Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Kuha, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    ABSTRACT Jukka Kuha: Suomen musiikkioppilaitoshistoriaa – toiminta ulkomaisten esikuvien pohjalta vuoteen 1969. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Arts, Department of Musicology The topic of this doctoral study, as mentioned in the title, is the history of educational institutes of music in Finland during the years 1882–1969. In addition, a common thread throughout the study examines knowledge about European music life, especially about music education from the very early centuries up to the year 1880, and knowledge about the common music life in our country, mainly that previous to the founding of permanent educational institutes of music. The goal of this study is to review the intellectual background and identify the reasons which have enabled the establishment of institutional art schools of music (schools for sacred music, schools for orchestra musicians, schools of music, colleges of music and conservatories). Among the included initiatives are those concerning the establishment of institutes that have not been previously examined, because these initiatives can reveal common attitudes of the community concerning music education. The primary idea is to introduce the creation of educational institutes of music as a phenomenon and to describe their course of development. The aim is not to write the history of every institute but to clarify the organization of the educational institutes of schools of music. Only a few of these have been described from their beginning over some years or decades. The focuses of this study are to outline the importance of the mentioned schools of music, to describe their growth during the time of the study, to name the directors and teachers of the first institutes founded, to list the subjects and total amount of the students in each institutes, to describe political initiatives toward the law of state aid and the confirmed law, to give an account of the opinions concerning the law, and to identify two types of curriculums (developed over the long term and developed in only a few years) of educational institutions of music compared with the curriculum of Sibelius Academy in the year 1969. In fact, this study does not concern Sibelius Academy (nowadays part of an art university), but its activities under the leadership of its first director Martin Wegelius (1882–1906) have been examined because of the extensive amount of inaccurate and wrong information written in the history books on this academy. In addition, the preparations of law concerning state aid for Sibelius Academy have been clarified because these were carried out at the same time as similar initiatives for other educational institutions of music. My interest in this subject arose during my career. As I had dealings with the educational institutes of music throughout this time, I became interested in obtaining information about previous activities in these institutions in Finland, but I only found time for this research after retirement. Keywords: institutionaalinen, musiikkioppilaitos, lukkari- ja urkurikoulu, musiikkikoulu, musiikkiopisto, konservatorio, orkesterikoulu, valtionavustus
  • Bastman, Eeva-Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation examines Finnish Pietist hymn poetry from the 18th and 19th centuries. The study focuses on the hymn as a lyric genre and investigates the poetics of Pietist hymns; that is, the formal and thematic features and the ways of creating meaning that are characteristic for the hymn as a genre and for Pietist hymns in particular. The research material consists of two hymn collections: a handwritten hymnbook compiled in the 1780s in the town of Orimattila in southern Finland and a printed hymnbook, Halullisten Sieluin Hengelliset Laulut from 1790 (“Spiritual Songs for Devout Souls”), together with its extended editions published in the 19th century. The introductory chapter of the dissertation places the hymns in their historical and religious context. It is followed by the analysis part, which consists of two chapters. The first deals with questions of metre, and the second discusses forms of speech and address in hymn poetry. The chapter on hymn metrics focuses on stanza structures, metres, and rhyming. In addition to detailed textual analyses of individual hymns, it provides an overview of the poetic structures used in hymn poetry and discusses the changes in hymn metrics that took place in the 18th and 19th centuries. The analysis casts new light on the rhyming of the hymns. Here, rhyming is understood as one form of phonetic repetition together with assonance and alliteration, and emphasis is placed on the poetic functions of these phonetic devices. The second analysis chapter examines poetry as speech and lyric address. In particular, ritualistic and performative elements, which seek to involve and engage the reader or the listener, turn out to be central features of hymn poetics. These elements include, in addition to rhythm and sound, forms of speech and address, rhetorical devices that activate senses and emotion, as well as imagery used to illustrate the speaker’s innermost thoughts and feelings. The study shows that the poetics of Pietist hymns has three central features: rhetoric, oral-literary forms of expression and the recycling and reshaping of a traditional repertoire, formed in the interaction between the hymn and its neighbouring genres, such as biblical texts and devotional literature. These features have a common function: to create a sense of community and belonging in singers and listeners and to depict inner change in an engaging way.
