Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Kallio, Lauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The study discusses the philosophy of Finnish philosopher J.V. Snellman (1806-81). The focus is on Snellman's so-called philosophy of personality, which he presented in his work "Essay on the speculative Development of the Idea of Personality" (Tübingen, 1841). Besides this work he addressed his philosophy of personality in his other works and in his public lectures. In his philosophy of personality Snellman develops the concept of personality within the framework of G.W.F. Hegel's (1770-1831) philosophy. The concept of personality serves as a basis for Hegel's philosophy of right, and it plays an important role also in other parts of Hegel's system. However, he never provided a comprehensive definition of this concept. The essence of personality was debated among Hegelians after Hegel's death in 1831. In the course of the debate the Hegelian school split into two groups. At the time of publication of "The Idea of Personality" there was a serious rift between the Right- and the Left-Hegelians. The study analyzes Snellman's philosophy of personality in respect of Hegel's philosophy and in respect of the views of other Hegelians mainly D.F. Strauss (1808-74), L. Feuerbach (1804-72) and C.F. Göschel (1781-1861). I also attend to some contemporaries outside the Hegelian School like F.W.J. Schelling (1775-1854) and I.H. Fichte (1796-1879). The study is divided into six sections (A F). The first comprises an introduction and an outline of the structure of the study. The second section (B) discusses the historical context of Snellman's philosophy. The first subsection focuses on the Central European debate on Hegel's legacy. The second subsection deals with Snellman's life and his work on philosophy. The systematic part of the study comprises three sections (C E), which consider the dialectic of Snellman's work of 1841. This dialectic follows the outline of Hegel's philosophy of subjective spirit and culminates in the definition of personality. Snellman, however, exceeds the realm of the philosophy of subjective spirit, as he discusses e.g. the philosophy of religion. He also comments on the debate among Hegelians. According to Snellman, neither Right- nor Left-Hegelians are true to Hegel's philosophy. In effect, his own standpoint in the debate, as I will argue, comes close to that of the Left-Hegelians. The study concludes with a summary (F).
  • Björklund, Heta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral dissertation examines medicinal-magical amulets pertaining to the uterus and the protection of women and children, the accompanying tradition of magical texts, and the mythology and folktales of demons believed to kill children and parturient women. The amulets and the folktales of the demons they were believed to protect against are intertwined. The amulets cannot be studied merely as archaeological or art historical objects, but must be taken together with folktales and narrative charms. The amulets discussed in this dissertation are from Late Antiquity (250 750 CE) and the Middle Byzantine period (843 1204 CE), and they come from the areas of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Greece, and Asia Minor. The stories of the demons these amulets protected against are even earlier; the first mentions date to the time of Sappho in Archaic Greece (6th 7th centuries BCE), and they still appear in manuscript copies as late as the 15th century CE. The amulets discussed in this dissertation represent only a fraction of the amulets from Antiquity to Byzantine times intended to aid in pregnancy and childbirth. They must be seen as part of a tradition of amulets and narrative charms (stories that themselves acted as magical protection) against disease-causing demons. In narrative charms, the demon (who is both disease-causing and the disease itself) is depicted as animal-like, non-human, and usually rising from the sea. She meets a divine figure (Artemis in the older versions of the story, King Solomon, Jesus, or Virgin Mary in the later ones), who interrogates and banishes her. In addition, I propose that seeing the amulets in the context of belief in the evil eye may help explain many of their features and accompanying stories. The evil eye was thought to cause all manners of maladies. Contextualized in terms of the Indo-European and Semitic wet-dry division of life, the evil eye steals the liquids of life: mother s milk, blood, and semen. By attacking the very essence of the household and its continued survival (i.e. reproduction), the evil eye was a significant element behind the amulets and narrative charms. Furthermore, the concept of the evil eye was an extremely important tool in conflict resolution in small, close-knit communities, as a specific conflict could be resolved by placing blame on an immaterial scapegoat while maintaining social cohesion by not identifying any single individual as guilty.
