Humanistinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Cheas, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    My doctoral research creates and applies a methodology to systematically measure and compare the proportions of perspectives in world news. By perspectives, I mean news frames and the voices of people affiliated with different political, cultural, and economic institutions (i.e., institutional fields), quoted or paraphrased in the news. My method also assesses the relative positivity (tone) of frames. I focus on American and Finnish world news articles concerning South Africa and Brazil, as these Southern countries prepared to host the FIFA World Cup, thereby receiving global media attention. My primary sample consists of print and online news articles published in The New York Times and Helsingin Sanomat between 2006 and 2014. In their pursuit for more global democracy, South Africa and Brazil, along with other nations in the so-called Global South, have demanded a greater voice in the international public sphere. Building on Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, I examine what the proportions of perspectives in American and Finnish news reveal about the power relations between Southern and Northern countries and the institutions involved. The findings of this research challenge the prevailing claims that the Global South is voiceless or marginalized in Northern news: in both American and Finnish news, Southern sources received between 70–80 percent of total quoting space, on average, to express their views. However, the Southern fields were also depicted more negatively than the Northern fields. I found that American journalists try to maintain a neutral tone: negative definitions of Southern institutions in American news mostly appear in quotes from other Southern institutions and anonymous sources. Finnish journalists express critical opinions toward Southern institutions more explicitly than American journalists. My study also revealed significant differences between the American and Finnish forms of news: While the American news manages to reveal the complexity of the South African and Brazilian situations at the article level, which Finnish news does not, the views in American news articles are not developed as fully as in the Finnish news articles. My study concludes by providing concrete suggestions as to how the American and Finnish forms of news could be combined to create world news that abounds in both depth and a larger quantity of diverse perspectives.
  • Cederbom, Charlotte (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this dissertation is to research the guardian (Sw. malsman) and the guardianship in the Swedish realm 1350-1450, with focus on how this affected married women’s legal capacity. The purpose is reached by comparing written law with practice. The medieval Swedish word malsman is usually translated into legal guardian, which is also the modern meaning of the word. In Magnus Eriksson’s Law of the Realm from 1350 – the first law to apply to the whole realm – it was stated that a husband should be the malsman of his wife once they were married. The malsman and guardianship are therefore frequently used in research on medieval and early modern women as an explanatory model for the gender related hierarchies within marriage. According to this, the husband, as malsman, was his wife’s legal representative, and supposed to represent her in all legal matters. By studying the history of the malsman, in the laws preceding the Law of the Realm, I provide evidence of that the malsman system was introduced into the realm wide legislation through the regional law of Östergötland, in southern Sweden. I further show that the only regional laws in which a malsman, and a gendered legal guardianship over women, even existed were the laws of the Göta regions in the south. In the laws of the Svea regions, in the north, neither the word malsman nor the function of the husband as guardian can be found. Since the Law of the Realm came to be derived from both the regional law of Östergötland and that of the northern region Uppland – of which only the former recognized the malsman system – the new law became an equivocal compromise regarding the legal capacity of women. According to the law, married women were legally able and had procedural capacity, but the husband was still malsman. In order to compare the law with practice, I have read more than 6000 original charters. Based on these, I have created a database containing all the charters in any way concerning women from 1350-1450. The database contains closer to 3700 charters, and enables statistical calculations of women’s de facto actions in a multitude of legal matters. Through these statistics, it becomes obvious that married women could represent themselves at the assembly (Sw. ting), and participate in legal rituals, and that they hence were legally able and had the procedural capacity described in the law also in practice. My dissertation also shows that married women had control over their own landed property, that they were especially active in donations, and that women by no means were passive transmitters of land between men as has been argued by previous research. Women could, and did benefit from what they owned. My dissertation further shows that women, regardless of marital status, participated in legal matters to a far lesser extent than what men did. Even if women had legal capacity, law and legal matters were still a heavily male dominated area. This can, however, not be tied to the malsman system even by the middle of the 15th century. The system incorporated into the Law of the Realm, from the Göta regions, had not spread to the rest of the realm in practice even a hundred years after the creation of the law. The hierarchies within marriage had significant regional differences during the whole period studied here, and a uniform malsman system did not exist.
