jurij Tyn’janov’s (1977 [1927]) terms, in which the element (rock) changes its function and other elements move in to fulfill its previous functions. Brother’s music track acts as a link in the evolutionary chain of Russian film music’s development toward post-classical compilation and composite scores.