Humanistinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Ehrnsten, Frida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this thesis, the use of coins in the eastern part of the medieval Swedish realm c. 1200–1560 is studied. The main questions are how coins spread in time and space, what kind of coins circulated and how the ordinary people apprehended the coins. This is analysed through a study of the monetarization process. This process involved a state-controlled currency in the form of minted metal eventually gaining ground in the public economy. This was a gradual change, the use of coins varied in different settings and throughout the whole medieval period the monetary circulation was part of a heterogenous economical system. The thesis deals with the area of modern-day Finland and the former Finnish territory of Karelia. Hand in hand with the expansion of the Swedish realm towards the east a new way of evaluating the world was introduced. The coins reflect changes in the medieval politics, economy and social order. They represented the new power and on a concrete level the coins functioned as a common denominator between the ordinary people and the authorities, formed by the church and the crown. The monetary circulation was also influenced by the trade on the Baltic sea and an international economy based on comparable currencies. This study rests upon both written and archaeological source material. The written documents mostly concern taxation, commerce and trade in land among the higher levels of society. In the material one can find large sums of money and foreign coins of high denominations. The coins in the archaeological find material on the other hand represent the coin use by the common people and the individuals at grass roots-level. The primary use of coins as means of payment was not multifaceted, but in secondary contexts they could get new meanings. For the ordinary man the coins were an instrument, through which one’s place in society was paid for in taxes. Through the trade the coins could be changed to products and as offerings coins were used when asking for absolution from the church. The analysis of the coin finds in Finland shows that the coin use spread from the southwest and the coastal areas towards the inland during a period of c. 350 years. The distribution of coins does not directly follow geographic factors, but different kind of environments affect where the oldest coins are found. In the beginning the coin use was tied to ecclesiastical settings. In the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th century an increased number of coins in places connected to trade and administration can be detected. I addition, many finds from this period can be interpreted as offerings or grave goods, indicating a dualistic use of coins. A more prevailing coin use in all different kind of milieus only emerges towards the end of the 15th century and especially during the 16th century.
  • Silvennoinen, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation examines contrastive negation. Contrastive negation is a cover term for constructions that combine a negated and affirmed element that refer to the same state of affairs (e.g. not today but tomorrow). There are many ways to express contrastive negation across languages and even within one language. In my dissertation, I ask what the functions of contrastive negation are, what forms it takes, and what explains the variation between these forms. I investigate these questions both within one language – English – and cross-linguistically. Previous research on contrastive negation has mostly resorted to introspectively constructed examples and its main focus has been on metalinguistic negation (e.g. not good but excellent). The main method used in this dissertation is corpus linguistics, i.e. the qualitative and quantitative study of electronically stored collections of naturally occurring texts. My aim has been to study contrastive negation as it actually appears in language use rather than focusing on artificially created ideal cases. I complement the corpus-linguistic perspective with interactional linguistics. In other words, I study how contrastive negation is used in casual conversation to create various socially relevant actions. The theoretical framework of the study is construction grammar, which starts with the assumption that language consists of constructions, i.e. pairings of form and function that language users learn from usage by using domain-general cognitive mechanisms. According to the corpus analysis, contrastive negation favours argumentative and interactive genres, such as newspaper editorials and conversation. There are gradient and sometimes quite subtle functional differences among the constructional schemas that are used to express contrastive negation in English newspaper discourse. In conversation, a difference emerges between English and Finnish constructional straregies: English favours asyndetic combinations of a negative and an affirmative clause while in Finnish, constructions that employ corrective conjunctions are used relatively frequently. In both languages, the forms that contrastive negation takes are adapted to the interactional context and function, especially to whether the construction is used reactively or not. In the last study of the dissertation, a comparison of 11 European languages reveals differences especially in the extent to which corrective conjunctions are used in the languages studied. The dissertation extends our understanding of contrastive negation. Instead of metalinguistic negation, which has dominated previous studies on the constructions, the central questions for this dissertation are whether the contrast is additive (not only Finland but also Sweden) or restrictive (not every day but merely at weekends), and whether the construction is used reactively or not.