  • Lallukka, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may result from obesity accompanied by insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation or from the common genetic variants in PNPLA3 (rs738409, C>G/I148M), TM6SF2 (rs58542926, C>T/E167K) and MBOAT7 (rs641738, C>T). These variants increase the liver fat content and the severity of NAFLD without features of insulin resistance. This thesis aimed to determine the following: i) whether NAFLD predicts type 2 diabetes independent of obesity and other known risk factors; ii) whether adipose tissue is inflamed in subjects homozygous for the PNPLA3 I148M variant; iii) whether obesity and insulin resistance rather than liver fat content increase coagulation factor activities and expression; and iv) which factors predict NAFLD and liver stiffness during an 11-year follow-up period. The present thesis includes one systematic review, two cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study. Study subjects comprised Finnish adult men and women. Liver fat content was measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (studies II–IV). The gene expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue and that of coagulation factors in the liver were measured using qPCR (studies II and III). We conducted a systematic review of prospective longitudinal studies to determine if NAFLD predicts type 2 diabetes for aim i). Based on these studies ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD and liver enzymes predict type 2 diabetes independent of confounders such as age and obesity. We found no studies indicating that NAFLD associated with genetic risk variants predicting future risk of type 2 diabetes. A group of 82 subjects were divided into two groups based on body mass index and PNPLA3 genotype for aim ii). The liver fat content was similarly increased in obese/insulin-resistant subjects and in carriers of the I148M variant compared to non-obese subjects and non-carriers of this variant. In obese subjects, the adipose tissue expression of pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-1 was increased and anti-inflammatory ADIPOQ and TWIST1 were decreased compared with non-obese subjects, while these were comparable between carriers and non-carriers of the I148M variant. In study III, 92 non-diabetic subjects were divided into two groups based on insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) and PNPLA3 genotype. Coagulation factor activities (FVIII, FIX, FXIII, fibrinogen and VWF:RCo) were increased, and the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were shortened in insulin-resistant subjects when compared to insulin-sensitive subjects; yet, these factors were similar in carriers and non-carriers of the I148M variant. The hepatic gene expression of FVIII, FIX and fibrinogen gamma-chain were higher in insulin-resistant subjects with NAFLD (n=13) compared with equally obese insulin-sensitive subjects without NAFLD (n=13). In study IV, 97 subjects were examined twice over an interval of 11 years. The baseline liver fat content independently predicted NAFLD and an increased liver stiffness (measured using transient elastography) at 11.3 years more accurately than routinely available clinical and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: Obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance rather than excess hepatic fat per se are related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and a pro-coagulant plasma profile observed often in NAFLD. However, the liver fat content emerges as more important predictor of advanced liver fibrosis than the associated metabolic abnormalities. These data support the view that NAFLD is heterogeneous disease.
  • Saarinen, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study deals with the poetics of the Finnic tradition of oral poetry known as kalevalaic poetry, concentrating on the interplay between verse structure, syntax and parallelism. The research material consists of all recorded texts of the singer Arhippa Perttunen (1769–1841) from Viena Karelia. This material is approached from two perspectives: folkloristic research on an individual tradition bearer and linguistic analysis elucidating the poetic structures of the texts. The first perspective examines how an individual uses and moulds tradition. The second examines what traits and features in general define and characterise texts in this tradition. These perspectives overlap in the process of composition, which is treated especially by recourse to the theories of the Oral-Formulaic School. The kalevalaic tradition is a poetic register, here addressed through two concepts frequently used in contemporary research on oral poetry: the concept of "register" developed by the systemic-functional approach in linguistics, and the concept of the poetic function of language developed by Roman Jakobson. The study on the syntax of the poems takes as a starting point the theory of enjambement in kalevalaic poetry, as expounded by Matti Kuusi. Kuusi’s theory is advanced by refining his rules for enjambement and rules for combining different syntactic units within a line. Parallelism is a very characteristic feature of kalevalaic poetry. Its most distinctive form, verse parallelism, is studied in detail as a syntactic-semantic phenomenon. It is shown how a set of parallel verses functions to create a poetic picture that is richer in meaning than the verses could convey separately. The research presents and analyses all the information available concerning Arhippa. His narrative poems appear to be quite stable from one sung performance to another, but they usually diverge from the variants of other singers. From this it can be deduced that the shaping of each song for the most part occurred when he acquired it. With respect to lyrical and other non-narrative poems, Arhippa seems to have always been able to create new entities from poems with which he was already familiar or from other traditional materials, especially proverbs.