  • Tanskanen, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation studies the dramaturgy of ethics in contemporary Finnish drama. My understanding of ethics is based on Emmanuel Levinas’s philosophy and his considerations on the encounters between subject and other/Other. Theatre and literary researchers have been heavily influenced by Levinas’s thoughts and have considered what it means to encounter otherness in the context of art. This study participates in the debate and introduces a new viewpoint by concentrating on questions of dramaturgy and dramatic writing. It examines how genre, language, style, characters and other structural elements have the potential to create space for otherness by generating ambivalence, obstructing the habitual gaze and questioning hegemonic understandings. The Sublime was found to be a productive concept to analyse the aesthetics of otherness, because it is deeply concerned with questions about the way we perceive the world and its others or the way we understand and represent the relation between self and other/s. In this study, the sublime is understood in the broadest sense of the word, extending to cover also the grotesque, taboos and other ways to reach limits or break barriers. My three case studies are Laura Ruohonen’s Luolasto (Finnish National Theatre 2014), Leea and Klaus Klemola’s New Karleby (Tampere Theatre 2011) and Milja Sarkola’s Jotain toista. Henkilökohtaisen halun näyttämö (Q-theatre 2015). They all challenged dramatic conventions and created alternative dramaturgical strategies that are partly related to contemporary postdramatic theatre. Since dramaturgy is deeply related to ideologies, society, culture and politics, a study of the ethics of dramaturgy produced new knowledge about the politics of contemporary theatre and drama. Analyses influenced by Levinas tended to emphasize plurality and the presence of otherness, both in a subject and in society. Otherness in these works was related to nature and ecology, species and gender, but also to a subject’s own unconscious or repressed interiority. These dramas challenged their spectators by reflecting the gaze back to the audience, inviting them to reconsider their own thoughts, attitudes and beliefs, and their limited scope in front of infinity.
  • Ala-Pöllänen, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Happy Ship? An ethnographic study of Finnish and Philippine sailors aboard Finnish cargo ships This study analyzes life aboard cargo ships sailing under Finnish flag through co-operation and the construction of everyday life within the crew. The ships under analysis here carry mixed crews, i.e. three nationalities, including Finnish, Estonian, and Filipinos in the same crew. The purpose of the study is to examine the construction of encounters in space and place and in different activities onboard, and to analyze how cultural diversity and maritime structural hierarchy affects it. The study also observes how everyday life with a mixed crew influences maritime safety issues. The study is situated in the field of phenomenological cultural analysis. The research material consists of ethnographic field work that was conducted aboard three vessels sailing under Finnish flag during 2013, 2014, and 2015. Each field work lasted one month; in which case, the researcher lived onboard, making participant observations within the crew. Fieldwork notes consist of 238 pages, which does not include a set of interviews of 46 members of the crew. The themes used in analyzing the material included the background of sailors, their reasons for becoming a sailor, work and leisure onboard, and attitudes towards collaboration and team work within the mixed crew. The author has reflected on her onboard status among the crew, in analyzing such issues such as being an academic, being a fellow sailor, and being of a different age and different sex than the crew. A central issue was to observe the meshwork that the multicultural crew and ships hierarchy constituted. Both main groups of Finns and Filipinos had their own experiences and understandings of the ships hierarchy from the past and how it differed. Finns had adopted the Scandinavian egalitarian style with low power relations, while Filipinos followed a more strict interpretation of hierarchy with higher power relations. On the other hand, these arrangements easily reversed outside work hours during leisure time. In the mess room a common space for the whole crew Filipinos enjoyed their meals sitting more freely than Finns, who remained in their own designated seats. When it comes to group cohesion, one of the undermining features for Finns was the fear that Filipinos were taking away Finnish jobs. On the other hand, Filipinos felt that working at lower wages on short-term contracts was unjust. By contrast, Finns were paid higher wages for their permanent contracts involving three- to four-week shifts at a time. The study argues that the Finnish style of mixed crew varies from an international one in dividing the crew according to nationality, not according to power relations. As observed in international ships with multicultural crews, it is easier to remain with one s own nationality, when there exists only two or three nationalities. Coexistence was more of a host-guest attitude than equal partners and particular unity or friendships across other national groups did not exist at large. Ships were still distinctively Finnish in their working habits and had an ethnic kitchen arranged in accordance with Finnish preferences. Also the companies marginalized Filipinos by only addressing the Finns onboard. An obvious challenge for the functionality of the crew were the Filipino officers. According to the Finns and Estonians, the Filipino officers lacked independence and initiative while they were on watch; crucially, independence and initiative were conditions for such a task. In the spirit of super-diversity the analysis draws attention to the family and state-based organization that Filipinos face, when heading towards maritime employment. While emphasizing their character of adjustment and sacrifice they reveal their basic need to support the family back home. Fear of losing valuable income may result in the avoidance of risk, which has consequences for safety conditions onboard. The study finds various ways to reinforce the unity of mixed crews aboard Finnish cargo ships. As the joint-mess room is already an established practice, it is easy to enhance its policy toward more equal styles of living. Moreover, as has already been demonstrated elsewhere, multinational crews, joint spare time, and simple and clearly articulated regulations governing the work helps to orient the multinational crews in a more harmonious common life aboard ship.