  • Nyberg, Patrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    My doctoral thesis, Painted faces: The self-portraits of Helene Schjerfbeck, modernism and representation, addresses the problematics of viewing and representation in self-portraits by the Finnish painter Helene Schjerfbeck (1862–1946). It reflects on how self-portraits generate meaning through a dialogue between mimetic representation and the sensory properties of the material surface. This thesis challenges previous interpretations of Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits, which have hitherto been based almost exclusively on the artist’s biographical history. The theoretical framework underpinning my discussion of semiosis in self-portraiture is the critical reappraisal of contemporary notions of modernist painting. By analysing the representational dynamics of self-portraiture, this thesis questions exactly where, within the “Grand Narrative” of modernism, are we to locate the subcategory of modern paintings that continued to embrace mimetic representation regardless of whether the painting otherwise accentuates its sensory surface in the “modernist” manner. Poststructuralist art theory typically characterizes modernist painting as non-reflexive, sensory-driven, oculocentric, and siding with the notion of the subject’s autonomy. This thesis argues that modern painting is not hermetically self-contained, anti-lingual, or oblivious to the context and role of the viewer. Modern painting is capable of generating temporal and spatial effects that transcend pure visuality and subvert the meaning of seeing. This thesis looks at Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits in terms of the dialogue that emerges between the image and the viewer, analysing not only the visual but also the tactile and spatial effects this encounter produces. Self-portraits are examined as identity-affirming performative acts. The overarching conceptual framework of this thesis draws on visual semiotics and theories related to differences and (dis)connections between words and images. I examine the semiotic dynamics of representational modernism and Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits utilizing e.g. Jean-François Lyotard’s concept of the figural. My analysis of the performative dynamics and semiosis of Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits is based on Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalytical concept of the subject and the construction of identity within the friction-fraught interface between the visual and the verbal. Earlier interpretations of Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits have been based on the artist’s biographical history, which her self-portraits are generally regarded as mirroring either directly or indirectly. The existing body of Schjerfbeck scholarship has failed to address the semiotic dimension associated with the painting’s chosen mode of representation. This thesis argues that Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits deconstruct representation, subverting both the figurative image upon the canvas and the parameters of recognizable identity. Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits embody, using inherently painterly devices, the problematics residing within the interface between visual representation and subjecthood. Helene Schjerfbeck has come to occupy a prominent place within the canon of modernist painting. This thesis critically reappraises certain notions about modernist-era painting that have become entrenched in modernist discourse and generally within the legacy of modernism. I contend that the critically subversive tendency of modern painting is evinced in the domain of representational modernism that has hitherto been regarded as a backward-looking domain of art.
  • Slavcheva, Adriana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Academic networks and international academic mobility at every level are on the rise, yet the success of study time or research periods abroad are crucially dependent on appropriate communicative and social skills in the language of the target community, especially in spoken language. From the perspective of teaching German as a Foreign Language (GFL), one important issue is to determine what kind of linguistic and communicative skills and competences in academic German are required of somebody in order for him/her to be able to participate successfully in a foreign-language academic setting and how these skills and competences can be best acquired. The design and the implementation of appropriate target-oriented methodical-didactical approaches and materials for the development of those competences, however, require a detailed empirical research on academic German, also in comparison with other languages. With Bachmann/Palmer (1996), the textual competence can be considered as one basic component of the oral communicative language competence. From the perspective of the foreign language teaching, the use of connectors as cohesion-creating linguistic means is of particular relevance since they often cause difficulties for non-native speakers. Yet, there is still little empirical research on that crucial linguistic aspect in spoken academic language that could allow for systematic language training. One of the reasons for this was the lack of an empirical database. The corpus resources available for larger empirical research on spoken academic German were practically non-existent in the German corpus landscape at the beginning of this Ph.D. project. The dissertation aims at making a first step towards remedying this situation by analyzing the use of connectors in the spoken academic German based on comparable corpora. On the one hand, it discusses central questions of corpus methodology, information technology and legal issues regarding the construction of comparable multimodal and multilingual corpora, based on the scientific research done within the project GeWiss – German in comparison to English and Polish, and thus aims to provide orientation for the following corpus projects. On the other hand, it presents empirical studies on the use of connectors in the spoken academic language by native and non-native speakers of German based on the GeWiss corpus, which are expected to have far-reaching consequences for the teaching of GFL at universities. The results of the analysis show that – in contrast to textbooks, grammars and dictionaries for GFL – verbal connector functions clearly dominate monological academic texttypes and are partly used for specific scientific purposes in academic language. Deficits in dealing with these spoken-language functions in academic communication represent a possible explanation for the general underuse of connectors in spoken academic language among non-native speakers of German compared to the native speakers’ data. This makes it urgently necessary to deal with the specifics of spoken language, also when teaching and assessing the communicative language competence in German as a foreign academic language – in preparatory or study-integrated language courses, in the design of appropriate teaching materials and, not least, in the development of reliable models for the assessment of foreign language proficiency for university access.
  • Aalto, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The data of this thesis consists of place names that include the lexical element ukko as a nominative or genitive attribute. The study investigates the types of sites referred to by these names. The locations are described using maps and spatial data. Particular attention is paid to the elevation of the sites and their relationship to water. In addition, the background of the names, i.e. the basis for naming, is discussed with the help of traditional data stored in place name collections. Distribution maps have been prepared for the most important name types included in the material, and the place name data has been extracted from the Names Archive Collection of the Institute for the Languages of Finland (Kotimaisten kielten keskus, KKK) by using the Namesampo workbench. The survey also includes maps using the place name data of the National Land Survey of Finland. Digital spatial data has been used to examine the distribution and other characteristics of place names, the most important of which are the SMS dialect areas (KKK), the National Board of Antiquities' register (Muinaisjäännösrekisteri), the Ancient Shorelines Database of the Geological Survey of Finland, elevation data contained in the Topographic Database of the National Land Survey of Finland and the Ranta10 dataset of the Finnish Environment Institute. The names containing the ukko element are spread throughout the east and focus on Savo and South Karelia. The three most common name types are Ukonniemi, Ukonsuo and Ukonlampi. Names related to land elevations and forests are also numerous. In the study, the topographic features of the Ukonvuori sites are described by examining the elevation of the named sites and their connection to bodies of water. It was observed that there were a few more Ukonvuori sites bordering the lakes and watercourses than those not bordering on them. The oral tradition of place names stored in the Names Archive emphasizes, on the one hand, explanations of the origin of the name in which the place name element ukko refers to an old man or grandfather, and on the other, references to thunder as a natural phenomenon. There are beliefs that thunder has broken a rock or boulder at a place whose name is formed with the element ukko. The data contains names whose linguistic form refers to the above phenomenon (Ukonsärkemä, Ukonmurtama-type names). The names may be based on traces of the Ice Age or the ancient shorelines: steep cliffs, chipped boulders or special rock formations. In addition, the archive collections include references to not only forest fires but also to the slash and burn culture. Names such as Ukonpalo and Ukonpolttama (‘burned by an old man or a thunder’) can be associated with either the slash and burn culture or thunder as a natural phenomenon. Names containing the element ukko form a continuum in which the naming may be based as well on the concept of Thunder as a mythological force, a thunderous natural phenomenon or an ancestor who has engaged in the slash and burn culture.