  • Kaislaniemi, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation investigates the multilingual practices of 17th-century English East India Company merchants, as revealed by the vocabulary they used in the texts they produced while stationed in the East Indies. The English East India Company (EIC) was founded in 1600. At first it was a moderately successful trading company, but in the 18th and 19th centuries the EIC rose to dominate the European trade in Indian goods, and then in Chinese tea and porcelain. During this period, it also came to control large territories in India, paving the way for the British Empire to take over the entire subcontinent. Despite the immense economic, social and cultural impact of the EIC on world history, its records have not previously been studied for their language. This thesis breaks fresh ground in this respect, by investigating letters written by early EIC employees stationed at a trading post in Japan, 1613–1623. The five studies forming the nucleus of this dissertation focus on lexis in these letters. Through a study of foreign words – of lexical borrowings from and code-switches into languages like Japanese, Spanish, Malay and Portuguese – it is shown that by charting the use of foreign words in correspondence, we can identify discourse communities of writers with shared practices. Moreover, foreign words can also be used to reveal the linguistic competence of the writers. Two of the studies use methods of historical lexicography and lexicology to look at native English vocabulary. They show that EIC records can be used to trace change over time in lexical fields, which in turn reveals that the EIC had direct influence on the development of the English lexicon. They also show that investigations of hapax legomena can yield insights into the intimate connections between early modern English merchants and contemporary literature on the one hand, and lexical ecologies of early dictionaries on the other. A central finding of this dissertation is that historical linguistics in general, and lexical studies in specific, not only can benefit from multidisciplinary methodologies, but should adopt them as a matter of course. This dissertation shows that a blend of quantitative and qualitative methods is not only convenient, but in fact necessary if we want to draw reliable conclusions about historical multilingualism.
  • Heinonen, Pilvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Evaluation as a teacher’s interactional practice: dimensions of classroom participation This thesis examines evaluation as an interactional practice adopted by teachers in classroom settings at comprehensive and upper secondary schools. The main objective of this study is to analyse teacher interactional activity in terms of evaluation and appraisal from three points of view: 1) the types of linguistic resources and structures teachers use to construct evaluative actions, 2) the role the evaluative activity has in the interactional organisation of classrooms and 3) the types of pedagogical functions teachers accomplish by evaluating pupils in classroom interaction. The theoretical and methodological framework of the study is Conversation Analysis. Teachers’ evaluative actions are analysed as situated interactional practices, which are based on the participants’ orientations and therefore constructed by the participants during classroom interaction. The data consist of 15 videotaped classroom lessons at a Finnish comprehensive school and an upper secondary school. The data were collected in 2003 and 2011 and consist of lessons on Finnish language and literature and history and civics. The analysed situations occur during teacher-led pedagogical interaction. The main objective of the study is to analyse teachers’ evaluative activity as a response to pupil initiations and unprompted participation in classrooms. The study illustrates how teachers construct evaluative actions to respond to and to deal with pupils’ initiations. A majority of past studies have examined teacher evaluations in teacher-initiated sequences, whereas this study offers an analysis of evaluative activity from a new perspective. The detailed analysis focuses on three evaluative types that have specific pedagogical functions: praise evaluation, agent-oriented evaluation and echoing evaluation. The analysis demonstrates how the teachers use evaluative actions as a pedagogical practice to reveal the relevance of the pupils’ actions and to negotiate the limits of appropriate actions in classroom situations. The evaluative action is co-constructed with the action by the pupils. This is evident in sequences where the teacher either relates pupil initiations to the pedagogical agenda or uses pupils’ voice as a resource for evaluation. The results of the study reveal that evaluative activity is reflexively tailored to the evaluated objects as well as to the interactional context that it occurs in, particularly the ongoing pedagogical activity and its goals. Evaluative activity is not only a resource that teachers use to guide pupils’ actions and participation, but it is also used to communicate the limits and dimensions of appropriate activity to pupils during classroom interaction.
