Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Aalto, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The doctoral thesis deals with the history of Finnish medical education from the viewpoint of medical students adopting a professional identity. The period studied is 1933 - 1969. It is a period of modernisation and enlargement in education, as well as scientific progress in medicine. In Finnish society there was a profound ideological change from a national and right-wing atmosphere of the interwar period to the welfare state of the 1960s led by centre and leftist parties. After the Second World War, society changed in terms of structures and political environment, as well as values and norms. With the economic growth the welfare state project progressed quickly. The political keywords of the era were regional stability, centralised planning, and equality. The development also touched upon medical education. When the public health-care system grew, the number of physicians was increased. Aims and contents of education also changed. The research shows that Finnish medical education became more professional, specialised and society-oriented in the period from the 1930s to the 1960s. The medical curriculum was shortened. The practical, clinical studies were given a higher priority. The orientation to society strengthened when more social and preventive medicine and work with patients outside hospitals were introduced in the end of the 1960s and in the beginning of the 1970s. Medical students strongly promoted this development all along the way. The focus of the research is on medical students, who orientate to their future profession under their studies and adopt a professional identity. The research is based on qualitative analysis of historical source material. The main sources are protocols of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Helsinki and magazines by the medical students associations. In addition to the official curriculum, the education has disseminated tacit knowledge about studies, professional culture, and being a doctor. The high socio-economic background of medical students and their inherited cultural capital has made it easier to adopt tacit knowledge, which is seen as being both academic and professional. In the research, tacit knowledge is studied by sketching the ideal image of a physician at different times. In the first half of the century this ideal was a free professional. The physician s profession was seen as a vocation with high moral and ethical values and close contact to patients. In the 1940s and the 1950s, the ideal was characterised by professional and scientific knowledge that was affected by new methods of diagnosing and healing. The growing specialisation also changed the image. In the 1960s, the ideal image of the physician was bound to the welfare state: the physician was a medical specialist and an active citizen in service to society. During the 1960s, traditionally conservative Finnish physicians and their culture was criticised by the younger, more liberal generation. The professional culture went through a profound change in terms of doctors relationships to their patients, colleagues and society. In the research period, the professional culture and tacit knowledge about it became more visible, open, and pluralistic. The profession of a physician has traditionally been among the most highly-respected in Finland. In the research period, the source of this respect was an image of the profession as a vocation with scientific and professional knowledge. However, this respect has also been connected to the role of Finnish intellectual elite that was aware of its responsibility in the development of their country. Despite all the changes, physicians shared the values and culture of the university-educated class. The medical-students associations played an important part in socialising medical students both to their profession and to their academic class.
  • Logie, Andrew (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation comprises a diachronic survey of popular Korean historiography from the earliest surviving supradynastic treatments through to a sample of current day South Korean popular history works; therein the focus is on the pre-Three Kingdoms period, dealing with questions of ethnogenesis and state formation. Part I delineates the premodern conceptualization of ancient Korea, terming it the Orthodox Narrative, the defining characteristic of which was the successful merger and coexistence of both nativist and Sinic elements, popularly symbolized in the Dangun-Gija symbiosis. Part II then focuses on premodern treatments of historical geography, a topic which has gone on to become a core area of modern, post-colonial concern, particularly regarding the location and territory of ancient Joseon and the Han Commanderies. Part III looks at the contemporary popular history writings of the Colonial Era, broadly terming this new perspective as 'Northern/Altaic' owing to its continental focus and utilization of the then accepted Altaic language hypothesis; seeking to distill and magnify the perceived nativist elements of the Orthodox Narrative, its defining revisionist feature was - and still is - explicit anti-Sinocentricism. Indeed, current day South Korean popular historiography, treated in Part IV is found to be still deeply influenced by the two key architects of the Northern/Altaic paradigm, Sin Chaeho and Choe Namseon, whose works can be seen as representing two starting points on the same conceptual spectrum under which most subsequent efforts can be classified: an 'Empire' variant imagining ancient Joseon as both a rival and source of classical Sinic civilization, and a 'Pan-Altaic' variant which utilizes long-range theories in the name of pan-Altaic solidarity. Despite a tradition of rationalist empiricism reaching back to premodern scholarship, the dominant trend in the most visible popular historiography has been towards historicization of mythology; this thesis suggests such a phenomenon can, at least in part, be understood as being both due to the embedding of the foundation myths within the Orthodox Narrative that ensured their survival, and the consequent and continued need for national mythology in the modern era where myth maintains its historical resonance.
