Humanistinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Cederberg, Sara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In this thesis, I have studied the literary debate in Sweden during the 1960’s and 1970’s from the perspective of intellectual history. These decades have proven to be of great importance to the development of almost every field of culture in the western world today, in many different ways. During this period, western students and intellectuals embraced a radical socialist worldview and the Humanities saw an explosive development of marxist philosophy and theory. The European and American youth questioned traditional morals and lifestyles, and artists revolted against traditional ways of creating art, literature and music. My aim is to analyze what effect this international cultural radicalism had on the literary debate and on literary expression in Sweden. To answer this question, I have analysed the literary debate, and formed a new understanding of what the cultural radicalism of the 1960s and 70s essentially was. Unlike previous researchers, who define the cultural radicalism as a political revolution, I view it as a response to an existential crisis. After World War II, the great narratives (meaning the ideologies and stories that define western culture) were questioned by artists and intellectuals who saw these meta narratives as the cause for the rise of the totalitarian ideologies that had destroyed so much of western civilisation during the first half of the 20th century. Instead, intellectuals advocated for a pluralistic, tolerant position based only on the objective truth that modern science could produce. The problem with this position, which denied all values that could not be scientifically proven, was that it robbed traditional culture, such as literature, of its meaning and legitimacy in society. By the early 1960s, Swedish writers and literary critics no longer felt that there was a legitimate reason for them to carry out their creative work. For a period of two decades, from the early 1960s to the early 1980s, writers and critics debated this problem and tried to find a way for literature to regain its importance in modern culture. In this endeavour, they combined ideas from three different philosophical and cultural movements: marxism, romanticism and christianity. In my thesis I have mapped out how and when these ideas entered the debate, and analyzed how they were combined to form a new worldview, which could give literature an important role in modern culture. These philosophical movements were deeply critical of modernity and secularism,which is why I have come to understand this cultural radicalism as a battle between an enlightened, scientific worldview and a romantic-holistic philosophy.
  • Rauhala, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The subject of this research is the skill of knitting in Finland from the late 19th century to the present day. The cultural analytic focus is turned on a craft that has been considered a self-evident everyday practice but can also be looked at as a changing skill with different meanings for individuals and society in the past and present. Skills are learned culturally in interaction with the social and ecological environment. Craft skills are largely based on experiment- and sensory-based tacit knowledge which can be observed in the process of making, as well as in the end products. The main sources of this research are museum artefacts, altogether 110 pairs or single knitted mittens dating from 1876 to 1969 in the collections of the National Museum of Finland, experiences of knitting the copies of museum mittens that reflect the sensory experiences of knitters both in the past and in the present, and questionnaire material collected from 1962 to 1977 and in 2015 and preserved in the Archives of the National Board of Antiquity in Finland. In this ethnography of skill, the knowledge base and interpretations are derived from the verbal and tacit knowledge contained in the research data, of the researcher and the interaction between them. Knitting has been an important skill in the northern climates to make necessary clothing for households and to earn extra income. A knitted textile fragment found in archeological excavations in the Mätäjärvi area of Turku dates from the 15th century, possibly as early as the 14th century. Knitting in Finland was previously reliably dated to the 17th century, so this discovery dates it to much earlier than was previously thought. The discovery also supports the notion that knitting could have been mastered in Sweden, on the Öland island, in the 15th century. Girls began to learn knitting skills at the age of five with the guidance of the women in their family. The oldest knitting technique in Europe is so-called English knitting in which the knitter holds the yarn in the right hand. This technique was practiced in Finland in the early 20th century and it was the way girls learned to knit at home. The oldest museum mittens are most likely knitted with English knitting which is more suitable for making thick fabric from fine yarns than continental knitting. At an institutional level, knitting was considered an important skill due to its practical benefits and therefore knitting was part of the craft education in schools from the late 19th century. The technique taught in schools was continental knitting. Teachers used their authority and institutional power to require pupils to knit in the new and in their point of view the right way instead of using the skill that had been passed on through the generations. As a result of this teaching, the older knitting skill vanished with the last generation of women who grew up before the advent of compulsory education. Museum collections represent power in the choices they make about what is deemed worthy of preserving in the collections and what is left out. The museum collections give a different kind of picture of knitting than the questionnaire material. The colorful Fair Isle knitted mittens form the majority of the collections even though Fair Isle knitting was not an ordinary skill. The mittens were chosen to represent the regional knitting patterns and the tradition of knitting. Many of them were published in knitting books from 1930s onwards and knitters learned the Fair Isle patterns from these books. In rural communities, knitting was considered a feminine skill although it was not solely a craft for women. Attitudes towards men who knitted were twofold. Knitting was mainly considered shameful work for men, as it was seen to transgress social norms. To avoid being mocked or excluded from the social group, some men knitted secretly. On the other hand, men who were forced to knit due to circumstances, for example widowers, were appreciated. Sailors and forest workers who were unmarried or spent time away from their family, knitted as a pastime. During World War II, especially during the extremely cold winter of 1939–1940, the best and rare wool was used for knitting rifle gloves, helmets, socks and knee warmers for soldiers. The knits were appreciated by soldiers and there was a strong emotional bond between the knitter and the user. Women were encouraged to knit for all solders, not only for their loved ones, by making it free to send the knits to ‘the unknown soldiers’. Necessity was turned into a virtue at times when there were no alternatives to exhausting knitting that also caused strain. Knitting in the past and knitting today are different phenomena. In the past, knitting was a mandatory and necessary skill, while today it is a voluntary and enjoyable skill. For today’s knitters, the primary reasons for their craft are the relaxation and pleasure of knitting. Knitting also helps to cope with difficult life situations. Even today, knitters still find it important to make useful knitwear for loved ones, for themselves or for charity. The knitting tradition is still associated with regional knitting patterns as shown in the artefacts collected by museums. On the other hand, the knitting tradition is also seen as an international, cross-border handicraft tradition, transmitted through the Internet, publications and travel.