  • Pajunen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This thesis is a case study of The Unknown Soldier (Tuntematon sotilas) by Kristian Smeds. The performance, based on a novel by Väinö Linna (1954), was played at the Finnish National Theatre from 2007 to 2009. My aim is to examine how Smeds’ directing created a performative tension between presenting and representing the well-known war story considered to be one of the most important books in Finnish cultural history. I approach the process of it becoming a national theatrical event as a performative multitude of interpretations. I analyse the elements that affected the event from different points of view, concentrating on the directing and reception. The theoretical framework is based on performance studies and analysis. I examine The Unknown Soldier especially in the context of the theories of performativity. I also use other theories, such as Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of forms of capital and Richard Sennett’s theory of the culture of new capitalism, to connect Smeds’ performance to contemporary society. The concept of collective cultural memory provides a background to understanding the extraordinary status enjoyed by The Unknown Soldier and its adaptations in Finnish culture. The aim of the research is to study the possibilities of a theatre performance with respect to challenging collective memory. I analyse the new interpretations that Smeds brought to the novel, address the media response in relation to the directing and my analysis of it, and raise questions that were left out of the public discussion. Through Smeds’ performance, I also examine the cultural position of The Unknown Soldier in current society. My analysis has three primary points of view. At first, I examine the role of the media in creating an event around this performance. Secondly, I raise the question of how the role of the audience in the performance reflected and embodied the experience of living in a 21st century information society. Thirdly, I examine how the performance was interpreted by the media and how it was discussed. The study shows why the performance was discussed in public and how Smeds’ directing challenged the well-known war narrative for example by depicting on stage a group rape carried out by Finnish soldiers, as well as the mental effects of the war. These topics were not discussed in public – the discussion concentrated on creating a stir around the performance. As well as opening up the case of Smeds´ performance, this research shows how the narrative of The Unknown Soldier has separated itself from the novel and become a partly imaginary construction in Finnish cultural memory. This construction is used separately from the war context and for the purpose of cultural capital and prestige.
  • Ilmolahti, Oona (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2017)
    This study discusses return to peace in Sörnäinen, Helsinki, after the Finnish Civil War in 1918. Situated in (labour) community research the study examines the relationship between the local elementary (folk) school teachers and the Sörnäinen labour community. Methodologically, qualitative tools are complemented by using the notion of emotional communities and the method of close reading. The theoretical framework is the psychological resilience linked to return to peace from war and to recovery from crisis. Emotions are seen primarily as a social force sustaining emotional communities. Social resilience was communal, making one’s own reference group crucial to recovery. After the Civil War, the National Progressive Party-dominated management of the National Board of General Education defined national unity as the goal of education, but in the wake of the war, schools were made into a battleground of bottled-up emotions. The Civil War exacerbated the relations between the school teachers and the working-class population, and the emotional regime hardened by the experiences or interpretations of the war made it impossible to present alternative views of the other party. Still, the emotional communities analysed were not homogeneous; they contained within them smaller subcommunities, which acted as emotional refuges. How the relations reached a crisis point was encapsulated in children. They saw a disconcerting chain of events, facing many different truths about what had happened. The teachers’ Fennomanian, education-based view of the Finnish people was shattered by the war, while among the workers, the defeat and the split of the labour movement laid to waste the ideal of a better world built with combined efforts. The grief was mixed with bitterness and the resultant ideas of revenge or a need for reconciliation. Most of the elementary school teachers knew where they stood in these exceptional circumstances, but it was not easy. Many were drawn to social democratic ideas, sympathising with the efforts to improve the lot of the people, which made it hard for them to take a stand. In addition to rekindling a passion for the redeeming force of education, many teachers found in the Finnish kinship ideology a tool of social resilience and of managing their relationship to the ordinary Finnish-speaking people. Among the teachers and the political labour movement alike, the resilience was grounded in building a better world through children and education. The left-wing socialist labour movement dissociated itself ever more clearly from the bourgeois education system, seeking to equip the Red orphans with an alternative worldview. Similarly, the teachers turned into action the self-accusations rising from the failure of their educational work. The crisis was proof of the inadequacies of education, which is why their own future work was key to Finnish national unity. All parties also endeavoured to awaken the working-class parents seen as too passive or as providing their children with the wrong sort of education. Mental peace was not attained in the immediate aftermath of the war, but there were occasional incidences of calming down. The emotions aroused by the crisis, the way in which the war was interpreted and the creation of a new vision for the future helped to manage these emotions but did not enable an understanding of the other party. The crisis was also used as a rhetorical device to strengthen the contradictions between the working-class population and the teachers.