  • Tallberg-Nygård, Manuela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study explores differences between intracultural translation (into Finnish) and intercultural translation (into German) of culture- and location-bound Finland-Swedish literature. The key concepts used in this analysis are the semiosphere (Lotman) coined in cultural semiotics and the chronotope (Bakhtin). The research material consists of four novels by the Finland-Swedish author Kjell Westö: Drakarna över Helsingfors (1996), Vådan av att vara Skrake (2000), Där vi en gång gått (2006) and Gå inte ensam ut i natten (2009). All four novels have been translated into Finnish, Leijat Helsingin yllä (1996), Isän nimeen (2000), Missä kuljimme kerran (2006) and Älä käy yöhön yksin (2009), while three of them have been translated into German, Vom Risiko, ein Skrake zu sein (2005), Wo wir einst gingen (2008) and Geh nicht einsam in die Nacht (2013). In these novels the fictive characters’ microhistory runs parallel with the authentic history of Finland. Westö is known for embedding his stories in a Finnish environment, with a special emphasis on the bilingual society, Helsinki as a location, the Finland-Swedish dimension, and the meeting of the Finland-Swedish with the Finnish. Translations are the means of spreading minority literature to a wider audience and of increasing awareness and understanding of a minority. This can be achieved both on an intracultural and an intercultural level. This interdisciplinary study combines methodology and concepts of cultural semiotics, translation studies, linguistics, and literature studies to answer three research questions. The first question addresses the intra- and extralinguistic phenomena Westö uses to create the fictive Finland-Swedish semiosphere in the four novels about Helsinki. I call these semiosphere-specific phenomena, and they include both facts and fiction and can further be divided into four main categories: society, location, characters and culture. These are the main construction blocks of the semiosphere. The next step is to analyze how these phenomena are conveyed into the Finnish and German translations. The third phase is to identify possible differences between the intracultural and intercultural translations. The translation analysis focuses on recognizing what has been preserved and what has been changed in the translations. On a global level the question is how to reproduce implicit and explicit references to the Finnish society, the bilingual environment, and the Finland-Swedish dimension, while the solutions on the local level focus on how the global choices are implemented. The results show that the local solutions that have been applied in the translations into Finnish without any problems, as one would expect, follow a systematic pattern that creates a similar illusion of society, location, characters, and culture as the source text. In the intercultural translation, however, the sociocultural space differs and thus the phenomena that are used to create the illusion of society cause problems in translation. The local solutions vary more in the German translations, rendering a target text that is more distant from the source text thus affecting the style.