  • Honkasalo, Sami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation describes Eastern Geshiza, a previously insufficiently known Trans-Himalayan (Sino-Tibetan) Horpa language spoken primarily in eastern Geshiza Valley of Danba County in the People’s Republic of China. The approximately 5000 speakers of Eastern Geshiza are categorised as ethnic Tibetans, practice agriculture, and follow the religious traditions of Bön and Tibetan Buddhism. Adopting a functional-typological framework and following an approach that emphasises linguistic ecology, the dissertation aims to anchor the grammatical description to the various contexts of the language. Eastern Geshiza is currently endangered. Almost all speakers of the language are bilingual: Eastern Geshiza functions as an in-group language while Sichuanese Mandarin, also acquired since childhood, is used for external communication as a regional lingua franca. Knowledge of Tibetan lects and Written Tibetan, however, is low among the speakers. A substantial influx of new lexical loans from Chinese and a gradual language shift towards Chinese among the young constitute issues that will greatly affect both the future shape and vitality of the language. Eastern Geshiza exhibits complex phonology. It possesses an extensive phoneme inventory that contains 8 fully phonemic vowels and 37 fully phonemic consonant phonemes. The language abounds in complex consonant clusters of up to three members. Eastern Geshiza is morphologically complex. The complexity is particularly prominent in verb morphology that is characterised by an argument indexation system based on accessibility hierarchy and a set of multi-functional verbal prefixes that encode orientation, aspect, and mood. Like many of the other regional languages, Eastern Geshiza is also rich in evidential categories and includes the grammatical category of engagement. Typological peculiarities of the language make it an important source of data for typological research. The dissertation is based on first-hand field data collected on five major field trips during 2015-18 with the total duration of approximately eight months. The fieldwork was primarily carried out in Balang Village and the surrounding area, the easternmost Geshiza communities closest to Danba County Town. As its theoretical foundations, the description builds on Basic Linguistic Theory and linguistic typology. I hope that this description of the language’s most prominent features will be helpful in advancing our knowledge of Horpa studies and Trans-Himalayan linguistics together with providing new material for linguistic typology and other branches of linguistics.
  • Holopainen, Sampsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation discusses the Indo-Iranian loanwords in the Uralic languages. The loanwords that have been suggested in earlier research are critically analyzed and commented based on modern views of Uralic and Indo-Iranian historical phonology and etymology. The etymologies are analyzed on the basis of the general methods of loanword research: arguments of phonology, distribution and semantics are taken into account. In addition to the analyzis of older etymological proposals, also some new etymologies are presented. Also the research history of the topic is discussed. The aim of this study is to establish rules for the sound substitutions and bring new light to the relative chronology of the loanwords. Because the phoneme systems of Proto-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Iranian and later Iranian languages were very different from those of Proto-Uralic and its daughter languages, the phonemes of the Indo-Iranian donor languages have been substituted in various ways in the Uralic languages. Differences reflect both conditional developments (different substitutions in different environments) and chronological differences, and it is often difficult to distinguish between the two. Special attention is also paid to the distribution of loanwords and the use of distribution as a criterion in dating the loanwords. Contrary to views expressed in many earlier works, it is shown that the distribution is not a very good criterion, as the distribution of loanwords within the Uralic language family forms a rather complicated picture due to loss of words in some branches. A notable problem is the parallel borrowing of same Indo-Iranian words to various branches of the Uralic family. It is not always easy to distinguish the parallel borrowings from the earlier loanwords into the common proto-language, and in earlier research the parallel loans have not received enough attention, despite their key importance to the chronology of the loanwords. The results of this study reinforce the stratigraphy of Indo-Iranian loanwords (Pre-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Iranian and later Iranian loanwords) that has been prevalent in recent decays. However, it is shown that many of the substitution rules are open to different interpretations and some words are difficult to assign to a certain loanword layer. A notable result of this study is also that many of the etymologies presented in earlier works are uncertain or unconvincing, and there are also cases in which some other archaic Indo-European source is more probable donor language than Indo-Iranian.
  • Hatakka, Sampsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Northern supply security: The functioning of the Crown’s magazine supply system in Finland during the construction period of Sveaborg 1747–1756 Building the fortress of Sveaborg was an enormous project which required thousands of soldiers as construction workers year after year. Merchants of Helsinki could not procure enough food for the market and consequently the soldiers could not buy what they needed. Thus, the Crown had to provide bread, meat and other foodstuffs for them. The aim of this thesis is to examine how the Crown storage magazines were utilised in organising food supplies for the workforce. The study also emphasises the other functions of the magazines. Stores had to be prepared for a possible war against Russia, and farmers required seed for their fields in case of harvest failure. In addition to the accounts of the magazines, the main sources for this study are the letters and minutes of the central governmental institutions. The thesis demonstrates that, unlike many other European states in the 18th century, Sweden had a highly centralised supply organisation. When the Crown bought grain, flour and other foodstuffs, it played an active part in business negotiations. The officials of the Crown also took care of many other functions of the supply organisation: storing the goods in magazines, transportation, and manufacturing bread. The reasons for the relative lack of private entrepreneurs’ involvement in the supply organisation are manifold. Finnish towns were small, and their merchants had only a limited amount of capital. The rich merchants of Stockholm, on the other hand, could not freely take part in the provisioning of soldiers in Finland, because the Crown had a principle of buying foodstuffs locally whenever it was practical and affordable. Magazines were also needed to store grain which farmers delivered as taxes. In addition, magazines were needed in case of harvest failure to prevent grain shortages. Because Finland was blocked by ice during the winter months, it was especially important to have stores gathered in advance in case sudden subsistence crises occurred. The functioning of the magazine supply system during the construction period of Sveaborg reveals how much effort and preparation it took to provide food for soldiers and grain for farmers in the northernmost parts of Europe. The Crown had to take an active part in all levels of the system to ensure that it worked well. For that reason, the Swedish military supply system significantly differed from those in use in many other countries.