  • Pöllä, Riikka-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Refashioning the Respectable Elite Woman in Louis XIV's Paris: Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos This PhD thesis is an analysis of the appearances, material culture and sexuality of the respectable woman, l honneste femme, in Paris under the regime of Louis XIV. Through the examples of Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos, the study describes how Parisian elite women were able to fashion the ideal of l honneste femme and how reality and ideals were combined in Parisian society. The study is based on the idea that female chastity is not the only key factor when evaluating and refashioning l honneste femme and the 17th-century female ideal was composed from different elements: elite status, education, manners, material culture, outer appearance and sexuality; residential area also played a role, especially the quartier of Le Marais with its flourishing elite culture. The study shows that l honneste femme was the result of the mastering of all these different layers of elite living. In addition, it notes that the respectable Parisian elite woman could make her own decisions in relation to her lifestyle and self-fashioning. These actions were essential when constructing the entity of l honneste femme. The aim of the study is to answer the following questions: How did Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos reflect the ideal of the elite culture? How was the notion of a respectable woman constructed? Was this a matter of perfect abstinence as previous scholars claim or was it rather a performance that required different elements to be fulfilled? If so, what were the essential aspects when refashioning the respectable woman? How did Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos fashion themselves? Did their self-fashioning aim to perform as honnestes femmes or did they search for other ways to be part of the society of les honnêtes gens? Most importantly, the study considers why both Marquise de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos were considered honnestes femmes at the end of their lives? The study, qualitative in nature, is based on a variety of sources. By means of critical close reading the study analyses the letters of Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos and their inventaires après décès which are key sources. The valuable information these post-mortem inventories offer has not been used properly ever before in studies on l honneste femme. Another prominent source for the study are the Mémoires composed by the contemporaries of Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos. Seventeenth-century conduct books such as François de Grenaille s L Honnête fille (1640); Jacques Du Bosc s L Honneste femme (1632); Antoine de Courtin s Nouveau Traité de la civilité qui se pratique en France parmi les honnêtes gens (1671); François de Sales Introduction à la vie devote (1641) and Nicolas Venette s Tableau de l'amour conjugal (1686) help to understand the female ideal like on the theoretical level. Both Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos were immortalised in several portraits that were reflections of the honnête status. Thus, such visual sources as portraits and gravures have also been analysed and combined with the overall source material and research literature. The most important notion is that even if the ideal of the elite woman, l honneste femme, had been created mostly by male authors, it was adjustable and adaptable. Furthermore, the study argues that the external signs of l honneste femme played a greater role than previous scholars have assumed. In other words, l honneste femme and her honnête performance were created from many different social and personal aspects of which chastity was only one of them. Thus, the study shows how 17th-century Parisian elite women had to be able to uphold simultaneously different status layers of their rank to fulfil the expectations the Ancien Régime created for l honneste femme. Key words: l honneste femme, honnêteté, sexuality, material culture, self-fashioning, Paris, seventeenth-century.
