Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Björkman, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This doctoral thesis discusses the architecture of industrial communities constructed by forest industry companies from the perspective of cooperation and social networks of an architect and his clients between the two World Wars. The forest industry was the forefront of Finland’s rapid industrialization in the 1920s and 1930s. Success was manifested in the built environment. The main actor of this research is architect Wäinö Gustaf (W. G.) Palmqvist (1882–1964), who designed a considerable number of projects for Finnish industrial companies. In addition to the architect, the study also includes clients: G.A. Serlachius Oy and Yhtyneet Paperitehtaat Oy. The architect-client relationship was emphasized in the 1920s and 1930s as a personal relationship between Gösta Serlachius and Rudolf Walden. Serlachius and Walden are, along with Palmqvist, the ones I look at from the close range. More detailed research is focused on the Mänttä and Myllykoski mills. In both of these, the success of the forest industry's economic growth was – and still is – visible in the built structure and architecture of the entire community. Both are now valued as nationally significant built cultural environments mostly through their industrial history. In addition to economic growth, there were sociopolitical reasons behind building up the industrial communities. Forest industry companies struggled to restore peace after the Finnish civil war and to continue their production. I have described building the industrial communities as work where concepts of corporate social responsibility and welfare capitalism were connected. Besides the factories, the companies built housing, schools, churches and other social welfare amenities for the workers. It was a goal-oriented and guided construction where the idea behind the assignments given to the architect was to get the right, aesthetically high quality and beautiful community. In the study, architecture is linked to the political, economic and cultural contexts of time. This research connects Finnish industrial communities to the international models that first appeared in the United Kingdom, Germany and France and the United States. In this study, I refer in particular to the examples known as model communities. The communities have been designed with the ideas of urban design of the early 20th century, such as a garden city and the ideals of aesthetics. The research complements the art historical perspective in the history writing of forest industry.
  • Jurkiewicz-Rohrbacher, Edyta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The objective of this contrastive research is (1) to determine the rules of correlation between the language-specific category Polish Verbal Aspect (PVA) and the elements of Finnish clause, whilst (2) re-examining the semantic scope of PVA, and (3) improving the definition of the cross-linguistically valid comparative concept of aspectuality. The investigation is empirical, and based on 900 Polish-Finnish clauses compiled in the form of a bidirectional parallel corpus stratified in three samples according to text types. The corpus is annotated on three levels, following the scalar model of temporality: the morphosyntactic and semantic clause-internal levels, as well as the clause-external level, including such elements as taxis and the quantificational-pragmatic context, temporally located (existentially quantified) situation, and generic or generalising interpretation (universal quantification). The reasoning in the study is mostly inductive. In contrast to the previous studies on aspect, the work is organised bottom-up. The data is approached quantitatively, using state-of-the-art methods. First, the descriptive statistics of temporal markers in the corpus are discussed. Afterwards, the data is summarised in a statistical model and visualised in a hierarchical cluster structure. Particularly interesting correlations (e.g. tense-aspect or case-aspect) are further validated with the random-forests method. The quantitative results yield a two-layered model of aspectuality, distinguishing between two levels: the outer, temporal-deictic level and the inner level related to the notion of change in time. Thus, the study confirms the validity of multi-layered concepts of aspectuality as previously postulated. As to language-specific results, PVA correlates with Polish and Finnish tenses within the outer, temporal-deictic layer. This interaction involves the third element – temporal quantification. The inner layer is realised in Finnish in the predicate-argument structure, and therefore, the Finnish argument case-marking is the closest correlate of PVA. Here the most important systematic opposition are between the lative and essive semantic cases (including Translative and Essive), and between the Total and Partitive type of object. The notion of change which is the semantically relevant factor is treated as gradable opposition (next to the traditionally used polar and equipollent oppositions), and therefore, the formal comparison between PVA and Finnish differential object marking is possible within the scalar description. The Finnish derivational valency modifiers (transtivisers and detransitivisers), however, do not seem to play any significant role in the marking of aspectual oppositions. Neither do lexical temporal expressions play much role here, as their generally low frequency does not deviate from the frequency of Polish expressions of that kind. In particular, the study shows that the measure adverbials in the object cases are quite infrequent in language use. Therefore, their contribution in expressing aspect is marginal.