  • Belyaev, Ramil (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This research aims to study the integration experience and preservation of the ethnical identity of the Tatar ethnic diaspora in Finland. The relatively small diaspora of the Tatars from Nizhny Novgorod Province which appeared at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries, during its existence and activity has gone from consolidation and protection of religious and cultural traditions, preservation of the native language to full integration into the Finnish society. To preserve its identity the Diaspora took consistent steps on building of constructive inner policy and activity with taking into account of environmental conditions and time. The processes of integration and counteracting to assimilation proceeded within the framework of building the positive relations with the state power, the Finnish community, as well as diplomatic missions of Muslim countries. The research is based on studied sources, as well as on unpublished materials, archival data from private collections, and on interviews with fellows of the Tatar Community. The scientific value of this research is in the relevance of the chosen topic. In recent decades there are the active processes of large masses of people migration in global scale. As a rule the most part of the migrants find themselves in a new environment which different from the mother culture. In these conditions, the following tasks are topical: preserving the cultural heritage of a single ethnic group which forced to stay as a minority and opposition to the assimilation process, as well as the formation of ethnic ghettos. The experience of the Tatar Diaspora in Finland as the positive examples of identity preserving deserves the scientific attention.
  • Breier, Dorothea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Our world has always been shaped by mobility: moving animals and people are crucial for life on earth. Despite this, the overall scale of people moving has changed significantly in the past centuries and decades. The field of migration studies has adapted to this and is no longer only about actual migrants and their seemingly permanent one-way movements. Instead, the perspective has widened and now includes various shades of mobility, both different movements as well as groups of people affected by it. The study at hand provides an innovative approach and a still rather uncommon research setting. It focusses on Germans and their descendants in contemporary Helsinki and asks about the way they (de-)construct boundaries between German- and Finnish-ness, where they position themselves within such frameworks and what personal consequences could emerge from their background and a particular self-positioning. What makes this study novel, especially in contrast to most migration-related research, is that due to the long and intense connection between Finland and Germany the group in question is not regarded as problematic by the majority society. Therefore, their way of positing and feeling of belonging must be seen and interpreted in this specific light. Such a perspective complements the majority of migration studies that often emphasise questions concerning integration of and discrimination against perceived "exotic" and thus "problematic" migrants. With the help of 32 qualitative, semi-structured interviews, the author shows how people with a German-Finnish horizon express their often rather vague feeling of (not-)belonging. Taking the interviewees’ accounts as a point of departure, it became apparent that belongingness depends on many factors including time, place and social surrounding and that it could change several times in a person’s life. The study examines when and how people draw on national categories, only to deconstruct and question them moments later, and furthermore, what impact on a person’s life his/her self-identification could have. By connecting the findings to the relevant literature and to topical issues and discussions, the aim of the study is to emphasise how important it is to see phenomena as part of the big picture, in this case, an intergenerational, societal and historic context. As people’s experiences, emotions and behaviour are heavily influenced by such factors, their understanding becomes only possible when all dots are connected and seen as the inter-connected unit they in fact form.
  • Pietikäinen, Kaisa Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation investigates English as a lingua franca (ELF) in intercultural romantic relationships. The study attempts to unveil how ELF couples succeed in lingua franca communication: What do their interactions reveal about their pragmatic strategies concerning multilingualism, understanding, and silence, and how do they view their language identity? The data consists of 9h 9min of semi-structured interviews from six couples and 24h 15min of naturally occurring conversations recorded by seven couples. I use conversation analysis (CA) throughout, although the interview data has also undergone content analysis. The results concerning multilingual practices indicate that ELF couples utilise their multilingual repertoires frequently and for a range of interactional purposes, but also for no apparent reason. This implies that translanguaging within the speakers’ shared range diminishes in interactional value over time and becomes a habituated part of the “couple tongue”. The frequency of misunderstanding in ELF couple talk is generally in line with previous findings in ELF, but the closeness of the partners is a factor which both helps them understand each other, yet also causes misunderstandings because they expect to understand each other so easily. ELF couples use a vast array of understanding-enhancing practices similarly to ELF speakers in other contexts, but they also resort to extra-linguistic means such as drawing and onomatopoeia. The ELF couple identity is negotiated and shaped by their shared experiences over time. In this shaping process, the languages the couples use, including but not limited to English, become meaningful as the core around which the shared practice is built. ELF couples identify as English-speaking couples, but multilingualism is also present in their everyday life in their language practices at home and with the surrounding community. In their conflict interactions, ELF couples orient to noticeable silences as indicating troubles extending beyond disagreements. In addition to indicating a strong disagreement, withholding a response at a transition-relevance place is treated as marking avoidance of self-incrimination, resisting an inappropriate change-of-footing, taking offence, or unsuccessful persuasion. Applying CA to investigating turns that follow noticeable silences is found to be an effective methodology for examining the local inferences of noticeable silences. In sum, the findings imply that contextual factors such as the intimacy of ELF speakers and their shared history affects their pragmatic strategies; e.g., speakers in family contexts translanguage more freely and use more varied pre-emptive practices to avoid problems of understanding than ELF speakers in more transient contexts. Also, ELF partners identify as English speakers in their own right, and their naturally occurring talk is found to be valid for conversation analytic inquiry of interaction proper. The dissertation attempts to stimulate mutual understanding between ELF research, multilingualism, and CA.
