Humanistinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Buysse, Manon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Clause linking, or the incorporation of multiple predications within a complex linguistic unit, is an essential component of efficient language use, but also a major hurdle in the language learning process. Although discrete aspects of clause linking and its development in second language acquisition (SLA) have been studied before, a comprehensive and theoretically unified approach to the phenomenon in SLA is still lacking. To redress this gap, the study presented in this doctoral dissertation proposes a model of clause linking and its development in SLA based on the theoretical framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG; Van Valin and LaPolla 1997, Van Valin 2005) and its application to first language acquisition (Van Valin 2001). It provides a detailed account of clause linking, formalized in the Interclausal Relations Hierarchy (IRH; Van Valin 2005), which takes into account various structural levels of language and considers both the syntactic and the semantic aspects of clause linking. Oral narratives in L2 French and English were transcribed and divided into four groups based on their overall proficiency level in the L2, resulting in a total of 100 (4 x 25) samples per L2. Matched narrative production data from 25 native speakers of each target language served as a benchmark for our analyses. Results provide evidence for the universality of RRG s hypotheses in the sense that L2 learners seem to be guided by the same principles as L1 acquirers; forms of linkage characterized by similar syntactic and semantic strength are acquired more easily (as predicted by the IRH), and syntactic junctures at particular structural levels are associated with particular semantic relations between events. However, our L2 productions were also found to develop differently from those of Van Valin s (2001) young L1 acquirers in various respects: our L2 learners produce complex clauses from early stages of development onwards, as the hurdles they encounter in mastering the various L2 linking devices are unrelated to the development of their cognitive abilities or discourse organization capacities. In addition, we observed that the learners of L2 French and those of L2 English behave rather similarly in how they establish clause linking at various stages of development, but also deviate from one another in non-trivial ways which merit further research.
  • Munck, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    From Enlighteners to Professionals. Finnish Journalists Long Road from 1771 to 1921 The From Enlighteners to Professionals research presents a new interpretation of the professionalization process of the Finnish journalists from the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. According to the research, the journalist occupation was professionalised much earlier than has been presented in previous studies. This interpretation of Finnish journalists professionalization is based on exploring professional co-operation, the structural changes of the profession and the development of journalistic culture. The evaluation is made in the economic, political and social contexts. The important part of the research is a socio-economic examination of Finnish journalism between 1771 and 1921. The development of newspaper work into a profession began in Finland in the second half of the 19th century. The professionalization process followed in the footsteps of Nordic colleagues, especially Swedish journalists. The research focuses on the changes in the social position of journalists and the different defensive strategies the profession used to improve its position. The most effective strategy to improve the occupation s social status was the foundation of professional organisations. The Finnish journalists organized six national congresses between 1876-1900 and founded their first professional organisation, the Finnish Association of Journalists. Between 1905 and 1920, professional co-operation developed into political journalist associations and in 1921 the journalists established a national trade association, the Union of Journalists in Finland. Participating in journalists international co-operation was also an important part of the Finnish journalists professionalization process. The number of Finnish journalists increased rapidly from the second half of the 19th century. There were over 2,000 people who worked at Finnish newspapers as journalists or contributors between 1771 and 1921. The increase in the number of professional journalists escalated the professionalization and affected the organisation of professional co-operation. The relationship between journalists and political parties was very close in Finland at the beginning of the 20th century. This connection was highly accepted and political commitment was not considered an obstacle to execute the public duty of journalists. Keywords: journalists, journalistic profession, professionalization, journalist organisation, journalism, Finnish Association of Journalists, Union of Journalists in Finland, International Union of Press Associations.
