Humanistinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Rundgren, Heta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Situated at the intersection between comparative literature and gender studies, this dissertation theorizes what I term the postnormâle novel. It deploys readings of four contemporary European novels along with a corpus of literary and feminist theory. The novels include Doris Lessing s The Golden Notebook (1962), Märta Tikkanen's Manrape (1975), Stieg Larsson's Millenium trilogy or The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2005-2007) and Virginie Despentes's Apocalypse baby (2010). My analysis of these texts examines the way in which the postnormâle novel reclaims social discourses of sexual difference for a mass audience while subtly displacing realist conventions in order to inscribe women s or lesbians experience of sexual conflict into the text. A four step process is used to study the work. First, I anchor the novels to a realist real , and study the function of detail within the postnormâle aesthetic. Then I chart the sociogram feminism in the novels and their reception. Thirdly, I read the narrative of what I call counter-rape , and lastly the inscription of woman-desire and the figuration the constitution even of entr elles, a feminist space. The perspective of my study is postmodern, which implies a suspension but not a disbelief of the twofold question of literary status and literary evaluation, in order to focus on texts in their contexts. In this process, I aim to rethink the link between the notions of the feminine and the queer in light of contemporary feminist and lesbian perspectives.
  • Styrman, Avril (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation introduces economical unification as a method of analysis and shows how it is applied in dealing with some topics that are central in contemporary philosophy. The method resembles a production line that consists of three successive elements which are interconnected in two stages: Economy > Ontology > Applications In the first stage, an economically unified ontology is explicated by applying the principle of economy, which is an evaluation criterion of alternative ontologies. An economically unified ontology is an empirically sufficient, metaphysically minimal and generally virtuous world-view or a belief system of a human being. In the second stage everything else is dealt with in terms of the ontology. The central argument is that economical unification is a more progressive method than plain conceptual analysis which proceeds in the absence of an economically unified ontology and without the principle of economy. Its progressiveness results from having economy as an unambiguous evaluation criterion, which enables explicating a stable and minimal unified ontology which functions as a common base for all topics, and which enables defining and disambiguating meanings of concepts, thereby facilitating their genuine understanding and resolving problems around them, more efficiently than without an economically unified ontology, and without an unambiguous evaluation criterion that would enable explicating it. The progressiveness of the method is substantiated by applying it in disambiguating some of the central concepts that are dealt with in contemporary philosophy such as time, truth and possibility, and in resolving problems around them. The method works: unification efficiently resolves problems whose central source is disunification itself. In other words, the absence of an economically unified ontology is a central source of problems and ambiguities in contemporary philosophy; in economical unification such problems are resolved by removing their source; their source is removed by replacing the absence of an economically unified ontology by bringing it in the center of the analysis. The holistic method that handles special topics in the top-down order by relying on an understandable world-view, is very different from traditional conceptual analysis that proceeds in the absence of an economically unified ontology, and even in the absence of having it as the goal, i.e., without economy or the degree of virtuousness as the criterion. Moreover, the method was formulated in order to systematically overcome those limitations of plain conceptual analysis which result from their absence. Traditional conceptual analysis proceeds typically by investigating isolated topics and various angles to them, but this does not manage to interconnect the isolated topics and thus does not resolve problems which are due to the isolation itself. It is practically impossible to unify many things by concentrating on one thing only, and the optimal rate of progress in philosophy and in science in general cannot be achieved if the analysis is limited into investigating isolated fragments. In order to achieve the optimal rate of progress, unification is needed in counterbalancing specialization. By looking at many individual pieces together, one can start streamlining them into a functional totality. In this process much is revealed about what kinds of parts are needed in the totality and what are not. The totality consists of interrelated parts, but in economical unification the overall picture of reality guides the development of its parts at least as strongly as the requirements for the parts guide the development of the totality. Economical unification can thus be seen merely as the project getting hold of the natural order where the totality and its parts interact, and whose alternative is to keep on investigating details of isolated parts blindfolded without worrying about their roles in a totality, for all parts that are applicable do have a role in a totality. One can and one should scrutinize any suggested totality and replace it when a better one is available, but not before a better one has been presented. This holds for contemporary paradigmatic theories and for everything that comes after them. This brings the focus to the question of what is the objective meaning of better. The suggested answer is: the more economically unified, the better. The most important starting point in the project of economical unification is the acceptance of the principle of economy or the degree of virtuousness as the evaluation criterion, for without a commonly accepted and acknowledged criterion the path towards consensus is unnecessarily long and painful. The easiest way of accepting economy as the criterion is understanding that its general acceptance would accelerate the progress rate of science, including philosophy: virtuousness as the criterion of theories likely results into more virtuous science, faster than without it. Once we have a common criterion, people no longer have to settle on agreeing to disagree, but people have leaped forward into evaluating which theory is objectively better. Everything can be scrutinised, including economy, but rejecting it without replacing it with a more progressive criterion means that one does not fully appreciate progress.