  • Harinen, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The present thesis investigates the sensitivity of the human auditory cortex (AC) to the contrast between prototype and nonprototype vowels as well as between phonemic and nonphonemic vowels. Activations to vowels were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which was also used to analyze the effect of categorical processing on modulations in AC and adjacent inferior parietal lobule (IPL) observed during active listening tasks. A prominent theoretical view suggests that native phonemic vowels (i.e., phonemes) are represented in the human brain as categories organized around a best representative of the category (i.e., phoneme prototype). This view predicts systematic differences in the neural representations and processing of phoneme prototypes, nonprototypes and nonphonemic vowels. In three separate studies, subjects were presented with vowel pairs and visual stimuli during demanding auditory and visual tasks. Study I compared activations to prototypical and nonprototypical vowels, whereas Study II focused on the contrast between phonemic and nonphonemic vowels. Study II also tested whether activations in IPL during a categorical vowel memory task depend on whether the task is performed on phonemic (easy to categorize) or nonphonemic (harder to categorize) vowels. Study III was designed to replicate the key findings of Studies I and II. Further, Study III compared activations to identical vowels presented during a number of different task conditions requiring analysis of the acoustical or categorical differences between the vowels. The results of this thesis are in line with the general theoretical view that phonemic vowels are represented in a categorical manner in the human brain. Studies I–III showed that information about categorical vowel representations is present in human AC during active listening tasks. Areas of IPL, in turn, were implicated in general operations on categorical representations rather than in categorization of speech sounds as such. Further, the present results demonstrate that task-dependent activations in AC and adjacent IPL strongly depend on whether the task requires analysis of the acoustical or categorical features of the vowels. It is important to note that, in the present studies, surprisingly small differences in the characteristics of the vowel stimuli or the tasks performed on these vowels resulted in significant and widespread activation differences in AC and adjacent regions. As the key findings of Studies I and II were also quite successfully replicated in Study III, these results highlight the importance of carefully controlled experiments and replications in fMRI research.
