Faculty of Arts

 

Recent Submissions

  • Poutanen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The thesis focuses on representations of organic production and consumption in content marketing in the grocery and alcohol trade, adopting a social semiotic approach. Accordingly, the study examines how meanings related to organic production and consumption are constructed in editorial texts in Finland Swedish customer magazines, and how the senders and readers, constructed by the text, are positioned in terms of ecological practices. The study also contributes new knowledge about texts in customer magazines. Methodological tools are taken from Systemic-Functional Linguistics, legitimation analysis and social semiotic multimodality research. The first three sub-studies concentrate on written discourse, and the fourth sub-study concentrates on both written and visual discourse. The material consists of articles from three Finland Swedish customer magazines, published in 2016 by leading companies in the grocery and alcohol trade in Finland. The study shows how representations of ecological individuals and an ecological community live side by side in the texts of customer magazines. Regarding ecological individuals, it is above all celebrities from cultural life who present the consumer’s voice in the customer magazines. In addition, local producers get a say and have active roles in ecological practices. A sense of a community, in turn, is often constructed by the inclusive pronoun vi (we), with the meaning ‘we in Finland’/ ‘we Finns’. Through the collectivization of social actors, the consumption of organic products is constructed as a social practice that everyone does, or at least most do. The Finnish cultural context is frequently thematized. The representations evoke memories of the past and connotations of an authentic and traditional Finnish food culture. The representations of idyllic farms are associated, by multimodal relational processes, with specific products. In customer magazines, the ecological is frequently thematized, but at the same time, readers’ ecological behaviour is reduced to ecological consumption. Consumption of organic products appears in the texts as a simple and worry-free way to achieve an environmentally friendly lifestyle. In customer magazines, consumers are assumed to have great power to influence the world through their consumption patterns. Customer magazines are often seen as a medium for self-presentation. They offer a communication channel for building an ecological company image. The study shows, however, that the most active roles in the texts are given to the producers and consumers. The reseller between them, the publishing company, remains much more invisible in relation to ecological practices.
  • Bourgeot, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Gustav Shpet (1879-1937) is one of the most noteworthy thinkers in the history of Russian philosophy. Yet he was executed in Stalin’s Great Terror and removed from philosophy books for nearly half a century. Shpet was rediscovered in the late 1980s, and the scholarship around him has since grown, both in Russia and abroad. Especially strong interest has been directed towards his reading of Husserl’s phenomenology. Shpet was Husserl’s student in Göttingen in 1912–14 and published his own considerations about transcendental phenomenology on his return to Moscow. But while he has come to be seen as a pioneer in Russian phenomenology, Shpet’s unconventional interpretation has also raised concerns. According to many, Shpet’s reading of Husserl was founded on a misinterpretation; he is seen as either unwilling to follow the latter’s idea or incapable of doing so. It is also frequently proposed that Shpet’s unorthodox approach may be explained by a certain Russianness at the foundation of his system. The traditional philosophical standpoint in Russia emphasized ontological questions and the collectiveness of experience. It is suggested that Shpet thereby ‘Russianized’ Husserl by replacing his transcendental subjectivity with a collective consciousness. The dissertation proposes a new reading of Shpet’s interpretation of Husserl. It first discusses the Russian roots of Shpet’s thinking and then presents a novel analysis of his "Iavlenie i smysl" (1914), comparing it not only to Husserl’s "Ideen I" (1913) but also "Logische Untersuchungen" (1900–01) and "Formale und Transzendentale Logik" (1929). The study maintains that Shpet not only followed through the transcendental turn but proposed themes and ideas which Husserl himself arrived at in the 1920s. It is suggested that the similarity between Shpet’s and Husserl’s approaches might be traced back to their discussions in Göttingen. The study’s second principal topic is Shpet’s theory of the inner form of the word. After the October Revolution, his phenomenology evolved into a philosophy of language and art. While his theory was known among the Moscow formalists, it was also deemed archaic and unscientific. The concept of the inner form seemed to carry echoes of Aleksandr Potebnia, against whose romantic theory of the formalists fought. In contrast to this reading, the dissertation suggests that Shpet’s theory was in fact closely related to his earlier phenomenological ideas. It is maintained that especially in his 1922–23 "Esteticheskie fragmenty", the content of Shpet’s concept was in a strict sense phenomenological.
  • Jagne-Soreau, Maïmouna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In this thesis, we analyse the representation of racialized second-generation migrants, mixed-race persons and transnational adoptees in contemporary Nordic literature. The work is an article-based dissertation including a theoretical contextualization. The first article “Half-Norwegian, Real Foreigner” (2017) is an analysis of Maria Navarro Skaranger’s novel Alle utlendinger har lukka gardiner (2015) from a postnational perspective. The second article “Yahya Hassan, a modern Cervantes” (2018) brings us to Denmark, and is a reading of Yahya Hassan’s eponymous debut poetry collection (2013), and proposes an alternative reading of the work in the picaresque tradition. The third article “Adrian Perera and the art of wog poems” (2018) is an analysis of Perera’s poetry suite White Monkey (2017), which opens up discussions on whiteness, non-whiteness, racism and racialization in today’s Finland. The fourth article “To wake up as suedi” (2019) is a literary reading of Erik Lundin’s first EP “Suedi” (2015) and focuses on the theme of betweenship in a Swedish context. Finally, the fifth article “I don’t write about me, I write about you” (2021) presents four major iterating motifs in a dozen works and sheds light on the aspect of postmigration literature being a trans-Nordic phenomenon in contemporary Nordic literature. Our results include reflections around the themes of identity, generation conflict, racism and hegemonic whiteness, the effect of authenticity and the game with the expected reader(s). Based on these findings we propose the acknowledgement of a new literary phenomenon that we call postmigration literature.