  • Lindblom, Jeanette (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of the study is to sketch a picture of female presence in public space in the urban milieu of the Byzantine Empire in the 6th to the 8th centuries. The ideological framework of society is juxtaposed with narrated praxis. Women’s public presence is viewed from different horizons, taking into consideration aspects such as location, occasion and the diversity within the female population, such as the division into social groups and civil status. Traditional methods of historical research are employed. However, the study also takes advantage of various theoretical considerations evolving in the 20th century. A selection of different source types serves to represent a broad spectrum of society. These sources include legal texts, papyri, chronicles, hagiographies and other religious texts, epigrams, and other poetry, as well as non-textual material such as manuscript illustrations and mosaic decorations. The connection between the sources and the society producing them ensures that the broad selection of relevant material reflects cultural attitudes and practices. The study begins with a theoretical discussion and a review of previous research and the relevant source material, followed by an overview of the cultural and ideological framework within which women operated. The focus in the subsequent chapters is on women’s presence in public in four segments of society: religious, financial, political and social life. Thereafter the discussion turns to female movability, gender correlations and the relationship between ideals and praxis, and chronological shifts. Whereas many previous studies concentrate on one category of women, or treat all women as an entity, this study considers the whole spectrum of women in society and the differences in their situations. Although the basic framework of female behaviour was relatively homogeneous in ideological terms, the study shows that factors such as social class, civil status, locality and circumstances affected the way in which women were present in public and how this presence was evaluated by the surrounding society. Further, there was some chronological fluctuation. An interesting finding is the idea of gender symmetry, also displayed in public space. This was at its peak during the 6th century, when the female public presence generally seems to have been slightly more prevalent than in later centuries.
  • Yliniemi, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis is a descriptive grammar of Denjongke, or Sikkimese Bhutia (also known as Lhoke or Sikkimese) (ISO 639-3 sip), an endangered Tibeto-Burman, Tibetic language spoken in the Indian state of Sikkim. The study is based on original fieldwork conducted over more than six years. The theoretical framework is functionalist-typological and may further be characterized as an application of Basic Linguistic Theory. The discussion is data-oriented and aims to describe Denjongke in its own terms. The thesis begins with an introduction to the language and the people who speak it and continues with a description of phonology and an introduction to word classes, suffixes and clitics. The remainder of the grammar presents a mainly functionally-oriented description, starting with phrase-level syntax and proceeding through clausal syntax to discourse. The last chapter on vocabulary and the texts in the appendix provide a cultural window into Denjongke speakers' life. Denjongke is an incipient tone language with 43 consonants and eight vowels. Nasalization and length are contrastive in vowels. The analysis establishes four major word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) and eleven minor word classes. Many nouns and verbs have ordinary and honorific equivalents. Controlled vs. non-controlled verbs occur in phonologically related pairs. Unlike many Tibetic languages, Denjongke does not make a clusivity distinction in first person plural pronouns. There are five case-marking enclitics some of which may be stacked. In syntax, the marking of A argument shows signs of both syntactic and pragmatic control. The marking of P argument is sensitive to animacy, specificity and affectedness. Denjongke has a rich array of copula forms, which mark three evidential values: personal, sensorial and neutral. The semantically oriented category “personal” differs from the more syntactically-oriented Lhasa Tibetan category “egophoric”. Denjongke is a clause-chaining language and has a wide variety of adverbial clauses, which are expressed through various constructions, including ten converbs. Relative clauses are a subclass of genitive-marked constituent-modifying clauses. Denjongke is rich in ideophones, i.e. vividly descriptive words which are semantically, phonologically and morphologically distinct from other words.
  • Castrillón Arcila, Sergio Andrés (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This work analyses the repertoire for solo cello and cello with electronic media from 2000 to 2015 by Colombian composers, focusing on timbre as the main musical element explored. Nevertheless, a historical view on the European and non-European repertoire is included. This thesis consists of two parts. The first part includes chapters 1, 2, and 3. Chapter 1 classifies the cello playing techniques used in the most well-known pieces and studies the solo cello from the 17th century onwards, emphasising so-called extended playing techniques. Such classification serves as a tool for the further musical analyses in this work and as a foundation for the methodological framework in chapter 2, which discusses the notions of timbral modulation, timbral polyphony, and timbral re-signification. Chapter 3 discusses a new timbral development in the solo cello and cello with electronic media repertoire in the 20th and 21st century. This chapter surveys the crucial historical facts that generated a paradigm shift in the cello repertoire. This includes the emergence of different musical tendencies and the work of pioneer composers and performers. The second part of this study includes chapters 4 and 5, where the solo cello and cello with electronics repertoire from 2000 to 2015 by Colombian composers is analysed. The pieces involved emphasise a new timbral development within the repertoire. To summarise, this thesis emphasises how timbre was one of the elements that bifurcated the cello repertoire in the 20th and 21st century. Furthermore, this study describes how progressive composers and performers have deeply expanded playing techniques and the timbre of the instrument, and the exploration and combination of the medium with apparatus, artefacts, and new instruments into new ways of making music.
