Browsing by Author "Aaltonen, Jaakko"

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  • Aaltonen, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Solid materials can exist in different physical structures without a change in chemical composition. This phenomenon, known as polymorphism, has several implications on pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. Various solid forms of a drug can possess different physical and chemical properties, which may affect processing characteristics and stability, as well as the performance of a drug in the human body. Therefore, knowledge and control of the solid forms is fundamental to maintain safety and high quality of pharmaceuticals. During manufacture, harsh conditions can give rise to unexpected solid phase transformations and therefore change the behavior of the drug. Traditionally, pharmaceutical production has relied on time-consuming off-line analysis of production batches and finished products. This has led to poor understanding of processes and drug products. Therefore, new powerful methods that enable real time monitoring of pharmaceuticals during manufacturing processes are greatly needed. The aim of this thesis was to apply spectroscopic techniques to solid phase analysis within different stages of drug development and manufacturing, and thus, provide a molecular level insight into the behavior of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) during processing. Applications to polymorph screening and different unit operations were developed and studied. A new approach to dissolution testing, which involves simultaneous measurement of drug concentration in the dissolution medium and in-situ solid phase analysis of the dissolving sample, was introduced and studied. Solid phase analysis was successfully performed during different stages, enabling a molecular level insight into the occurring phenomena. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was utilized in screening of polymorphs and processing-induced transformations (PITs). Polymorph screening was also studied with NIR and Raman spectroscopy in tandem. Quantitative solid phase analysis during fluidized bed drying was performed with in-line NIR and Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) regression, and different dehydration mechanisms were studied using in-situ spectroscopy and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). In-situ solid phase analysis with Raman spectroscopy during dissolution testing enabled analysis of dissolution as a whole, and provided a scientific explanation for changes in the dissolution rate. It was concluded that the methods applied and studied provide better process understanding and knowledge of the drug products, and therefore, a way to achieve better quality.