  • Satokangas, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Explanation of terms in nonfiction The thesis examines the explanation of terms in nonfiction, that is, how the meaning of field-specific expressions is constructed with an orientation towards a non-specialist audience. The thesis consists of four sub-studies, and the data comprises mainly popularizations by academic scholars but also includes school textbooks. The sub-studies view the explanation of terms from four different perspectives: 1) the structure of explanation sequences, 2) narratives as tools for illustration, 3) multimodal explanation sequences and 4) social and historical contextualization. The data is approached within the framework of dialogistically oriented discourse analysis and by means of qualitative text analysis. In the first three sub-studies, the organization of term explanations is analyzed with the concept of discourse patterns. Based on the analysis, discourse patterns are categorized into three types according to the strategy of unfolding explanation. In elaboration patterns the writer proceeds from the term to the explanation; in naming patterns the direction is from the description of the term’s referent to the term itself; and in classifying patterns the writer represents a taxonomy as the frame in which terms are introduced. The second sub-study examines how narratives are utilized as means of illustration and how they function as parts of broader term-explanation patterns. The third sub-study analyzes multimodal discourse patterns as the co-ordination of image and written language. In the fourth sub-study, the discursive construction of the socio-historical context for terms is examined from the perspective of critical language awareness. Categories of context construction uncovered in the analysis include, firstly, connecting the term to an individual person or a named community: naming a person, positioning the term inside a discipline, delineating a group of people defined by a specific viewpoint, stance or opinion, or linking the term to a colloquial label. Secondly, the term can be anchored in time and space through demarcating a geographical or cultural context or describing a temporal trajectory for the term and its development. The term’s social context can, however, also be dismissed altogether. On the other hand, a social context can be implicitly visible in the text, via, among other linguistic resources, passive verb forms. The specialization of semiotic resources in the explanation of terms becomes evident. Story genres and naturally oriented image types, for example, have specialized to perform an illustrative and exemplifying function, whereas description and explanation genres as well as scientifically and technologically oriented image types function as resources for constructing conceptual knowledge as parts of term-explanation patterns. The thesis exhibits a discourse analytic approach to examining and theorizing the use of terminology. A text analysis of terms makes visible the strategies with which the meanings of terms are constructed in nonfiction texts and thus produces linguistic insight about the popularized representation of specialized knowledge.
  • Khadgi, Mari-Sisko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Ghale is a Tibeto-Burman language of Nepal with very little previous research. This dissertation provides a description of the segmental and tonal phonology of Ghale as spoken in the village of Barpak, along with typological, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. This research presents a detailed description of the segmental phonology and a quantified description of tones, using both acoustic measuring and perceptual testing. To provide a holistic picture, the findings are discussed from both comparative and typological perspectives. The findings of the segmental phonology analysis show that Barpak Ghale has twenty-one consonant phonemes and six vowel phonemes. The syllable structure is (C)(L)(G)V(F), and it can be considered complex cross-linguistically. Although these findings are generally compatible with those from studies on related Tamangish languages, it is apparent that the segmental system of Ghale stands out as being more complex. Especially striking is the number of possible word-initial consonant clusters with the approximants /w/, /j/, /ɰ/ and /ɥ/. The findings of the tonal analysis demonstrate that Barpak Ghale has five contrastive tones and that the tone-bearing unit is the morpheme. If the morpheme has more than one syllable, the tone pattern extends across the syllable boundaries, throughout the whole morpheme. Some affixes have their own tone and others do not. A similar word-tone phenomenon has been reported in the related Tamangish and Tibetic languages. In the case of Barpak Ghale, the main cue for distinguishing tones is the fundamental frequency pattern. Two of the lower tones can be pronounced with a voiced word-initial obstruent. Such voicing can be considered a historical residue because, in many Tibeto-Burman languages, the low tones have developed from word-initial voiced consonants. Several of the tonal Tamangish languages have been reported to use breathy phonation as an additional cue on low tone words but, in Barpak Ghale, all the tones are produced with modal phonation. Previous studies have shown that all tonal Tamangish languages have four contrastive tones. This dissertation provides solid evidence that Barpak Ghale contrasts five different tones. Perception test results confirm that listeners can recognize words that form tonal minimal sets with great accuracy when heard in a tonal context. This dissertation also provides insights into tone research methodology, especially for previously understudied languages. The results highlight two important aspects of tones: the relative nature of tones and interspeaker variation. The relativity of tone contrasts has engendered the recommendation that, in tone research, words should be recorded in sentence frames. The results also show vast interspeaker variation among the different tones. Therefore, a further recommendation for tone studies is to use multiple speakers. From a theoretical perspective, this study examines the tone system of Barpak Ghale from the viewpoint of Dispersion Theory (e.g., Liljencrants & Lindblom 1972; Lindblom 1986; 1990). The main principle of Dispersion Theory, maximal (or sufficient) perceptual contrast with minimal articulatory effort, has been considered to be a shaping factor in phonological systems in the languages of the world. Maddieson (1977; 1978; 1979; 1991) has asserted two main claims regarding the principles of tonal dispersion: 1) a larger number of tone levels requires a wider f_0 space than a smaller number; and 2) level tones have more-or-less fixed, constant intervals. The results of this study challenge both of these claims.
  • Davidsen, Peter (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This research monograph is an intellectual history of the theory of the state and the theory of political science of Professor Rudolf Kjellén (1864–1922), who was once one of Europe’s most well-known academics. The dissertation rediscovers the original contexts and scientific debates in which the theories intervened. Thus, it is a study of those theories, contexts, and scientific debates, as well as of the arguments formulated by their interlocutors, including Professors S. J. Boëthius, Pontus Fahlbeck, C. A. Reuterskiöld, Ludvig Stavenow, Otto Varenius, and Gunnar Rexius. Following Professor Quentin Skinner and the Cambridge school of intellectual history, this study excavates, reconstructs, contextualizes, reinterprets, and rethinks a great scientific dispute, a Methodenstreit, over the nature of political science and its relation to, and potential emancipation from, the studies of law, history, philosophy, geography, and statistics.