  • Kirkinen, Tuija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis investigates the skin and fur finds which have been excavated from Iron Age (500 BC – AD 1200/1300) and historical (1200/1300–1700) burials in eastern Fennoscandia during the past 130 years. The research material is unique in Europe, as fur remains usually decompose in archaeological contexts. For eastern Fennoscandian Iron Age research, this study brings new information on the roles that animal skins and wild animals held in societies, which produced furs both for domestic use and for the international fur trade. The main questions of this thesis are 1) How can archaeological fur remains be studied? What information do they provide? 2) What kinds of furs have been discovered in the graves? 3) Why were the furs placed in the graves? 4) What are the recommendations for future research? The research material consists of skin remains from 121 inhumation burials (animal skins and hairs) and 22 cremation burial sites (remains of claws). Animal hairs were found especially in contact with metals. Hairs were also found from the Late Neolithic soil samples in Perttulanmäki Corded Ware burial in Kauhava, which evidences the huge potential of microarchaeological analysis in fibre research. In cremation cemeteries, the predator 3rd phalanges provide evidence for the cremation of brown bear and lynx skins. Animal skins were identified by species by the morphology of the hairs. The method was applied to the identification of species, fur preparation traditions like pulling, and the qualities of origin animals, such as the colour of the coat. In this thesis, morphological identification of hairs proved its usefulness as a cost-effective method for identifying archaeological samples. First, it can be applied in cases that lie outside the scope of scientific methods. These constraints are met when the sample size is very small, when the material is mineralized or when DNA has degenerated in acidic soils. However, most archaeological samples had undergone several taphonomic processes, caused especially by bacterial and fungal activity. This has altered the morphology and other qualities of hairs like the preservation of DNA. As shown in this thesis, animal skin products formed an integral part in burials as grave goods, garments and burial inner structures. For future research on animal fibres, recommendations are made for the handling of finds and samples.
  • Loponen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study discusses the evolution of racialized concepts in the genres of the fantastic, especially fantasy, science fiction, and supernatural horror. It provides the first detailed interpretation of how such concepts are constructed and how they develop based on their interaction with the evolving cultural landscapes, thus showing how characteristics are borrowed from real world cultural stereotypes. The analysis concentrates on fantastic renderings of racialized stereotypes based on real world cultural fears. The concepts are examined both in their source cultures and through the lenses of transmediality and translation. As the fantastic arts have always been heavily transmedial in nature, the study is not limited to a certain art form, but views all media as complementary in producing concepts of the fantastic, either by adding new facets to the concepts, or by changing them on a temporal basis. Contextualizing concepts in the fantastic arts through their linkage to the real world cultural development provides a method through which we can perceive how the concepts are built on – and preserve – racialized stereotypes of their cultures of origin. In order to do so, this study provides a framework that utilizes several approaches from cultural semiotics as well as translation studies. Furthermore, it presents a view of the evolution of the genres in specific media through case studies. The framework is applied to some well-known fantastic concepts (orcs, dwarves, goblins, and gnomes), by mapping their entry into the fantastic arts and examining how the changes in their signifying imagery have affected their allusive links to the real world stereotypes that are (intentionally or non-intentionally) portrayed through them. In addition, translational tools are applied in a case study to examine how racialized features are transported to a new cultural setting in translation. The study argues that the inclusion of properties of racialized stereotypes from real world cultures to fantastic concepts is widespread and that especially negative racialized allusions often survive in texts of the fantastic, even after they have been perceived as offensive in the real world cultures from which they stem. It displays how racialized narratives can change when fantastic concepts inherit properties from new real world racialized stereotypes, and how inheriting signifiers from a “positive” real world racialization can affect the negative properties of fantastic concepts. Keywords: semiotics, fantasy, science fiction, game studies, transmediality, racism
  • Greed, Teija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This doctoral thesis consists of four language-specific articles and an introductory article. In it I investigate evidentiality and related functional categories in four non-Slavonic languages spoken in the Russian Federation: Nakh-Daghestanian Lezgi, two Turkic languages Bashkir and Tatar, and Tungusic Even. Evidentiality pertains to the expression of source of information. This study focuses on the grammatical expression of information source. To gather the data I worked with mother-tongue language consultants, studied language descriptions, utilised digital language corpora and analysed texts. My research concentrated on finding out how evidential meanings are expressed through grammatical means in these four languages, and how evidentiality interacts with other related categories. I discovered that the key categories interacting with evidentiality are tense/aspect, mirativity, person, subjectivity, discourse, and (epistemic) modality. In a number of languages of the world the verb forms expressing tense and aspect have been documented as central for the expression of evidentiality. This is also true of the languages in this study. In all four languages the verb form expressing the resultative or perfect meaning has extended to convey the evidential meaning of inference, or non-witnessed. In three of these languages these meanings have crossed over from evidentiality to the domain of discourse, as the verb form conveying the non-witnessed meaning has acquired the function of a specific narrative genre. Mirativity manifests itself in these languages mainly in the context of evidential inference, with grammatical person also being involved. In three of these languages inference in first-person contexts receives a mirative interpretation, that is, the speaker expresses that the event she experienced was not in her control or in her consciousness. With regard to mirativity, the key discovery of the study is that in Even inference in second-person contexts also conveys a mirative meaning. In my research it became clear that subjectivity, that is, how the speaker or experiencer expresses her own involvement in the processing of the information she is conveying, functions together with evidentiality. In Bashkir and Tatar the evidential quotative, that is, a marker coding a citation, can connect with verbs of perception, cognition and feeling, in addition to regular speech verbs, and together with them express subjective meanings at differing levels. Through the use of the quotative marker in Bashkir subjectivity expands further in conjunction with the verb “know” into multisubjectivity, in which the perspective of the original communicator is conveyed in addition to the viewpoint of the person currently “knowing” the conveyed message. In the languages studied the expression of evidentiality does not in general contain meanings of epistemic modality which would show the speaker’s attitude or evaluation of the message conveyed. Evidential meanings can, however, receive a contextual epistemic interpretation. The key results of the thesis are presented in a figure which depicts both the way the studied semantic categories fit in semantic space and also their interaction. The figure also displays the meanings conveyed by the grammatical markers discovered in the four languages. In semantic space these meanings settle in places where the categories partially overlap, which underlines the foundational idea and contribution of my thesis: the complexity of the interaction of different semantic categories in human communication.