  • Dahlgren, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In this work I have studied the language contact situation between Egyptian and Greek in Roman period Egypt. I have analysed the language use of a corpus written by Egyptian scribe apprentices, OGN I (Ostraca greci da Narmuthis), rich with nonstandard variation due to the imperfect Greek learning of the young scribes. I concentrated on finding Egyptian phonological influence from the misspellings of the vowels that displayed variation atypical for native language writers. Among the nonstandard features were, for example, underdifferentiation of foreign phonemes, the reduction of word-final vowels, allophonic variation that matched Coptic prosodic rules, and coarticulation of consonants on vowels. All of these linguistic characteristics can be found also in the near-phonetic nonstandard spellings of Greek loanwords in Coptic, which I used as parallel reference material. Studying the similarly phonetically-based orthographic variants in Arabic loanwords in Coptic from a later period gave me information on Coptic vowel qualities, by which I could confirm that most of the nonstandard vowel variation in the texts of OGN I was not related to Greek internal phonological development but Egyptian influence. During the project I began to suspect that there might have been an independent Egyptian Greek variety in existence, similarly to for example Indian English, with transfer features from especially the phonological level of Egyptian. I found enough conclusive evidence of a variety of this type to be able to continue research on it after the doctoral dissertation. In order to be able to obtain knowledge of the spoken level of these languages which are no longer spoken, I used modern phonetic research as my aid, and especially concentrated on loanword phonology. I believe I have found enough evidence of the methods of integration of these loanwords and foreign words into Egyptian to be able to contribute to the ongoing debate about whether loan adaptation is based on the phonological level or the phonetic one. I found evidence of both, quite often working simultaneously.
  • Koivikko, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The study site is the underwater seascape of the 18th-century fortress islands of Suomenlinna (Sveaborg) in the harbour of Helsinki, Finland. The site is located in the Gulf of Finland, in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea. The fortress has global significance as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This study had its origin in the insight that a ship's hull, while comprised of numerous individual artifacts, could be treated as one object from the viewpoint of archaeological research. From that premise, it followed that the study of the ship as an artefact can be continued through processes of reuse. This change in approach allowed evaluating the reuse of ships in a different way than the traditional concept of recycling, which involves demolishing and cannibalizing all the material of the vessel. This study states that the hull can also be recycled intact to serve the contemporary community. Accordingly, it is called recycling rather than simple reuse, since it involves a change in the function of the hull. The activities of different periods have left footprints in the underwater seascape, which create a basis for interpretations of a maritime cultural landscape. The author used maritime archaeological field methods to collect data throughout the 80-hectare water area around Suomenlinna. This archaeological record has not been analysed earlier. For this study, an interpretation tool was developed for unidentified shipwrecks, especially for data produced in surveys. The three primary aims of this study are raising awareness of the possibilities of maritime archaeological studies, broadening the concept of recycling, and increasing the appreciation of old and poorly preserved wrecks. In addition, this study reveals recycling processes undertaken on some of the first vessels of the Swedish Army Fleet, and the locations of the last wooden sailing warships of the Russian Baltic Fleet. Maritime archaeology should be challenged to apply its methods and perspectives to address contemporary global concerns and the well-being of our waters, as well as ourselves.