  • Sillfors, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The visibility of atheism has increased in the 21st century West, partly due to the rise of New Atheism, a movement critical towards religion. Over the last few years, books which defend an atheistic spiritual option have appeared in the market as well, such as The Book of Atheist Spirituality (2006) by André Comte-Sponville, Good Without God (2009) by Greg M. Epstein, Going Godless (2010) by J. K. Fausnight, and Religion for Atheists (2012) by Alain de Botton. In addition, New Atheists have brought forth alternatives to traditional religion, for example, Richard Dawkins in his TV-series Sex, Death and the Meaning of Life (2012) and Sam Harris in his book Waking Up (2014). These six works are my research material. In this study I examine three subjects: atheism, spirituality, and in particular the combination of these two, atheist spirituality. The main question of my research is what kind of factors, attitudes towards religion, and values are included in atheist spirituality in the 21st century. My methods are argument analysis, rhetoric analysis, attitude analysis, and Schwartz's value model. By atheism I mean godlessness. In the history of mankind, atheism has probably been rare, but in recent centuries in the West it has gradually become more common. According to current research, a reflective processing style is one of the key psychological factors that leads towards atheism. Socio-cultural factors which have an impact on the steady increase in atheism are, for example, wealth, security, and a change in values towards individualism. I regard spirituality as a universal human phenomenon which includes five key dimensions: 1) experiences and emotions, 2) morality, 3) view on life, 4) meaningfulness, and 5) practices and commitments. By atheist spirituality, I mean spirituality that is explicitly atheistic. Atheist spirituality can be seen as a subcategory of secular spirituality, which recently has become more common in the West. However, among the representatives of atheist spirituality, the practices as well as the attitudes towards religions are diverse. In their works, both Dawkins and Harris attitudes towards monotheistic religion are critical. Dawkins offers reason and science as substitutes for traditional religion, and in addition to these, Harris introduces Buddhism and meditation. In contrast, in de Botton s work, the attitude towards religion is favourable it emphasizes the usefulness of Christian communal values and practices and converts them to the current secular context. In turn, in the works of Comte-Sponville, Epstein, and Fausnight, the attitude toward religion is ambivalent, including both critical and favourable parts. As an alternative to traditional religion, Comte-Sponville highlights experiences of transcendence and love, Epstein emphasizes humanistic communality and self-dignity, and Fausnight underlines inner peace and meaningfulness through meditation. Roughly divided, Harris, Comte-Sponville, and Fausnight represent an inwardly oriented atheistic spirituality, where transcendent experiences have a key role. In turn, Dawkins, De Botton, and Epstein represent an outwardly oriented atheistic spirituality, where the focus is more on the objective world, communality, and/or solving the problems of society. In all the research materials, the self-transcendence values in Schwartz s model such as universalism and benevolence are highlighted. Everyone also emphasizes the value of self-direction, which is typical of current secular spirituality except de Botton, who accentuates tradition and conformity more, which are typical values in traditional religion. The study provides new information about atheistic spirituality and offers theoretical perspectives to examine this rarely studied phenomenon in more detail. It also enables disentangling the tension between atheism and religion typical of the current Western debate.
  • Lahti, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study investigates grammatical accuracy as a part of Finnish upper secondary school students oral proficiency in German. It examines how the students, assessed on different proficiency levels, master the German word order and verbal inflection in their L2 speech. In addition, the study surveys the opinions of German language teachers about the concepts which occur in the proficiency level descriptions (e.g., comprehensibility, basic grammar error) and about the significance of grammatical accuracy for comprehensibility. The corpus consists of 1) videotaped test performances of 59 students, 2) CEFR-based proficiency level assessments of 12 Finnish German teachers, and 3) written answers and the recordings of assessment discussions of six German GFL teachers. The study was carried out mainly as a qualitative case study (methods including performance analysis and content analysis), but some quantitative methods were used, too (such as Multi-Facet Rasch Measurement analysis and descriptive statistics). The results illuminate how the mastery of word order and verbal inflection develop from one proficiency level to another. From the level A1.2 on, the word order of simple declarative clauses and questions, the infinitive forms and the present tense conjugation of haben and sein are mastered, followed by the present tense of regular verbs on the level A1.3 and the so-called verbal bracket structure and the present tense of irregular verbs on the level A2.1. On the level A2.2, the inversion in simple clauses and the present tense conjugation of modal verbs are acquired. From the level B1.1 on, the inversion is mastered also in complex phrases beginning with a subordinate clause. Moreover, the students master the word order of subordinate clauses and the perfect tense. The teacher comments reveal that the concepts used in the assessment scale are interpreted in various ways. Pronunciation, lack of fluency, and vocabulary problems are mentioned more often than deficiencies in grammar as factors that impair comprehensibility. However, the accumulation of errors is seen as distracting. Regarding distracting grammatical errors, errors in verbal inflection and syntax are mentioned the most often. These phenomena are highlighted in the definitions of a basic grammar error, too. Key words: oral proficiency, German language, grammatical accuracy, word order, verbal inflection, language assessment, comprehensibility