  • Sivelä, Jonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral thesis, consisting of four separate articles and a summarizing report, discusses so-called South African AIDS myths also called AIDS beliefs, rumours, misconceptions and legends. AIDS myths have been put forth as an outcome of and a major reason behind the severe HIV/AIDS situation in South Africa. They are proposed to flourish among black South Africans living in impoverished townships and villages. In previous studies, the reasons and mechanisms behind AIDS myths have been understood to be rather straightforward, and it has been suggested that they have a considerable effect on people s behaviour. This thesis argues that the processes and expressions related to them are, in fact, much more complex and multifaceted. The theoretical backbone of this thesis is influenced by folklore studies, which emphasizes the importance of taking into account the nuances of textual and verbal expressions conveying both historical and contemporary meanings of a specific cultural setting. Most of the empiric observations that are discussed in this thesis are based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Xhosa people living in two different townships in Cape Town. This part of the thesis examines the meanings and processes related to the manifestations and possible impact of AIDS myths. The thesis also includes a discourse analytic section that examines how South African AIDS myths are presented in current academic studies. Fieldwork shows that AIDS myths do exist among informants in these two township settings in Cape Town. AIDS-related communication, including expressions of AIDS myths, stems from a specific cultural and social setting, and it is influenced by specific manners of communication and a complex past characterized by apartheid-era legacies. Against this background, AIDS myths can be understood as expressing a kind of cultural and narrative resistance to the disease and its manifestations, as well as to cultural models which impose a certain kind of behaviour and communication. Fieldwork also shows that the impact of AIDS myths on people s behaviour is not as direct as proposed, and that there is a difference between knowing the myths and acting in accordance with them. Furthermore, an examination of the discourse that touches on South African AIDS myths reveals that it includes themes that resonate with derogatory notions of Africa and Africans and are characterized by apartheid-era narratives that still persist today.
  • Holm, Tea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Abstract This history of ideas research views the forming of spiritualism in Finland from the 1850s to modern day. In addition to primary literature the research information has, in applicable parts, been supplemented with information from other sources, such as from period newspapers or magazines. In addition the spiritualistic literature written by a so-called inner circle forms a significant source book for this work. The Finnish Spiritual Society was founded in 1946. The founder and first chairperson was writer and translator Helmi Krohn. She brought the spiritualist principle to Finland from England, and also translated English and Nordic spiritualistic literature from the 1920s onwards. This study is a current view on the subject. In Finland there are very few studies about spiritualism. Previously only Eila Hämelin has published a narrow study called Nykyinen spiritismi ( Spiritism in Our Time , 1968). In Finland spiritualism is a philosophy; not a religion, although a minority of its practitioners view it as a religion. Some Finnish spiritualists also see spirituality as a way of life. From the idea historical point of view, however, spiritualism is a religion, so in this dissertation it has been studied as such. From a spiritual philosophy point of view Finnish spiritualism is spirituality according to the Spiritualists National Union, but without the (spiritualistic) church institute. Finnish spiritualism is closest to Anglo-American spirituality. Anglo-American, i.e. English and American based spiritualism was folksy and experimental spiritualism, while the spiritistic doctrine, i.e. spiritism (spiritual doctrine in Finnish) compiled by Allan Kardec was an attempt at a scientific explanation for phenomena considered spiritualistic. Also modern spiritualists formed their own spiritualistic philosophies, but did not aim to define all spiritualism that could be applied, as did Kardec s supporters. Spiritualism was more of a popular movement, which, based on its nature, took many forms.