  • Junchaya, Rafael Leonardo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Among the research on the different aspects of music education, teaching of music composition has been the less addressed if critically studied at all. Most of the literature on the subject describe personal experiences or promote particular styles or aesthetic views. Besides, the modernist music thought has prioritised abstract models that have lost contact with the listeners’ ability to grasp meaning or contents out of the musical works. The goal of this investigation is to make a critical insight into the practice of composition teaching and, consequently, propose pedagogic guidelines supported by the latest research in cognitive sciences around music perception and processing. The notion of musical form becomes crucial to this task. The research is limited to Western art music during the Twentieth century and it is centred in composition teaching in Peru and Finland. The analysis is done through the study of the specialised literature and from direct observation and interviews to composition teachers. Among the results, it has been observed a lack of common methodology and the presence of confusing vocabulary as well as a lack of teachers’ pedagogical preparation for tertiary level teaching. The proposed guidelines for teaching aim to provide researched tools to enhance the learning and creative processes, considering the listener as an active goal of the whole composition process independently of particular musical idioms or styles.
  • Kim, Jeongdo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study adresses Finnish words that are of onomatopoeic origin, in other words, based on the imitation of sound, but which have a meaning other than sound. Words such as these have been called ‘neutralized’ in Fennistics, while this study uses ‘the fading of onomatopoeia’ as a key term. In Finnish etymological research to date, the fading of onomatopoeia has often been presented as an explanation of the origin of various words, though this is mainly the speculation. The study seeks to develop a methodology to justify fading of onomatopoeia with the following questions: 1. Can the fading of onomatopoeia be justified by the relationship between phonesthemic nouns and onomatopoeic verbs? 2. Can phonesthemic nouns that have undergone fading of onomatopoeia always be considered lexicalized? 3. Can the developments in meaning leading to the fading of onomatopoeia be justified as a universal phenomenon through semantic parallels? This study adresses phonesthemic nouns within six meaning fields ('racket', 'fight/quarrel', 'nonsense', 'shot of spirits', 'watery substance' and 'spinning top'). Each meaning field contains several synonymous phonesthetic nouns. Research results show that the fading process varies between meaning fields and even nouns in the same meaning fields. Some of the nouns have experienced meaning development separate from their verb correlates, while some must be considered clearly deverbal. In some of nouns, the meaning of a concrete sound cannot be found, while in others, the development of meaning can be explained by analogies of phonetically similar words. This study also presents the central observation that the fading of onomatopoeia reflects the cross between cultural innovations, the affective nature of concepts and regular meaning developments. The study illustrates the richness of the morphological and semantic variation of Finnish onomatopoeic words and their dynamic development, which cannot be generalized to certain theories. Taken as a whole, this study provides a new perspective on the development and mechanisms of the vocabulary of the Finnish language.
  • Hänninen, Reetta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    LIGHT AND LIVELY? The first wave of female journalists in Helsingin Sanomat in the interwar period This doctoral dissertation studies female journalists in the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat on the interwar period. Helsingin Sanomat was, and it still is, the largest newspaper in Finland. The main focus is in years 1927–1939. Even before the late 1920’s the newspaper was aimed at the general public. However, since 1927 Helsingin Sanomat took a turn to serve even more popular and reader-friendly content with its new owner and manager Eljas Erkko. In my thesis I show, how the amount of the female journalists started to increase as Eljas Erkko reshaped the newspaper and its editorial staff. In 1926 there was not a single woman in the editing office, yet in 1939 before the break of the Winter War there were 11 women. The main research questions are: who were these women, why were they hired and what was it like to work in a masculine working environment? The study is based on various archive materials and formerly unexamined correspondence and it brings forth forgotten figures and hidden work women performed. I argue, that the amount of female journalists started to grow earlier than previous studies had recognized. It was not the Second World War that brought women in the editing office, but the commercialization and the aim to increase circulation. As writers, women were considered to be lively, light and approachable. Therefore, they were beneficial to a newspaper trying to reach a wider audience. Seere Salminen, industrious writer who was famous for her amusing columns, took advantage of these expectations and was the highest paid woman in the editing office. What is more, female journalists were essential when targeting female readers. Women ”held the markets in their hands”, as a Finnish advertisers’ journal put it in 1934, and as consumers they were crucial to the advertisers, their clients and the newspapers. This is why some of the female journalists were supposed to produce material, for example fashion columns, specifically addressed for female readers. In the newsroom, there was also room for a female reporter, who was writing so called hard news. For reporter and arts critic Vappu Roos the journalistic work opened doors that were normally closed. It also gave Roos power to raise the awareness of the topics she felt meaningful, such as the importance of family planning and the availability of contraceptives.