  • Stolt, Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Finding the final grade - A study of evaluative remarks in grading comments for matriculation examination essays in Swedish as a mother tongue and literature The main purpose of the study is to illuminate evaluative remarks and an institutional interaction in a social context. The overall focus is on qualitatively demonstrating patterns of expression that censors, through attitude remarks, use in their grading of good and excellent matriculation examination essays in Swedish as a mother tongue and literature, as well as how these remarks fulfill an interpersonal function in the grading process. The matriculation examination in Finland constitutes an institutionalized writing practice and the censors can be seen as authoritative graders in this context. Through evaluative remarks in interaction with each other the censors show qualities of the matriculation examination essay or the author of the essay, which they as graders want to bring to light. Theoretically and methodically, the study follows the appraisal system, which makes it possible to analyse and examine rhetorical elements in texts as well as to look at the relation between the author and the reader. In this study appraisal is used to examine the censors comments on matriculation examination essays and the relations between grading comments. The study shows established patterns of writing practices and the result of the study should be seen as indicators of connections in grading comments. The results of the analysis shows that censors in their comments do not express their own emotions (AFFECT) but express values through the subsystems ENGAGEMENT and ATTITUDE mainly through appreciative remarks on the matriculation examination essay. In a dialogue with the other censors, they reference external sources such as standardized policy documents and the teacher s scoring; consensus in their grading is reached by collegial dialogue. Keywords: writing practice, institutional writing practice, grading, summative grading, evaluative remarks, appraisal, censor evaluative comments as dialogue, Swedish with a didactic alignment.
  • Ala-Risku, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The topic of the dissertation is multilingualism, dialect and metalanguage in contemporary Italian fiction. In spite of pessimistic prophecies, dialects have resurfaced in fiction since the 1990s, and a number of authors have chosen to use them alongside and mixed with Italian in their literary works. This research analyses 33 fictional prose works published between 1991 and 2011 by 11 Italian authors who represent the new wave of literary dialect. The corpus contains elements of various Italian dialects (Sicilian, Neapolitan, Romanesco, Lombard, Genoese) and Romance minority languages (Friulian, Sardinian), but also other languages (e.g. Spanish). This dissertation draws upon both sociolinguistic and narratological studies on literary multilingualism, in order to outline the most salient formal, functional and textual aspects of dialect use in the texts. It also makes use of translation studies theory. Authors frequently frame the actual mixture of languages with intratextual translation techniques: the aim is to ensure the reader s comprehension. This interdisciplinary theoretical background comes together in a metalinguistic viewpoint that guides the analysis. Through the narrator s voice, they also explicitly comment on the characters language choices, thus contributing to the contrast between language varieties. Comments and translations can be further highlighted with peritextual and graphical tools: together, these elements are considered side effects of literary multilingualism. This dissertation shows how multiple languages are used in the text torepresent regional culture and dialect community with the help of metalinguistic comments. Single insertions of realia concepts (culturespecific terms) typically fill lexical gaps; longer quotes are recalled to represent oral dialect culture (verses, proverbs). In addition, multilingualism is essential to character construction and composition of the story. Dialectal names and their vocative use in literary dialogue carry important information about interpersonal relationships between characters and their linguistic repertoire. Similar extra-sentential insertions, such as interjections and other high impact terms are used to create the illusion of orality with a selection of identifiable elements. Also, a more profound degree of switching and mixing contribute to the mimetic representation of characters and their voices. The importance of metalanguage emerges clearly from the analysis. Various comments concern both collective and individual sociolinguistic processes. Metalinguistic remarks about language contact, bilingual identities,otherness and liminality are all essential to a more profound understanding of multilingualism and dialect in contemporary Italian fiction.