  • Puura, Ulriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation consists of four articles and an introductory chapter that describes the background of the study and draws together the main results of the independent articles. The study focuses on the perceptions of speakers of the Veps language on the importance of the Veps language in identifying as a Veps. Veps is a severely endangered language spoken in North-Western Russia in three different administrative areas. Currently there are less than 3,500 mostly elderly bilingual speakers of Veps. Theoretically, this research falls under critical ethnographic sociolinguistics (e.g. Heller & Pietikäinen & Pujolar 2018). Not only does the study discuss the metalanguage of speaking Veps and being Veps, it also foregrounds language ideologies behind these discourses. The language ideologies in turn affect the expectations about language maintenance and revitalization. Further, reflections of bilingualism and language revitalization are analysed in conversational code-switchings of two speakers from the same family. The data consists of Veps speakers’ interviews from 2006‒2011 and of newspaper material from 1993‒2016 from the only Veps language paper Kodima. The interview data are drawn from two research projects, the ELDIA project and the project the Veps language community in the 21st century. The researcher’s field notes were used as ethnographic background data. The study suggests that although the Veps language has been revitalized and standardized since the turn of the 1990s, the discourses of a common Veps ethnic identity have not reached all the speakers. Language endangerment and shift as well as simultaneous language revitalization bring about partly conflicting ideologies and constructions of language and ethnicity. Two different communities are discerned in the data: traditional speakers living in bilingual Veps villages and Veps intelligentsia developing the Veps language in Petrozavodsk, Karelia. The concepts of mother tongue, speakerhood and language acquisition are constructed differently in the discourses of these two groups. In addition, the official representation of Veps space, spread through the main minority media, the Kodima newspaper, differs from the subjective space constructed by traditional Veps speakers living in the villages. The former locates the Veps mainly in the Republic of Karelia and as part of the (trans)national minority people category, whereas the villagers’ view on being Veps is based on locality. Language standardixation and the purist ideologies behind it are reflected in the level of idiolects, as the micro-study on code-switching reveals. The Veps do not have high expectations for intergeneral language transmission or Veps language education, but they do expect the language to be conserved by the small activist group through documentation and new language products.
  • Pääkkönen, Hanna-Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this dissertation, I research the social realities of Nicaraguan university students and how their experiences are constructed within different social fields. Youth studies in Nicaragua have focused strongly on gang-related violence and reproductive health. Academic youth is often left out of the studies, even though there has been an increased incorporation of young people, especially of the female population, in higher levels of education during the last two decades. The main objectives of this study were to broaden the view of Nicaraguan youth in a changing society by researching the experiences and social realities of Nicaraguan students, and to discuss the questions and contradictions of global and local youth from a Latin American perspective. This study is based on ethnographic material collected in Nicaragua during several periods of fieldwork from 2008 to 2016. The data are, so far, the most comprehensive material on Nicaraguan university level students yet produced. The material was analyzed within the interdisciplinary framework of the social and cultural construction of knowledge and the concept of the life course. Central to this study are the concepts of ‘social fields,’ ‘capital’ and ‘habitus’ as used by Pierre Bourdieu and the idea of the life course, originally presented by Glen Elder, as nonlinear and complex. My results show that despite global influences and global opportunities,, local networks provided the students with a sense of belonging as well as produce social capital. My data shows that despite increased globalization the importance of locality as a source of social capital cannot be underestimated, since according to my results social capital enabled the students in this study to move with ease within different conceptual frameworks. In the light of my material I also note that it is important to consider the influence of social media and virtual space when the reproduction of capital in the lives of the young is discussed. Gender and class are also still relevant in the lives of the students who participated in this study. The students reworked and modified the spaces and places of gender in multiple ways. My results show that the knowledge of the correct manner of discussing gender and gender equality at the university and in the labor market is an important part of adapting the specific social rules expected from a student, while many of the traditional attitudes of gendered division remain intact in the private sphere of life. A central result of this study is the importance of education as a transition rite. Education itself has become a value, and being a student produces valuable social capital. Becoming a professional, as the students expressed it when discussing graduation, is a transition rite to becoming a fully recognized adult member of society. Thus, studying is not just a way of acquiring better access to economic capital or a necessity to maintain oneself financially, it is also an important rite and transition into adulthood; a process of endorsing a new place and role in society, independent of possible labor market integration.