  • Shagal, Ksenia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The dissertation is a typological study of participles based on the concept of participle specifically designed for cross-linguistic comparison. In a few words, participles are defined as non-finite verb forms that can be employed for adnominal modification, e.g. the form written in the book [written by my supervisor]. The study is based on the data from more than 100 genetically and geographically diverse languages possessing the relevant forms. The data for the research comes mainly from descriptive grammars, but first-hand materials from native speakers, including those collected in several field trips, are also of utmost importance. The main theoretical aim of the dissertation is to describe the diversity of verb forms and clausal structures involved in participial relativization in the world s languages, as well as to examine the paradigms formed by participial forms. In different chapters of the dissertation, participles are examined with respect to several parameters, such as participial orientation, expression of temporal, aspectual and modal meanings, possibility of verbal and/or nominal agreement, encoding of arguments, and some others. Finally, all the parameters are considered together in the survey of participial systems. The findings reported in the dissertation are representative of a significant diversity in the morphology of participles, their syntactic behaviour and the oppositions they form in the system of the language. However, despite their versatility and multifunctionality, participles clearly exhibit enough idiosyncratic properties to be recognized as a crosslinguistically relevant category and studied in their own right.
  • Hyytiäinen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study explores teachers directives in Swedish lessons in Finnish schools. The aim is to find out how teachers use directives in their lessons to maintain classroom order and to give instructions about tasks that the pupils need to do. The data has been gathered in two lower secondary schools and in two upper secondary schools. The data consists of 32 lessons (approximately 25 hours). Four female teachers who all have Finnish as their first language take part in the study. As a method conversation analysis is used. The aim of the study is to find differences and similarities this kind of classroom interaction has with other types of institutional communication. I have chosen to analyse directives in two different contexts: one consisting of sequences of one pupil or many pupils disturbing the classroom order, and the other context consisting of sequences where the teacher gives instructions about the tasks the pupils are about to do. My data shows that directives in classroom interaction typically occur in these contexts. The difference between the contexts is in the respective order of the teachers directives and the pupils actions. In the context of the teacher maintaining classroom order, the pupils disturbance constitutes the first pair part in the adjacency pair, and the teacher s directive is the second pair part. This order is reversed in the sequences in which the teachers give instructions. In them the instructions constitute the first pair part of the adjacency pair, and the pupils response (i.e. action) is the second pair part. An important aspect in my analysis is the teacher s choise of language. Because the teacher and the pupils have Finnish as their first language, the teacher needs to choose whether to use the target language, Swedish, or her and the pupils first language, Finnish, in the directives. My study shows that the teachers utilize two different strategies when they choose the language of the directives. The matrix language, in other words, the main teaching language, can be either Swedish or Finnish, but all the teachers speak both languages during lessons, albeit in different proportions. The choise of language depends neither on the teachers nor the pupils language skills, but on the content of the lesson. Grammar in particular is taught in Finnish, and the more routine the directive is, the more likely it is to be given in Swedish. Even bilingual directives are common in the data. The teachers can codeswitch from Swedish to Finnish when, for example, a word is new to the pupils, and from Finnish to Swedish when a longer directive sequence includes a more routine part. My study shows that directives are more often used to give instructions about the tasks than to maintain classroom order. In my data, the latter directives does not occur in every lesson. Because of this, directives that the teacher uses to give instructions about the tasks are important, as they offer the pupils a chance to hear Swedish, as well as to learn pragmatic skills, provided the directives are given in Swedish. Finnish can be utilized as a resource in teaching. Pupils can ask questions also in Finnish, and the teacher can introduce new vocabulary and give the translations of Swedish words. The pupils questions give the teachers valuable information about which words and concepts the pupils find difficult. Bilingualism is not brought up in my data, but it is a norm which is accepted by all the participants. Keywords: conversation analysis, institutional interaction, directive, teaching in Swedish, classroom order, instruction
