Browsing by Subject "biokemia/neurobiologia"

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  • Nyman-Huttunen, Henrietta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The neuronal cell adhesion molecule ICAM-5 ICAM-5 (telencephalin) belongs to the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). ICAMs participate in leukocyte adhesion and adhesion-dependent functions in the central nervous system (CNS) through interacting with the leukocyte-specific b2 integrins. ICAM-5 is found in the mammalian forebrain, appears at the time of birth, and is located at the cell soma and neuronal dendrites. Recent studies also show that it is important for the regulation of immune functions in the brain and for the development and maturation of neuronal synapses. The clinical importance of ICAM-5 is still under investigation; it may have a role in the development of Alzheimer s disease (AD). In this study, the role of ICAM-5 in neuronal differentiation and its associations with a-actinin and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors were examined. NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are known to be involved in many neuronal functions, including the passage of information from one neuron to another one, and thus it was thought important to study their role related to ICAM-5. The results suggested that ICAM-5 was able to induce dendritic outgrowth through homophilic adhesion (ICAM-5 monomer binds to another ICAM-5 monomer in the same or neighbouring cell), and the homophilic binding activity appeared to be regulated by monomer/multimer transition. Moreover, ICAM-5 binding to a-actinin was shown to be important for neuritic outgrowth. It was examined whether matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the main enzymes involved in ICAM-5 ectodomain cleavage. The results showed that stimulation of NMDARs leads to MMP activation, cleavage of ICAM-5 and it is accompanied by dendritic spine maturation. These findings also indicated that ICAM-5 and NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1) compete for binding to a-actinin, and ICAM-5 may regulate the NR1 association with the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, it is concluded that ICAM-5 is a crucial cell adhesion molecule involved in the development of neuronal synapses, especially in the regulation of dendritic spine development, and its functions may also be involved with memory formation and learning.