  • Pussinen, Olga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Olga Pussinen's study "Functionally limited Russian language: Contact varieties, variations in language consciousness and diverse communication types" reviews the phenomenon of functional limitations of the Russian language (FLRL). The author defines the bilingualism within an everyday communication system that comprises two types of languages: functionally dominant and functionally limited. The work represents a complex analysis of Russian language functional limitations inside Russia (in Mordovia) and outside of it (in the Russian-speaking diaspora of Finland). The research describes the different types of the acquisition of FLRL and different levels of their existence and usage: lexis-grammatical, cognitive-psychological and socio-pragmatic. The author analyses the findings with the data collected from the interviews and from free associative experiments. Part 1, The Transformation of FLRL linguistic levels , consists of the chapters Language used at home . Russian language as the second mother tongue: The strategy of its functioning in the Russian-speaking diaspora in Finland ; Features of the language situation and the Russian language in Mordovia ; and Key features defining the pronunciation of Russian vowels by Erzyan bilinguals . Part 2, The Transformation of the FLRL cognitive level: The balance and dynamics of a bilingual thesaurus , consists of the chapters Formation of an associative-verbal network in bilingualism (based on interaction materials between the Russian and Finnish languages) and The specificity of language consciousness formation for Russian-Finnish bilingual students . Part 3, The transformation of FLRL communicative-pragmatic usage , consists of the chapters Changes in etiquette communication in the Russian-speaking diaspora in Finland ; The types of communication failures occurring when Russian language is functionally not the first ; and The ratio of functionally dominant and functionally limited languages in a bilingual speech system .
  • Lafontaine, Juan Francisco (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ABSTRACT The Healthy, Happy and Holy Organization (3HO) was founded in 1969 by the Indian Sikh and Yogi Harbhajan Singh Puri (1929-2004), AKA Yogi Bhajan , to spread his teachings and build a spiritual community. Since its foundation in Los Angeles, 3HO has reached many countries worldwide. Several ethnographical researchers have studied 3HO and most of these studies recognized 3HO as a part of the Sikh religion. Others have paid attention to 3HO as a New Religious Movement with New Age overtones. Some of these studies have focused on Yogi Bhajan s Kundalini Yoga and a small percentage have addressed all three constituent elements of the organization (Kundalini yoga, Sikhism, and New Age/Aquarian Age), but none have studied 3HO s experiential dimension. Thus, this study primarily concerned itself with the key experiential dimension of the organization, with the aim of identifying and describing the role that experience plays in 3HO s three-folded construction, and how a group of members of the movement deemed their experiences. The first data used for this study was the official manuals and books that have been published by the organization. This was complemented by the main data, which was gathered in interviews in a field research context with eleven 3HO members who were participating in the European Yoga Festival in France. All the material was approached through the perspective of Attributional Theory, which looks at how the notions of experience or experiences have been presented through a deeming making process. According to this approach, the findings achieved showed that experience plays a primary role in encompassing the three-folded parts of the movement. Also, 3HO gives their people the prescriptive aim to have an experience rather than believe or merely study the teachings of the founder. Thirdly, the study indicates that the attributions to the experiential dimension were based on the idea of its efficacy in order to experientially achieve a progress deemed spiritual . Similarly, the study was able to distinguish that a key encompassing notion attributed to the experiential perspective was that experience works. Ultimately, this dimension was more important than beliefs or theoretical discussions in opening the potential members to affiliate or assume an external as well as an internal involvement with the 3HO way of life.
  • Tiili, Miia-Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ANCHORING PROFESSIONALISM Kinaesthetic and Cultural Knowledge in Finnish Coast Guard Units This study analyses the professionalism of military personnel working in the Gulf of Finland Coast Guard District, an administrative unit of the Finnish Border Guard operating under the Ministry of the Interior. The purpose of the study is to examine the construction of Coast Guard officers cultural knowledge, and to discuss its impact on adapting to changes in the operational environment. The study is situated in the field of phenomenological cultural analysis. The research material consists of ethnographic fieldwork conducted during a 1.5-year period between 2007 and 2009 that examines Coast Guard stations, patrol ships and border control units, as well as interviews with officers, their families and civilian personnel. The study defines cultural knowledge as verbalized and non-verbalized shared understanding constructed in everyday practices and experiences. Here, cultural knowledge is therefore grounded in an officer s interaction with his physical and social environment while working, using equipment, and encountering colleagues and clients. The concept of bodily knowledge , for its part, emphasizes the embodied aspects of professionalism. At the same time, gestures, facial expressions and postures are seen as nodal points collecting cultural influences and expressing both formal and informal content. In an officer s moving body, cultural and kinaesthetic knowledge overlap and intertwine. The study argues that cultural knowledge cannot be divided into categories, such as formal and informal, but should instead be understood as an intermingling of influences and knowledge formation in, through and between working bodies. The analysis draws attention to movement as a way of capturing and bringing forth basic cultural assumptions and their impact on, for instance, the officers apprehension of trust, discipline and different functions. According to the findings, the trajectories and collective choreographies of working bodies explicate the cultural friction between the functions at sea and the border control. The kinaesthetic dispositions of the Coast Guard preserve the cultural knowledge of true Coast Guard professionalism, and engage in the processes of meaning making also in times of change.
