Browsing by Author "Al-Hello, Haider"

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  • Al-Hello, Haider (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Enteroviruses (EVs) are small non-enveloped RNA viruses forming a large group of different serotypes. EVs belong to the family Picornaviridae. The primary replication site of an enterovirus is typically the epithelium of the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal mucosa. Virus replication in the gastrointestinal mucosa may continue, often asymptomatically, for several weeks occasionally causing viremia. During the viremia the virus spreads through the lymphatic system and circulation. Organ-specific symptoms rise after viral replication in the secondary target tissues. Occasionally, cellular adaptation is required for a virus to initiate replication in the secondary target tissue(s). Adaptation is linked to mutation(s) which may lead to alteration in cellular tropism, e.g., recognition of new surface receptor molecules or other host cell constituents essential for virus entry and replication. However, the critical step may also occur later during in the interaction of the host cell and the replicating virus. In the present study, genetic changes responsible for altered phenotypic features were sought using two strains of Human enterovirus B (HEV-B) species. Firstly, a laboratory isolate of coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5), strain DS, was passaged 15 times in mouse pancreas in vivo, which resulted in a diabetogenic mouse pancreas passaged virus strain (MPP). The concept of diabetogenic means the ability of the MPP strain to replicate, cause insulitis and dysregulation of the glucose metabolism in the mouse pancreas in vivo. The interaction between the MPP virus strain and insulin producing β-cells was further studied in cell culture using a mouse-derived insulinoma cell line, MIN-6 cells, as an experimental model. The replication of the MPP virus strain was clearly slower in the MIN-6 cells compared to the other tested cell lines. After three days of incubation, extensive replication of MPP was evident in MIN-6 cells and resulted in a MIN-6 cell-adapted virus strain (MCA). Secondly, the ability of the D207 virus strain, isolated from a type 1 diabetic patient, to replicate in a primary human β-cell culture was tested. D207 was initially serotyped as coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9) in a virus-specific neutralization assay. The D207 virus strain was found to cause cytolysis in the primary human β-cells and, simultaneously, severe functional damage of the surviving β-cells. The genomes of the four virus strains DS, MPP, MCA and D207 were cloned and sequenced. The sequence comparison of three CV-B5 strains (DS, MPP, and MCA) revealed only limited changes, three capsid and two non-structural (NS) amino acid substitutions between MPP and DS, and two capsid and six NS amino acid substitutions between MCA and MPP. In order to determine which of the amino acid substitutions were responsible for the changed phenotype in vivo and in vitro, full-length infectious clones were constructed from the MPP virus and its parental DS virus. By using reverse mutagenesis and chimeric viruses (MPP/DS and DS/MPP), it was shown that a change from MPP to the MCA phenotype in MIN-6 cells was mediated by only a single amino acid at position 94 in VP1, while the in vivo adaptation of the DS virus strain to the inflammation-inducing MPP virus strain may require multiple genetic determinants in the virus capsid and probably also in the NS proteins. Sequence analyses of D207 revealed that the virus belonged to a genogroup D of E-11, but was also neutralized with monotypic antisera to CV-A9. The isolate D207 was found to be closely related to a specific E-11 strains known to cause uveitis. Uveitis-causing E-11 strains were also found to be well neutralized with both CV-A9- and E-11-specific antisera. In a further study, a wide range of E-11 isolates were included to test the observed dual neutralizibility among isolates belonging to the D genogroup. Five of the six studied strains belonging to genogroup D were also neutralized with antisera against coxsackievirus A9 Griggs. The peptide scanning technique was utilized to identify antigenic regions of the capsid proteins of the D207 strain responsible for the observed dual neutralization. Several regions in the capsid of D207 were found to cross-react with an antiserum raised against CV-A9. However, epitopes responsible for the cross-neutralization remained unidentified. In conclusion, these studies indicate that the specific location of mutation may affect the phenotype of an enterovirus more than the overall quantity of changes. In the experimental settings, radical changes in the viral phenotypic features occurred only after a few amino acid substitutions. The majority of the studied viruses in the genogroup D of E-11 maintained exceptional phenotypic property, the cross-neutralization with CV-A9 specific antiserum, despite their genetic divergence.