  • Silén, Daniela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    For some reason the Swedish role poem has attracted very little attention among literary scholars, and this dissertation is the first attempt to make up for this shortage. Since Romanticism, lyric poetry focusing on the personal feelings and emotions of the poet has been the dominating form of poetry. The role poem instead presents the reader with a speaking "I" separate from the poet. The dissertation revolves around questions about how the speaking "I" of the role poem is constructed, and discusses the function of the role poem. The tension created by different levels of meaning; i.e. the mimetic and the rhetoric, and how this tension renders the poem ambiguous, is discussed in length. The dissertation also investigates features of the role poem that change and features that remain unaltered when Classicism changes into Romanticism. The material for this dissertation consists of a selection of poems ranging from approximately 1760 to 1840 and authors include Carl Michael Bellman (1740-1795), Anna Maria Lenngren (1754-1817), Frans Michael Franzén (1772-1847), Erik Gustaf Geijer (1783-1847), Julia Nyberg (1785-1854) who wrote under the pseudonym Euphrosyne, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist (1793-1866), Wilhelm von Braun (1813-1860) and Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804-1877). The theoretical approach to the material is on one hand the use of the concepts of the mimetic I and the rhetoric I that has been used in modernist lyric research, and on the other hand the use of classical rhetoric, focusing on characterization and the method called sermocinatio. The analysis shows that sermocinatio can be considered a possible origin of the Swedish role poem, and the concepts mimetic I rhetoric I have proved useful for describing the tension created between the role poem's different levels of meaning. The tension created activates the reader to regard the poem from a wider perspective, drawing attention to the construction of the poem. The analysis shows that the Swedish role poem can be defined as a poem where the speaker is someone separate from the author, speaking in first tense. The speaker is always the center of attention. The role poem also displays a tension between its different levels of meaning that can be referred to as its mimetic and its rhetorical aspects. The speaker is usually a representative of a larger group of people, for example a certain profession.
  • Maaranen, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study observes the interaction between humans and the environment in southern Finland. It comprises four case studies in which the landscape is viewed either as an object or then as a context. The theoretical approach of this research is mainly interpretive archaeology. The main methods and data derive from both archaeology and geography. In addition, historical source materials and knowledge about history are employed throughout. The points of view of the study come from Alicja Iwánska (1971) and comprise the following orientations: cognitive; moral; activistic; and aesthetic, of which the study emphasizes experience. The first case study elaborates the changes in the agricultural landscape from the Stone Age to the present-day. It results in four phases of landscape change, which are defined as the landscapes of experimental, early, traditional and intensive agriculture. The basis for the classification of the phases connects to means of livelihood, technology in use and natural geographical features. The second case study concerns the coastal people and communities of the Baltic Sea during the Middle Ages. The study shows that the Baltic Sea connected people more than separated them. It was a space of communication for people living on the shores of the sea and for seafarers sailing along it. In addition, societies of the Baltic Sea were active, multicultural and capable of interacting with many kinds of actors. The third case study is about the meanings of the places where the churches and fortifi-cations were located during the Middle Ages and the 16th century. The results of the research reveal that these places, together with their buildings, were employed as tools for their builders to communicate with the local inhabitants and people travelling through the region. In addition, the places where the churches were located, together with their buildings, indi-cated that the community was organised and connected to the European Catholic culture. The fourth case study concerns preservation of landscapes produced by past human activities. It covers present-day traditional rural biotopes and archaeological sites. The study suggests that society s values seem to connect in preservation and management processes and direct choices in different ways. Values and assessment of the traditional rural biotopes are more distinct. With regard to archaeological sites, there is need for further improvement in both the assessment and definition of values. Key words: environment, landscape, interaction, interpretive archaeology