  • Lahti, Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The rhetorics of the immigration debate This dissertation deals with online discussions of immigration in Finland. The data of the study is derived from the Finnish online discussion forum Suomi24 (“Finland24”), and the data dates from August 2015, when the number of asylum seekers coming to Finland was growing very fast. The study investigates how argumentation and a shared view of the world are jointly constructed by the discussants. The research questions are: How are different groups linguistically and discursively constructed? What kind of arguments and argumentation strategies are used? How do discussants express agreement and disagreement with other discussants? The analysis focuses first on the construction of immigrants and, secondly, on the construction of other groups, including both the parties that take part in the conversations and other groups that are talked about (e.g. Finns, politicians and media representatives). Whereas in previous studies the focus has often been on the representations of immigrants in different media and political texts, the main focus of this study is on the joint construction of argumentation and the interaction between the discussants in social media. The general theoretical and methodological framework of the study is discourse analysis, in which several linguistic methods are applied. These include the New Rhetoric approach, Appraisal theory, Conversation Analysis and role semantics. The data of the study is from the sub-forum “Immigration” of the online forum Suomi24. The data consists of 117 conversation threads, 2 412 messages in all, written in Finnish. The vast majority of the messages are against immigration, but there are also messages that take a positive stance towards immigration and defend immigrants’ rights. However, not much space remained for deliberative or constructive discussion. The findings show that by the discussants who take a negative stance towards immigration, immigrants are represented and constructed as a financial burden, exploiters, a danger and a threat, and as too different to live in peace with Finns. The findings are similar to findings of previous international studies. The representations are constructed and strengthened by choices of naming, semantic roles and by the repeated presentation of immigrants engaging in certain activities. These representations are used in order to justify the demands to restrict immigration and to justify negative attitudes towards immigrants. In addition to that, different strategies, e.g. juxtaposition, comparison, nightmare scenarios, generalization, as well as the use of examples, numbers and statistics, and authorities, are employed to build arguments. The discussants who take a positive stance towards immigration appeal to human rights and human dignity and try to show that immigrants and refugees are similar to Finns. Moreover, the findings show that the parties of the debate construct each other as stupid and ignorant. This is done for example by using different kinds of offensive and pejorative terms. In addition, the opposing side’s intentions and thoughts are treated as known and certain. Agreement with previous discussants’ arguments is expressed by endorsing, praising, answering questions and continuing previous messages, whereas disagreement is shown by expressing a differing opinion, denying, asking provocative questions and judging the disagreeing discussants. Furthermore, the study shows that ingroup solidarity and a close-knit bond with the like-minded are built, and this is further strengthened by being openly offensive to disagreeing discussants. Even though the results are predictable in many ways, they especially show that discussants who are against immigration strongly support each other and that a shared view of the world is collectively constructed by the anti-immigration discussants when the argumentation is based on presuppositions and reasons that are considered as commonly known.
  • Väkiparta, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In Somaliland, the prevalence rate for female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) renders it nearly universal. An overwhelming majority of girls undergo the most radical type of FGM/C, locally referred to as pharaonic cutting. Yet, there is some evidence on a shift towards less radical types, locally labelled sunnah cutting. Amongst international institutions, researchers and activists engaged in preventing FGM/C, the practice is increasingly conceptualised as a human rights violation and as a form of gender discrimination. It is now argued that challenging stereotypes about gender power structures will pave the way for abandoning the practice. Simultaneously, researchers and activists urge men to voice their opinions about the practice. This research provides a deeper understanding of the engagement of young men in the prevention of FGM/C, but it also critically examines men’s engagement. Focusing on discursive practices, I examine how young men engaged in preventing FGM/C in Somaliland discursively negotiate violence against women, gender norms, and the gender order. I also explore whether these negotiations are on the one hand, consistent with those goals related to deconstructing the patriarchal gender regime and, on the other hand, consistent with locally prevailing masculinities. My study is guided by critical studies on men and masculinities and by a critical discourse analysis, through which I address the complex and often hidden workings of power and ideology in discourse. To do so, I collected data via semi-structured individual interviews with 19 university students (15 men, 4 women) who volunteered in a project to advocate against FGM/C in Somaliland. The interviewees employed four interlinked discourses: the righteousness discourse, the health discourse, the hierarchical difference discourse, and the masculine responsibility discourse. These discourses challenge some forms of violence against women, while legitimating others. They (re)produce prevailing masculinities and hierarchical gender order in many ways, but there are also discursive elements that renegotiate prevailing gender norms, particularly idealised womanhood. The findings of this study contribute to theories associated with female genital cutting as patriarchal violence, feminist theories on the workings of power and ideology within a discourse, and theories on men and masculinities. More practically, these findings can inform the design of programmes to prevent FGM/C, which should remain consistent with the deconstruction of patriarchal structures and practices that uphold FGM/C.