  • Koponen, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation investigates the practice of machine translation post-editing and the various aspects of effort involved in post-editing work. Through analyses of edits made by post-editors, the work described here examines three main questions: 1) what types of machine translation errors or source text features cause particular effort in post-editing, 2) what types of errors can or cannot be corrected without the help of the source text, and 3) how different indicators of effort vary between different post-editors. The dissertation consists of six previously published articles, and an introductory summary. Five of the articles report original research, and involve analyses of post-editing data to examine questions related to post-editing effort as well as differences between post-editors. The sixth article is a survey presenting an overview of the research literature. The research reported is based on multiple datasets consisting of machine translations and their post-edited versions, as well as process and evaluation data related to post-editing effort. The dissertation presents a mixed methods study combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, as well as theoretical and analytical tools from the fields of language technology and translation studies. Data on edits performed by post-editors, post-editing time, keylogging data, and subjective evaluations of effort are combined with error analyses of the machine translations in question, and compared for various post-editors. The results of this dissertation provide evidence that, in addition to the number of edits performed, post-editing effort is affected by the type of edits as well as source text features. Secondly, the results show that while certain language errors can be corrected even without access to the source text, certain other types that more severely affect the meaning cannot. Thirdly, the results show that post-editors' speed and the amount of editing they perform differ, and that various profiles can be identified in terms of how the edits are planned and carried out by the post-editors. The results of this work may have both theoretical and practical implications for the measurement and estimation of post-editing effort.
  • Nenonen, Olga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Phonetic development in Russian-Finnish bilinguals of pre-primary age The doctoral dissertation addresses the phonetic development in Russian-Finnish bilingual children of pre-primary age. The study combines qualitative and quantitative methods in the framework of child language development studies, and contrastive and contact linguistics. It also takes into account language therapy approaches. The data were collected through an articulation test specially designed for Russian and Finnish. The research is based on the results of both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. The longitudinal study observes the evidence from 6 normally developing bilingual children in a 2.5-year time period. The sample of the cross-sectional study consists of 126 children divided into three groups: (1) 46 typically developing Russian-Finnish bilinguals; (2) 40 typically developing Russian monolinguals and 20 typically developing Finnish monolinguals; and (3) 20 Russian-Finnish bilinguals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). The participant s production of target words in the articulation test was transcribed and phonetic errors were analysed. Despite considerable individual variation in phonetic production, the findings suggest that bilinguals acquire Russian and Finnish phonetic inventories later than their monolingual pairs. The difference is visible both in the speed of acquisition and in the number and nature of errors. With regard to the nature of mispronunciation, four types of bilingual mistakes were distinguished: (1) common developmental mistakes made by bilinguals and monolinguals; (2) language-specific mistakes made by monolinguals and bilinguals, however the latter group makes considerably more mistakes, especially at an older age; (3) cross-linguistic interference mistakes caused by the differences in Russian and Finnish phonetic systems, made only by bilinguals, resembling the mistakes of second language learners; and (4) unpredictable mistakes common in bilingual normally developing and bilingual SLI children. The analysis reveals that from a longitudinal perspective, phonetic development is faster and easier for bilinguals in Finnish than in Russian. However, relatively simple Russian vocalism is acquired faster than Finnish vocalism, whereas the complex system of Russian consonants takes longer to develop than the Finnish consonant system. Furthermore, language-specific features appear to be the most problematic for acquisition. The research shows the evidence of language interaction in bilingual phonetic development, e.g. in the form of cross-language phonetic interference. As a result, some bilingual children may have either a Russian or a Finnish accent. However, this accent tends to gradually disappear.