  • Patronen, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how the Orthodox population in Border Karelia, who did not previously have surnames, adopted or were given surnames primarily over the decades from the 1890s to the 1920s. Border Karelia refers to the six municipalities located northeast of Lake Ladoga that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II: Suojärvi, Korpiselkä, Soanlahti, Suistamo, Impilahti, and Salmi. Border Karelia was a stronghold of the Finnish Orthodox church, and it had a population of 50 000 inhabitants in 1939. The adoption of surnames is studied as a part of the Fennification of the culture in Border Karelia, and the Fennification of the Orthodox Karelian population is contrasted with the history of other language minorities in Finland and in neighboring areas. The research material, consisting of 2 357 surnames of the Orthodox population in Border Karelia, was collected from the 1818 and 1820–1925 tax registers of the Salmi region in the Vyborg province. The population of Border Karelia became a target of Fennification due to the rise of Karelianism. The aim was to tie the Karelian-speaking Orthodox population of the borderlands into the central areas of Finland as much as possible. The Fennification began with the founding of the Sortavala seminar (1880) and the newspaper Laatokka (1882). The inhabitants of Border Karelia had always faced East, to Olonets Karelia, but the Western influence increased due to the independence of Finland and the closing of the eastern border. The changes in the Karelian language and culture were observed already in the 1920s. The theoretic part of the thesis examines the status of the Karelian language of Border Karelia by investigating the domains of spoken language and the writers of Karelian articles published in the newspaper Laatokka. The main hindrance to the development of Karelian as a written standard language was the fact that it was not recognized as a distinct language due to political reasons: the languages spoken in Border Karelia and in East Karelia were both considered dialects of the Finnish language due to the aim of the Fennification of East Karelia. Karelian was also not accepted as a suitable language for education. The status and issues of the Karelian-speaking population of Border Karelia, a linguistic and religious minority, can be easily compared to Skolt Sámi: both populations have been targets of Fennification and have not received support, for example, for the development of written standard languages from the mainland. Before 1880 most of the population in Border Karelia were registered in Swedish tax registers and in Russian Orthodox parish registers with only their Russian given names and patronymics; only a few had inherited surnames. The surnames in Border Karelia are divided into ten groups. The largest group is surnames based on hypocorisms of given names that were originally estate names (Reittu) and surnames based on bynames (Löllö). Other name groups include surnames evolved from Russian patronymics (Kononoff), surnames from Orthodox clergymen (Solntsev), various Russian surnames (Komaroff) and randomly assigned or adopted surnames that are similar to surnames in Savonia or Finnish North Karelia. The Finnish elementary school has been recognized as the main factor for the Fennification of the Karelian Orthodox minority in several studies in various research fields. Additional reasons for assigning surnames to the population in Border Karelia were the enclosure carried out in Border Karelia and the independence of peasants in Border Karelia.
  • Karhu, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In this doctoral dissertation, I provide a systematic analysis of the role of social norms in the thought of philosopher and feminist theorist, Judith Butler. More specifically, I investigate the way in which Butler theorizes the relationship between norms and violence in light of her notions of critique and resistance. The key argument of the study is that in order to understand the wide range of topics that Butler addresses in her work—such as gender normalization, the critique of violence, ethical responsiveness, and the biopolitical regulation of life—we need to pay close attention to her account of norms. Although Butler’s theorization of norms has begun to attract increasing scholarly interest, a thorough analysis of the topic has not yet been written. In order to fill this gap in previous research, my dissertation offers the first monograph-length study that explicates the problematic of norms in Butler’s thought. My study seeks to answer the following questions: What is the role of norms in Butler’s work? How does Butler conceptualize the relationship between norms, violence, and nonviolence? How should we understand critique, transformation, and resistance in the midst of norms? What are the ethical and political implications of Butler’s notion of norms? I respond to these questions by examining Butler’s theorization of norms through what I call her twofold understanding of norms. I argue that on the one hand Butler theorizes norms as mechanisms of social power that violently regulate the field of recognizable subjects, bodies, and lives, but on the other hand she conceptualizes norms in terms of the possibility of critical change and resistance. I illustrate Butler’s twofold notion of norms through four key topics, which I have organized into four main chapters. First, by examining Butler’s often-neglected feminist theoretical background in the thought of Monique Wittig, I argue that her conception of the relationship between norms and violence critically builds on Wittig’s argument that normative heterosexuality can be understood as a form of discursive violence. Second, through explicating Butler’s conception of gender normalization vis-à-vis her generally overlooked discussions of transgender embodiment and livability, I challenge recent arguments that feminists should get rid of the concept of gender. By introducing the concept of “trans livability” I highlight Butler’s work as a contribution to trans-affirmative feminist theory. Third, by challenging the general tendency to interpret Butler as a critical humanist, I demonstrate that she puts forward a critique of anthropocentrism that offers insights into problematizing the speciesist norms that uphold not only the human-animal binary but also differentiates between livable and killable nonhuman animals. Finally, by foregrounding Butler’s psychoanalytic account of grief in terms of her critique of norms, I argue that her discussion of the normative separation between grievable and ungrievable lives does not represent a turn away from politics as many critics have argued. I contend that her account of grievability must instead be understood as a theorization of resistance. Taken together, all the four chapters of my dissertation highlight Butler’s theorization of norms as a practice of feminist critique. By elucidating the relationship between norms, violence, and social change, my study emphasizes the close relationship between feminist and queer practices of political resistance and the critique of norms.