  • Ylä-Anttila, Tupu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this work, I examine the education of princesses and forms of female power in the 16th -century through three women of the Habsburg family – Margaret of Austria (1480–1530), Mary of Hungary (1505–58) and Juana of Austria (1535–73) – all of whom acted as regents for Emperor Charles V (1500–1558) either in the Netherlands or in Spain. Great hopes had been laid on Charles, in his youth, as the ruler who would unite Christendom and bring peace. Erasmus of Rotterdam dedicated his Institutio principis Christiani to Charles in 1516. My work asks, what happened when the Habsburg princes shared their power with their sisters and daughters? I argue that female regency in the Habsburg family needs to be considered as a form of queenship. The three princesses studied in this work reflect the changes in the expanding empire of Charles V. At the same time, the image of an ideal queen was evolving. One aspect of the queen-like regency was their status as childless widows combined with a motherly role towards royal children in their care. This, I argue, reveals how they used the regency to resist marriage plans, and in turn, remained unmarried to maintain their regency. This work gives a new interpretation to previous studies that have considered these women mainly as parts of the Habsburg imperial political machinery. Here, the means and limits of female political power are investigated by asking how they acquired the skills they needed for governing, persuading the emperor and arguing their viewpoint. I want to challenge the view of the princesses as exceptionally cultivated women and offer instead a more variable picture of how the regents, with inadequate education for ruling, faced the challenges of governing. The principle of hereditary rule gave the Habsburg princesses unforeseen possibilities as regents. However, all the dynasty's princesses were educated to become queen consorts. On the one hand, I study the influence of the regents’ advisors. On the other hand, I consider the impact of the contemporary ideals on queenship, as well as the influence of humanist thought and religious reformers. Through a case study of these three regents, my work shows how and with what tools the Habsburg women were able to act as alter-egos of the emperor and to adjust to the changing political situations. The princess regents’ correspondence forms the central part of the sources used for this work. The regency formally required the princess only to represent the authority of the absent ruler. The crucial role of the princesses was, nevertheless, to use their correspondence as the ruler’s connection to the region’s government. The correspondence was also their channel for persuasion and influence.
  • Hamari, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study analyses the types and use contexts of ceramic roof tiles in the eastern part of the Roman Empire. Despite ceramic roof tiles being one of the most frequent finds from archaeological excavations and surveys of this period from the Mediterranean area, they have not received much interest in research. In particular, the study of plain, undecorated, or unstamped tiles has been extremely limited considering the volume of material found. This study looks at roof tile assemblages from three different excavations across the eastern Mediterranean from northern Greece and from the environs of Petra in Jordan. Based on this body of material, and collecting comparative evidence from published research, the study builds a picture of the types of roof tiles used in the area during the Roman period. By doing this, it addresses a sizable gap in our knowledge on the typological development and regional distribution of roof tile types in the study area. Chronologically, the research covers a period from the 1st to the 5th centuries CE, coinciding with the Roman dominance in the area. Spatially, it reaches from Roman Greece to the Roman Near East. In this study, methods typically applied in the study of plain pottery have been adapted to this material, namely the study of forms (typology) and the study of fabrics (compositional analysis). Typology is used as the key explanatory tool for the material. In addition, the study uses x-ray fluorescence (microXRF) to analyse the composition of the tile fabrics from one of the assemblages, in order to study the particulars of the production process. The results shed new light on the practice of roof tiling in the eastern part of the Mediterranean, on regional types and variations of tile types in the Roman period, and on societal aspects related to tile production and use. Despite the conservatism apparent in the general forms, the study recognizes potential typological traits in the Roman-period tile types. Moreover, it highlights the regional variation present in this seemingly uniform material. The study confirms that the tile types used in this area are derivatives of earlier eastern types, rather than emulations of Roman types, and an adherence to the use of the specific combinations of pan and cover tiles that originally defined the early Greek tile systems (Laconian, Corinthian, and hybrid) continues throughout the period under study. The data underlying the research does not currently allow for the development of full regional typologies, but a preliminary hypothesis is formed about the tile regions in the study area for the Roman period. Three separate macro regions are identified, based on the types of tile used, corresponding roughly to Roman Greece, Roman Asia Minor, and the Roman Near East. In addition to defining tile regions and types, the study reveals a large variation in the use contexts of roof tiles in this area during the Roman period, which is reflected in the presence and frequency of tiles in the archaeological landscape. In summary, while frequent in the Greek archaeological record of the Roman period, ceramic tile has a very low to minimal penetration into the Roman-period countryside of the Near East, in particular in southern Levant. In this area, tile use contexts are limited to public urban and grander domestic architecture. The results clearly indicate that with improved documentation of tile assemblages, valuable new data would become available for archaeological research in this area.
  • Holm, Sophie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    During the 1740s, the War of the Austrian Succession influenced the foreign policy of many European countries. The Swedish Diet of 1746–1747 dealt with different alliance options, resulting in the diplomatic corps to engage more actively in government affairs in Stockholm. This dissertation examines diplomacy as a social practice created by individual agents by focusing on the relationship between diplomacy, opinions, and everyday conflicts. The study builds on previous research on early-modern diplomacy, public opinion and foreign envoys in Sweden during the Age of Liberty. Contrary to studies highlighting foreign influence on Swedish politics, it focuses on influence in the opposite direction by discussing how local politics influenced the diplomatic agency of different embassies. The theoretical framework builds on the notion of early-modern diplomatic agents as an epistemic community with a shared set of norms and the notion that early-modern society was characterized by competing normative systems. The study addresses three questions. First, and building on ideas of parallel diplomatic cultures in Europe, I examine Stockholm as a diplomatic arena. Second, following the notion of normative competition, I examine the norms defining the social scope of diplomacy. Finally, I discuss the mechanisms behind diplomats’ management of opinion and conflict. Methodologically, the study is influenced by new diplomatic history. The perspective is actor-centred, focusing on the actions of individual diplomats rather than state interests on the macro level. The sources come largely from the British, Danish and French embassies in Stockholm and the Swedish authorities. I show that Stockholm, as a diplomatic arena, was a shared experience that nonetheless contained diverging elements for the envoys in the city. This confirms the need for taking local and regional characteristics of early-modern European diplomatic cultures into consideration. I further highlight several norms underlying diplomatic practice. Envoys were supposed to fulfil expectations of diplomatic cooperation, impartial behaviour in public, social obligations at court and at the embassy, as well as discretion and abstinence in relation to political debates and rumours amongst the public. In all, I demonstrate that the diplomatic conflict which took place during 1747-1748 in Stockholm was a result of tensions around these norms, but also the result of an accumulation of conflict within the diplomatic everyday life and the political situation in the Swedish capital.