  • Möttönen, Tapani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation is a metatheoretical survey into the central semantic concepts of Cognitive Grammar (CG), a semantics-driven theoretical grammar developed by Ronald W. Langacker. CG approaches language as a semiotic system inherently structured by certain cognition-general capacities, and it defends a usage-based conception of language, therefore denying the strict dichotomy between language and other realms of conceptualization and human experience. For CG, linguistic meaning is thus defined relative to our general cognitive and bodily disposition, as well as to the contents of experience the former structure. The cognitive and experiential aspects of meaning are described relative to so-called dimensions of construal. In this study, I will provide a systematic critical account of the theoretical explanation Cognitive Grammar provides for the dimensions of construal. The point of departure will be in social ontology of linguistic meaning developed and defended by Esa Itkonen, who has accordingly criticized Cognitive Grammar for inconsistent psychologism. According to Itkonen, linguistic meaning is an object of common knowledge and cannot be reduced into an individual s conceptualization; the dimensions of construal capture experiential meaning that is part of language as a social semiotic resource. This entails that linguistic semantics assume as its object of description non-objective, perspectival meanings that are commonly known. It will be argued that the usage-based nature of CG provides a way to release this tension between objective and non-objective aspects of meaning by explaining how perspectivity of semantics results from the acquisition and adjustment of meanings in actual discourse. This, however, necessitates an ontological revision of Cognitive Grammar and rehabilitation of the sociality of a linguistic meaning, which is the topic of this study. In addition to the work by Itkonen, prominent socially oriented cognitive linguists, such as Jordan Zlatev, have emphasized the necessary intersubjective basis of experiential meaning. Within the Fennistic studies, on the other hand, the intersubjective approach to CG and Cognitive Linguistics in general has taken the form of combining cognitive linguistic methodologies with Conversation Analysis. This study combines elements from both of these approaches in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of the notion of construal in CG. In so being, the main task of this study is to critically evaluate the cognition-based explanation for the dimensions of construal, provide a socially grounded alternative, and apply the alternative into analysis of construal in (written discourse). The thesis demonstrates that the dimensions of construal are not dependent on the aspects of cognitive theory on the basis of which they are argued for. Instead, the notion of construal is shown to be inherently intersubjective and context-sensitive. Construal captures aspects of semantic organization that are correlates of intersubjective alignment between conceptualizing subjects in a given discursive context.
  • Hyvärinen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    "Return, Word, where music begins." Music in the World View of Osip Mandelstam's Poetry This study examines the role of music and the interrelationship between poetic word and music in Osip Mandelstam's (1891-1938) poetry. By analysing Mandelstam's poems written in 1908-1925, the study creates a coherent view of the significance of word and music in his world view. The method used in the study is close analytic reading of poetic text. Instead of analysing the musicality of poetry from the point of view of metrics, phonetics or rhythm, the study focuses on the mythology of music in Mandelstam's poetry. Primarily, the poems are analysed as independent texts, and secondly, in the context of Russian cultural history and Mandelstam's own cultural philosophy as their background. The study consists of four parts. In the first section (chapter 2), the study examines the role of music in Mandelstam's early poems, which he wrote under the strong influence of Russian Symbolism. One of the main themes of Mandelstam's earliest poems is listening to the music of nature; this music reflects a higher reality that cannot be reached by human consciousness. The main problem treated in Mandelstam's early poems is the compatibility of a human being's own inner music with the harmony of the universe. The second part of the study (chapter 3) focuses on the role of music in Mandelstam' s version of the Russian poetic school, Acmeism. In his Acmeist poems, Mandelstam emphasises the verbal and logical characteristics of music, which can be seen as polemics adhering to the Romantic and partly Symbolist view of music as a metaphysical force. According to Mandelstam, the ideal of logical art is manifest in Johann Sebastian Bach's music. The third part (chapter 4) focuses on the significance of Christianity in Mandelstam's world view and the role of music in his religious poems. A close relationship between poetry, theology and religious philosophy was characteristic of the tradition of Russian Modernism. This is also visible in Mandelstam's poetry and in his conception of Christian music , which unites the Apollonian and Dionysian forces of culture into a harmonic whole. Finally, in the fourth section (chapter 5), I describe Mandelstam's idea of Russian Hellenism and how music is reflected in his poems in the context of ancient Greek mythology. All these elements of Mandelstam's world view reflect a profound tension between word and music, which is closely associated with ideological and philosophical problems that are manifest in his poetry. Subjects: Russian Literature; Music; Acmeism; Mandelstam, Osip