  • Peemot, Victoria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study is an ethnography of human-nonhuman relationships in the Sayan and Altay Mountains of Inner Asia. It is an outcome of research that I conducted in collaboration with horsemen from my patrilineal Soyan clan, who live in the Tes-Xem province of the Tyva Republic (the Russian Federation). In this study, I explore phenomena related to the role of horses in post-Soviet Tyva—in particular, the horse’s participation in the moral economy of human-nonhuman relationships, its contribution to postsocialist identities, and its imbrication in politics. This research contributes to ongoing anthropological debates on animism and “the ontological turn” by focusing on Inner Asian steppe pastoralists’ understandings of their relationships with sentient nonhumans—homelands and horses. I argue that the communities with whom I work are inherently more than human. By this I mean that, first, more than human communities are comprised of a herding family and domesticated animals; pastoralists adjust their transhumance time and routes to the needs of their livestock. Second, the relationships between pastoralists and domesticates are embedded in relationships with their homelands, which are understood as sentient and superordinate to the interspecies communities inhabiting them. The horse holds a special position among domesticated animals by virtue of living simultaneously in proximity to humans and the superordinate homelands. The ambiguity of the horse characterizes its high status and the understanding that it serves as a communicative bridge between homelands and human-nonhuman communities. I theorize the inter-relations between homelands and their various inhabitants as a form of land-based, human-nonhuman kinship. By doing so, I expand on the Tyvan concept of “land-based kinship” (čer törel). I frame customary regulations, which apply to relationships within human-nonhuman kinship systems, as “guesting” (aaldaar). Aaldaar, the Tyvan practice of asking for help among kin. This allows me to define my research with Indigenous communities as responsible guesting (aaldaar), where a researcher and communities engage in sharing gift-knowledge. My emic experience as a Soyan with a background in herding life in Tyva has impacted the theoretical and methodological frameworks of my study and helped me to bridge the gap between academic and Indigenous epistemologies and ontologies. The relational epistemology of Indigenous research has allowed me to employ storying with my kin, horses, and our homelands as a way of acquiring and sharing knowledge in this study. Storying has been especially helpful in analyzing the post-Soviet rise of the horse’s importance in Tyvan politics and identity negotiations among the pastoralists. It has revealed how a human-nonhuman community experiences sociopolitical and ecological transformations, and jointly responds to changes and threats. Storying allows me to show how various agents in human-nonhuman communities depend on each other in order to heal from past traumas and ensure resilience and survival. In addition to storying, my main field research method was participant-observation with human-nonhuman communities via photography and audiovisual documentation of pastoralists’ practices. Making, sharing, and discussing audiovisual stories obtained through fieldwork formed an important part of the collaborative methodology with pastoralists and helped to shape the theoretical framework of my study around gift-knowledge sharing.
  • Chen, Xinjie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The present research project concerns Sámi music CDs and their production in the first decade of the current millennium through the theoretical lens of rooted cosmopolitanism (e.g., Appiah 1997; Cohen 1992). The Sámi are an Indigenous people who have originally lived in Sápmi, the historical living area of the Sámi in northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. The Sámi music industry and recordings have developed as part of a cultural revitalization effort and have links with the global music industries. As an ethnomusicological study, the research investigates Sámi CD productions in the contemporary contexts of Sápmi, the Nordic countries, which here include Norway, Finland, and Sweden, and global music industries. In this research project, Sámi music CD productions refer to both tangible Sámi music CDs and the production process. The research defines Sámi music as music that is performed by Sámi musicians, regardless of language, music genres, and styles. It analyses musical sounds as well as visual and textual information on CD jewel cases and in the accompanying booklets of 180 tangible Sámi CDs published mainly in Norway, Finland, and Sweden in and around the 2000s. The dissertation considers Sámi CD productions in terms of the processes of creating, performing, recording, producing, and marketing contemporary Sámi music in the contexts of Sápmi, the Nordic countries, and the global music industry. The first chapter provides background on the Sámi recording industry and introduces the ideas of rooted cosmopolitanism in Indigenous- and music-focused research. Chapter two concerns the production of Sámi CDs, involving publishers, sponsorships, and in-kind supporters. Chapter three explores musical cosmopolitanism in a diversity of music genres and styles and examines intercultural interactions between Sámi and people from other cultural backgrounds to co-create certain CDs. Chapter four studies the language use of Sámi CDs, including the sung languages and languages used for CD jewel cases, liner notes, and booklets. It analyses nature sounds in the recordings as well as nature images on the CD covers and in the accompanying booklets. The chapter also investigates how the titles, lyrics, and other liner notes on CD covers and in the accompanying booklets relate to the origins of music, local legends, and local histories in Sápmi as well as to the musicians’ memories. Overall, from the perspective of rooted cosmopolitanism, it examines and interprets articulations of Sámi ethnic, regional, and national roots as well as their intercultural interactions via CD productions.