  • Vikström, Tarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Anni Polva was a Finnish author who wrote children’s literature and romantic novels from 1945 to the early 1990’s. This study analyzes Anni Polva’s romantic novels from the late 1940s to the turn of the 1970s and argues that by the end of the period the author name Anni Polva formed a brand. The study examines the Anni Polva brand from the perspective of production process, marketing strategy, the audience, and the critical reception of the works. Brand is defined as a relationship and interaction, that consists of the values, presuppositions, and notions made by its various stakeholders. The theoretical framework is based on the concept of brand, cultural value judgements, and on the market-related issues. In the analysis of the brand's operating environment, Pierre Bourdieu's concept of a field of cultural production is used. The research method is close reading of the texts. In the study, Anni Polva’s writing process and strategy is analysed. The close reading of the novels indicates that besides offering the obvious familiar and harmless mishaps, the stories also built a mythical romantic world where a goal-oriented woman is the actor of the stories, and a tireless heroine of the everyday life. This story structure formed the core of the brand. Polva published one romantic novel each year and systematically built a customer promise of a moments rest in the middle of a stressful every day. This promise was the object of criticism, culminating on an attempt to ban the novels from public libraries in the 1960’s. Anni Polva built her brand from a commercial point of view, and sought good sales. However, Anni Polva's writings and her later recorded author interviews convey a genuine desire to serve and cheer up her readership, despite of the critics.
  • Kekki, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This crossdisciplinary doctoral dissertation in the field of North American Studies utilizes historical big data and dynamic network analysis to study the Japanese American community of the Heart Mountain Relocation Center during their World War II incarceration. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States incarcerated (interned) 120,000 people of Japanese descent, two thirds of whom were US citizens. Half of the incarcerated people returned to the West Coast, while the rest were dispersed across the country through the government’s resettlement program. Incarceration remains a controversial subject in the Japanese American community, and while much has been written about the era, it is an unknown topic to the general public in states that it did not directly touch. At the same time, incarceration reverberates today both in the United States and in Europe in the treatment of immigrants from Mexico or the Middle East. My objective in this study is to look at the manifestation of “loyalty,” “assimilation,” and “resistance” through networks in one of the ten incarceration camps, Heart Mountain in Wyoming. To investigate the different ways and layers of individual and community level assimilation, loyalty and resistance, I have developed a dynamic network model that reconstructs the structure, various types of networks, and their changes in the Heart Mountain Japanese American community during the war. The dynamic network model applies historical big data and network analysis, but it also draws from traditional historical sources and methods. I use diaries, government reports, and oral histories to complement the narrative and support my findings. This type of work is novel in the field of humanities and the study of past human societies, and especially my creation of multi-mode networks depicting relations between individuals and institutions, and those between institutions, instead of only individual-to-individual networks makes this a groundbreaking study. The data resulted in the construction of four multi-mode subnetworks depicting the relationships between different types of actors: administrative-political, employment, social, and geospatial. Each conveys a slightly different aspect of the community, and all layers put together as an integrated network recreates the formal Heart Mountain networks. They show division between generations (Japanese-born Issei to a large extent separated from the American-born Nisei) and genders, and that education was often the key to reaching influential positions in the community. Education was also the driving force for resettlers: those who left the camp in the early stages were either already well-educated or left to pursue college studies. It has long been understood that there was no singular incarceration experience but all too often the emphasis has been on separating only a few lines of thought. What became evident through network analysis in this study, was that depending on the context, a group of people or even an individual could be portrayed in multiple lights depending on the network and the viewpoint. This research project has demonstrated that there is enormous potential in applying dynamic network analysis to historical materials. While life at Heart Mountain cannot be reduced to nodes and edges alone, this study combined with other studies, historical narratives, diaries, and biographies enhances our understanding of this important time in American history that continues to reverberate today.
  • Loorits, Kristjan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Understanding and explaining consciousness has proven to be one of the hardest tasks for contemporary neuroscience and philosophy. First, there is the famous hard problem: why should any information processing in our brains feel like something to us? Second, there is a problem concerning the apparent privacy of consciousness. The content of my consciousness seems to be directly accessible only to me. That intuition fits nicely with the neurobiological conception of consciousness: it is plausible that an organism has privileged access to some of its neural processes. However, it has been argued that we can only talk about phenomena whose defining properties are known to us from the public realm. So, arguably, since we can talk about the content of our consciousness, it cannot be entirely private. According to the main thesis of this work, conscious experiences are fully structural phenomena that reside in our brains in the form of higher-order patterns in neural activity. That position allows us to tackle both the hard problem and the problem of privacy. Regarding the latter, it can be argued that fully structural phenomena are describable and analyzable in public terms even if those phenomena themselves are private. For instance, one could describe privately experienced neurobiological structures by referring to public phenomena with similar structures. The hard problem can be formulated in the structuralist context as follows: although many properties of consciousness are clearly structural, there are some that seem to be qualitative and nonstructural. Those seemingly qualitative properties, the so-called qualia, are at the very heart of the hard problem, for those are the properties that define and determine what it is like to be conscious. In this work it is hypothesized, based on the theory of Crick and Koch, that qualia are the structures of vast networks of unconscious associations whose precise nature can be specified in neural terms. It is suggested further that with the proper brain-stimulating technology, it should be possible to reveal the structural nature of qualia to the experiencing subject directly. The structural view of consciousness rises some general questions regarding the metaphysical nature of structures. In this work, those questions are approached from the perspective of structural realism.