  • Honkasalo, Julian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) did not theorize gender as a political question. None of her major works deal with women s liberation, women s rights, or with gendered aspects of power. In her public life, she neither participated nor spoke up in favor of any feminist group. Yet, her works have generated a rich and polyphonic tradition of feminist scholarship. This dissertation provides the first monograph length, systematic examination of four decades of feminist responses to Arendt s political thought. In this study I ask how and for what purposes have feminist interpreters of Arendt singled out concepts and topics for scrutiny and debate in their efforts to understand the absence of a theory of gender in Arendt s oeuvre. Why has precisely Hannah Arendt been so widely and passionately read by feminist theorists, despite the fact that she did not engage in this field of inquiry at all? By analyzing and contextualizing how each text in feminist secondary literature on Arendt constitutes a distinct response to her silence on gender, and by then grouping these responses, this study finds that feminist efforts to make sense of the absence of a theory of gender in Arendt s political thinking can best be understood through a threefold categorization. First, Anglophone, early second wave sisterhood-interpretations approach Arendt through the conceptual pairs of the public and the private , and the social and the political , arriving at the conclusion that Arendt is a masculine anti-feminist. Second, Continental, French and Italian interpretations operate with Arendt s concept of natality and regard Arendt as a female genius. Finally, postmodern and queer readings highlight concepts such as unique distinctness , speech and action and pariahdom , establishing Arendt as a precursor to feminist elaborations on performativity as well as critiques of identity politics. I contend that taken together, these three feminist perspectives form a prism through which Arendt s enigmatic silence on gender becomes meaningful. At the same time, the history of contemporary feminist political theorizing emerges as a highly polyphonic tradition. Hence, there is no single, univocal feminist theory or feminism that can be applied to Arendt s texts in order to answer the question of how and why she left questions related to gender and sexuality unanswered. Instead, Arendt s account on gender and sexuality can only be grasped through multiple perspectives and multiple feminist voices.
  • Kaljundi, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This article-based dissertation tackles the role of cultural representations and practices in the medieval expansion of Latin Christendom, analysing the historiography concerning the conversion and conquest of the Baltic Sea area. Four of the articles examine Latin missionary historiography from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, concentrating on the chronicles related to the archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen (with a particular focus on the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia). These founding narratives of the frontier settlements and institutions allow insight into the function of literary representations in legitimising the new rule, but they also highlight the importance of performative practices in the Christianisation of the borderlands. The dissertation also has a more generally theoretical dimension, addressing the oft-debated problem that we can analyse medieval rituals only indirectly, through textual or visual mediations. It argues that because it is impossible to know whether the described rituals actually took place, we should instead focus on the ways in which their historiographical representations enable to analyse the meaning and significance of the rituals. In addition to that the thesis demonstrates that there are fruitful perspectives for analysing the appropriation of rituals in the medieval history writing offered by the studies of cultural memory. These studies have emphasised that the formation of effective memorial figures is based on their remediation in various cultural media. In the frontier chronicles, authority is first and foremost based on the connections with the Christian past. Yet these texts also reveal an understanding that these contacts with the sacred past should be manifested through various media: through textual quotations, but also through rituals and other performances. The dissertation also considers the cultural memory of the Christianisation period in a longer historical perspective, two of the articles discussing its afterlives during later periods: the early modern, the Enlightenment and the modern eras. The rivalry for hegemony in the Eastern Baltic has kept the legacy of the conquest and conversion a topical as well as a political issue. The active appropriations have secured a constant remediation of the medieval narratives in different cultural media, while also resulting in their considerable transformations.