  • Jukko, Risto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation explores the phenomenon of intertextuality, which has not been dealt with adequately in all its aspects in translation studies so far. The study analyzes cultural-religious intertextualities in William Faulkner's novel Light in August (1932) and its two Finnish translations, Kohtalokas veripisara (1945) and Liekehtivä elokuu (1968). The study aims at corroborating, by means of an examination of a set of empirical data, the view that adequate translations necessitate, on the part of the translator, a considerable amount of intertextual cultural competence in the field(s) the original source text deals with and that adequate translations thus cannot be secured by the translator s technical or theoretical translation skills only. In addition, the study equally purports to argue, by reference to the two sets of translation solutions made by the translators during their respective Finnish translations, that the religious components of the cultural contents of the novel constitute a set of data which is not fully accounted for in the translations and that the two translations accordingly both exhibit properties or tendencies which are not entirely adequate or even desirable either from a translational or from a cultural point of view. The results of the analysis of the 30 text passages examined in detail are threefold. First, the analysis is able to establish that the Finnish translators of Kohtalokas veripisara either used the Swedish translation Ljus i augusti (1944) as an additional source text or that they edited the Finnish translation according to the Swedish translation. Owing to interference from the Swedish translation, Kohtalokas veripisara therefore exhibits a tendency to downplay or ignore certain intertexts. Consequently, this method cannot be considered an adequate or desirable translational approach as it inevitably entails some losses of pertinent meaning. Secondly, another tendency or property whose presence is ascertained in the analysis is that the Finnish translator of Liekehtivä elokuu has somewhat secularized the picture Faulkner paints of the Southern religion in the original text, thus secularizing some of the cultural-religious intertexts related to the American South. Secularization takes place through what might be called an assuaging effect, i.e., by turning some of the cultural-religious elements in the novel into more secular expressions in the Finnish translation. Thirdly, the study demonstrates that neither specific nor general intertextuality seem to exhaust all the intertextual references needed by the reader-translator. A third kind of intertextuality is therefore proposed in the study, called universal intertextuality. By this term is meant intertextuality which refers to various universal aspects of common humanity, in particular moral or ethical issues.
  • Silfverberg, Miikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    A morphological tagger is a computer program that provides complete morphological descriptions of sentences. Morphological taggers find applications in many NLP fields. For example, they can be used as a pre-processing step for syntactic parsers, in information retrieval and machine translation. The task of morphological tagging is closely related to POS tagging but morphological taggers provide more fine-grained morphological information than POS taggers. Therefore, they are often applied to morphologically complex languages, which extensively utilize inflection, derivation and compounding for encoding structural and semantic information. This thesis presents work on data-driven morphological tagging for Finnish and other morphologically complex languages. There exists a very limited amount of previous work on data-driven morphological tagging for Finnish because of the lack of freely available manually prepared morphologically tagged corpora. The work presented in this thesis is made possible by the recently published Finnish dependency treebanks FinnTreeBank and Turku Dependency Treebank. Additionally, the Finnish open-source morphological analyzer OMorFi is extensively utilized in the experiments presented in the thesis. The thesis presents methods for improving tagging accuracy, estimation speed and tagging speed in presence of large structured morphological label sets that are typical for morphologically complex languages. More specifically, it presents a novel formulation of generative morphological taggers using weighted finite-state machines and applies finite-state taggers to context sensitive spelling correction of Finnish. The thesis also explores discriminative morphological tagging. It presents structured sub-label dependencies that can be used for improving tagging accuracy. Additionally, the thesis presents a cascaded variant of the averaged perceptron tagger. In presence of large label sets, a cascaded design results in substantial reduction of estimation speed compared to a standard perceptron tagger. Moreover, the thesis explores pruning strategies for perceptron taggers. Finally, the thesis presents the FinnPos toolkit for morphological tagging. FinnPos is an open-source state-of-the-art averaged perceptron tagger implemented by the author.