  • Tiikkaja, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Paired Opposites: The Development of Einojuhani Rautavaara’s Harmonic Practices studies the music of the Finnish composer Einojuhani Rautavaara (1928–2016). The focus of this work is on Rautavaara’s preferences in writing harmonic motions. The main aim of the work is to investigate those aspects of Rautavaara’s harmonic practices that remained invariant, or at least relatively invariant, throughout his career. Rautavaara used various composing techniques in his long career and embraced many different aesthetic attitudes, but this study shows a common vein running through his music in most of its stylistic phases. Among the works studied are compositions from six decades of Rautavaara’s career, from the late 1940s to mid-1990s, by which time he can be considered to have reached a synthesis of all his previous stylistic phases. Most of Rautavaara’s music is based on tertian harmonies. Accordingly, it may be tempting to analyze his œuvre with tools designed for tonal music. However, Rautavaara very rarely employed tonal functions. Therefore, tonal cadences are replaced by various other means of regulating harmonic tension and release. The present study investigates Rautavaara’s harmonic practices with a tool called the Harmonic Circle, a ­<3, 4> compound interval cycle that can be used to trace tertian harmonies but does not imply functional tonality––even though, as the study shows, tonal music can also be analyzed with the Harmonic Circle. Analytic tools from the neo-Riemannian analytic tradition are also used to investigate harmonic motion in Rautavaara’s music. The Harmonic Circle provides insights into serial music, at least of the kind written by Rautavaara, where the hexachords of twelve-tone rows often create distinct harmonic areas. This study shows that it is the contrast of such harmonic areas that Rautavaara often manipulates in his music, serial or otherwise, to control harmonic tension and release. The notion of harmonic areas in Rautavaara’s music is associated with the principles of symmetry. Symmetries are explored in the study from both aesthetic and technical perspectives. For Rautavaara, symmetry was a way of regulating tone materials, and he associated symmetries with mandalas––circular diagrams that are used as meditational aids in Buddhism and Hinduism. On a purely technical level, he drew parallels between mandalas and serialism, as he saw twelve-tone composing as a way of controlling post-tonal harmony, much like concentrating on a mandala focuses a meditating person’s thoughts. Significantly, Rautavaara was prone to using symmetrical twelve-tone rows. After his first serial period (1957–1965), he sought to employ similar symmetrical structures and tone materials in his non-serial, neo­romantic music as well, in a stylistic phase which lasted for nearly 20 years, from 1967 to 1985. In his last period (1985–2016), he succeeded in fusing together serial writing with neoromantic timbres. His fondness of symmetries can also be seen to extend to his whole production; his habit of alluding to and quoting from his own previous compositions amounts to œuvre-wide symmetry, as motifs and themes from various earlier stages of his career keep reappearing in later compositions.
  • Vanhanen, Santeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Better knowledge of cultivation and plant gathering enables a deeper understanding of prehistoric societies. People-plant interactions have resulted in the creation of human ecological niches and, over time, people began to increasingly gain their subsistence from productive economies. However, in Finland prehistoric cultivation and plant gathering remain poorly understood. What plants were gathered during the prehistoric period, and how would they have been used? When do the first signs of cultivation occur, and where did it originate from? How did cultivation develop after its introduction? This study reviews and expands on archaeobotanical data on cultivation and plant gathering in Finland. The aim is to provide a long-term perspective of plant-people interactions in the area. Such knowledge is valuable for scholars studying prehistoric societies, plant use and agricultural history. The primary method employed in this study is the archaeobotanical analysis of plant macrofossils. This method enables species-level identifications of plant remains found at archaeological sites. In this study, such plant remains were retrieved from flotation samples gathered at archaeological sites in Finland and Sweden. Altogether, approximately 800 samples were studied. In addition, several remains of plants were directly accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dated, thus enabling an absolute chronology for these particular remains. Secondary methods employed in the study include the anthracological analysis of wood charcoal, ethnography and geochemistry. A review of charred and waterlogged plant remains from the Stone Age in Finland show that numerous wild plants were collected. During the Holocene thermal maximum, hazel and water chestnut grew further north than today. Wild plants were used throughout Finland during the Stone Age, although the number of taxa diminished northwards. Use of starch-rich plants, such as water-lilies, appears to have decreased after the onset of agriculture. The earliest macrofossil remains of cultivated plants in Finland, naked barley and naked wheat, were found at Pitted Ware Culture sites on the Åland Islands. Radiocarbon dates show that these remains date from the years 3300–2500 cal BC. Cultivated plants occur for the first time in mainland Finland during the second millennium BC. Radiocarbon-dated plant remains indicate continuous cultivation of barley on mainland Finland since approximately 1500 cal BC. The early development of plant cultivation is, however, poorly understood. Larger assemblages of plant remains have been discovered during the first millennium AD. At Isokylä, in southern Finland, such assemblages show that barley was the main crop cultivated during the Iron Age, cal AD 200–550. Both hulled and naked barley were cultivated together with other crops. Here, the earliest find of hemp in Finland was discovered and directly dated to cal AD 258–425. The Late Iron Age can be considered as a period of agricultural expansion. The site of Orijärvi shows that permanent field cultivation, with hulled barley as the main crop, was conducted from approximately cal AD 600 onwards. The results of this study have implications especially for studies of prehistoric societies, which can be better understood with a deeper knowledge of their plant use. Plants not only provided nutrients, medicine, fuel and construction materials, but people could even construct their niches by removing or preserving certain plants in their surroundings. The active role of humans should be considered when studying past environmental changes, for example via pollen analytical studies. Cereal grains found at Pitted Ware Culture sites on Åland forces us to consider whether these hunter-gatherers could have conducted small-scale cultivation, possibly even reaching mainland Finland. Cultivation most probably originated from east-central Sweden, where it was first introduced by the Funnel Beaker Culture approximately 4000 cal BC. Later, continuous cultivation throughout the Bronze Age must have had social consequences, and the appearance of numerous cairns might well be associated with an increasing reliance on agriculture. The Iron Age find of hemp at Isokylä might indicate contacts with areas farther south. Remains of ancient fields and the archaeobotanical material at Orijärvi and other similar sites show that field cultivation was conducted in Finland at the latest since the Late Iron Age. These finds call into question whether we can consider slash-and-burn cultivation as the earliest cultivation method in Finland.