  • Wilskman, Juho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    There are arguably two ways of understanding the fundamental processes of military history. One emphasizes unchanging principles in warfare and that conduct of war is largely dictated by the physical realities. The other claims that the ways of war are more-or-less cultural constructs. I approach this “military culture debate” by analysing the land and naval warfare in the area that surrounded the Aegean Sea, which had belonged to the Byzantine empire in the late twelfth century. The period discussed extends from the Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) to the early 1420s. The region and era in question are suitable for testing different understandings of military history. It is a geographical and geopolitical region where two major groups of conquerors arrived in the thirteenth century. The Catholic Christian Latins represent the western European ways of war of the time and the military traditions of the Muslim Turks originated from the steppe and from the east. Both settled in the region and founded realms. Therefore, they had to adjust themselves to the environment. Similarly, local Orthodox Christian, mostly Byzantine, rulers had to adapt to the situation. I compare the composition of armed forces and willingness to engage in battles of the above-mentioned three groups fighting in the region. My study analyses what influence their cultural background had on their conduct in these matters. I provide new information about the warfare of the study era and increase our understanding of why the Ottoman Turks were able to conquer most of the region. I found that the “culturalist” understanding of military history usually had the best explanatory potential in the scope of my research. The belligerents tried to construct their armed forces and fight their wars in a manner guided by their cultural background. To a certain extent they had to adapt to the local conditions, but in the issues dealt with here it was mainly a question of adapting to the social structures and the adversaries, rather than to the climate and geography of the region. The armies shared a growing number of similarities as time went by, but the influx of troops from outside the region and religious doctrines contributed to differences in the composition of armed forces and thus how wars were waged. The Ottomans apparently made the best use of the military potential of regions they controlled. This was probably one of the key reasons why they prevailed in the study area. For cultural reasons, the Christian powers tended to neglect the use of certain groups of people in the military. Thus their forces were more often supplemented with mercenaries and allies whose reliability was uncertain and this had adverse consequences, particularly for Byzantium. As regards engaging in battles, an important issue was how reliable the people living in fortified towns were perceived to be, which influenced how necessary it was to fight in the open. Transporting of siege-equipment, on the other hand, hampered the possibility of avoiding battles. The Latins showed more battle-willingness in their warfare than the other belligerents in the conflicts of the region. There were cultural reasons behind this. It should nevertheless be noted that there was variation in the battle-willingness of the Byzantines depending on commanders, circumstance, period, and adversary. Much of the Turkish and steppe nomad warfare consisted of raids in which battles were usually avoided. However, battle-willingness was more apparent in the conflicts of the great Muslim dynasties, and when the Muslim leaders faced one another, or when they repulsed invasions of Christian powers in their own regions. This battle-willingness of the Turks could come as surprise to the latter.
  • Kankkunen, Sarianna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The dissertation examines the literary spaces and places of Maarit Verronen’s works of prose fiction. The study aligns itself with the contemporary approach often referred to as spatial literary studies, a movement connected to the so-called spatial turn within the humanities. Maarit Verronen, a contemporary Finnish author, has gained a reputation as an architect of imaginary worlds and a spokesperson for the outsiders of society. Her works are known for their strange, dreamlike environments and peculiar protagonists who are drawn to desolate places and who often seem to be more intimate with their surroundings rather than fellow people. By bringing together spatial literary studies and Verronen’s works, this dissertation adds to the study of contemporary Finnish literature and the role of spatiality in works of literature. Theoretically, the study develops ways of bringing together spatial theory and literary studies and introduces a categorization of concepts of spatial literary studies. This guides the following study, as the focus of the analyses shifts from proto-tropes to spatial tropes, generic conventions and to the reception of space. Since the study aims to provide a longitudinal section of Verronen’s oeuvre, the selected material spans from the author’s early works to the late 2000s. The corpus involves six novels and two short stories, a ratio that roughly reflects Verronen’s overall literary production and its slight emphasis on the novel. The analysis begins with the fantastic realms of Verronen’s early career, proceeds to consider wilderness and wild spaces, turns to visions of dystopic futures and concludes in the narratives of homecoming and homesteading. In regard to the early works of the author, the study shows that Verronen’s fantasy draws its allegorical potential from the juxtaposition of binary semantic oppositions, and that these oppositions are presented through spatializations. In addition to fantastic landscapes, Verronen’s narratives involve wild spaces with often extreme conditions – settings that can be associated with the problematics of individualism. The study also demonstrates that Verronen’s narratives often present wild space-related spatial practices in non-wild settings, a feature that adds to the strange and inexplicable nature of Verronen’s protagonists. The analysis of Verronen’s two dystopias shows that these narratives employ literary spaces as means to represent and critique the problematic phenomena of modernity. Moreover, the two novels present a juxtaposition of an active and passive stance on space, which this study coins as observing spaces and engaging with spaces. The final part of the study focuses on the homescapes of Verronen’s fiction and examines the intense dynamics that are particularly evoked in the homecoming narratives. Home, in this case, is approached as an open and developing notion, one that is activated through acts of home-making. As the study shows, narratives of home involve one of the most intricate conceptual spaces of Verronen’s oeuvre: the notion of living space (elintila), a concept that can be associated with the biological habitat and the anti-expansionist ethos of Verronen’s spatial poetics.
  • Suha, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation based on five published papers examines the military architecture of the Late Classical and Hellenistic fortifications of Epirus. The sites are scattered all over ancient Epirus, which in today’s geographical terms consists of the northwestern corner of Greece and the southernmost part of Albania. The work consists of the preface, five papers that were published in volumes of the peer-reviewed publication series Papers and Monographs of the Finnish Institute at Athens, plus three appendices. Four articles were published in the final volumes of the Thesprotia Expedition, an interdisciplinary project carried out between 2004 and 2010 with the aim of writing the diachronic history of the Kokytos River Valley in Thesprotia in the northwestern corner of Greek Epirus. Paper IV is an accepted manuscript that is based on a paper given at the Greek Architecture workshop at the Finnish Institute at Athens in May 2014, which is to be published in the proceedings of the workshop. Papers I and II concentrate on two nearby forts in the Kokytos Valley, These papers explore the fortifications and the building date of the enceintes through field observations and excavation results. Paper III examines the walls of Elea, the main ancient settlement of the same valley, with the aim of dating the construction time of the enceinte. The fourth paper examines the coverings of the gates and posterns of Epirote fortified sites, which consisted of either corbelling or self-supporting true arches. The last paper examines the development of different enfilading methods consisting of right-angled offsets of the wall trace known as indented trace, towers, and large catapult batteries. As the papers were written between 2008 and 2016, some of the information within is outdated and erroneous in light of newer research. Thus, the Preface of the work aims to correct those issues. The first chapter offers an overview of the geography, history and research history, both of Epirus and Greek fortifications. The next chapter outlines the various methods of dating fortification walls, and analyzes their problems and suitability for dating Epirote sites. Chapter 3 presents the different fortification types in Epirus, the component parts of wall circuits, as well as masonry and small details. The aim is to provide an up-to-date framework for dating the Epirote fortifications. In Chapter 4 all the sites discussed in the papers are presented, the information is re-evalued using the above-mentioned framework. Chapter 5 is the Conlusion where all is brought together. Appendix I is the Index of Sites, listing all of the site names and aliases mentioned in the text and Papers I–V. Appendix II is a listing of the fortified sites of Epirus and their UTM coordinates, set in accompanying map sheets with a short compilation of the military architecture of the site. Appendix III is a re-evaluation of the reconstruction drawing of the tower of Agios Donatos thirteen years after the original study.