  • Kummala, Petteri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study concentrates on urban nature and its significance in terms of the quality of urban environments. Even though the main focus of the study is on the downtown areas of the city of Helsinki, the main arguments about the essential characteristics of urban nature are more generally applicable. This study broadens the scope of aesthetic research to an area that has so far been studied only superficially. The main point of departure in this study is the claim that if one attempts to examine urban nature on its own terms then one has to accept that urban nature is a hybrid. This means that urban nature is both conceptually and in its concrete forms of manifestation a hybrid between human made and natural , a combination or a constantly changing state of intermingling of these concepts. Thus approaches to the concept of urban nature based on, for example, naturalness and authenticity are misleading if the aim is to examine urban nature as urban nature. The concept of hybrid is a way out of this dilemma. The first two chapters of the study discuss the following topics: Western concepts of nature, notions of naturalness and artefact , the concept of hybrid, and urban nature as hybrid. Starting from Chapter 3, an alternative approach to the aesthetic understanding of urban nature is developed. The main starting point is our everyday lived experience as the basic horizon of encountering urban nature. From the point of view of the experiencing human being, different aspects of perception and experiencing urban environments are examined. Also affectivity as a fundamental aspect through which we are responsive and sensitive in relation to our environment is underlined. Chapter 4 concentrates on the main registers through which urban nature affects us as experiencing human beings: otherness , place and atmosphere . The final chapter focuses more concretely on how urban nature affects the quality of urban environments. The matter is approached through the case study of Töölönlahti Bay in Helsinki and especially the southern part of the area. Through the case study, also the questions of planning and managing urban nature as well as the potentialities of urban nature in terms of the quality of urban environments are discussed.
  • Shpinitskaya, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation is a study of musical cultural mixtures, essentially focusing on mixtures in contemporary European art music and compositions of the Finnish-Swedish composer Erik Bergman as a complex case of cultural mixtures and mixing processes. The study suggests a theoretical framework and analytical tools for interpreting and deconstructing mixtures defined as multicultural texts. In the second part of the project, the suggested tools are applied to analyse the music of Erik Bergman, whose work is considered to be a particular example of the multicultural texts, in which the initial cultural components have blended into fusion on the level of sound. The project creates various perspectives to study the subject of musical mixtures described as virtual models of cultural communication, where different cultural identities, discourses, and aesthetics are presented simultaneously. Having as its goal the identifying and highlighting of different aspects of mixtures and strategies of their modelling, the multidisciplinary project, with a primary background in musicology and semiotics, combines diverse theories and concepts, involving different branches of semiotics (from Yuri Lotman s cultural semiotics to the intertextual studies and interpretative semiotics of Umberto Eco), as well as the concept of virtual reality, temporal theories, studies of cultural identity, the theory of topics, and studies of cultural forms of sound and their conceptualisation. The research work results in the creation of a comprehensive theory that proposes background, terminology, and several tools and strategies for studying mixtures, while tracing cultural information and its transformation inside them. The theory takes into account processes of virtual cultural modelling, the role of the author and the reader, and addresses an extensive category of the multicultural texts taken as personal creations. This novel understanding of musical mixtures leads to an analysis of mixtures on the level of sound essence and sound strategies. The research also creates a new perspective on Erik Bergman s music, an author with extraordinary cultural experiences and many cultural identities speaking through his authorial voice. The analytical part of the project demonstrates how diverse strategies of modelling, cultural compositional techniques, and sound strategies work to compose (and decompose) a multicultural text.