  • Uusikoski, Risto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The dissertation examines the concepts of tense. There is not and cannot be one true concept for any linguistic phenomenon as there are no "true", language-independent linguistic phenomena. This means that studies employ concepts that differ from each other. However, the concepts should not differ from each other randomly; the concepts cannot be "right" or "wrong", but they can be more or less appropriate. Yet, it is not enough to just build or use an appropriate concept. It is also important to be explicit on the choices made to prevent further misunderstandings and to make the results of the study easier to understand and to compare; the results are always dependent on the theoretical background, yet the composition of concepts is too often too implicit. The dissertation is metatheoretical in its nature: I examine twelve already existing concepts of tense: I have broken their structure down into individual components, which may have several different values. I have compared this theoretical data with a typological data of 193 tense markers from 62 languages and evaluated how each component value affects the possible data, the analysis and the results of any given study (typological or other). The objectives of the dissertation are to make past and future tense research more comparable, to examine how the choice of concept affects the data, the analysis and the results, to help in building appropriate concepts that best serve the research question and to highlight the importance of making concepts and their component values explicit. The work has been structured in such a way that the central ideas are easy to transfer to the study of other linguistic phenomena as well. The results show that carefully considering the concept is indeed an essential part of any linguistic study: Using different component values as a part of the concept results in different types of data that may be more or less suitable for a given purpose. These effects are individually illustrated with the typological data and the studies used as examples. The results also include a detailed list of components and their values relevant for tense as well as an analysis of their frequency, centrality and canonicity in regard to the concepts of tense. The typological data also serves as a typological study of tense in its own right. This means that in addition to addressing the main objectives the dissertation also provides answers to the questions "what is typically considered as tense in the literature" and "what tense markers are typically like". The dissertation also provides methodology for the systematic analysis of concepts in general.
  • Granqvist, Juha-Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    THE HELSINKI BURGHER COMMUNITY DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF FORTRESS SVEABORG (1748- 1808) The aim of this study is to examine the structure and dynamics of the burgher community in late 18th century Helsinki. The construction period of sea fortress Sveaborg, beginning in 1748 and lasting up until the Finnish War (1808- 1809), revolutionized the course of history for Helsinki. In the mid-18th century it was an economically menial small-town with some thousand inhabitants. On the eve of the Finnish War, Helsinki and Sveaborg formed an integrated twin town with nine thousand inhabitants and a blooming economy. Due to the fortress construction, Helsinki does not represent a typical Swedish town of that time. However, the fortress construction turned it into a typical representative of another common urban form: the early modern European military town. The development of the Helsinki burgher community was a mixture of national trends and features typical for an early modern military town. The most notable features are the contradictory developments of the groups of merchants and of lesser burghers, and the relations of the burgher community with the Sveaborg fortress. The fortification works helped the merchants to form a closed profession more efficiently than in most other towns, and thus helped the national trend forward; on the other hand, the lesser burghers, who were on the brink of extinction in most towns, survived and even strengthened in Helsinki by serving the military population. The structure and dynamics of the Helsinki burgher community explain why the town was the home of the most heated municipal power struggles in the late 18th century Swedish Realm, as despite their rapidly growing numbers, the lesser burghers had little influence on the town's politics. The burghers formed an integral part of the army maintenance, as they were expected to keep necessities for sale for soldiers to buy. However, due to geographical conditions, the burghers were unable to serve the military population of Sveaborg without settling to the fortress islands. This caused a series of conflicts between the army and the burghers, and finally resulted in the birth of a new kind of business circle that shattered the barriers between civil society and military society.