  • Sosa, Sachiko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Khanty is a Uralic language spoken in Western Siberia. Surgut Khanty with 2000 speakers is one of the variants of Eastern Khanty. Most speakers are bilinguals and Surgut Khanty is nowadays an endangered language. The main aim of this dissertation is to find the functions of rich morphosyntactic devices in Surgut Khanty. I limited the analysis on comparisons variation between alignments. The main theoretical frame is founded on discourse-based functionalism. Mainly the model of the method derives from Preferred Argument Structure (Du Bois 1987) and in this framework, morphology (noun phrase types of referents as lexical NPs, pronouns or zero anaphora), semantics (animacy and person) and pragmatics (information status as new or given information, referentiality as referent tracking, topicality) will be studied. Referent tracking means here coding the discourse referentiality of noun phrases in discourse. I mapped the distribution of each category and configured them with a pragmatic frame. The data used in the dissertation is originally spoken narrative text from after 1980 s, including the data I collected from interviews with native Surgut Khanty speakers. The data consists of 295 minutes 20 seconds of audio recorded personal narratives. The dissertation contains an abundance of grammatical sketch which also contains previously undescribed grammatical features. I have analysed five alignments. The remarkable findings are the followings. 1) The dative shift alternation can also trigger subject conjugation regardless of the typological tendency and previous study on Khanty. 2) In object variations, I have compared nominative/accusative object and oblique object which has not been mentioned in previous studies of Khanty. The analyses demonstrate that the oblique object can be regarded an object since it is a semantically obligatory argument, but it also functions as an oblique in referent tracking in discourse. 3) The object conjugation does not pertain to the first and the second person pronouns as object in Surgut Khanty. 4) The locative subject and its object are highly topical. In Surgut Khanty data, the locative subject functions as recurring topic. It also appears in local discourse that has competing topical referents. In a word, topic, local discourse, text genre and also speaker s strategy control the morphosyntactic choice in Surgut Khanty. As mentioned above, the analysis demonstrates that the morphosyntactic devices have their own functions in discourse. It is the speaker, however, that chooses the morphosyntactic form in discourse. The data for Surgut Khanty reveal that speakers choose the morphosyntactic forms based on the functions and on the strategy of the speech for effective communication even when the choice does not depend on the tendency/basic function. Since narrative is a genre which can reveal the speaker s command of speech, the result is not surprising.
  • Naarajärvi, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation analyses the role development of the People s Republic of China during the time between the 16th and 18th party congresses of the Chinese Communist Party (2002 and 2012). Employing the theoretical framework of constructivist role theory, this study argues that during this time China's international roles - social positions based on national role conceptions as well as domestic and external expectations towards those roles - went through significant changes that were originally resisted by the Chinese state. By tracing the processes of China's role change I create a historical narrative in which I compare three different cases of China's peripheral foreign policy: Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Japan. All these cases involve China's territorial disputes, highlighting the interactional nature of a nation's international roles, and giving this work additional focus. As my primary material I use speeches of the Chinese top leadership during the time frame of my study. By analysing the speech acts of the national leaders and by comparing them to developments in Chinese foreign policy, I reconstruct the process of China's role change in each of the three cases. To provide additional evidence, I also use Chinese articles in two major international relations journals in China, 现代国际 关系 (Xiandai Guoji Guanxi) and 国际问题 研究 (Guoji Wenti Yanjiu), as well as selected interviews among scholars of international relations in the Sinophone World. The first of my case studies discusses China's role change in Central Asia, where China, according to my study, first learned how to enact the role of a great power. The second case study looks into the development of China's international role towards Southeast Asia, where the ongoing disputes on the South China Sea and China's need to engage more with ASEAN, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, led China to adapt its great power role. The third and final case study analyses the resistance that China's great power role has met with Japan, making both role learning and adapting ineffective. Thus, China has resorted to altercasting, by continuing to emphasise Japan s inadequate handling of its wartime history, thus trying to undermine the position of Japan. With this dissertation I also test the applicability of role theory in the study of Chinese foreign policy. Until recently, role theory has been employed mainly in the study of democratic countries and it needs to be adjusted to the study of authoritarian states.