  • Wuokko, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The Vanguard of the Market Economy: The political activity of Finnish business in the 1970s and 1980s This doctoral thesis examines the motives, means, objectives, and outcomes of the political activity of Finland s major business associations in the 1970s and 1980s. It centres around two influential organisations founded in the mid-1970s, Elinkeinoelämän Valtuuskunta (EVA; the Council of Economic Organisations in Finland) and Teollisuuden Keskusliitto (TKL; the Confederation of Finnish Industries). The analysis focuses on three political processes in which these advocates of Finnish business were particularly involved: the foundation of consensus politics in the late 1970s, the presidential election campaign of 1981 1982, and the formation of the cabinet in 1987. The principal sources are archived documents from EVA, the TKL, other relevant business organisations, and individual business leaders, and these are assessed using three core methods of historical inquiry (source criticism, triangulation, and hermeneutics). Furthermore, the empirical findings are examined in the light of social scientific theories about the varieties and sources of business political power. The thesis offers new insights into the societally relevant, widely debated but insufficiently studied topics of business government relations and the political influence of business. The political activity of Finnish business in the 1970s and 1980s had three fundamental objectives. International competitiveness should be enshrined at the heart of Finnish economic policy. The commercial and cultural and, after the end of the Cold War, also the political position of Finland had to be rooted firmly in the sphere of Western Europe. Finally, the role of the market economy as the cornerstone of Finnish society had to be strengthened through liberating the economy and restricting the social and economic role of the state. The business community was, in principle, unanimous about these goals, but controversies arose about the best tactics with which to achieve them. Moreover, internal contradictions were inherent in these objectives, particularly between pragmatic short-term interests and fundamental long-term goals, which was reflected in the lobbying activities in all three of the political processes. First, the prioritisation of competitiveness was primarily promoted through consensus politics in cooperation with the Social Democrats, even though business circles at the same time wanted to prevent the political left from strengthening. Second, throughout the Cold War era, Finland s orientation towards Western Europe had to be advanced discretely, because business leaders also wanted to maintain good (trade) relations with the Soviet Union. And third, while it was important for business circles to support right-of-centre parties and to secure a non-socialist parliamentary majority, it was in fact more essential to nurture contact with the dominant Social Democratic Party and the Centre Party. Despite these contradictions, the fundamental objectives of Finnish business had either already been or were about to be fulfilled by the end of the 1980s. Although societal development was primarily dictated by international political and economic trends, lobbying by business was significant in accelerating and directing change. In its political activity, Finnish business utilised instrumental power (e.g. election and party funding), network-based power (e.g. contacts between leading politicians and business leaders), and structural power (e.g. crisis rhetoric). It also employed informational power (e.g. influencing opinions and attitudes, taking part in public discussion), which became increasingly important toward the end of the research period. During the Cold War, the political leeway of Finnish business leaders was limited for fear of offending the Soviet Union and damaging Eastern trade. In other respects, however, the political activity of business assumed similar forms and occurred at the same time as that in other Western countries. The political mobilisation of Finnish business groups in the 1970s can be seen as part of a wider international phenomenon, in which capitalist forces in various countries gathered their troops against statism and in defence of the free market economy. This collective action contributed to the strengthening of a neoliberal, market-oriented ideology and economic policy both in Finland and around the world from the turn of the 1980s onwards.
  • Laukola, Iiro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The interaction between Greek and Egyptian cultural concepts has been an intense yet controversial topic in studies about Ptolemaic Egypt. The present study partakes in this discussion with an analysis of the encomiastic poems of Callimachus of Cyrene (c. 305 c. 240 BC). The success of the Ptolemaic Dynasty is crystallized in the juxtaposing of the different roles of a Greek βασιλεύς and of an Egyptian Pharaoh, and this study gives a glimpse of this political and ideological endeavour through the poetry of Callimachus. The contribution of the present work is to situate Callimachus in the core of the Ptolemaic court. Callimachus was a proponent of the Ptolemaic rule. By reappraising the traditional Greek beliefs, he examined the bicultural rule of the Ptolemies in his encomiastic poems. This work critically examines six Callimachean hymns, namely to Zeus, to Apollo, to Artemis, to Delos, to Athena and to Demeter together with the Victory of Berenice, the Lock of Berenice and the Ektheosis of Arsinoe. Characterized by ambiguous imagery, the hymns inspect the ruptures in Greek thought during the Hellenistic age. These poems link Ptolemaic kings and queens with the deities they address and embroider this linkage with Egyptian cultural concepts. The Victory of Berenice and the Lock of Berenice contain a subtext in which Berenice II is portrayed in Egyptian terms whereas the Ektheosis of Arsinoe examines the mortuary aspects of Graeco-Egyptian Ptolemaic Egypt. The Ptolemies created a new audience for the poets of their court when they established a bilingual cadre of scribes. The scribes, together with the indigenous priests, were a heterogeneous group, but some were thoroughly Hellenized, as the case of Manetho confirms. The encomiastic poetry of Callimachus legitimized the status of the Ptolemies amid the native Egyptian elite, but also made their style of kingship more familiar to the Greeks.