  • Sandman, Erika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    My dissertation is a comprehensive grammatical description of the Wutun language (ISO 639-3 WUH), a distinct local form of Northwest Mandarin spoken by approximately 4000 people in Upper Wutun, Lower Wutun and Jiacangma villages in Tongren County, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, People s Republic of China. While the basic vocabulary and grammatical morphemes of Wutun are mainly of Chinese origin, it has adapted phonologically and structurally to its current linguistic environment, where varieties of Amdo Tibetan are dominant regional languages and lingua francas. The Tibetan influence manifests itself in all domains of Wutun grammatical structure, including phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon. This has yielded some phonological and grammatical properties that are unusual for a Sinitic language and cross-linguistically rare, including the size of the phoneme inventory, multiple aspect marking and egophoricity. In addition, there are some grammatical features, such as the paucal-plural distinction and sociative case marking, which represent areal interference from Bonan, a small Mongolic language spoken in the immediate vicinity of Wutun-speaking villages. The dissertation is based on first-hand field data collected during three field trips to the province of Qinghai in June-August 2007, June-August 2010 and June-July 2013. My data consists of approximately 1300 clauses of descriptive and narrative texts as well as conversations that were complemented by elicitation and grammaticality judgements. The theoretical framework used for language description is based on an informal descriptive theory referred to in the literature as Basic Linguistic Theory (BLT) (Dixon 1997, 2010; Dryer 2006). My dissertation aims to detail aspects of Wutun phonology, morphology and syntax, including phoneme inventory, noun phrase, verb complex, minor word classes, clause structure, non-declarative speech acts and clause combining. It also includes an appendix with three oral texts in Wutun. It is my hope that the present study will be accessible to a wide audience, including linguists working on Sino-Tibetan languages, languages of Northwest China, linguistic typology and historical linguistics.
  • Nissin, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Abstract Roman sleep - Sleeping areas and sleeping arrangements in the Roman house The main themes of this study are the sleeping areas and the sleeping arrangements in the ancient Roman house (domus). Sleeping is fundamentally important to the well-being of humans. In order to solve the sleep related problems, it is crucial to understand how sleeping is arranged in different societies past and present. According to the premises for sociological sleep studies, especially outlined by Simon Williams, how we sleep, when we sleep, where we sleep, what meanings we attribute to sleep, who we sleep with, are all important socially, culturally and historically variable matters . In this work, I have pursued a new, cross-disciplinary approach to the social aspects of ancient Roman sleeping culture by applying these premises and asking the research questions, how, when, where and with whom Romans slept, and which factors determined these arrangements, drawing on the evidence from Latin literature and Roman archaeology. Written sources consist of Latin texts which mention sleeping and resting. Texts were chosen by using reference books and electronic databases and studied with source critical text analysis. Archaeological material was collected from private dwellings of Herculaneum, where evidence of beds has survived. The data concerning the material culture and architectonic elements of Herculaneum was gathered mainly from the excavation reports. In addition, I documented the houses during two short fieldwork periods. The data was studied by using the methods of buildings archaeology and artifact studies. The analysis of data was influenced by the theories on the use of domestic space and on the theories of privacy. The main factors influencing the sleeping arrangements in Roman society included the social status, climate, urban culture, need for control, moralistic outlook as well as ritualistic behaviour. Roman households had routine-based nightly activities and very likely also permanent sleeping spaces. However, the locations of sleeping areas could have changed according to season. The wealthiest Romans appreciated the peaceful bedchambers and cubiculum was this separate, even private bedroom of the (elite) domus. Roman sleeping culture was biphasic, consisting of two main divisions: the midday rest and one period of sleep at night The settings for sleeping among upper class Romans were more solitary than social and group sleeping among the members of the elite nuclear family in the houses was not typical. Slaves on duty slept outside the owner s bedroom rather than inside and, in general, slaves had few possibilities to influence their sleeping arrangements. Children were taken into consideration in all areas of life including sleeping arrangements. Night-time and darkness influenced the Roman space use as well; even the Roman night was dark and full of terrors and sleeping had many negative connotations. However, in spite of the negative outlook on sleeping and night, even the positive aspects of resting were admitted, sleep deprivation was understood to be harmful and problems of sleeping were actively remedied.
