Browsing by Author "Dastmalchi, Keyvan"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-1 of 1
  • Dastmalchi, Keyvan (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Oxidative stress has been proposed to play a cardinal role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, antioxidants have been studied for their therapeutic potential in AD therapy. However, there is still a need for novel sources of antioxidants. Recently, there has been an increased interest in aromatic and medicinal plants as sources of natural antioxidants. The plants Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Melissa officinalis L., which belong to the family Lamiaceae, have been used in Iran for their culinary usefulness and medicinal properties. Therefore, extracts of the plants were screened for antioxidant properties in a battery of in vitro assays. The plant extracts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant activities. Furthermore, because it was important to determine which constituents present within the extracts may contribute to the observed activity, compositional fingerprint analyses were carried out using HPLC-PDA techniques. The extracts were found to contain polyphenolic compounds such as hydroxylated benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant constituent in both plants. The plant M. officinalis has been used since antiquity in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. The plant was recently assessed for its clinical efficacy against AD and was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate AD patients. According to a review carried out by the author, screening of medicinal plants for bioactivities relevant in the treatment AD can provide useful leads in the discovery of drugs against AD. Therefore, in addition to antioxidant evaluation, M. officinalis was screened for another bioactivity relevant to AD therapy, viz. acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. The plant extract showed AChE inhibitory activity, which formed the basis for activity guided fractionation. The extract was fractionated using semipreparative scale HPLC fractionation. Fractions were subsequently subjected to AChE inhibitory screening. Most of the fractions demonstrated inhibitory activity and were proved to be significantly (P < 0.05) more potent than the crude extract. This is an indication of the complex nature of potential interactions between various components within the extract. The contents of the most potent fraction were tentatively identified as a mixture of cis- and trans-rosmarinic acid using LC-DAD-MS and NMR techniques. There is a need to further investigate the efficacy of these chemical constituents in in vivo AD models. The remaining potent fractions should be analysed further to determine the identity of their chemical constituents and the possibility of a correlation existing between antioxidant activity and AChE inhibition should be investigated. The current study showed the multifaceted nature of antioxidant action of D. moldavica and M. officinalis. Furthermore, the latter demonstrated AChE inhibitory activity. A review of the potential benefits of ethnopharmacological screening of plants in AD therapy was made and the importance of bioactivity guided screening and fractionation of medicinal plants was highlighted. It can be concluded that M. officinalis is a potential source for discovery and development of drugs against AD.