  • Kalliomäki, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Väitöskirjani koostuu kahdesta laajasta tapaustutkimuksesta suur-Kiinan alueelta. Työn ensimmäinen osa tarkastelee Taiwanin pingpu-heimojen identiteetin muutosten historiaa ja tähän liittyviä ulkoisia ja sisäisiä syitä 1600-luvulta saakka. Tarkastelen erityisesti näiden alkuperäisasukkaiden identiteetin politisointia, mikä tapahtui stigmatisoimalla heidän omakuvansa 1900-luvun alussa ja myöhemmin saaren demokratisoinnin myötä hyödyntämällä heitä Taiwanin itsenäisyyspyrkimyksissä. Pohjavireenä läpi pingpu-heimojen historian näkyy saaren hallitsijoiden perinteinen konfutselainen ihmiskäsitys ja siihen liittyvä velvollisuus "sivistää" "barbaarit" ihmisiksi. Työn toinen osa käsittelee Sinkiangin uiguurien identiteetin muodostumista ja vahvistumista sekä Kiinan kommunistipuolueen pyrkimyksiä assimiloida uiguurit han-kiinalaisiksi. Tarkastelen niitä metodeja, joita Kiina käyttää saavuttaakseen homogeenisen ja han-kiinalaisiin arvoihin perustuvan Sinkiangin väestön. Lisäksi käsittelen nitä reaktioita, joilla uiguurit pyrkivät puolustamaan identiteettiään. Kummankin osan aineisto perustuu pitkäaikaiseen omakohtaiseen kenttätyöhön sekä relevantteihin sekundaarillähteisiin.
  • Girlando, Marianna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis can be ideally placed at the intersection of three research topics: conditional logics, proof theory and neighbourhood semantics. The family of logics under scope stems from the works of Stalnaker and Lewis, and extends classical propositional logic by means of a two-place modal operator, which expresses a fine-grained notion of conditionality. The semantics of these logics is modularly defined in terms of neighbourhood models. The research aim is to investigate the proof theory of conditional logics, by defining sequent calculi for them. The proof systems introduced are extensions of Gentzen’s sequent calculus; they are either labelled, defined by enriching the language, or internal, which add structural connectives to the sequents. Moreover, the calculi are standard: they are composed of a finite number of rules, each displaying a fixed number of premisses. The thesis is organized in six chapters. Chapters 1 contains an axiomatic and semantic overview of conditional logics, while Chapter 2 is a short introduction to proof theory. The original contributions to the subject are presented in chapters 3 – 6. Chapter 3 introduces labelled calculi based on neighbourhood models for preferential conditional logics, and Chapter 4 presents different internal proof systems covering counterfactual logics, a subfamily of preferential logics. Chapter 5 analyses the relationship between proof systems by presenting a mapping between a labelled and an internal calculus. Finally, the proof-theoretic methods developed for conditional logics are applied in chapter 6 to the multi-agent epistemic logic.
  • Pekkanen, Jami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis is an inquiry into how humans use their imperfect perception, limited attention and action under uncertainty to successfully conduct time-critical tasks. This is done in four studies. The experimental task in the first two is car following while being visually distracted. The third study presents a new method for analyzing eye-movement signals recorded in challenging recording environments. The method is applied in the fourth study to examine drivers' gaze strategies in curve driving. Using a driving simulator, Study I finds strong experimental evidence that drivers increase their headway to the leading vehicle in response to distraction. This finding is in line with traffic psychological theory and recent car following models and is used to experimentally evaluate quantitative forms of the models. Study I also finds indication that drivers' attention is affected by changes in the headway. Study II replicates the results of Study I using both virtual reality and a real car, and presents a computational model of drivers' cognitive processes. The model assumes that drivers use a stochastic internal representation of the environment for action selection and attention allocation. The model's behavior replicates the empirically observed connections between headway and attention. Study III develops a new method for analyzing eye-movement signals based on segmented linear regression and hidden Markov model classification. The method attains state-of-the-art performance in both gaze signal denoising and oculomotor event classification. Study IV measures drivers' eye-movements in curve driving and finds that drivers seem to track the road surface with their gaze, but can also steer successfully when the road is presented only as sparse waypoints. When waypoints are randomly omitted, gaze still seeks locations where a point would be expected. This result is difficult to explain with current models of steering and gaze behavior, and suggests that drivers likely employ an internal representation for steering. The findings are discussed in relation to theoretical questions regarding internal representations in control of action, attention allocation based on uncertainty and formalization of traffic psychological theories. Some future directions for modeling tasks with more complex control and attention allocation processes are outlined.