  • Kallio, Lauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The study discusses the philosophy of Finnish philosopher J.V. Snellman (1806-81). The focus is on Snellman's so-called philosophy of personality, which he presented in his work "Essay on the speculative Development of the Idea of Personality" (Tübingen, 1841). Besides this work he addressed his philosophy of personality in his other works and in his public lectures. In his philosophy of personality Snellman develops the concept of personality within the framework of G.W.F. Hegel's (1770-1831) philosophy. The concept of personality serves as a basis for Hegel's philosophy of right, and it plays an important role also in other parts of Hegel's system. However, he never provided a comprehensive definition of this concept. The essence of personality was debated among Hegelians after Hegel's death in 1831. In the course of the debate the Hegelian school split into two groups. At the time of publication of "The Idea of Personality" there was a serious rift between the Right- and the Left-Hegelians. The study analyzes Snellman's philosophy of personality in respect of Hegel's philosophy and in respect of the views of other Hegelians mainly D.F. Strauss (1808-74), L. Feuerbach (1804-72) and C.F. Göschel (1781-1861). I also attend to some contemporaries outside the Hegelian School like F.W.J. Schelling (1775-1854) and I.H. Fichte (1796-1879). The study is divided into six sections (A F). The first comprises an introduction and an outline of the structure of the study. The second section (B) discusses the historical context of Snellman's philosophy. The first subsection focuses on the Central European debate on Hegel's legacy. The second subsection deals with Snellman's life and his work on philosophy. The systematic part of the study comprises three sections (C E), which consider the dialectic of Snellman's work of 1841. This dialectic follows the outline of Hegel's philosophy of subjective spirit and culminates in the definition of personality. Snellman, however, exceeds the realm of the philosophy of subjective spirit, as he discusses e.g. the philosophy of religion. He also comments on the debate among Hegelians. According to Snellman, neither Right- nor Left-Hegelians are true to Hegel's philosophy. In effect, his own standpoint in the debate, as I will argue, comes close to that of the Left-Hegelians. The study concludes with a summary (F).
  • Björklund, Heta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral dissertation examines medicinal-magical amulets pertaining to the uterus and the protection of women and children, the accompanying tradition of magical texts, and the mythology and folktales of demons believed to kill children and parturient women. The amulets and the folktales of the demons they were believed to protect against are intertwined. The amulets cannot be studied merely as archaeological or art historical objects, but must be taken together with folktales and narrative charms. The amulets discussed in this dissertation are from Late Antiquity (250-750 CE) and the Middle Byzantine period (843-1204 CE), and they come from the areas of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Greece, and Asia Minor. The stories of the demons these amulets protected against are even earlier; the first mentions date to the time of Sappho in Archaic Greece (6th-7th centuries BCE), and they still appear in manuscript copies as late as the 15th century CE. The amulets discussed in this dissertation represent only a fraction of the amulets from Antiquity to Byzantine times intended to aid in pregnancy and childbirth. They must be seen as part of a tradition of amulets and narrative charms (stories that themselves acted as magical protection) against disease-causing demons. In narrative charms, the demon (who is both disease-causing and the disease itself) is depicted as animal-like, non-human, and usually rising from the sea. She meets a divine figure (Artemis in the older versions of the story, King Solomon, Jesus, or Virgin Mary in the later ones), who interrogates and banishes her. In addition, I propose that seeing the amulets in the context of belief in the evil eye may help explain many of their features and accompanying stories. The evil eye was thought to cause all manners of maladies. Contextualized in terms of the Indo-European and Semitic wet-dry division of life, the evil eye steals the liquids of life: mother s milk, blood, and semen. By attacking the very essence of the household and its continued survival (i.e. reproduction), the evil eye was a significant element behind the amulets and narrative charms. Furthermore, the concept of the evil eye was an extremely important tool in conflict resolution in small, close-knit communities, as a specific conflict could be resolved by placing blame on an immaterial scapegoat while maintaining social cohesion by not identifying any single individual as guilty.