  • Piippo, Jarna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation examines the current state of tuition of Spanish and Portuguese as mother tongues (heritage languages) in the basic education of the metropolitan area of Helsinki, where the number of plurilingual pupils is rapidly increasing. The theoretical framework is based on U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The research object is approached from both micro and macro perspectives in the light of demographic statistics, official documents and qualitative and quantitative data collected by questionnaires. The Finnish Constitution promotes the preservation and development of all mother tongues; however, the local authorities are not obligated to provide their tuition. Around 50 mother tongues are being taught with a State subsidy. Among the observed municipalities, Espoo has created the best framework for the tuition. The Education Department's centralized practices are the most efficient for information, enrolments, timetables and formation of groups, as well as for teacher recruitment, orientating and training. The biggest challenges for the teachers are the heterogeneity of the groups, the uncertainty of their own post and not belonging to the rest of the school community. They wish the parents had a more serious attitude towards the tuition and their own role in sustaining the mother tongue. The teaching is not systematically planned. The lack of materials could be compensated by digital resources, which would connect the pupils to the whole Spanish and Portuguese speaking world, but the equipment is often incomplete or the teachers don't have enough know-how to exploit it. Even though plurilingual practices would be particularly fruitful for these groups, many teachers prohibit the use of Finnish. Parents support their children's language development in different ways, having succeeded in maintaining their oral language skills and positive linguistic attitudes. The perceptions and experiences of the tuition vary. In general parents considered reading, writing and oral language skills to be more important than linguistic identity, history and culture. Pupils have a predilection for games and play, but they do not feel that they learn in the classes, nor are they interested in the contents. Currently, only a fifth of those entitled to tuition can or want to take part in it. Investigation on mother tongue tuition is almost non-existent in Finland, and the results of this study will help to improve the tuition of Spanish and Portuguese, and also other languages. The most urgent areas to be developed are shown to be the rationalization of the municipal-level practices, the elaboration and implementation of concrete language-specific curricula, teacher training and the commitment of the families. All this would be achieved best if mother tongue tuition were given the same status as other school subjects.
  • Aalto, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The doctoral thesis deals with the history of Finnish medical education from the viewpoint of medical students adopting a professional identity. The period studied is 1933 - 1969. It is a period of modernisation and enlargement in education, as well as scientific progress in medicine. In Finnish society there was a profound ideological change from a national and right-wing atmosphere of the interwar period to the welfare state of the 1960s led by centre and leftist parties. After the Second World War, society changed in terms of structures and political environment, as well as values and norms. With the economic growth the welfare state project progressed quickly. The political keywords of the era were regional stability, centralised planning, and equality. The development also touched upon medical education. When the public health-care system grew, the number of physicians was increased. Aims and contents of education also changed. The research shows that Finnish medical education became more professional, specialised and society-oriented in the period from the 1930s to the 1960s. The medical curriculum was shortened. The practical, clinical studies were given a higher priority. The orientation to society strengthened when more social and preventive medicine and work with patients outside hospitals were introduced in the end of the 1960s and in the beginning of the 1970s. Medical students strongly promoted this development all along the way. The focus of the research is on medical students, who orientate to their future profession under their studies and adopt a professional identity. The research is based on qualitative analysis of historical source material. The main sources are protocols of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Helsinki and magazines by the medical students associations. In addition to the official curriculum, the education has disseminated tacit knowledge about studies, professional culture, and being a doctor. The high socio-economic background of medical students and their inherited cultural capital has made it easier to adopt tacit knowledge, which is seen as being both academic and professional. In the research, tacit knowledge is studied by sketching the ideal image of a physician at different times. In the first half of the century this ideal was a free professional. The physician s profession was seen as a vocation with high moral and ethical values and close contact to patients. In the 1940s and the 1950s, the ideal was characterised by professional and scientific knowledge that was affected by new methods of diagnosing and healing. The growing specialisation also changed the image. In the 1960s, the ideal image of the physician was bound to the welfare state: the physician was a medical specialist and an active citizen in service to society. During the 1960s, traditionally conservative Finnish physicians and their culture was criticised by the younger, more liberal generation. The professional culture went through a profound change in terms of doctors relationships to their patients, colleagues and society. In the research period, the professional culture and tacit knowledge about it became more visible, open, and pluralistic. The profession of a physician has traditionally been among the most highly-respected in Finland. In the research period, the source of this respect was an image of the profession as a vocation with scientific and professional knowledge. However, this respect has also been connected to the role of Finnish intellectual elite that was aware of its responsibility in the development of their country. Despite all the changes, physicians shared the values and culture of the university-educated class. The medical-students associations played an important part in socialising medical students both to their profession and to their academic class.