  • Väätänen, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    During the fifty-year timespan covered by this study, science fiction has changed from a so-called white man’s genre into a drastically more diverse one. This study traces that change from the 1960s to the 2010s by a series of case studies from science fiction authors Samuel Delany, Octavia Butler, Nalo Hopkinson, Nnedi Okorafor, and Violet Allen, and critical interpretations of their work. The thematic focus of this study is on one of the most essential tropes of science fiction: the alien encounter. I discuss how the authors have used the genre to construct, negotiate, and deconstruct identity, difference, and otherness in novels and short stories depicting human-alien contact, and how their works reflect and spur change in the genre conventions of science fiction. I demonstrate how each generation of writers has—within their own contexts and to an extent influenced by those—consciously aimed at transforming or subverting science fiction to allow for more diversity, more writers and characters from different backgrounds, and more variety of themes. In order to provide a wider view of the change, this thesis also discusses other forces that are at play when a genre is changing, using Gary Westfahl’s model of unknowingly shared authority. Science fiction is often commended as the literature of change. Yet, when Samuel R. Delany started his career in the 1960s, the inclusion of a black protagonist could even prevent a story from getting published in a science fiction magazine. Since issues like race and racism could not be openly discussed, they were instead often dealt with under the guise of metaphors, such as the alien encounter. As times and the genre changed, race has gradually become a more visible motif in science fiction by black authors, and the role of the alien other has changed as well. As these changes have become the acknowledged reality in the genre, writers of the new generation boldly write science fiction that is diverse in content and—as a sign of an emergent sense of membership in and ownership of the genre—also more openly critical of the genre’s conventions. The literary analyses in this thesis are based on the rhetorical theory of narrative, an approach that understands narrative as communication from the author to the audience, an act of “somebody telling somebody else on some occasion for some purpose that something happened” (Phelan, Narrative 218). As the theory has mainly been used to analyze mainstream literature, this thesis also draws conclusions on the suitability of rhetorical poetics for studying genre fiction, arguing that some of the concepts, such as unreliability, double audience, and genre, may need to be adjusted in order to accommodate the idiosyncratic features of genre literature and the questions of identity politics. In the end, there emerges a tale of the opposing forces of inclusion and prejudice, subversion and tradition. Whereas the genre these writers have chosen to write in may be said to have to some extent limited and thwarted their writing and the themes and motifs available during the first decades, today black science fiction authors are consciously changing and subverting the genre into something more inclusive, which does not flinch in the face of diversity but lives up to the potential of the genre as literature of change and possibility.
  • Raunamaa, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation investigates personal names attested among Baltic-Finns during the Middle Ages (c. 1200¬−1550 AD). The focus is on pre-Christian anthroponymy, but foreign names, mainly Christian ones, are addressed as well. The names studied are analysed from perspectives of morphology and semantics. The analysis also includes name origins, expansion, decline and distribution in the northern Baltic Sea region. Multidisciplinary approach together with multiple methods and sources are used not only to study the features of Finnic names, but also to shed light on the past of Finnic languages and tribes. Much of the sources used in the study derive from editions of medieval documents that vary in their purpose from taxation censuses to personal letters. They cover areas of contemporary Estonia, Finland and Northwest Russia and are written in multiple languages. The study is conducted mainly by searching personal names with Finnic elements in the source materials and placing them on a map. Furthermore, modern digital methods are used as tools for gathering and analysing the data. The present study demonstrates that names used among Finnic populace during the Middle Ages consisted of various kinds of name elements and forms. Although regional and temporal differences are significant, the general trend in the Finnic naming conventions is obvious: pre-Christian names being superseded by the Christian ones. This applies especially to pre-Christian female names, which are almost completely absent from the sources. Structurally, medieval Finnic personal names may have been composed in many ways. They could consist of one name lexeme (e.g. Lempi), one lexeme together with personal name suffix (Lempoi) or of two name lexemes (Kaukolempi). The most common lexical elements attested within pre-Christian Finnic personal names are Iha, Lempi, Toivo and Vilja. Finnic personal name suffixes attested in pre-Christian names like -oi, -kkV and -nen continued to be used with Christian names as well. Many of the pre-Christian Finnic names were originally descriptive and consisted of attributes that were connected to the hopes and wishes of the name givers. Family traditions had significant impact on the name bestowing as well. The most common name elements attested in pre-Christian Finnic personal names have semantic meanings like hope, enjoyment, favourite, kindness, love, loveliness and rich(ness). Despite the obvious Germanic and Scandinavian (and to some extent Baltic and Slavic as well) influence on the development of Finnic languages, Finnic names seem to be based mostly on different ideologies than those of neighbouring Indo-European peoples. The study illustrates how widely pre-Christian Finnic personal names were used in the medieval northeastern Baltic Sea area: from the coast of Latvia to the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia. Based on medieval sources, the use of Finnic names has been especially evident in following regions: northern, southern, and western Estonia, southwestern Finland, western Latvia and Ingria. If sources from the early modern period are included, the picture expands. Now the names can be found all over Estonia and in eastern Finland, Karelia, and Lake Onega region. At the end of 16th century, Finnic personal names were also common among Sámi people in the north. The present work sheds light on the history of Finnic languages and tribes by comparing name related research results with archaeological and historical information. Studied personal names indicate, for example, how ethnically and linguistically diverse the area of Ingria was at the end of 15th century. This puts previous perceptions regarding the past of Izhorian and Votic languages and ethnicities into question. On the other hand, this work also indicates that personal names were not an integral part of the identity of Baltic-Finns, since they could change more easily than, for example, language or livelihood. The rapid and almost complete disappearance of pre-Christian Finnic personal names during the Middle Ages and simultaneous adoption of Christian names is a good indication of this.