  • Ahonen, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The study analyzes the historical formation of the Finnish gambling system with particular focus on non-economic factors related to the legalization of gambling. The development of the gambling system is examined from the perspective of three periods which turn out to be critical turning points in society. Firstly, the start of football pools during the year of the Winter War, 1940, and the subsequent Continuation War, and the “years of danger” at the end of the decade, when the agent networks of Finnish gambling corporations Veikkaustoimisto and Raha-automaattiyhdistys became organizations that monitored the moods and behaviors of citizens, in addition to their other functions. The second period was the rapid preparatory process of the lottery (Lotto) in 1970, a year of turbulent internal and foreign policy, and the subsequent period of strong social consensus development, when playing the lottery became a regular hobby of broad sections of the population. The third period of change was the recession of the 1990s. In the spirit of the liberalization of the financial markets of the previous decade, the range of gambling offered was expanded at that time toward the casino gambling ideal and gambling profits began to be used as a support of the austerity policies during the recession. The research showed that in addition to economic factors, one motive for the legalization of gambling was the nature of gambling, which relieves societal pressures and preserves the prevailing system; gambling was used to calm down the turmoil caused by the aforementioned crises. This applies especially to the first two periods of change, in which the activities of the extreme left were a key part of the societal unrest. From a theoretical perspective, gambling as a phenomenon that relieves societal pressures is examined in the study using Edward Devereux’s view, in particular, of gambling as a safety valve of a capitalist society. Gambling as a phenomenon that preserves the prevailing system is explored in greater depth using the system justification theory of social psychology. A second key research finding is also revealed from the perspective of preserving social order. Behind the scenes, during all three periods of social change the people who have significantly influenced the legalization of gambling or the directing of the use of gambling profits have been male-dominated elite groups that were seeking power; for its part, legalized gambling has been related to the legitimization of their goals and dominance in its own way. Another way of sustaining a dominant position has been propaganda; as a result, Finnish people have been taught to believe that gambling with Finnish gambling systems is a part of becoming a respectable citizen and a sacrifice for the survival of the country. In the 1940s the cadre of men consisted of comrades in arms acting in the spirit of the Winter War; in the 1970s they were fellow veterans united by a spirit of comradery and the ideals of a new direction in foreign policy, “Kekkonen’s men”; and in the 1990s they were the officials and ministers of the Ministry of Finance, sons of war veterans, who admired militarist traditions and violent means of solving problems. The study takes a deeper look at these man unions, who perceived themselves as saviors of society from the threatening power of chaos using the theory of hegemonic masculinity, which explores the ideological construction of male supremacy in Western societies. One of the results posited in the study is an interpretation according to which the strengthening of the gambling monopoly in 2017, which deviates from the European-wide development, can be partly explained by the historical formation and growth of the Finnish system through crises that threatened national existence and a social order based on traditional values. Historically, gambling and the organizations that have implemented it have been closely linked with the power networks that have significant influence on its legalization, defend the social order, and regulate conflict, as well as with their efforts to affect the mood and behavior of citizens. The study makes use of a variety of source material and a way of reading sources that is characteristic of modern historical research, in which interpretation and the researcher’s personal insight rise to complement the ideals of investigating the origin of sources and the factors that influence their emergence. Using diverse source material, gambling is contextualized as broadly as possible as part of the political and economic environment of each period under study.
  • Pohjanheimo, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The crossdisciplinary study examines expressions and enrichment of intuitive and magical thinking, emotions and behavior in magico-religious contexts concerning healing. The theoretical framework of the study is based on recent research on intuitive thinking and dual process theories. Furthermore, the dissertation combines the latest study on emotions, affective systems, flow research and theoretical and methodological findings from the field of the Cognitive Science of Religion. The data has been collected using ethnographic methods among Charismatic Christians and Reiki-healers. The objective is to recognize intuitive thinking in speech and behavior of the participants. Analyzing nonconscious intuitive thinking in ethnographic data is challenging, but possible through the observation of nonverbal and verbal expressions of emotions. In the contexts which support intuitive thinking, it enriches magico-religious thinking. By the concept of ´enrichment of magical thinking´ I refer to increasingly frequent expressions of intuitive and magical thinking in gestures and in speech, which are observable in ethnographic field. The enrichment of magical thinking is both implicit and explicit learning process. I analyzed this process with a three stage model. The first stage observes nonverbal expressions and emotional experience in the field, the second focuses on traditions´ doctrines where intuitive presuppositions are explicated and interpreted. In the final stage magical thinking enriches. Critical thinking is overridden as “ feeling of rightness” directs thinking and magical thoughts become part of everyday life. Experience of communication with “supernatural becomes natural”. The study seeks to answer the following questions: 1) What are the features of intuitive thinking relevant in the process of enrichment of magical thinking in healing context, 2) What are the contextual elements which support intuitive tendencies and strengthen emotions and neurobiological processes to the benefit of wellbeing, 3) How to observe nonconscious, intuitive thinking in the field, and 4) What is it that makes enrichment dynamic? In addition to the analytical three stage model and my own proposed theoretical model of enrichment of magical thinking, I suggest that the dynamic flow of enrichment is enabled by an act of surrendering. Furthermore, the findings of affective neuroscience support observations about the importance of seeking, caring and playing in contexts where healing takes place.