  • Haapanen, Lauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This research focused on the process of quoting in written journalism by asking 1) how journalistic interviews are recontextualised into quotations, and 2) what factors influence the outcome of this process. Mainly three types of data were exploited: recordings of authentic interviews conducted by journalists, published articles based on these interviews, and retrospective interviews with the journalists involved. The journalistic interview and the published article and its quotations were compared using the method of version analysis. Stimulated recall was then used to reconstruct the decision-making of the informant-journalists during their quoting. Finally, the findings were further analysed from the point of view of media concepts, in order to reveal the interdependencies of the everyday process of quoting and the fundamental aspects of production, such as publishers’ purposes, the needs and interests of the audience, and the current journalistic culture. The main findings were that modifications within quoting range from minor revisions to substantial alterations, both in terms of their linguistic form and situational meaning. On a larger scale, the interactive turn exchange between the journalist and the interviewee(s) is often simplified in several respects in the published article. A common means for doing so is obscuring the original involvement of the journalist. This phenomenon was labelled monologisation. Furthermore, the original journalistic interviews that are conducted specifically to gather raw material for written media items comprise much more than a plain series of questions and answers. Instead, the interaction in these interviews is often equal in terms of turn exchange and participatory roles. The research identified nine practices that characterise the linking of interviews and quotations as intertextual chains. The primary factor governing the quoting was revealed to be the objective(s) of the emerging article rather than the demand for “directness”. Furthermore, quoting was shown to be influenced by established institutional settings, which can also contradict each other. For these reasons, quoting turned out to be an internal negotiation process between aspects which originate from various fundamental conditions of media publishing and journalistic work. The findings imply that future research and the training of journalists should treat quoting in a more holistic way. On the other hand, this research also equips readers with tools to improve their critical media literacy. Furthermore, the results bear relevance to literacy education in schools, where newspapers are commonly exploited as complementary teaching materials. Keywords: Applied linguistics, media linguistics, print media; version analysis, stimulated recall, media concept; quoting, quotations, direct speech, journalistic interviews; recontextualisation, intertextual chain, monologisation.
  • Reijonen, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral dissertation covers the batucada and it focuses on Os 27 Amigos bateria and Oscar Pereira de Souza's, its director's, perceptions of the batucada. He was the last active master of Rio de Janeiro's oldest Deixa Falar Portela tradition. The central questions are: How did batucada develop and how are the baterias organized? What are the instruments, rhythms, and functions of batucada? What are the elements of batucada? How is the quality of batucada estimated, and what are the criteria? How can the rhythm of batucada be analyzed? What is the harmony of batucada and how it is created? The first section covers the history of the batucada and the organization of baterias, as well as the instruments rhythmic functions and the bateria's structural elements. The qualitative criteria of the batucada are examined at the end of this section. The early batucada rhythm is reconstructed based on Silva's Bum bum vocalization. The rhythmic is analyzed based on the theory of a basic rhythm diminuted rhythm music level. Os 27 Amigos and their contemporary batucadas rhythmic characteristics are compared. In the last section, we examine the harmony of the baterias from the 2002-2003 period. After that, we examine de Souza's perceptions of harmony as a driving factor in the way a bateria plays. In the end is a study on the harmonic structure of Os 27 Amigos bateria and what it is based on. The central methods of this work are the teacher - student method, field work, the paradigmatic method, electronic methods, notations, deduction, experimental work and the three-tiered rhythm analysis. Based on the results, it can be said that the batucada has a very developed musical grammar and terminology. The batucada's development is heavily based on the development of the surdos, which is grounded, in turn, on a much older concept of music, based on the African cuicas. Two different rhythmic paradigms, an older harmonic on and a newer, anharmonic one, have developed from this. The batucada is based on multiple clave and marker rhythms. This structure and the divisive form of the batucada can be shown clearly. This work is the first one to delve deep into the musical structure of the batucada and the concepts and terms related to it. It documents the oldest batucada tradition and forms a starting point for further study on the batucada and a wider study of the samba. Its results also shed light on the central structures of Afro-Brazilian, African, and other similar styles of music and thus enables a deeper than previously possible analysis of them, as long as all the relevant musico-cultural conventions are observed.