  • Ahvenniemi, Rebecka Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This research explores the possibilities of music functioning as a critical voice in today’s world. The specific focus of this research lies in musical composition as an activity, discipline and institution, rather than finished, musical works. The aspect of composition that possesses this critical potential I call lingering reflection. This term refers to a way of engaging in dialogue with the discipline, its handcraft, historicity, and surrounding social world. Slow and heteronomous in its nature, lingering reflection presents a counterpoint to ideas that seem solid, are easily accessible and not questioned. I argue that this aspect of musical composition reveals something philosophically significant. The research consists of five subsections, referred to as articles, each of which contributes to the understanding of a ‘reversed thinking’ in epistemological terms: art revealing something ‘true’ about this world instead of merely being a product of it. This does not refer to the romantic discussion of art ‘exceeding’ given truth. Rather, it advances the idea that art, by identifying with the society, carries the potential of revealing some of its false premises. Critical theory forms the frameworks of this research: discussing issues in social, historical, and material terms, and from a philosophical basis. The subject at hand does not attempt to postulate any of the issues in a timeless way. As I argue, the need for such a critical position of music results from a specific historical development that concerns art’s autonomous position in the Western world. This research is qualitative. I discuss issues that are central for music as an artform in today’s world, such as the socially isolated position of contemporary music, and the possibilities of breaking with Western hegemonic thinking in a diverse, multicultural and multimedial world. All subjects are discussed from the perspective of musical composition. Ultimately, lingering reflection oftentimes remains without a clear voice, as it represents the opposite of what is immediately given in music or language. The existing ideas that appear as stable and universal are exactly those that are fractured through this critical activity. Key notions: Musical composition, lingering reflection, critical theory, epistemology, cultural critique, estrangement
  • Siiroinen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)
    On the syntax and semantics of emotive verbs in present-day Finnish Mari Siiroinen, University of Helsinki (FIN) The thesis deals with the syntax and semantics of emotive verbs in presentday Finnish. In particular, it discusses 198 central emotive verbs. The theoretical framework is that of cognitive linguistics (Langacker, Lakoff). The discussion of verb semantics and syntactic behaviour of verbs owes much to the ideas of William Croft. The thesis is divided into two sections; the first section discusses emotive verbs as lexemes, and the second section examines the usage of selected verbs based on the evidence from machine-readable Finnish text corpora. It is found that Finnish emotive verbs should be classified into four syntactic- semantic types: inchoative verbs, activity verbs, stative verbs and causative verbs. Causative verbs are further subcategorized into those used in the transitive construction and those used in the emotive causative construction. Morphologically, causative verbs are derived from nouns, directly or via inchoative verbs. The emotive causative construction has the special feature of an experiencer argument that is syntactically in between subject and object. In the detailed discussion of the usage of the verbs pelätä (‘fear’) and pelottaa (‘be afraid’) it is noted that pelätä often occurs without an object or with a complement object, while pelottaa has both normal causative usage and emotive causative usage. Journalistic language seems to favour the causative usage of pelottaa, while emotive causative usage is more frequent in literary style. It is found that the factors influencing the choice of pelätä or pelottaa, or intransitive or transitive verb of astonishment, include discourse topic, empathy and vantage-point. The chosen verb will be the one that will take the discourse topic as the subject. An interesting exception is pelottaa, which is used in the emotive causative construction when the discourse topic is the referent who experiences the emotion, whose vantage-point is used and to whom empathy is felt. This is typical when the experiencer is 1st person, or even 3rd person in free indirect style in literary texts.
  • Pienimäki, Hanna-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The ethnographic study focuses on how language professionals regulate the language of different academic genres, such as scholarly manuscripts, press releases, administrative texts and curricula as part of their work in a multidisciplinary Finnish university. In the institution, the function of translation and authors’ editing is to produce institutional multilingualism and develop and sustain the quality of English entextualized into published texts. The main types of data, collected during ethnographic fieldwork, are interviews, on-site recordings and text trajectories. Motivated by two distinct lines of inquiry, the thesis sets out to investigate both how language professionals regulate academic discourse through action and their roles and responsibilities in processes of text production as construed through talk. In applying an ethnographic methodology, the thesis focuses on the habitual, repetitive and routinized ways of doing and talking about translation and authors’ editing in the community. Adopting a posthumanist stance, translation and authors’ editing are understood as social practices that result from stable, recurring re-enactments and deployments of people, technology and other materials. These assemblages are the loci of the inquiry. The study depicts and brings to the fore the actors, human as well as non-human, and their roles and contributions to the processes of text production. The thesis investigates the institutional roles the language professionals occupy as part of academia, how they distribute agency, authority and responsibilities among themselves, their colleagues and clients, as well as across various forms of technology and other resources. Informed by practice theories, the thesis demonstrates how the practices of translation and authors’ editing comprise of elements, and how these elements, together with the organization of practices, can introduce stability and systematicity across individual acts of language regulation – even beyond the immediate community. The language professionals’ ways of working either aid or impede the introduction of systematicity into language regulation. Collaborative organization of work, shared materials and technology build coherence into the practice of translation, allowing meanings assigned to language regulation to become shared among the community members, and even to travel to other practices of writing in the institution. Authors’ editing, on the other hand, is a solitary endeavor marked by transient and unstable configurations of actors who navigate text production without a shared set of norms to coordinate their actions. Language professionals take on roles and responsibilities to facilitate the production of an authoritative and accessible English-medium voice, in order to create commodifiable value for others; to attract international students and staff, and to help scholarly manuscripts get published in prestigious journals. Because practices of academic writing inherently feature multiple actors, both translation and authors’ editing emblematically contain negotiation. Language professionals constantly engage in negotiation with their clients and each other over the norms and ideals of genre, academic writing, audience and authorship, i.e. the meanings assigned to text production in an academic context. Language professionals take part in academic text production through practices of rewriting that aligns texts with the presumed needs and expectations of their future audience through acts of language regulation. Through language regulation, language professionals act as mediators of indexes, of the ways in which meanings are created and interpreted, on behalf of both the original text-producers and their intended audience.