  • Ahola, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study aims to understand and explain prehistoric funerary practices from the perspective of Finnish Stone Age hunter-gatherer and early pastoralist earth graves located in mainland Finland. These structures date primarily from the Late Mesolithic to the end of the Middle Neolithic (ca. 6800–2300 cal BC) and represent a unique challenge to archaeological research. This is because unburnt bone material — including human remains — along with other perishable materials are generally not preserved in the acidic soils of Finland. Accordingly, the only feature that marks a Stone Age earth grave is the presence of ochre or stained soil, sometimes together with grave goods typical for that period. This thesis presents a compilation of material remains and archival information from Stone Age earth grave sites and research material as a whole. This approach aims to demonstrate that, whilst Finnish Stone Age earth graves primarily lack human remains and other perishable materials, we can still gain important new insights into Stone Age funerary practices. Consequently, the objective of this thesis lies in systematically studying the earth grave materials, attempting to understand the rituals behind them, and using these data to interpret mortuary practices and cosmology. Based on the results described and discussed in this thesis, the Stone Age mortuary tradition in the Finnish territory represents a complex set of practices that includes not only the archaeologically visible earth grave tradition, but also other means of ritually disposing of the dead body. Accordingly, when we refer to Stone Age mortuary practices in the Finnish territory, we are not speaking of ‘inhumations in simple pit graves’, but of the material remains of complicated rituals that give meaning to and place death within the cosmology of those people. Indeed, the systematic archaeological research conducted in this thesis revealed that both adults and subadults were given earth graves, a tradition also known from better-preserved Stone Age cemeteries in nearby regions of Finland. Similarly, Stone Age people used — and did not use — certain artefacts or raw materials in their funerary practice, in clearly ritualised ways and, for example, to emphasise the identity of the community. When comparing the data in this thesis to other ritual practices known from that specific period and region, Finnish Stone Age earth graves seem to encode an animistic–shamanistic cosmology. Indeed, similar to, for example, prehistoric rock art sites, the Stone Age hunter-gatherer cemeteries are also situated next to topographic features possibly connected to supernatural powers, whilst the graves themselves were furnished with objects that might have been considered living. Simultaneously, an intentional connection to past generations was also sought by positioning new burials amongst older ones or by reusing old cemeteries. To conclude, even if the Finnish Stone Age earth graves primarily lack human remains and other perishable materials, the graves are not as poorly preserved as one might assume. On the contrary, when the earth grave material was investigated as a whole and subjected both to new analyses and theoretical understanding, we gain important new insights into Stone Age mortuary practices and cosmology.
  • Mercier, Stephanie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Over the period Shakespeare was writing there was a fundamental evolution in the meaning of “commodity” from something beneficial or serving one’s interest to something to be sold for personal profit. One important aspect of Shakespeare’s theatre is its ability to show how the new notion of “commodity” could also mean trading men and women. Commodity can, therefore, already be associated with “commodification” (OED 1974). Moreover, the process can be recognised across the social scale. The social values of early modern society as mirrored in Shakespeare’s theatre, rather than being an individual matter, are thus shown to be part of a collective process. As studies have shown, the most obvious early modern human commodity was the prostitute and, through association with the Southwark district of London, where Shakespeare’s works were being performed, so were the “hired men”, or players. Yet, Shakespeare’s theatre accords a degree of agency (the ability to make choices and act on those choices) to both, especially women, who were considered as belonging to men (either their fathers or husbands) or as prostitutes, but who are nonetheless given some space for manoeuvre by the playwright. The same cannot always be said for male characters when they come into contact with commodity. In Shakespeare’s plays, where commodity is often at the core of power relations, male authority is shown to be frail and corrupt; it becomes deviant and often makes male characters subservient to unjust laws or demonstrate dishonourable behaviour. In this thesis I show that once authority has been decentred by commodity for profit, it can be further destabilised across society. Shakespeare’s male characters are thus shown to be as objectified as their female counterparts. The phenomenon was already a familiar one within the army, since soldiers had for centuries been mere cannon fodder. It is significant that commodification also affects other male characters, who seem, at best, submissive dupes to commodity (they are either their own victims of commodity desire or gulls to commodity scams) or, at worst, commodified themselves. Even the soldier-king is not exempt from a substantial loss of agency in Shakespeare’s representation of England’s feudalistic culture being replaced by mercantilism. I approach the representation of commodity empirically and from a variety of theoretical perspectives: essentially Gender Studies, New Economic Criticism and Close Reading. I demonstrate that “commodity” was a textual and physical source of structural alteration that was itself undergoing important changes. I show that Shakespeare’s was a theatre of commodities regardless of status and rank. Moreover, Shakespeare approaches commodity from a variety of perspectives, ranging from the comic and light-hearted, to the serious, derisive, and tragic. Most importantly, as commodity becomes increasingly perceptible on stage, some characters lose sight of themselves while others better manage to adjust to the increasing predisposition for commodities. In short, I explore three essential questions: What does Shakespeare’s representation of commodity show us about early modern society? How does Shakespeare’s representation of commodity relate to wider significations of value? Why should we consider the issue on a societal rather than an individual level?