  • Tanskanen, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation studies the dramaturgy of ethics in contemporary Finnish drama. My understanding of ethics is based on Emmanuel Levinas’s philosophy and his considerations on the encounters between subject and other/Other. Theatre and literary researchers have been heavily influenced by Levinas’s thoughts and have considered what it means to encounter otherness in the context of art. This study participates in the debate and introduces a new viewpoint by concentrating on questions of dramaturgy and dramatic writing. It examines how genre, language, style, characters and other structural elements have the potential to create space for otherness by generating ambivalence, obstructing the habitual gaze and questioning hegemonic understandings. The Sublime was found to be a productive concept to analyse the aesthetics of otherness, because it is deeply concerned with questions about the way we perceive the world and its others or the way we understand and represent the relation between self and other/s. In this study, the sublime is understood in the broadest sense of the word, extending to cover also the grotesque, taboos and other ways to reach limits or break barriers. My three case studies are Laura Ruohonen’s Luolasto (Finnish National Theatre 2014), Leea and Klaus Klemola’s New Karleby (Tampere Theatre 2011) and Milja Sarkola’s Jotain toista. Henkilökohtaisen halun näyttämö (Q-theatre 2015). They all challenged dramatic conventions and created alternative dramaturgical strategies that are partly related to contemporary postdramatic theatre. Since dramaturgy is deeply related to ideologies, society, culture and politics, a study of the ethics of dramaturgy produced new knowledge about the politics of contemporary theatre and drama. Analyses influenced by Levinas tended to emphasize plurality and the presence of otherness, both in a subject and in society. Otherness in these works was related to nature and ecology, species and gender, but also to a subject’s own unconscious or repressed interiority. These dramas challenged their spectators by reflecting the gaze back to the audience, inviting them to reconsider their own thoughts, attitudes and beliefs, and their limited scope in front of infinity.
  • Ala-Pöllänen, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Happy Ship? An ethnographic study of Finnish and Philippine sailors aboard Finnish cargo ships This study analyzes life aboard cargo ships sailing under Finnish flag through co-operation and the construction of everyday life within the crew. The ships under analysis here carry mixed crews, i.e. three nationalities, including Finnish, Estonian, and Filipinos in the same crew. The purpose of the study is to examine the construction of encounters in space and place and in different activities onboard, and to analyze how cultural diversity and maritime structural hierarchy affects it. The study also observes how everyday life with a mixed crew influences maritime safety issues. The study is situated in the field of phenomenological cultural analysis. The research material consists of ethnographic field work that was conducted aboard three vessels sailing under Finnish flag during 2013, 2014, and 2015. Each field work lasted one month; in which case, the researcher lived onboard, making participant observations within the crew. Fieldwork notes consist of 238 pages, which does not include a set of interviews of 46 members of the crew. The themes used in analyzing the material included the background of sailors, their reasons for becoming a sailor, work and leisure onboard, and attitudes towards collaboration and team work within the mixed crew. The author has reflected on her onboard status among the crew, in analyzing such issues such as being an academic, being a fellow sailor, and being of a different age and different sex than the crew. A central issue was to observe the meshwork that the multicultural crew and ships hierarchy constituted. Both main groups of Finns and Filipinos had their own experiences and understandings of the ships hierarchy from the past and how it differed. Finns had adopted the Scandinavian egalitarian style with low power relations, while Filipinos followed a more strict interpretation of hierarchy with higher power relations. On the other hand, these arrangements easily reversed outside work hours during leisure time. In the mess room a common space for the whole crew Filipinos enjoyed their meals sitting more freely than Finns, who remained in their own designated seats. When it comes to group cohesion, one of the undermining features for Finns was the fear that Filipinos were taking away Finnish jobs. On the other hand, Filipinos felt that working at lower wages on short-term contracts was unjust. By contrast, Finns were paid higher wages for their permanent contracts involving three- to four-week shifts at a time. The study argues that the Finnish style of mixed crew varies from an international one in dividing the crew according to nationality, not according to power relations. As observed in international ships with multicultural crews, it is easier to remain with one s own nationality, when there exists only two or three nationalities. Coexistence was more of a host-guest attitude than equal partners and particular unity or friendships across other national groups did not exist at large. Ships were still distinctively Finnish in their working