  • Vesikansa, Jyrki (Suomalainen Sanomalehtimiesliitto, 2021)
    The topic of this thesis is the competition between the two leading Finnish newspapers and their predecessors occurring especially during the years 1956-76, which were perhaps decisive in their ”hundred years war”. The war began in 1889, when the liberal Päivälehti – the predecessor of Helsingin Sanomat (HS) – was founded. It ended in 1991 with the fall of the conservative Uusi Suomi (US). The author has published studies about earlier and also later periods of the com-petition previously. The thesis comments the theory of the distribution circle by Lars Furhoff (1965). According to it, the newspaper, which has the most readers, will collect the main part of the advertisements. Therefore it can publish more pages, recruit more journalists, invest more in the printing technology etc. – and thus get even more readers and advertisements. The smaller papers must, on the contrary, cut their costs. Therefore, they first lose their readers and then even more advertisements – and in the end they usually have no possibility to continue. Most cities today have only one newspaper – or after the internet revolution no printed paper at all. The distribution circle is, however, not an automatic process. Uusi Suometar, the predecessor of Uusi Suomi and founded back in 1847, was the leading news-paper in the Finnish language until 1911, when Helsingin Sanomat prepassed it in the distribution. In the 1920´s Uusi Suomi succeeded to speed up and shorten the distance, but in the 1930’s Helsingin Sanomat grew again faster. During the WW 2 and the after war period the circulation of Helsingin Sanomat grew three times larger than by Uusi Suomi – largely due to the independent political line and an active news policy of Helsingin Sanomat. In 1956 Uusi Suomi began a counterattack, when Helsingin Sanomat had a weak period – largely because its main owner, Mr. Eljas Erkko became older, but did not want to give his autocratic power to the younger generation. Uusi Suomi recruited a new editor-in-chief, Mr. Eero Petäjäniemi from the team of its compet-itor, and could achieve some success, too. That was the last period, when Uusi Suomi had some possibilities not to win Helsingin Sanomat, but to stabilize its status as ”the good second”. The situation was similar in Sweden between Da-gens Nyheter and Svenska Dagbladet. The counterattack of Uusi Suomi did not succeed due to to a stop and go-policy and political disputes and as a result, Mr. Petäjäniemi was kicked off. The new editor-in-chief Mr. Pentti Poukka turned the line to the right, when the Finnish society was turning to the left. The distribution decreased even if the Uusi Suomi company tried to hide it. The result of the company turned red in 1966. At the same time the new owner of Helsingin Sanomat, Mr. Aatos Erkko re-formed his company with great success. The distribution of Helsingin Sanomat climbed to half a million, when the real distribution of Uusi Suomi was about 60.000. In 1970 the owners of Uusi Suomi tried to turn the trend, but without re-sult. Only in 1976, when Uusi Suomi was near bankruptcy, the leading Finnish companies decided to save the traditional conservative newspaper as a part of the fight against the radical left movement. Uusi Suomi continued through 1980’s with relative success, but mainly due to the profits of the economic newspaper Kauppalehti. Then a too expensive in-vestment in a printing machine together with a wider economic recession led to the death of Uusi Suomi 1991. The main reason for this was according to the thesis the differences between the competitors in the ownership and leadership. Helsingin Sanomat was owned by the Erkko family and had strong, systematic managers. The main owners of Uusi Suomi -company were many large Finnish companies and their interest in their newspaper was not vital. The managers had limited knowledge in the media business and a stop and go -policy was common. Uusi Suomi was also until 1976 the main organ of the National Coalition Party and after that ”independent bourgeoisie”, while Helsingin Sanomat was inde-pendently liberal. The potential of its distribution was therefore much larger. Uu-si Suomi was relatively more over-regional than Helsingin Sanomat, but Helsingin Sanomat had at least ten times larger distribution than its competitor in the Hel-sinki area. With a market share of 7 percent of the households in the capital area Uusi Suomi had small possibilities to get local advertisement.
  • Salo, Mirkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study examines the language used by Finnish Roma in online internet forum suomi24.fi-romano during the years 2003-2013. The focus is the structure and functions of Romani elements. The three articles of the thesis examine the current status and variation in Romani morphology in multilingual discourse, functions of Romani elements in interaction, and the idiolectal differences in the use of Romani elements. The study sheds light on the prevalence and significance of the use of Romani for Finnish Roma, and attitudes toward it in dialogues that allow for anonymity. The method is data-oriented. The language in the forum is examined both quantitatively and qualitatively, employing methods used in research of language variation and code switching. The intertwining of Romani elements with Finnish to create a Romani ethnolect, along with how the Roma express their identity by means of language, are the focal points of examination. This research also strives to describe the ways in which the Roma utilize their linguistic resources dynamically in the context of Romani culture and how they toy with multilingualism. Research shows that Romani based words are inflected following Finnish or Romani grammar, or mixing inflectional elements from both languages. Finnish Romani has however not become a so-called Para-Romani, in which the Romani morpho-syntactic framework has been replaced by that of another language. Romani language expressions and code switching to Romani are used in the forum in the same tasks regarding Romani culture and being Roma as in spoken Romani discourse. Idiolects exhibit variation comparable to that in spoken language in the use of different parts of speech and Romani inflection. The spelling of words varies due to Finnish Romani not having a fully fledged wide-spread norm of orthography. This research highlights how spontaneous written online discourse utilizes elements based on the Romani language which have been used mainly for oral communication within the community. It depicts the online discourse as part of a process in which the use of Romani is increasingly expanded from private to public domains, crossing geographic and community borders. At the same time, the borders of communities are maintained and the feeling of community is strengthened by using Romani elements in online discourse.