  • Koivisto, Nuppu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract: Electric Lights, Champagne, and a Wiener Damenkapelle: Ladies’ Salon Orchestras and Transnational Variety Show Networks in Finland, 1877–1916 In this doctoral dissertation, I examine the concert tours of ladies’ salon orchestras in Finnish cities from the 1870s to the First World War. These orchestras, which usually advertised themselves as ”Viennese” (Wiener Damenkapellen) and consisted of circa 10 to 15 musicians, were extremely popular in Europe at the turn of the century. They performed in urban hotels, restaurants, and cafés, where they entertained the customers by playing light, popular melodies. The orchestras’ modus operandi was based on international concert tours which could last for up to several months or even years. Thus, there were dozens of ladies’ orchestras performing in the larger Finnish cities – Turku, Viipuri, Tampere, and Helsinki – during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, where their performances formed a significant part of middle-class, urban entertainment. The aim of my study is to establish how the orchestras’ tours around the Baltic Sea region were organized, and what kind of a reception they received in Finnish cities. Special attention is paid to the musicians’ socioeconomic position, as well as to the orchestras’ touring routes, concert programming, and public image. The sources consulted consist mostly of newspaper clippings and biographical archival evidence, as well as photos, caricatures, literatury depictions and memoirs concerning the orchestras’ reception history. Methodologically, the dissertation draws on the traditions of transnationalism. The concerts of ladies’ salon orchestras in Finnish cities are examined as a part of late nineteenth-century cultural networks which transcended national and linguistic borders. I argue that the archetypical Viennese ladies’ orchestra may be analyzed as a cultural product which pervaded Europe in a relatively standardized form. In addition, the orchestras conveyed new musical trends from one area to another. Even though ladies’ salon orchestras have been previously studied especially in Sweden and Germany, they have not been considered within the context of of transnationalism. However, points of reference regarding the transnational perspective may be found in scholarly publications on the social and cultural history of music by both international and Finnish academics. My key argument is that the transnational nature of ladies’ salon orchestras as well as their role in cultural transfer was evident on four different levels in nineteenth-century Finland: the orchestras’ professional networks, their tour-based way of life, their choice of repertoire, as well as their public image. First of all, ladies’ orchestras developed as part of the institutionalizing restaurant and variety show entertainment, which was based on cross-border networks of artists and impresarios. Second, the model for ladies’ orchestras’ concert tours may be found in Central European traditions of itinerant family ensembles which saw musicians travel around Europe and the world. Third, ladies’ orchestras, via their daily concerts, disseminated new tunes and musical styles to their touring destinations. Fourth, the orchestras’ marketing strategies were based on national and regional attributes which were meant to evoke impressions of the cosmopolitan Vienna on the one hand and local musical traditions on the other.
  • Kinnunen, Heini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation provides an analysis of the uses of the concept of the public sphere in the works of three feminist political and social theorists: Nancy Fraser, Iris Marion Young, and Seyla Benhabib. My main argument is that Young, Benhabib, and Fraser all apply the concept of the public sphere as a mediating tool in taking distance to and building alliances with the Left tradition in the context of feminist debates since the second wave. Benhabib’s, Fraser’s, and Young’s discussions on the concept of the public sphere have been analyzed and confronted by many scholars. There are however no comprehensive, contextualized, or detailed analyses of the uses of the concept in their works, and my study is designed to do this. I argue that the negotiating of the Left tradition is a crucial and prevailing element of Benhabib’s, Fraser’s, and Young’s feminist argumentation and of their uses of the concept of the public sphere. In my analysis of my three theorists’ texts I have found four distinct expressions of this negotiation: Firstly, I argue that during the 1980s the concept of the public sphere starts to emerge as a tool of renegotiating Marxist tradition faced with its Critical, postmodern and socialist feminist critics. Secondly, in the discussions on the democratic and political role of civil society before and after the Cold War, the concept of the public sphere figures as a tool to take distance from the authoritarian expressions of political power but also from the un-critical valorization of the private market. Thirdly, the concept of the public sphere figures as a tool to negotiate the so-called shift from the politics of (social) equality to (cultural) difference in social and political theorizing and practice from the 1990s onward. Finally, I argue that the concept of the public sphere has a central role in both broadening the scope of “the political” as well as defending its limits and distinct features for both feminist and socialist movements. Taken together, the analysis of the uses of the concept of the public sphere provides a window to various debates within feminist political and social theorizing and brings out a common thread that runs through all these debates. The taking distance toward, holding on to, and reinterpreting elements of the Left tradition all figure in the feminist debates in which the concept of the public sphere is used in. At another level, the concept of the public sphere is involved in and interpreted differently in various discussions, and it is precisely these different debates that construct the concept of the public sphere and brings out previously unnoticed aspects of it.