  • Käkelä, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) was one of the central writers in the formative period of American science fiction, and among the first to emphasize the societal and political importance of the genre. This dissertation examines the themes of history, frontier expansionism, and guardianship in Asimov's key works, the Robot and Foundation series, in order to view his influence on the development of science fiction when it started to distance itself from pulp fiction and refine its key tropes and themes. A significant part of Asimov's Robot and Foundation stories were first published as serials in the 1940s and 1950s Astounding Science-Fiction magazine, and the pulp publishing context is crucial in order to understand Asimov's impact on the genre. Thus, this dissertation combines the contextual examination of Asimov's main themes with a discussion of the views of the Astounding magazine editor, John W. Campbell, Jr., a key influence on Asimov's work. Moreover, the present study extends to Asimov's 1980s novels that combine much of his fiction into a unified grand narrative of future history. My claim is that in Asimov's series the need to understand history in order to construct a sustainable future becomes the pivotal theme, both on the level of narration and on the level of characters that turn their knowledge of history into action. This awareness of history, I contend, leads to the recurrent realization that human culture will decline if stagnation is not reversed by frontier expansion. The pervasive frontier theme and the role of individual heroes in Asimov s work also reflect the Western backdrop of American pulp fiction. In this way, it demonstrates the science fiction genre's shift from cowboy heroes of Western fiction to problem-solving engineers on the intellectual frontier of the future. Finally, the historical and frontier aspects in Asimov's series point toward the notion of guardianship and the aspiration to apply the understanding of both history and science to engineer a more peaceful, yet non-stagnant future. Throughout his career, then, Asimov displays a tension between a utopian desire and the pragmatic and techno-meritocratic solutions typical to Campbell s stable of writers. Thus, although Asimov's series is usually taken as straightforward prose fiction that focuses on solutions and explanations, this dissertation demonstrates its central tensions, which also serve to highlight the development of the science fiction genre. The readings presented make visible the ambiguous strains between Asimov's cyclical models of history and his admiration of the Enlightenment ideal of progression, between individual freedom and the notion of guardianship, as well as between pragmatism and utopia. Informed by American history, Asimov's series portrays how individuals make bold maneuvers in order to steer humankind toward a more sustainable future, thus engaging in what could be termed the cowboy politics of an enlightened future.