  • Logie, Andrew (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation comprises a diachronic survey of popular Korean historiography from the earliest surviving supradynastic treatments through to a sample of current day South Korean popular history works; therein the focus is on the pre-Three Kingdoms period, dealing with questions of ethnogenesis and state formation. Part I delineates the premodern conceptualization of ancient Korea, terming it the Orthodox Narrative, the defining characteristic of which was the successful merger and coexistence of both nativist and Sinic elements, popularly symbolized in the Dangun-Gija symbiosis. Part II then focuses on premodern treatments of historical geography, a topic which has gone on to become a core area of modern, post-colonial concern, particularly regarding the location and territory of ancient Joseon and the Han Commanderies. Part III looks at the contemporary popular history writings of the Colonial Era, broadly terming this new perspective as 'Northern/Altaic' owing to its continental focus and utilization of the then accepted Altaic language hypothesis; seeking to distill and magnify the perceived nativist elements of the Orthodox Narrative, its defining revisionist feature was - and still is - explicit anti-Sinocentricism. Indeed, current day South Korean popular historiography, treated in Part IV is found to be still deeply influenced by the two key architects of the Northern/Altaic paradigm, Sin Chaeho and Choe Namseon, whose works can be seen as representing two starting points on the same conceptual spectrum under which most subsequent efforts can be classified: an 'Empire' variant imagining ancient Joseon as both a rival and source of classical Sinic civilization, and a 'Pan-Altaic' variant which utilizes long-range theories in the name of pan-Altaic solidarity. Despite a tradition of rationalist empiricism reaching back to premodern scholarship, the dominant trend in the most visible popular historiography has been towards historicization of mythology; this thesis suggests such a phenomenon can, at least in part, be understood as being both due to the embedding of the foundation myths within the Orthodox Narrative that ensured their survival, and the consequent and continued need for national mythology in the modern era where myth maintains its historical resonance.
  • Sivelä, Jonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral thesis, consisting of four separate articles and a summarizing report, discusses so-called South African AIDS myths also called AIDS beliefs, rumours, misconceptions and legends. AIDS myths have been put forth as an outcome of and a major reason behind the severe HIV/AIDS situation in South Africa. They are proposed to flourish among black South Africans living in impoverished townships and villages. In previous studies, the reasons and mechanisms behind AIDS myths have been understood to be rather straightforward, and it has been suggested that they have a considerable effect on people s behaviour. This thesis argues that the processes and expressions related to them are, in fact, much more complex and multifaceted. The theoretical backbone of this thesis is influenced by folklore studies, which emphasizes the importance of taking into account the nuances of textual and verbal expressions conveying both historical and contemporary meanings of a specific cultural setting. Most of the empiric observations that are discussed in this thesis are based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Xhosa people living in two different townships in Cape Town. This part of the thesis examines the meanings and processes related to the manifestations and possible impact of AIDS myths. The thesis also includes a discourse analytic section that examines how South African AIDS myths are presented in current academic studies. Fieldwork shows that AIDS myths do exist among informants in these two township settings in Cape Town. AIDS-related communication, including expressions of AIDS myths, stems from a specific cultural and social setting, and it is influenced by specific manners of communication and a complex past characterized by apartheid-era legacies. Against this background, AIDS myths can be understood as expressing a kind of cultural and narrative resistance to the disease and its manifestations, as well as to cultural models which impose a certain kind of behaviour and communication. Fieldwork also shows that the impact of AIDS myths on people s behaviour is not as direct as proposed, and that there is a difference between knowing the myths and acting in accordance with them. Furthermore, an examination of the discourse that touches on South African AIDS myths reveals that it includes themes that resonate with derogatory notions of Africa and Africans and are characterized by apartheid-era narratives that still persist today.
  • Holm, Tea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Abstract This history of ideas research views the forming of spiritualism in Finland from the 1850s to modern day. In addition to primary literature the research information has, in applicable parts, been supplemented with information from other sources, such as from period newspapers or magazines. In addition the spiritualistic literature written by a so-called inner circle forms a significant source book for this work. The Finnish Spiritual Society was founded in 1946. The founder and first chairperson was writer and translator Helmi Krohn. She brought the spiritualist principle to Finland from England, and also translated English and Nordic spiritualistic literature from the 1920s onwards. This study is a current view on the subject. In Finland there are very few studies about spiritualism. Previously only Eila Hämelin has published a narrow study called Nykyinen spiritismi ( Spiritism in Our Time , 1968). In Finland spiritualism is a philosophy; not a religion, although a minority of its practitioners view it as a religion. Some Finnish spiritualists also see spirituality as a way of life. From the idea historical point of view, however, spiritualism is a religion, so in this dissertation it has been studied as such. From a spiritual philosophy point of view Finnish spiritualism is spirituality according to the Spiritualists National Union, but without the (spiritualistic) church institute. Finnish spiritualism is closest to Anglo-American spirituality. Anglo-American, i.e. English and American based spiritualism was folksy and experimental spiritualism, while the spiritistic doctrine, i.e. spiritism (spiritual doctrine in Finnish) compiled by Allan Kardec was an attempt at a scientific explanation for phenomena considered spiritualistic. Also modern spiritualists formed their own spiritualistic philosophies, but did not aim to define all spiritualism that could be applied, as did Kardec s supporters. Spiritualism was more of a popular movement, which, based on its nature, took many forms.