  • Isolammi, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation focuses on the concept “1920’s musical modernism in Finland” and what it means in Väinö Raitio’s (1891–1945) orchestral works from 1921–1923 and their reception. The examined compositions are Fantasia estatica op. 21 (1921), Antigone op. 23 (1921–1922), Kuutamo Jupiterissa [Moonlight on Jupiter] op. 24 (1922–1923) and Fantasia poetica op. 25 (1923). The works were written for a full symphony orchestra and premiered in Helsinki in the early 1920s. Their style has often been referred to as modernist. The more detailed analysis focuses on the reviews these aforementioned works received at their premieres. The reviews are examined in relation to Raitio’s own writings, the context of the musical life in Helsinki in 1920s, the modernist traits on the works themselves, as well as the image written music history has established of Raitio as a neglected and misunderstood composer. The dissertation also includes an extensive biographical chapter, which brings out new material about Raitio’s compositions, his aesthetic principles and his life. The viewpoint of this dissertation is biographical and reception-historical (verbal), and the main methods used are close reading and comparative analysis. When examining the reviews of the premieres, the focus is on the special vocabulary the critics used when describing the works as modernist. Some of the words are now used in a slightly different way and have slightly different meanings. On the strength of the modernism-associated vocabulary, I have chosen the parameters – timbre, harmony, thematics and form – which I examine using music analytical methods. Besides biographical and reception history, other research approaches that have influenced this dissertation are microhistory and cultural musicology. The new or previously not-referred-to material I bring out in this study both corrects flawed or incomplete knowledge and elaborates on the previously established picture of Raitio’s aesthetic views and his life. The close reading and contextualization of the contemporary reviews also shows that the image of Raitio as a misunderstood composer is slightly flawed, and the reasoning behind it is based mostly on the modernist features of Raitio’s works, rather than the context.
  • Hämäläinen, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The Internet has changed several areas of our society and culture, including communication and its tool, language. The change of language has been studied from different points of view, but proper names have not received much attention. This thesis fills the gap by examining two name categories in the Internet: user names and level names. Theoretically and methodologically, the study is based especially on onomastics but also on several other disciplines, for example computer-mediated communication (CMC), game studies, digital culture, and drug trade and culture. The thesis consists of four research articles and an extensive summary. In many online communities, a user can create a personal user name, which makes them recognizable to other users. Article I makes an overview of user names in Finnish online communities, using a large corpus. The focus is especially on structure and the semantics of names. Article II studies user names of drug vendors on a global marketplace on Tor network. The article examines especially what kind of information and images vendors share and create of themselves in their names while building the trust that the online drug trade requires. Video games often consist of several spaces of play, which are called levels in this thesis. Article III examines the names of levels in a game called Minigolf, which was located on an online gaming community Playforia (Aapeli in Finnish). Special attention is paid to the principles of naming: what kinds of connections are there between the names and levels’ characteristics? Article IV continues examining level names in Minigolf from the point of view of memorability: what kind of names are easy or difficult to remember? Results of the empirical memory tests completed by game hobbyists show that memorability is influenced by the principle of naming, language and the length of the name, as well as the characteristics of the level itself. The summary part of the thesis evaluates the differences and similarities of user names and level names. The most remarkable common features are uniqueness, intertextuality, the influence of the English language, plentiful use of made-up words, and a somewhat carefree and playful attitude towards naming. The summary also presents the most important research question of the whole thesis: has the Internet changed the ways we give and use names? The answer is an equivocal yes and no. There are some characteristics in the Internet names that do not appear in the name categories of the non-virtual world. On the other hand, there are many resemblances, and some of them seem to be based on the models adapted from real-world names.
  • Hamunen, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Mannerless infinitives. Construction Grammar of co-eventive infinitive structures in Finnish dialects Markus Hamunen, University of Helsinki This thesis deals with certain Finnish infinitive structures roughly designating how something happens simultaneously to an event described by a finite structure (e.g. Keijo syö hotkien ‘Keijo gulps his food down’). The thesis consists of two parts: four distinct research articles studying separate infinitive structures, and a theoretical introductory part. The objects of research are the so called colorative construction (e.g. juosta jol-kottaa ‘s/he runs at a trot’ or ‘s/he jogs’), the (T)e-infinitive instructive (TEN-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottaen ‘s/he runs trotting’), the mA-infinitive adessive (MALLA-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottamalla ‘s/he runs (by) trotting’), and the mA-infinitive abessive (MATTA-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottamatta ‘s/he runs without trotting’). The unifying property of these structures is that they all describe how something happens. In the colorative construction, this meaning is incorporated in the lexical semantics of the colorative finite verb (e.g. jolkottaa ‘to run slowly at a trot’). The other three infinitive structures are adjuncts of finite structures. The semantics of their adjuncthood concerns how the infinitive structure characterizes described events by the finite structure. The data in this study is based on approximately 6,000 clausal examples gathered from three distinct corpora: Lauseopin arkisto (LA, Syntax Archive), Digitaalinen Muoto-opin arkisto (DMA, Digital Morphology archive), and Suomen murteiden sanakirja (SMS, Dictionary of Finnish Dialects, in the alphabetical range from A to kurvottaa). The most crucial research questions in this study can be illustrated in: What kind of infinitive structures are the objects of research, and how do theoretical concepts and tools of cognitive linguistics, and especially construction grammar (e.g. Fillmore & Kay 1995), implement the description of objects in this research? First, in the analysis of corpus data, in becomes apparent that both the colorative construction and the infinitive adjuncts are polysemous. In the colorative construction this can be seen in the colorative features characterizing the events in question where they may be dealing, for example, with an actor, an action itself or something emerging causally from the action (e.g. sound, see the article Liike ja tapa). Accordingly, the polysemy of infinitive adjuncts is manifest in the fact that different grammatical factors between verbs and verbal structures (subject and temporal interpretations, hyponymy, causal relations and negation) have an effect on whether the event described by the infinitive structure is interpreted as manner, means, concomitant, method, or as something else attributed to the event described by the finite structure (see articles Juosten vai juoksemalla and MATTA-rakenne). Second, in this study, the application of construction grammar is twofold. On the one hand, it gives a description of constructional development of the colorative construction from the reconstructed Late-Proto-Finnic form to the modern Finnish (see article Kieliopillistuminen). On the other hand, the actual theoretical contribution in this study addresses the constructional character of infinitive adjuncts. This thesis gives an overall grammatical and semantic description for the object structures of this study. At the same time, it offers insight into an extremely challenging topic for any grammar model: adjuncts.