  • Suolahti, Ida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study explores the handing-over and exchange of Soviet prisoners of war between Finland and Germany during the Continuation War (1941 – 1944) fought between Finland and the Soviet Union. The Finnish military authorities handed over 2,900 POWs to the German authorities and received around 2,800 prisoners of war. Co-belligerency in a common war against a common enemy resulted in co-operation in prisoner-of-war matters. There were several motives for handing over POWs. First, POWs were handed over to the German troops in Finland as a work force. Second, POWs captured in Finland were exchanged for Finnish prisoners of war captured on the German fronts. They were meant as settlers in occupied Eastern Karelia. Third, ethnic Germans and Baltic POWs were to be resettled in their ethnic areas. Fourth, POWs were handed over for intelligence and counterintelligence reasons. A POW s consent for being handed over was seldom requested, but there were occasions when some of them had the possibility to either apply for being handed over, or for refusing it. It was not automatically assumed that handing over POWs would deteriorate their status or existential conditions. The international treaties did not stipulate the handing over of POWs. According to the Hague Convention, the Finnish authorities were responsible for the prisoners of war captured by the Finns. However, the Finnish surveillance authorities knew that POWs handed over to the German Security Service were being treated like criminals, rather than POWs, according to the German orders. The surveillance unit of the Finnish Headquarters (Päämajan valvontaosasto) handed over several hundred POWs to the special task force (Einsatzkommando Finnland) of the German Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst und SD). Altogether there were 520 POWs handed over for ideological reasons, for which there was no compensation given in return. This fifth category of handing over was a part of the joint ideological war. Jews in this category were handed over as suspected communists. The surveillance unit of the Finnish Headquarters did not receive orders or authorization for the handing over from any higher authorities. This study shows that the main motive for handing over POWs was the expected profit for their exchange. The party on the giving end was keen to receive compensation, where POWs were seen as a resource. The receiving party was interested in contributing to the work force and collecting intelligence information. The Germans had their own criteria for the appraisal of the POWs. Thus, on the basis of motives for handing them over, it was not possible to foresee the fate of the POWs in German hands.
  • Vajanto, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation is about Late Iron Age (AD 800 – 1055/1300) woollen, visually colourful textile fragments. The aim is to identify the dyeing methods used in Finland during the Late Iron Age and to find the locally used dyestuffs. This dissertation focuses on the archaeological samples from inhumation burials and shipwrecks, which were analysed with visual analysis and microscopy observation. The reference material includes woollen yarns dyed with Finnish traditionally known dye sources. The archaeological samples and the dyed references were analysed chromatographically at the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE) and at the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIK-IRPA) in Belgium by HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) and UHPLC (Ultra High performance liquid chromatography). Mordants were analysed at the Nanomicroscopy Center of Aalto University in Finland by SEM-EDX (Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Experimental archaeology was used to reconstruct the actual dyeing methods of red tannins, lichen orchil and plant mordants as well as to test the sustainability of these dyes and the effect of dyeing methods on wool yarns. The results suggest that three different dyeing methods were used in Late Iron Age Finland: vat dyeing, mordant dyeing and fermentation of tannins. Red tannins were obtained from tree barks such as alder buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula) and roots of common tormentil (Potentilla erecta). Red anthraquinones were obtained from local bedstraws (Galium boreale, Galium album and Galium verum). Mordants for dyes were prepared by fermenting clubmosses (Lycopodium species) and horsetails (Equisetum silvaticum and Equisetum arvense). Eagles fern (Pteridium aquilinum), common chickweed (Stellaria media) and red sorrel (Rumex acetosella) were also used in mordanting. Woad (Isatis tinctoria) was used for blue dyeing. Purple was obtained from orchil producing lichens such as rock tripe (Lasallia pustulata). Dyer s madder (Rubia tinctorum) and the yellow flavonoid dyes such as weld (Reseda luteola) were interpreted to indicate textile import. The Middle Ages offered new meanings for life and textile making, new handicraft methods and new dyestuffs, which ended the local prehistoric dyeing tradition. As a result of new cultural influences, red tannins were no longer used to strengthen yarns for warp-weighted loom nor were the blackish-blue and purple textiles dyed in vats in the Late Iron Age manner. The medieval culture provided a faster textile making process and offered horizontal looms and spinning wheels, the boiling method, alum and new dyestuffs.