  • Riitamaa, Tomi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This article-based dissertation examines the position and predicament of Finland-Swedish literature in Sweden from several perspectives and aspects. Its main focus is on contemporary literature and its reception, but it also contains historical discounts and comparisons. The compiled thesis as a whole, as well as the introduction chapter and the separate sub-studies presented in the four published scientific articles, is defined by an overall sociological perspective of literature. This means that the thesis adopts several theoretical and methodological approaches – quantitative as well as qualitative – and collects theoretical inspiration and frameworks from numerous traditions and disciplines. The introduction chapter gives a broad overview of the subject and presents the historical background of the problem of the Finland-Swedish literature’s difficulties in Sweden. It raises the question of why this matter is crucial for the Finland-Swedish literature, and, by extension, how the problem is thought to be connected to the survival chance of the minority per se. The introduction chapter also elaborates on the methodological and theoretical points of view of the articles, as well as summarizes and discusses the results of the studies. Following Charlotta af Hällström-Reijonens concept “the Swedish publisher-argument”, I examine in Article 1 and Article 2 how authors Ulla-Lena Lundberg and Lars Sund, respectively, relate to an perceived ignorance in Sweden of the Finland-Swedish minority and of Finland as a bilingual nation in general. In narratological close-readings, using the theoretical findings of Jonathan Culler in his essay “The Novel and the Nation”, I argue that both Lundberg and Sund use this unawareness as themes in their novels, and that the novels addresses not one particular, but different categories of readers – both national and international – at the same time but in different manners. Furthermore, I analyse the reception of the novels in Swedish and Finnish newspapers. While the perspective in Article 1 and Article 2 is qualitative, a quantitative approach is used in Article 3. Here I map the publishing of Finland-Swedish literature in sub-editions by Swedish book publishers during the years 2000–2016. 6 Taking into account a widespread discourse claiming that Finland-Swedish literature has had a hard time passing the threshold to the Swedish market in recent years compared to earlier years, I chart the statistics of the publication year by year and make comparisons with historical numbers. I also map statistics of the actual allocation of genres among the publication in Swedish sub-editions of Finland-Swedish literature. Article 4 combines quantitative and qualitative approaches. Here I investigate the representation of Finland-Swedish literature in literary histories of Swedish literature, by mapping out the actual space and proportion of the Finland-Swedish literature by counting pages and lines. This is followed by close readings to understand how this literature is represented in the works. I examine how “methodological nationalism”, a theoretical concept picked up by the humanities from social sciences, operates explicitly as well as implicitly in the literary histories, and I analyse its implications for the representation of the Finland-Swedish literature. Altogether the dissertation’s findings and conclusions draw a complex and compounded picture of the position and predicament of Finland-Swedish literature in Sweden. It refutes several myths and assumptions in the widespread historical discourse concerning Finland-Swedish literature’s presuppositions and status in Sweden. It shows in reality how certain novels manage to address different kinds of readers at the same time but in different ways, that literary critics in Swedish newspapers tend not to be bothered by the language in the novels which contains fennicisms and other deviations from the Swedish language used in Sweden, that the amount of books published in sub-editions in Sweden seems to not have decreased in recent years, but that Swedish publishers tend to go for authorships that are already established and acknowledged home in Finland, and that the representation of Finland-Swedish literature in literary histories in Sweden is surprisingly good counting the actual space in proportion to the space of the Swedish literature from Sweden, but also that Finland-Swedish literature, while included in the works, also in the same time is excluded from the main Swedish literary canon by being placed in what I call a kind of “cultural preserves”, separated from the Swedish majority literature in the literary histories. Key words: Finland-Swedish literature, the Swedish publisher-argument, Swedish ignorance, sociology of literature, methodological nationalism, literary reception, reception studies
  • Ikkala, Marja-Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Ethics and esotericism in architecture: Rudolf Steiner´s First and Second Goetheanum This study examines how architecture represents ethical and esoteric ideas. The main empirical objects of study are Rudolf Steiner’s First and Second Goetheanum. This study focuses on the ethical intentions of Steiner in the context of Expressionist architecture and especially the ethical ideas of Expressionist architects. The research questions are studied in the light of cultural and intellectual history with reference to Quentin Skinner’s methodological accounts of intentions and context. The starting point of this study is that architecture can be interpreted through ethical ideas. This assumes that its aim is to create good architecture and a good environment for human beings. The theoretical frame of reference for this study is the phenomenological hermeneutical approach as set out by Karsten Harries and Arturo Péres-Goméz in their studies on the ethics of architecture. This study suggests similarities between their ideas and the ethical ideas of Rudolf Steiner and Expressionist architects. With the growing critique of Modernism – its efficiency, technology and rationalisation – especially in postmodern times, Expressionist architecture, which was marginalised during the wave of International Style, has become topical again. The phenomenological hermeneutical approach to the ethics of architecture is also connected to this critique of Modernism. The notions that the built environment strongly affects human beings and that the meanings people give to architecture are important are also part of this ethics. This understanding of ethics in architecture also gave new value to spirituality in architecture. Spirituality was very important to Rudolf Steiner, who is known as the founder of the anthroposophical movement. Another main context and research question is how the Goetheanums are situated in the tradition of esotericism. Rudolf Steiner’s views on the spiritual meanings of built forms are studied through his lectures and writings. His spiritual ideas are deeply connected to his ethical ideas as presented in his main philosophical work “The Philosophy of Freedom”. Rudolf Steiner called his buildings organic, Goetheanistic and living. He based his worldview on the ideas of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Especially Goethe’s ideas on the metamorphosis of plants is important to Steiner’s architectural ideas. Organic architecture is one context in this study and it is described and interpreted in it. In this study, Romanticism is considered as a cultural protest against modern bourgeois industrial civilization as argued by Michael Löwy and Robert Sayre. As a current in the history of ideas, its presence runs through the early Romantic period to the present day and as such also ties together the topics of this study.

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