  • Jauhiainen, Tommi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This work investigates the task of identifying the language of digitally encoded text. Automatic methods for language identification have been developed since the 1960s. During the years, the significance of language identification as an important preprocessing element has grown at the same time as other natural language processing systems have become mainstream in day-to-day applications. The methods used for language identification are mostly shared with other text classification tasks as almost any modern machine learning method can be trained to distinguish between different languages. We begin the work by taking a detailed look at the research so far conducted in the field. As part of this work, we provide the largest survey on language identification available so far. Comparing the performance of different language identification methods presented in the literature has been difficult in the past. Before the introduction of a series of language identification shared tasks at the VarDial workshops, there were no widely accepted standard datasets which could be used to compare different methods. The shared tasks mostly concentrated on the issue of distinguishing between similar languages, but other open issues relating to language identification were addressed as well. In this work, we present the methods for language identification we have developed while participating in the shared tasks from 2015 to 2017. Most of the research for this work was accomplished within the Finno-Ugric Languages and the Internet project. In the project, our goal was to find and collect texts written in rare Uralic languages on the Internet. In addition to the open issues addressed at the shared tasks, we dealt with issues concerning domain compatibility and the number of languages. We created an evaluation set-up for addressing short out-of-domain texts in a large number of languages. Using the set-up, we evaluated our own method as well as other promising methods from the literature. The last issue we address in this work is the handling of multilingual documents. We developed a method for language set identification and used a previously published dataset to evaluate its performance.
  • von Boehm, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study focuses on variation in Finnish university students’ use of English verb forms and teachers’ assessment of such use. The goal of the study was to identify the nature and extent of variation in both students’ responses and teachers’ assessment of these responses. The study demonstrates that there is extensive variation in both students’ use of English verb forms and in teachers’ assessment of the forms. The data consist of students’ responses to a fill-in-the-gap test. The study comprised 319 students attending English courses at three Finnish universities in 2003-2004. In addition, 13 English language teachers at the University of Helsinki evaluated the level of acceptability of the students’ responses. The study was conducted by drafting a list of all the suggested answers and asking teachers of English to rate the answers with a four-point scale. After this, the responses were analysed with different levels of strictness. The criteria for this depended on how many teachers were required to judge an answer successful. The results indicate that the level of expected teacher consensus radically affected the results. The criteria applied in assessment have a critical impact on the impression created of the students’ proficiency. The range of variation among teachers mainly resulted from their different interpretations of event time and their reactions to spelling errors and to providing unconventional tense or aspect. Finnish, American and British teachers of English had negligible differences at the group level: the differences were caused by the individual norms the teachers followed. Reliance on only one teacher’s assessment of a student’s performance may create arbitrary results, and more teachers are needed for reliable evaluation, at least for high-stakes purposes. The results also indicate that although some students are skilful at providing the expected verb forms, many students struggle with the provision of any forms beyond the simple past. It seems that investment in communicative teaching practices, although beneficial for promoting students’ fluency in English, does not assist them in their attempts at greater accuracy. Some further attention to grammar would provide students with more options to express their message accurately, proficiently, meaningfully and intelligibly. Of the background factors, increased exposure to and use of English or additional study did not influence students’ skills in the use of English verb forms. Regardingschool and matriculation examination marks, only high marks predicted good performance in the test, while marks in the middle and low end of the spectrum were not reliable indicators of students’ ability to provide verb forms accurately. The findings imply that researchers, raters and teachers need to become more aware of the limitations of reliance on intuition alone in evaluating students’ language skills. Some parts of language use do not readily bend to existing norms. The degree to which teachers are likely to accept unexpected forms significantly contributes to how learners are treated in testing situations. While it is useful to attempt to harmonise testing practices, it is also important to acknowledge the fact that there is variation both in learners’ use of English and in teachers’ assessment of such use.