  • Auhtola, Nea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of this doctoral thesis is to figure out how and why the caller and/or the call-taker digress from the common communicative task of an emergency call. The communicative task, which both parties engage in, is here also known as a quaestio, a text quaestion, which is to be answered through completed communicative actions. The total quaestio of an emergency call consists of two partial quaestiones: The caller provides information about the incident, whereas the call-taker asks questions to ascertain whether the appeal for help really requires resolution by the police. The materials analyzed consist of 132 German-speaking emergency calls to the national number of the German police, 110. The exact names of the emergency centres, as well as any personal names and toponyms, are anonymised in the transcribed excerpts. This study is grounded on the psycholinguistic quaestio theory. By reference to this theoretical foundation, every text, conversation and single contribution to a conversation rests on an explicit or implicit quaestio or guideline. In some cases, the participants don’t follow the socially agreed main quaestio but rather favour temporary digressive quaestiones. As a consequence, there emerge diverse subsidiary structures, which may bear a distinctive communicative relevance, since they comprise e.g. meaningful background information, personal opinions and other comments. This thesis examines the communicative functions of alternative questiones and differentiates between subsidiary structures which are initiated by the caller or the call-taker, respectively. In their subsidiary structures, callers usually provide additional information about the evidentiality of their perceptions or express their uncertainty. Call-takers in turn mainly inform the callers about the processing of the emergency call. The results of the study reveal that there do exist subsidiary structures aside from the main quaestio in the context of an emergency call. In this manner, the speakers are equipped with a simple medium to communicate essential facts about each emergency, although this further information doesn’t answer the main quaestio. The results of this thesis can be taken into consideration e.g. in the education of call-takers. Key words: quaestio, emergency call, emergency centre, police, subsidiary structure, German
  • Koivisto, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study seeks to draw attention to the lack of knowledge of and the small amount of research dealing with archaeological cultural resources in Finnish wetlands, as well as to demonstrate its huge scientific and interpretative potential. To this end, the study presents a compilation of Finnish wetland archaeological sites, contextualizes and evaluates them with the help of archaeological, environmental, and ethnographic data, and offers an assessment of areas with the highest potential for encountering new sites. The scientific and interpretative potential of Finnish wetland archaeological resources is then illustrated with the help of two case studies representing stationary wooden fishing structures associated with Stone Age fishery sites. The prehistoric fishing theme involves a detailed examination of the fishing structure types and the estuary fishing methods, as well as their contextual circumstances, which provide an analytical framework explicating and illuminating this as yet unexplored archaeological evidence. Finally, the study seeks to further our knowledge concerning the detection and prospection of archaeological sites situated in demanding wetland settings with the help of geophysical testing and trial excavations conducted within stationary wooden fishing structures. The total number of wetland sites has multiplied in the course of this study, even though it is still very low when compared to the extensive area of Finnish wetlands. The areas with the highest wetland archaeological potential in Finland are located in river estuaries, coastal areas affected by strong isostatic rebound, and terrestrialized lakes. Today, stationary wooden structures associated with fishing sites represent the most typical wetland archaeological resource in Finland. The case studies described in this work demonstrate that these wooden archaeological remains yield valuable evidence for investigating fishing methods, technological adaptations, and modes of subsistence among prehistoric populations. The lack of viable techniques for the detection and prospection of sites has been hindering wetland archaeological research in Finland. The most crucial threats to the preservation of our organic archaeological resources situated in wetland landscapes are drainage, peat extraction, acidification, and climate change.