habits and had an ethnic kitchen arranged in accordance with Finnish preferences. Also the companies marginalized Filipinos by only addressing the Finns onboard. An obvious challenge for the functionality of the crew were the Filipino officers. According to the Finns and Estonians, the Filipino officers lacked independence and initiative while they were on watch; crucially, independence and initiative were conditions for such a task. In the spirit of super-diversity the analysis draws attention to the family and state-based organization that Filipinos face, when heading towards maritime employment. While emphasizing their character of adjustment and sacrifice they reveal their basic need to support the family back home. Fear of losing valuable income may result in the avoidance of risk, which has consequences for safety conditions onboard. The study finds various ways to reinforce the unity of mixed crews aboard Finnish cargo ships. As the joint-mess room is already an established practice, it is easy to enhance its policy toward more equal styles of living. Moreover, as has already been demonstrated elsewhere, multinational crews, joint spare time, and simple and clearly articulated regulations governing the work helps to orient the multinational crews in a more harmonious common life aboard ship.
  • Pöllä, Riikka-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Refashioning the Respectable Elite Woman in Louis XIV's Paris: Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos This PhD thesis is an analysis of the appearances, material culture and sexuality of the respectable woman, l honneste femme, in Paris under the regime of Louis XIV. Through the examples of Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos, the study describes how Parisian elite women were able to fashion the ideal of l honneste femme and how reality and ideals were combined in Parisian society. The study is based on the idea that female chastity is not the only key factor when evaluating and refashioning l honneste femme and the 17th-century female ideal was composed from different elements: elite status, education, manners, material culture, outer appearance and sexuality; residential area also played a role, especially the quartier of Le Marais with its flourishing elite culture. The study shows that l honneste femme was the result of the mastering of all these different layers of elite living. In addition, it notes that the respectable Parisian elite woman could make her own decisions in relation to her lifestyle and self-fashioning. These actions were essential when constructing the entity of l honneste femme. The aim of the study is to answer the following questions: How did Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos reflect the ideal of the elite culture? How was the notion of a respectable woman constructed? Was this a matter of perfect abstinence as previous scholars claim or was it rather a performance that required different elements to be fulfilled? If so, what were the essential aspects when refashioning the respectable woman? How did Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos fashion themselves? Did their self-fashioning aim to perform as honnestes femmes or did they search for other ways to be part of the society of les honnêtes gens? Most importantly, the study considers why both Marquise de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos were considered honnestes femmes at the end of their lives? The study, qualitative in nature, is based on a variety of sources. By means of critical close reading the study analyses the letters of Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos and their inventaires après décès which are key sources. The valuable information these post-mortem inventories offer has not been used properly ever before in studies on l honneste femme. Another prominent source for the study are the Mémoires composed by the contemporaries of Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos. Seventeenth-century conduct books such as François de Grenaille s L Honnête fille (1640); Jacques Du Bosc s L Honneste femme (1632); Antoine de Courtin s Nouveau Traité de la civilité qui se pratique en France parmi les honnêtes gens (1671); François de Sales Introduction à la vie devote (1641) and Nicolas Venette s Tableau de l'amour conjugal (1686) help to understand the female ideal like on the theoretical level. Both Madame de Sévigné and Ninon de Lenclos were immortalised in several portraits that were reflections of the honnête status. Thus, such visual sources as portraits and gravures have also been analysed and combined with the overall source material and research literature. The most important notion is that even if the ideal of the elite woman, l honneste femme, had been created mostly by male authors, it was adjustable and adaptable. Furthermore, the study argues that the external signs of l honneste femme played a greater role than previous scholars have assumed. In other words, l honneste femme and her honnête performance were created from many different social and personal aspects of which chastity was only one of them. Thus, the study shows how 17th-century Parisian elite women had to be able to uphold simultaneously different status layers of their rank to fulfil the expectations the Ancien Régime created for l honneste femme. Key words: l honneste femme, honnêteté, sexuality, material culture, self-fashioning, Paris, seventeenth-century.