  • Virtanen, Taru (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    ABSTRACT As independent topics, translator status and job satisfaction have not attracted very much research before the 2010s. In light of the previous research, the perceptions of translator status have been low among both translators and people outside the profession. At the same time, however, translators would seem to enjoy their work. The present study drew on these apparently inconsistent findings. Consequently, the aim was to examine the perceptions of translator status and job satisfaction among the English translators employed by Finnish government ministries and to map factors underlying these perceptions. The study falls within the scope of the sociology of translation where translation and translators are studied in light of the social context and social phenomena pertinent to the chosen object of study. The main research orientation is that of a case study research design due to the explicit and in-depth focus on a contemporary phenomenon within a clearly defined real-life context. The study is based on two sets of data: the primary set of data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews among the government English translators in 2013 (n=16). The secondary set of data is based on an online questionnaire administered among all government translators in 2014 (n=28). In addition, the sources of research data include statutes, archival records, government reports, statistics, minutes of meetings, and the ministries’ websites and internal instructions. Both the quantitative and qualitative results indicated that translator status in society was perceived to be low by the examined government translators. At the same time, they considered their own translator status at the workplace very high. Some of this difference could be explained based on the status parameters applied in the previous research (income, expertise, visibility, power). However, a thematic analysis of the interview data demonstrated that the government English translators’ perceptions of their personal workplace status was affected by a wide array of other factors, too – such as the level of personal contacts and opportunities for cooperation, work autonomy, and a sense of inclusion and meaningfulness. The government English translators also considered that the level of their job satisfaction was good, that their jobs were characterised by a wide range of job resources and that they were in a position to influence their occupational circumstances through job crafting. The results suggest that qualitative research on translators’ perceptions of translator status and job satisfaction would be useful among different kinds of translator groups, too. Such research could target, for example, work engagement, the sociocognitive processes pertinent to translation, and the role of professional networks. All this would provide wider insight into the factors and mechanisms that determine and shape translators’ status perceptions and job satisfaction and, by doing so, produce new information on the factors that support translators’ physical and psychological wellbeing at work.
  • Ehrnsten, Frida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this thesis, the use of coins in the eastern part of the medieval Swedish realm c. 1200–1560 is studied. The main questions are how coins spread in time and space, what kind of coins circulated and how the ordinary people apprehended the coins. This is analysed through a study of the monetarization process. This process involved a state-controlled currency in the form of minted metal eventually gaining ground in the public economy. This was a gradual change, the use of coins varied in different settings and throughout the whole medieval period the monetary circulation was part of a heterogenous economical system. The thesis deals with the area of modern-day Finland and the former Finnish territory of Karelia. Hand in hand with the expansion of the Swedish realm towards the east a new way of evaluating the world was introduced. The coins reflect changes in the medieval politics, economy and social order. They represented the new power and on a concrete level the coins functioned as a common denominator between the ordinary people and the authorities, formed by the church and the crown. The monetary circulation was also influenced by the trade on the Baltic sea and an international economy based on comparable currencies. This study rests upon both written and archaeological source material. The written documents mostly concern taxation, commerce and trade in land among the higher levels of society. In the material one can find large sums of money and foreign coins of high denominations. The coins in the archaeological find material on the other hand represent the coin use by the common people and the individuals at grass roots-level. The primary use of coins as means of payment was not multifaceted, but in secondary contexts they could get new meanings. For the ordinary man the coins were an instrument, through which one’s place in society was paid for in taxes. Through the trade the coins could be changed to products and as offerings coins were used when asking for absolution from the church. The analysis of the coin finds in Finland shows that the coin use spread from the southwest and the coastal areas towards the inland during a period of c. 350 years. The distribution of coins does not directly follow geographic factors, but different kind of environments affect where the oldest coins are found. In the beginning the coin use was tied to ecclesiastical settings. In the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th century an increased number of coins in places connected to trade and administration can be detected. I addition, many finds from this period can be interpreted as offerings or grave goods, indicating a dualistic use of coins. A more prevailing coin use in all different kind of milieus only emerges towards the end of the 15th century and especially during the 16th century.
