Browsing by Author "Bichlmaier, Ingo"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-1 of 1
  • Bichlmaier, Ingo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are enzymes of the phase II metabolic system. These enzymes catalyze the transfer of α-D-glucuronic acid from UDP-glucuronic acid to aglycones bearing nucleophilic groups affording exclusively their corresponding β-D-glucuronides to render lipophilic endobiotics and xenobiotics more water soluble. This detoxification pathway aids in the urinary and biliary excretion of lipophilic compounds thus preventing their accumulation to harmful levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stereochemical and steric features of substrates on the glucuronidation catalyzed by UGTs 2B7 and 2B17. Furthermore, this study relates to the design and synthesis of novel, selective inhibitors that display high affinity for the key enzyme involved in drug glucuronidation, UGT2B7. The starting point for the development of inhibitors was to assess the influence of the stereochemistry of substrates on the UGT-catalyzed glucuronidation reaction. A set of 28 enantiomerically pure alcohols was subjected to glucuronidation assays employing the human UGT isoforms 2B7 and 2B17. Both UGT enzymes displayed high stereoselectivity, favoring the glucuronidation of the (R)-enantiomers over their respective mirror-image compounds. The spatial arrangement of the hydroxy group of the substrate determined the rate of the UGT-catalyzed reaction. However, the affinity of the enantiomeric substrates to the enzymes was not significantly influenced by the spatial orientation of the nucleophilic hydroxy group. Based on these results, a rational approach for the design of inhibitors was developed by addressing the stereochemical features of substrate molecules. Further studies showed that the rate of the enzymatic glucuronidation of substrates was also highly dependent on the steric demand in vicinity of the nucleophilic hydroxy group. These findings provided a rational approach to turn high-affinity substrates into true UGT inhibitors by addressing stereochemical and steric features of substrate molecules. The tricyclic sesquiterpenols longifolol and isolongifolol were identified as high-affinity substrates which displayed high selectivity for the UGT isoform 2B7. These compounds served therefore as lead structures for the design of potent and selective inhibitors for UGT2B7. Selective and potent inhibitors were prepared by synthetically modifying the lead compounds longifolol and isolongifolol taking stereochemical and steric features into account. The best inhibitor of UGT2B7, β-phenyllongifolol, displayed an inhibition constant of 0.91 nM.