  • Vepsäläinen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study investigates the use of the Finnish particle “no”, its meaning and use in conversation, especially in answers to questions. The theoretical background of the study is in Interactional Linguistics and the method used was Conversation Analysis. The data consist of audio- and videotaped naturally occurring conversations. The majority are telephone conversations, both landline and mobile calls. Some face-to-face conversations were also analyzed. The study had two main goals. First, to show what the use of the particle “no” accomplishes in interaction. The second goal was to investigate a specific action, answers to questions, to see what “no”-prefaced answers do when compared to non-prefaced answers, and what that reveals about the answering system of the Finnish language. The study begins with a comprehensive overview of the sequential positions of the particle “no”, showing that it is used equally often in responsive turns and in transitions that guide or correct the on-going project. In both of these positions, the particle “no” implies that the turn or turn constructional unit (TCU) it is prefacing is relevant for the larger project that the turn is part of, and it either aligns or disaligns with that project. The “no”-prefacing of a response to questions shows the relevance of the response to the project in tandem with the form of the response, which can be minimal, clausal or indirect. The two direct responses, minimal and clausal, occur in answers to specifying questions and in answers to telling questions. In these contexts, the clausal “no”-prefaced answer aligns with the project of the question, whereas the “no”-prefaced minimal answer shows disalignment with the project. When responding to a telling question, the “no”-prefaced clausal answer is the predominant way of answering when the topic is offered as new. The “no”-prefaced indirect response is reserved for situations where there is a need to negotiate the matter that the question has brought up before possibly reaching a jointly constructed decision. These situations can either involve mutual planning or a challenge in the relevance of posing the question.
  • Pääsky, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract This study concentrates on the Dutch artist, Piet Mondrian, as a producer of a Neo-Plastic theory of art. My semiotic reading focuses mainly on one of his article series, Natural Reality and Abstract Reality (Natuurlijke en abstracte realiteit [1919-1920]), and acknowledges also the accompanying writings in the De Stijl periodical where it appeared, and a few photographs of Mondrian’s studio and motifs present in the paintings at the time when Mondrian wrote Natural Reality and Abstract Reality. Mondrian produces his ideas of non-figurative art in a way in which other external cognitive processes from science, certain esoteric streams, modern urban experience and popular culture, are to be taken as integral parts of the theory formation in his own text. This view elucidates the idea of creativity in a new way because it situates the artist’s individual activity within cultural knowledge and memory rather than just taking influences from it. I have reached these findings by relating Mondrian’s little-researched article series to the surrounding international philosophical, esoteric and technologizing cultures of the 1920s. Studying this relation in terms of significations has led to my study reflecting the paradigmatic and related meaning effects in contemporary philosophies and reflections, such as those of Henri Poincaré, Rudolf Steiner, Henri Bergson and Sigmund Freud. By reading the text as a fictive dramatic score my study relies on Roman Jakobson’s poetic function. Following in the lines of literary scholar Jørgen Johansen’s subsequent application of Charles Peirce’s semiotics this study reads Mondrian’s article series as the process of iconization; as a flow of images, as diagrammatic enactment and as metaphors of night and a stroll. To stage the route from ‘natural reality’ to ‘abstract, Mondrian gives to Natural Reality and Abstract Reality the flavour of being a form of logical inference applied by means of images. As a flow of images the text shows a stream of consciousness and, thus, the modern insight of perception, which differs from the traditional Kantian dualistic insight and the notion of the stable subject. The form of the text itself also represents meaning, which shows that Mondrian had literary ambitions. The aesthetic effect of the text as a diagram of many thematic oppositions and as the characters’ relations makes it a self-reflective icon of its own theme of modern consciousness. Metaphorically, the text presents the processual character of an artist’s creative thought as a night-time stroll, while developing the idea of Neo-Plasticism. Thus, there are definite Neoplatonic tenets in Mondrian’s text. This study shows that creative activity takes place not only in the processes of an individual mind but also by actively integrating and using cultural signs, such as the idea of evolution or the cultural text of the Euclidean derivative, the ‘point to line to plane’. By these kinds of ‘cultural artefacts’ Mondrian is able to conduct his own activity within and for the modern culture of the 1920s.
  • Björkman, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This doctoral thesis discusses the architecture of industrial communities constructed by forest industry companies from the perspective of cooperation and social networks of an architect and his clients between the two World Wars. The forest industry was the forefront of Finland’s rapid industrialization in the 1920s and 1930s. Success was manifested in the built environment. The main actor of this research is architect Wäinö Gustaf (W. G.) Palmqvist (1882–1964), who designed a considerable number of projects for Finnish industrial companies. In addition to the architect, the study also includes clients: G.A. Serlachius Oy and Yhtyneet Paperitehtaat Oy. The architect-client relationship was emphasized in the 1920s and 1930s as a personal relationship between Gösta Serlachius and Rudolf Walden. Serlachius and Walden are, along with Palmqvist, the ones I look at from the close range. More detailed research is focused on the Mänttä and Myllykoski mills. In both of these, the success of the forest industry's economic growth was – and still is – visible in the built structure and architecture of the entire community. Both are now valued as nationally significant built cultural environments mostly through their industrial history. In addition to economic growth, there were sociopolitical reasons behind building up the industrial communities. Forest industry companies struggled to restore peace after the Finnish civil war and to continue their production. I have described building the industrial communities as work where concepts of corporate social responsibility and welfare capitalism were connected. Besides the factories, the companies built housing, schools, churches and other social welfare amenities for the workers. It was a goal-oriented and guided construction where the idea behind the assignments given to the architect was to get the right, aesthetically high quality and beautiful community. In the study, architecture is linked to the political, economic and cultural contexts of time. This research connects Finnish industrial communities to the international models that first appeared in the United Kingdom, Germany and France and the United States. In this study, I refer in particular to the examples known as model communities. The communities have been designed with the ideas of urban design of the early 20th century, such as a garden city and the ideals of aesthetics. The research complements the art historical perspective in the history writing of forest industry.

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