  • Silvennoinen, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation examines contrastive negation. Contrastive negation is a cover term for constructions that combine a negated and affirmed element that refer to the same state of affairs (e.g. not today but tomorrow). There are many ways to express contrastive negation across languages and even within one language. In my dissertation, I ask what the functions of contrastive negation are, what forms it takes, and what explains the variation between these forms. I investigate these questions both within one language – English – and cross-linguistically. Previous research on contrastive negation has mostly resorted to introspectively constructed examples and its main focus has been on metalinguistic negation (e.g. not good but excellent). The main method used in this dissertation is corpus linguistics, i.e. the qualitative and quantitative study of electronically stored collections of naturally occurring texts. My aim has been to study contrastive negation as it actually appears in language use rather than focusing on artificially created ideal cases. I complement the corpus-linguistic perspective with interactional linguistics. In other words, I study how contrastive negation is used in casual conversation to create various socially relevant actions. The theoretical framework of the study is construction grammar, which starts with the assumption that language consists of constructions, i.e. pairings of form and function that language users learn from usage by using domain-general cognitive mechanisms. According to the corpus analysis, contrastive negation favours argumentative and interactive genres, such as newspaper editorials and conversation. There are gradient and sometimes quite subtle functional differences among the constructional schemas that are used to express contrastive negation in English newspaper discourse. In conversation, a difference emerges between English and Finnish constructional straregies: English favours asyndetic combinations of a negative and an affirmative clause while in Finnish, constructions that employ corrective conjunctions are used relatively frequently. In both languages, the forms that contrastive negation takes are adapted to the interactional context and function, especially to whether the construction is used reactively or not. In the last study of the dissertation, a comparison of 11 European languages reveals differences especially in the extent to which corrective conjunctions are used in the languages studied. The dissertation extends our understanding of contrastive negation. Instead of metalinguistic negation, which has dominated previous studies on the constructions, the central questions for this dissertation are whether the contrast is additive (not only Finland but also Sweden) or restrictive (not every day but merely at weekends), and whether the construction is used reactively or not.
  • Nyberg, Patrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    My doctoral thesis, Painted faces: The self-portraits of Helene Schjerfbeck, modernism and representation, addresses the problematics of viewing and representation in self-portraits by the Finnish painter Helene Schjerfbeck (1862–1946). It reflects on how self-portraits generate meaning through a dialogue between mimetic representation and the sensory properties of the material surface. This thesis challenges previous interpretations of Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits, which have hitherto been based almost exclusively on the artist’s biographical history. The theoretical framework underpinning my discussion of semiosis in self-portraiture is the critical reappraisal of contemporary notions of modernist painting. By analysing the representational dynamics of self-portraiture, this thesis questions exactly where, within the “Grand Narrative” of modernism, are we to locate the subcategory of modern paintings that continued to embrace mimetic representation regardless of whether the painting otherwise accentuates its sensory surface in the “modernist” manner. Poststructuralist art theory typically characterizes modernist painting as non-reflexive, sensory-driven, oculocentric, and siding with the notion of the subject’s autonomy. This thesis argues that modern painting is not hermetically self-contained, anti-lingual, or oblivious to the context and role of the viewer. Modern painting is capable of generating temporal and spatial effects that transcend pure visuality and subvert the meaning of seeing. This thesis looks at Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits in terms of the dialogue that emerges between the image and the viewer, analysing not only the visual but also the tactile and spatial effects this encounter produces. Self-portraits are examined as identity-affirming performative acts. The overarching conceptual framework of this thesis draws on visual semiotics and theories related to differences and (dis)connections between words and images. I examine the semiotic dynamics of representational modernism and Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits utilizing e.g. Jean-François Lyotard’s concept of the figural. My analysis of the performative dynamics and semiosis of Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits is based on Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalytical concept of the subject and the construction of identity within the friction-fraught interface between the visual and the verbal. Earlier interpretations of Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits have been based on the artist’s biographical history, which her self-portraits are generally regarded as mirroring either directly or indirectly. The existing body of Schjerfbeck scholarship has failed to address the semiotic dimension associated with the painting’s chosen mode of representation. This thesis argues that Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits deconstruct representation, subverting both the figurative image upon the canvas and the parameters of recognizable identity. Schjerfbeck’s self-portraits embody, using inherently painterly devices, the problematics residing within the interface between visual representation and subjecthood. Helene Schjerfbeck has come to occupy a prominent place within the canon of modernist painting. This thesis critically reappraises certain notions about modernist-era painting that have become entrenched in modernist discourse and generally within the legacy of modernism. I contend that the critically subversive tendency of modern painting is evinced in the domain of representational modernism that has hitherto been regarded as a backward-looking domain of art.
  • Slavcheva, Adriana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Academic networks and international academic mobility at every level are on the rise, yet the success of study time or research periods abroad are crucially dependent on appropriate communicative and social skills in the language of the target community, especially in spoken language. From the perspective of teaching German as a Foreign Language (GFL), one important issue is to determine what kind of linguistic and communicative skills and competences in academic German are required of somebody in order for him/her to be able to participate successfully in a foreign-language academic setting and how these skills and competences can be best acquired. The design and the implementation of appropriate target-oriented methodical-didactical approaches and materials for the development of those competences, however, require a detailed empirical research on academic German, also in comparison with other languages. With Bachmann/Palmer (1996), the textual competence can be considered as one basic component of the oral communicative language competence. From the perspective of the foreign language teaching, the use of connectors as cohesion-creating linguistic means is of particular relevance since they often cause difficulties for non-native speakers. Yet, there is still little empirical research on that crucial linguistic aspect in spoken academic language that could allow for systematic language training. One of the reasons for this was the lack of an empirical database. The corpus resources available for larger empirical research on spoken academic German were practically non-existent in the German corpus landscape at the beginning of this Ph.D. project. The dissertation aims at making a first step towards remedying this situation by analyzing the use of connectors in the spoken academic German based on comparable corpora. On the one hand, it discusses central questions of corpus methodology, information technology and legal issues regarding the construction of comparable multimodal and multilingual corpora, based on the scientific research done within the project GeWiss – German in comparison to English and Polish, and thus aims to provide orientation for the following corpus projects. On the other hand, it presents empirical studies on the use of connectors in the spoken academic language by native and non-native speakers of German based on the GeWiss corpus, which are expected to have far-reaching consequences for the teaching of GFL at universities. The results of the analysis show that – in contrast to textbooks, grammars and dictionaries for GFL – verbal connector functions clearly dominate monological academic texttypes and are partly used for specific scientific purposes in academic language. Deficits in dealing with these spoken-language functions in academic communication represent a possible explanation for the general underuse of connectors in spoken academic language among non-native speakers of German compared to the native speakers’ data. This makes it urgently necessary to deal with the specifics of spoken language, also when teaching and assessing the communicative language competence in German as a foreign academic language – in preparatory or study-integrated language courses, in the design of appropriate teaching materials and, not least, in the development of reliable models for the assessment of foreign language proficiency for university access.
