Browsing by Subject "rakennebiologia"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-1 of 1
  • Leo, Jack (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Trimeric autotransporters are a family of secreted outer membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. These obligate homotrimeric proteins share a conserved C-terminal region, termed the translocation unit. This domain consists of an integral membrane β-barrel anchor and associated α-helices which pass through the pore of the barrel. The α-helices link to the extracellular portion of the protein, the passenger domain. Autotransportation refers to the way in which the passenger domain is secreted into the extracellular space. It appears that the translocation unit mediates the transport of the passenger domain across the outer membrane, and no external factors, such as ATP, ion gradients nor other proteins, are required. The passenger domain of autotransporters contains the specific activities of each protein. These are usually related to virulence. In trimeric autotransporters, the main function of the proteins is to act as adhesins. One such protein is the Yersinia adhesin YadA, found in enteropathogenic species of Yersinia. The main activity of YadA from Y. enterocolitica is to bind collagen, and it also mediates adhesion to other molecules of the extracellular matrix. In addition, YadA is involved in serum resistance, phagocytosis resistance, binding to epithelial cells and autoagglutination. YadA is an essential virulence factor of Y. enterocolitica, and removal of this protein from the bacteria leads to avirulence. In this study, I investigated the YadA-collagen interaction by studying the binding of YadA to collagen-mimicking peptides by several biochemical and biophysical methods. YadA bound as tightly to the triple-helical model peptide (Pro-Hyp-Gly)10 as to native collagen type I. However, YadA failed to bind a similar peptide that does not form a collagenous triple helix. As (Pro-Hyp-Gly)10 does not contain a specific sequence, we concluded that a triple-helical conformation is necessary for YadA binding, but no specific sequence is required. To further investigate binding determinants for YadA in collagens, I examined the binding of YadA to a library of collagen-mimicking peptides that span the entire triple-helical sequences of human collagens type II and type III. YadA bound promiscuously to many but not all peptides, indicating that a triple-helical conformation alone is not sufficient for binding. The high-binding peptides did not share a clear binding motif, but these peptides were rich in hydroxyproline residues and contained a low number of charged residues. YadA thus binds collagens without sequence specificity. This strategy of promiscuous binding may be advantageous for pathogenic bacteria. The Eib proteins from Escherichia coli are immunoglobulin (Ig)-binding homologues of YadA. I showed conclusively that recombinant EibA, EibC, EibD and EibF bind to IgG Fc. I crystallised a fragment of the passenger domain of EibD, which binds IgA in addition to IgG. The structure has a YadA-like head domain and an extended coiled-coil stalk. The top half of the coiled-coil is right-handed with hendecad periodicity, whereas the lower half is a canonical left-handed coiled-coil. At the transition from right- to left-handedness, a small β-sheet protrudes from each monomer. I was able to map the binding regions for IgG and IgA using truncations and site-directed mutagenesis to the coiled-coil stalk and identified residues critical for Ig binding.