  • Pahomov, Miikul (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Researchers of the Finnic languages have presented various views on the position of Ludian. It has been regarded as an independent language by some and a dialect of Karelian (or Vepsian) by others. Researchers have also pondered whether the Ludians are their own people or a Karelian (or Vepsian) tribe. The goal of this research is to define the historical and taxonomical position of the language variety spoken by the Ludian people. This study is the first comprehensive examination of the history of Ludian and its speakers. The primary research method is the historical-comparative method, supplemented where applicable with language sociology. The historical investigation is mainly based on written sources, while the linguistic analysis is based on material collected by the author in Kuujärvi, in comparison with other available material. The focus is on the structural features of the language. Today, Ludian is one of the most endangered Finnic languages, with at most 300 speakers. Material is not available for all dialects spoken at the start of the 20th century, as those spoken beyond the eastern border of the area were extinct by the 1940s. The number of Ludian speakers at the start of the 20th century can be estimated at 15,000 - 20,000. Ludians self-identification differs from the official classifications used in Russia. An analysis of Kuujärvi Ludian reveals that it shares features with other Ludian dialects, but also with Karelian-Olonets and Vepsian. Classifying Ludian as a Karelian dialect is problematic, as it is difficult to pinpoint any features shared by both Ludian and Karelian-Olonets but not by Vepsian. Nor can Vepsian be viewed as a substrate of Ludian and Olonets due to its phonological properties. Compared to Vepsian, Ludian contains more evidence of the ancient language from which Ludian, Olonets and Vepsian are presumed to originate. Based on the many similarities between Ludian and Olonets, it can be ascertained that, for example, Southeast Olonets, and developed based on Kuujärvi Ludian. The South Karelian dialects can be divided into those on the Olonets side and the Ludian side. South Karelian, which is on the Ludian side and has features that extend into the Inner-Russian Karelian dialects, is more closely connected to Ludian than to Vepsian. This view is also supported by the Ludian features in North Karelian. Based on diachronic criteria, Ludian, Olonets and Vepsian stand in contrast to North Karelian. Structurally, however, Ludian, Olonets and Onega Vepsian differ greatly from the other Vepsian varieties. Olonets and South Karelian show Ludian substrate features and cannot be studied without regard for Ludian. With their own system clearly distinct from those of the neighbouring varieties, the Ludian dialects do not fulfil the criteria of mixed dialects but can rather be considered an independent variety. An investigation from above-mentioned perspectives demonstrates that Ludian must be approached as its own areal phenomenon.
  • Leinonen, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This work examines: 1) how Kurds and their demands for cultural and political rights were represented in the Turkish-language mainstream press (1999 2005), and 2) the debates over proposals to change the conceptualizations of the citizenship of Turkey within attempts for a resolution to Turkey s Kurdish issue (in 2005 and 2009). To achieve this, news and columns published in the Milliyet, Zaman, Yeni Şafak, Cumhuriyet and Sabah national dailies were examined through five (qualitative) case studies. The analysis is based on selected tools and approaches of critical discourse analysis, influenced by frame analysis. The research problem concerns the reasons behind Turkey s inability to resolve its Kurdish issue, namely these are explored in the continued importance of Turkish nationalist discourses and the shortcomings of the public discourse on the Kurdish issue. To contextualize the debates analyzed, the work includes chapters on: the formation of the Turkish nation-state, and how the citizenship of Turkey and membership in the Turkish nation were formulated (1920s and 1930s); the tracing of these formulations and related minority policies vis-à-vis the Kurdish speaking population over time; and the development of Kurdish nationalism from the 1960s onwards, and pro-Kurdish political activities from 1990 onward. In addition, there is a chapter on the Turkish-language press. From the analyses I derived three interconnected main arguments. First, until 2003 there were no concrete groups, or even individuals labeled as Kurds in the news reports, but rather roundabout labels were used. Because Kurdishness remained an abstract category, we are led to approach claims of a recognition of a Kurdish reality in Turkey in the 1990s with caution. Rather, it was only in the early 2000s that a more sustained discursive transformation took place. Second, the successful utilization of state-centric and security-oriented conservative nationalist discourse by the main opposition party, the CHP (Republican People's Party) to counter the ruling AKP s (Justice and Development Party) attempt for a resolution to Turkey s Kurdish issue in 2009 points towards the continuing power of various stands of nationalist discourse in Turkey. Conservative (Kemalist) nationalism was used as a powerful instrument in a situation of political polarization. Third, while the multicultural state of affairs may have become increasingly acknowledged, even by 2009 there was almost no support for group rights and only limited support for affirmative action. Demands for minority rights continued to be discussed within a framework of security rather than as issues of justice, and the idea of minority right was still presented as an existential threat to the state.