  • Aalto, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The data of this thesis consists of place names that include the lexical element ukko as a nominative or genitive attribute. The study investigates the types of sites referred to by these names. The locations are described using maps and spatial data. Particular attention is paid to the elevation of the sites and their relationship to water. In addition, the background of the names, i.e. the basis for naming, is discussed with the help of traditional data stored in place name collections. Distribution maps have been prepared for the most important name types included in the material, and the place name data has been extracted from the Names Archive Collection of the Institute for the Languages of Finland (Kotimaisten kielten keskus, KKK) by using the Namesampo workbench. The survey also includes maps using the place name data of the National Land Survey of Finland. Digital spatial data has been used to examine the distribution and other characteristics of place names, the most important of which are the SMS dialect areas (KKK), the National Board of Antiquities' register (Muinaisjäännösrekisteri), the Ancient Shorelines Database of the Geological Survey of Finland, elevation data contained in the Topographic Database of the National Land Survey of Finland and the Ranta10 dataset of the Finnish Environment Institute. The names containing the ukko element are spread throughout the east and focus on Savo and South Karelia. The three most common name types are Ukonniemi, Ukonsuo and Ukonlampi. Names related to land elevations and forests are also numerous. In the study, the topographic features of the Ukonvuori sites are described by examining the elevation of the named sites and their connection to bodies of water. It was observed that there were a few more Ukonvuori sites bordering the lakes and watercourses than those not bordering on them. The oral tradition of place names stored in the Names Archive emphasizes, on the one hand, explanations of the origin of the name in which the place name element ukko refers to an old man or grandfather, and on the other, references to thunder as a natural phenomenon. There are beliefs that thunder has broken a rock or boulder at a place whose name is formed with the element ukko. The data contains names whose linguistic form refers to the above phenomenon (Ukonsärkemä, Ukonmurtama-type names). The names may be based on traces of the Ice Age or the ancient shorelines: steep cliffs, chipped boulders or special rock formations. In addition, the archive collections include references to not only forest fires but also to the slash and burn culture. Names such as Ukonpalo and Ukonpolttama (‘burned by an old man or a thunder’) can be associated with either the slash and burn culture or thunder as a natural phenomenon. Names containing the element ukko form a continuum in which the naming may be based as well on the concept of Thunder as a mythological force, a thunderous natural phenomenon or an ancestor who has engaged in the slash and burn culture.
  • Junchaya, Rafael Leonardo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Among the research on the different aspects of music education, teaching of music composition has been the less addressed if critically studied at all. Most of the literature on the subject describe personal experiences or promote particular styles or aesthetic views. Besides, the modernist music thought has prioritised abstract models that have lost contact with the listeners’ ability to grasp meaning or contents out of the musical works. The goal of this investigation is to make a critical insight into the practice of composition teaching and, consequently, propose pedagogic guidelines supported by the latest research in cognitive sciences around music perception and processing. The notion of musical form becomes crucial to this task. The research is limited to Western art music during the Twentieth century and it is centred in composition teaching in Peru and Finland. The analysis is done through the study of the specialised literature and from direct observation and interviews to composition teachers. Among the results, it has been observed a lack of common methodology and the presence of confusing vocabulary as well as a lack of teachers’ pedagogical preparation for tertiary level teaching. The proposed guidelines for teaching aim to provide researched tools to enhance the learning and creative processes, considering the listener as an active goal of the whole composition process independently of particular musical idioms or styles.
  • Kim, Jeongdo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study adresses Finnish words that are of onomatopoeic origin, in other words, based on the imitation of sound, but which have a meaning other than sound. Words such as these have been called ‘neutralized’ in Fennistics, while this study uses ‘the fading of onomatopoeia’ as a key term. In Finnish etymological research to date, the fading of onomatopoeia has often been presented as an explanation of the origin of various words, though this is mainly the speculation. The study seeks to develop a methodology to justify fading of onomatopoeia with the following questions: 1. Can the fading of onomatopoeia be justified by the relationship between phonesthemic nouns and onomatopoeic verbs? 2. Can phonesthemic nouns that have undergone fading of onomatopoeia always be considered lexicalized? 3. Can the developments in meaning leading to the fading of onomatopoeia be justified as a universal phenomenon through semantic parallels? This study adresses phonesthemic nouns within six meaning fields ('racket', 'fight/quarrel', 'nonsense', 'shot of spirits', 'watery substance' and 'spinning top'). Each meaning field contains several synonymous phonesthetic nouns. Research results show that the fading process varies between meaning fields and even nouns in the same meaning fields. Some of the nouns have experienced meaning development separate from their verb correlates, while some must be considered clearly deverbal. In some of nouns, the meaning of a concrete sound cannot be found, while in others, the development of meaning can be explained by analogies of phonetically similar words. This study also presents the central observation that the fading of onomatopoeia reflects the cross between cultural innovations, the affective nature of concepts and regular meaning developments. The study illustrates the richness of the morphological and semantic variation of Finnish onomatopoeic words and their dynamic development, which cannot be generalized to certain theories. Taken as a whole, this study provides a new perspective on the development and mechanisms of the vocabulary of the Finnish language.

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