Browsing by Author "Alakulppi, Noora"

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  • Alakulppi, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Kidney transplantation (Tx) is the treatment of choice for end stage renal disease. Immunosuppressive medications are given to prevent an immunological rejection of the transplant. However, immunosuppressive drugs increase e.g. the risk of infection, cancer or nephrotoxicity. A major genetic contributors to immunological acceptance of the graft are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Also other non-HLA gene polymorphisms may predict the future risk of complications before Tx, possibly enabling individualised immunotherapy. Graft function after Tx is monitored using non-specific clinical symptoms and laboratory markers. The definitive diagnosis of graft rejection however relies on a biopsy of the graft. In the acute rejection (AR) diagnostics there is a need for an alternative to biopsy that would be an easily repeatable and simple method for regular use. Frequent surveillance of acute or subclinical rejection (SCR) may improve long-term function. In this thesis, associations between cytokine and thrombosis associated candidate genes and the outcome of kidney Tx were studied. Cytotoxic and co-stimulatory T lymphocyte molecule gene expression biomarkers for the diagnosis of the AR and the SCR were also investigated. We found that polymorphisms in the cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 10 (IL10) of the recipients were associated with AR. In addition, certain IL10 gene polymorphisms of the donors were associated with the incidence of cytomegalovirus infection and occurrence of later infection in a subpopulation of recipients. Further, polymorphisms in genes related to the risk of thrombosis and those of certain cytokines were not associated with the occurrence of thrombosis, infarction, AR or graft survival. In the study of biomarkers for AR, whole blood samples were prospectively collected from adult kidney Tx patients. With real-time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) gene expression quantities of CD154 and ICOS differentiated the patients with AR from those without, but not from the patients with other causes of graft dysfunction. Biomarkers for SCR were studied in paediatric kidney Tx patients. We used RT-QPCR to quantify the gene expression of immunological candidate genes in a low-density array format. In addition, we used RT-QPCR to validate the results of the microarray analysis. No gene marker differentiated patients with SCR from those without SCR. This research demonstrates the lack of robust markers among polymorphisms or biomarkers in investigated genes that could be included in routine analysis in a clinical laboratory. In genetic studies, kidney Tx can be regarded as a complex trait, i.e. several environmental and genetic factors may determine its outcome. A number of currently unknown genetic factors probably influence the results of Tx.