  • Jukko, Risto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation explores the phenomenon of intertextuality, which has not been dealt with adequately in all its aspects in translation studies so far. The study analyzes cultural-religious intertextualities in William Faulkner's novel Light in August (1932) and its two Finnish translations, Kohtalokas veripisara (1945) and Liekehtivä elokuu (1968). The study aims at corroborating, by means of an examination of a set of empirical data, the view that adequate translations necessitate, on the part of the translator, a considerable amount of intertextual cultural competence in the field(s) the original source text deals with and that adequate translations thus cannot be secured by the translator s technical or theoretical translation skills only. In addition, the study equally purports to argue, by reference to the two sets of translation solutions made by the translators during their respective Finnish translations, that the religious components of the cultural contents of the novel constitute a set of data which is not fully accounted for in the translations and that the two translations accordingly both exhibit properties or tendencies which are not entirely adequate or even desirable either from a translational or from a cultural point of view. The results of the analysis of the 30 text passages examined in detail are threefold. First, the analysis is able to establish that the Finnish translators of Kohtalokas veripisara either used the Swedish translation Ljus i augusti (1944) as an additional source text or that they edited the Finnish translation according to the Swedish translation. Owing to interference from the Swedish translation, Kohtalokas veripisara therefore exhibits a tendency to downplay or ignore certain intertexts. Consequently, this method cannot be considered an adequate or desirable translational approach as it inevitably entails some losses of pertinent meaning. Secondly, another tendency or property whose presence is ascertained in the analysis is that the Finnish translator of Liekehtivä elokuu has somewhat secularized the picture Faulkner paints of the Southern religion in the original text, thus secularizing some of the cultural-religious intertexts related to the American South. Secularization takes place through what might be called an assuaging effect, i.e., by turning some of the cultural-religious elements in the novel into more secular expressions in the Finnish translation. Thirdly, the study demonstrates that neither specific nor general intertextuality seem to exhaust all the intertextual references needed by the reader-translator. A third kind of intertextuality is therefore proposed in the study, called universal intertextuality. By this term is meant intertextuality which refers to various universal aspects of common humanity, in particular moral or ethical issues.
  • Vartiainen, Turo (Société Néophilologique, 2016)
    This thesis draws together a series of articles on premodifying -ing participles and adjectives in English (e.g. "interesting", "advancing"). The studies are intended to contribute to our understanding of a variety of topics, including the meaning and function of participles and other adjectival premodifiers, their use in different registers, and their change over time. The overarching topic that connects all the articles thematically is linguistic categorization, which is here understood as a process of abstraction through which language users group linguistic elements together according to their form, meaning, function and patterns of use. Some of the articles discuss categories and categorization in terms of word classes (adjectives/verbs), while the focus of others is on semantic categorization (subjective/objective premodifiers) or the categorization of linguistic registers based on the distribution of premodified noun phrases. On the one hand, then, this thesis bears on the general discussion of the nature of linguistic categorization and category change. On the other hand, it continues a series of descriptions and analyses of adjectival premodifiers in contemporary research and the large reference grammars of Present-day English. One of the main findings of this thesis concerns the tendency of subjective adjectives, adjective phrases and nouns to be used with indefinite determination and in a complement role in discourse. This tendency is explained by a preferential mapping between subjectivity and new information, and the correlation is shown to have interesting uses in more practical tasks, such as semantic disambiguation, corpus annotation and the study of semantic change. Another important result is the tendency of degree modifiers to be used proportionally more often in predication than in attribution. These kinds of results support a usage-based approach to word classes, where categories like Verb or Adjective are regarded as emergent schemas that arise from actual patterns of use. The thesis also includes a wide-ranging survey of the relevant philosophical and linguistic literature on categorization.