  • Sillfors, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The visibility of atheism has increased in the 21st century West, partly due to the rise of New Atheism, a movement critical towards religion. Over the last few years, books which defend an atheistic spiritual option have appeared in the market as well, such as The Book of Atheist Spirituality (2006) by André Comte-Sponville, Good Without God (2009) by Greg M. Epstein, Going Godless (2010) by J. K. Fausnight, and Religion for Atheists (2012) by Alain de Botton. In addition, New Atheists have brought forth alternatives to traditional religion, for example, Richard Dawkins in his TV-series Sex, Death and the Meaning of Life (2012) and Sam Harris in his book Waking Up (2014). These six works are my research material. In this study I examine three subjects: atheism, spirituality, and in particular the combination of these two, atheist spirituality. The main question of my research is what kind of factors, attitudes towards religion, and values are included in atheist spirituality in the 21st century. My methods are argument analysis, rhetoric analysis, attitude analysis, and Schwartz's value model. By atheism I mean godlessness. In the history of mankind, atheism has probably been rare, but in recent centuries in the West it has gradually become more common. According to current research, a reflective processing style is one of the key psychological factors that leads towards atheism. Socio-cultural factors which have an impact on the steady increase in atheism are, for example, wealth, security, and a change in values towards individualism. I regard spirituality as a universal human phenomenon which includes five key dimensions: 1) experiences and emotions, 2) morality, 3) view on life, 4) meaningfulness, and 5) practices and commitments. By atheist spirituality, I mean spirituality that is explicitly atheistic. Atheist spirituality can be seen as a subcategory of secular spirituality, which recently has become more common in the West. However, among the representatives of atheist spirituality, the practices as well as the attitudes towards religions are diverse. In their works, both Dawkins and Harris attitudes towards monotheistic religion are critical. Dawkins offers reason and science as substitutes for traditional religion, and in addition to these, Harris introduces Buddhism and meditation. In contrast, in de Botton s work, the attitude towards religion is favourable it emphasizes the usefulness of Christian communal values and practices and converts them to the current secular context. In turn, in the works of Comte-Sponville, Epstein, and Fausnight, the attitude toward religion is ambivalent, including both critical and favourable parts. As an alternative to traditional religion, Comte-Sponville highlights experiences of transcendence and love, Epstein emphasizes humanistic communality and self-dignity, and Fausnight underlines inner peace and meaningfulness through meditation. Roughly divided, Harris, Comte-Sponville, and Fausnight represent an inwardly oriented atheistic spirituality, where transcendent experiences have a key role. In turn, Dawkins, De Botton, and Epstein represent an outwardly oriented atheistic spirituality, where the focus is more on the objective world, communality, and/or solving the problems of society. In all the research materials, the self-transcendence values in Schwartz s model such as universalism and benevolence are highlighted. Everyone also emphasizes the value of self-direction, which is typical of current secular spirituality except de Botton, who accentuates tradition and conformity more, which are typical values in traditional religion. The study provides new information about atheistic spirituality and offers theoretical perspectives to examine this rarely studied phenomenon in more detail. It also enables disentangling the tension between atheism and religion typical of the current Western debate.