  • Kallio, Pasi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This thesis examines the nature–origin, character, and temporal change–of the difference that educated and mostly male white southerners had about history at the level of historiography and other texts among themselves and in relation to “modern history” mostly in the states of Virginia and South Carolina in the early–1800s. The study compares and contrasts the postulate with two other areas of cultural discussion: New England, with some support from the Mid–Atlantic States New York and Pennsylvania, and Europe with its dominant change about culture roughly after the 1750s the thesis refers to as “modern history.” History was transformed into a major area of interest and cultural component. The method is mainly a scanning of digitalized online contemporary printed sources–leading books about history, leading contemporary journals, letter collections, and historical novels mostly produced in the U.S.–for word “history” and a variant “histor” that yields for example “historical” and “histories.” The findings have then been subjected to the study’s theoretical and methodological framework. Instead of a scientific undertaking, linguistically neutral, or grounded in material reality as usually treated in the U.S., written history overlaps with other text production and communication such as literary writing, poetics, and cultural discourse. The philosophy of modernity and scientific truth history became associated with in its modern guise can be read as a metaphysical problem and crisis of especial severity in the southern areas: modern history entailed an experiential and communicative renovation that extended to individuals and their relationship to society. Through partly deductive, partly poetic readings, the study charts the course of this change that spans from syntax to discourse, philosophy, semiotics and poetics. The concerns help reveal the tensions in modern association of reality with history that has obscured competing claims and experiences. The New England–led “bloc” departed from European skepticism. Virginia and South Carolina seldom rejected it. Modern history increased only in the 1840s, comparatively more in South Carolina. Previously, it was rare to see history as romantic, evangelical or scientific like in New England. Especially until the late–1830s, history was met with skeptical and ironic views about the history–reality relationship. Unlike often portrayed, these learned white southerners were rarely sentimentalists. Equally rare was to conflate reality and science with history for nationalist and utilitarian ends. Forgotten perspectives and agencies can be re–examined by taking into account more recent theories about history and language.
  • Junttila, Santeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The accumulation of information and tendencies in the study of loanwords The research history of Baltic loans in Proto-Finnic Abstract The old layer of vocabulary of Baltic origin in Finnic, or the Baltic loans in Proto-Finnic, was described by Vilhelm Thomsen in his monographs from 1869 and 1890. Altogether over one thousand Finnic words have been associated with this layer of loans in various sources. My research material consists of the etymologies correct or rejected posited for these words and the discussion thereof in printed sources between 1869 and 2009. I define the concept of Baltic loan etymologies in Proto-Finnic via their hypernyms. The definition of an etymology draws borders with other etymologies of the same word and etymologies of other similar words. A loan etymology must consist of two parts, equation and claim of origin. The definition of these loans as Baltic distinguishes them from Pre-Baltic loans, while their definition as Proto-Finnic distinguishes them from later loans of Baltic origin. The work includes an appendix consisting of a broad research-historical table in which the rows contain the posited origin of each word considered in the literature to be of Baltic origin. The columns consist of etymologies and the claims made to support them, grouped based on their argument types. I categorize the posited origins based on the novelty and Baltic-ness of the etymologies they contain. The posited origins make up the reception history of each etymology: based on them, an etymology can be defined as generally accepted, questionable, generally rejected or unresearched at each moment of its reception history. The reception history of Baltic etymologies and their various alternative explanations demonstrates that loan explanations increased in popularity in the beginning of the period under consideration, decreased after the 1920s and have been on the increase once again since the 1970s. I list all Baltic loan etymologies in groups according to their conceptualization as of 2009. The arguments used in loan etymologies are related to form, meaning, source language, distribution and the existence of layers of loans. By examining the historical development and usage context of each argument type, I bring to light very well founded research data and the accumulation thereof. The largest number of sustainable arguments has come from the Neogrammarian school of the 1890s and from structuralism beginning in the 1970s. By applying these paradigms, I identify dozens of generally accepted and questionable Baltic etymologies that should be rejected, as well as several rejected ones that should be accepted.