  • Koskinen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The thesis deals with the impact of Kunsthalle Helsinki (Helsingin Taidehalli) on the development of Finnish visual art and on the art field during the term of intendant Bertel Hintze in 1928–1968. The research builds an overall picture of Kunsthalle Helsinki as a Finnish application of the continental Kunsthalle tradition, defines its exhibition profile and opens up a relationship between its exhibitions and state politics. The exhibitions of Kunsthalle are approached from two different perspectives dealing with power and exercise of power. The first one focuses on the relationship between the exhibitions of Kunsthalle, art and the art field, and examines Kunsthalle as a definer of art in the inner battles of the art field. They are dealt with as “rupture exhibitions” through which the art field struggled over the leading concept of art. The other perspective opens up the relationship of the exhibitions of Kunsthalle and the art field to the exercise of political power. It highlights the connections between art, power and politics which are examined as ”state political exhibitions” and as instruments of politics. The institutional-historical thesis is based on a large archive and image material. It combines art history, sociology of art and political history as scientific approaches. The exhibitions of Kunsthalle have been analyzed through a systematic classification,through contemporary art criticism and as case studies. Theoretically the thesis is based on Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory which emphasizes the power struggles and the structure of the art field. Bourdieu’s theory has been applied by Michael Grenfell and Cheryl Hardy’s analytical model of art institutions. The exhibitions of Kunsthalle have been compared to those of Atheneum Art Museum. The exhibition profile of Kunsthalle emphasized contemporary art, internationality, and versatility. The tension between national and international art, and disputes over modernism, positioned Kunsthalle as the most important exhibition organizer and definer of visual art in Helsinki during the 1930s and 1950s. Intendant Bertel Hintze and his permissive concept of art fundamentally influenced this. By the 1960s Kunsthalle lost its leading role; as the earlier contender of traditional art, Kunsthalle now found itself challenged by the art field. The research highlights the political dimension of the art field. Kunsthalle acted as a stage for both Finnish foreign policy and also power politics. Its exhibitions reflected politics and its changes. Through the exhibitions organized in Kunsthalle, Nazi-Germany, the Soviet Union, and, during the era of the Cold War, the United States, fought their politico-ideological battles. The production mechanism of these exhibitions reached the level of the highest political leaders in the country. Among these exhibitions many are unknown in art history, and some of them have been erased altogether from Kunsthalle’s records. The research demonstrates that the cherished idea of art and art field as non-political areas is an illusion. The field of political power defined art and interfered in the autonomy of the art field as and when it wished. The political dimension of Kunsthalle Helsinki is not an isolated case: it also concerns the rest of the Finnish fields of art and culture.
  • Piludu, Vesa Matteo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The goal of the thesis is to provide new approaches for the interpretation of the elaborate Finnish and Karelian bear ceremonial’s songs, which were intensively collected in the 19th Century and in the early 20th Century. The study aims to furnish a better understanding of the meanings of the ceremonial taking in consideration the context of folk beliefs at the time. The chapters will cover all the ritual phases, adapting the classic Hallowell’s typology to the Finno-Karelian case. However, each chapter aims to provide some answers to the main research questions. Why did the bear hunt require such a complex ritualized reciprocity? How were the passages of borders between the village and the forest ritualized? How and why were the forest, its spirits and the bruin personalized? Why do many Bear Songs contain references to wedding songs? How did the Christian faith and the rich cattle holders’ beliefs communicate with the hunter’s rituals, forming a historically stratified tradition? The study reveals that the vernacular definitions of the bear’s personhood changed often in the ritual phases: it was the offspring of the forest spirits or a hunter’s relative; a bride or a groom; a boy or a respected elder. On a general level, the bear had a shifting double identity: it was strictly bounded to the family of the forest spirits, but at the same time the hunter emphasized its human features to make the ritual communication easier and to transform the bruin into the guest of honor of the village feast, in which the bear meat was consumed. The hunter’s self could also change in the ritual: in the songs, he presented himself as a mighty man protected by mythic iron belts and shirts; as a handsome and mimetic seducer of female forest spirits, or as a humble orphan who needed their guidance. During the feast, the roles of the women toward the bear also varied: the mistress warmly welcomed the bruin as a guest or groom, but the women were also guided to protect the cattle. The landscapes acquired mythic features and they could be presented as welcoming or dangerous. These apparently kaleidoscopic changes followed a precise ritual logic: they were elaborate rhetorical devices to make the 'guests' – the bruin and the forest spirits – behave or react in certain ways in different ritual phases and to influence their perception of the hunters’ actions.

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