  • Viitamies, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    A conclusion of my research is that Helsinki City s pedestrian zone increases in size when traffic speeds are slowed down and more room for pedestrian traffic is made, not when car traffic is attempted to get rid of completely. Pedestrian traffic was noted as the most important means of travel by the city of Helsinki by the beginning of 1970s. In spite of that, Kluuvi s pedestrian zone was formed as late as the 1990s after prolonged controversy. Today Aleksanterinkatu, Keskuskatu, Mikonkatu and Kluuvikatu are car-free streets. The changes happened a lot slower than in other Nordic capitals because driving has progressively been increasing and growing stronger culturally in Finland all they way since the 1950s till today. The car was rooted to the society in the 60s. The property owners thought that the streets had to be left for cars to ensure that customer and service traffic could happen without problems. Citizens, activists and planners were well aware of international trends according to which pedestrian streets made cities feel more humane. Also, only the minority of the shopkeepers were against traffic calming in the urban core. The street space s slow gradual change began in the Three Smiths square in the year 1980. As on the following years the Aleksanterinkatu Street s sidewalks were widened, they as a consequence were illegally used as a parking space. On the other hand, the way the streets were used by the citizens also changed in the desired way. Nowadays, a hundred thousand citizens walk on the Aleksanterinkatu Street over the course of a day. Kluuvi´s pedestrian zone was implemented when real-estate owners renewed their buildings and built underground parking lots. They had to approve pedestrian streets as a trade for building rights. The businesses leaned towards traffic calming in 1990´s because walking was thought to be the most effective means to gain customers for stores and restaurants in the urban core. Helsinki´s street culture has gotten richer, following the changes the street space faced that favored events, hanging around and rambling. In the 1970s there weren t any street cafés or street musicians in Helsinki. The meaning of urban street has changed. Thoroughfares became places for trade and other interactions. The City of Helsinki built its brand by redesigning the streets. On the streets minority groups and individuals become visible and join the society. The street life grows stronger and the traffic system in Helsinki becomes less and less automobile dependent. The central pedestrian zone will expand faster than it has in the past. Although this requires certain conditions to be met; urban planning has to come together with business. Shop owners and restaurant keepers etc. have to join the city production. They must practice their right to the city and the streets.
  • Ammunet, Riitta (Unigrafia, 2016)
    The aim of my doctoral thesis is to analyze and describe the manner in which the definite article is used in different kinds of noun phrases (NPs), ranging between i) autonomous titles that represent original pieces of artwork (i.e. film titles) and ii) headings that are linked and interrelated to each other (i.e. news headlines). The definite article can, in principle, always be omitted. However, there are also particular cases which are often related to certain text types or other conventions when the definite article is or is not omitted. My dissertation sheds more light on these pragmatic laws. Before my corpus analysis I conducted a perception study where informants were asked to comment on the acceptability of some examples representing different kinds of titles and headings. I also examined a sample of news headlines dating from 1 October 2013 until 15 March 2014. This study primarily focuses on headlines from daily newspapers (i.e. both paper and online newspapers). Headlines from news broadcasts and current affairs programmes were, however, also examined. My main research data has been collected from the film corpus. As my more specific data I chose to examine one year per decade between 1904 and 2014. The data consists of 2841 NPs from 7585 film titles. My analysis starts with John Hawkins's Location Theory and the analysis of the standard definite article within Italian language. Knud Lambrecht s theoretical description on the Information Structure is then used to examine interrelated headlines. The principle theoretical framework is based on Cognitive Linguistics and particularly Construction Grammar. I describe the characteristics of different linguistic levels, namely the syntactic, the semantic and pragmatic levels, with discourse pattern schemes. This approach has made it possible to describe these characteristics in a way that includes only the contextual aspect, i.e. the situational setting [frame], above all other aspects. The findings show that the use (or the omittance) of the definite article is influenced by multiple variables and conventions, sometimes together and sometimes separately. The dissertation, for instance, demonstrates that, in different types of action films, word choice in film titles contributes to the general omission of the definite article. Similarly, the definite article is omitted when the connection between a noun and its complement could in some way be anticipated. In contrast the definite article is typically written in a title or headline when the noun and the complement are not automatically associated with each other. Finally, my doctoral dissertation also touches on the historical development of the definite article, the so-called 'definite article cycle', and on Latin which, in the background, subtly continues to have its influence on modern Italian. This is the reason why the dissertation's title and also a couple of headings have been written in Latin.
  • Engelberg, Mila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The study examines the androcentrism in Finnish terms for person reference: generic masculinity, covert male bias, the use of the noun ”mies” ’man, male’ in a pronominal manner and the possible grammaticalization of ”mies”. The study consists of four studies and the compilation part. Generic masculinity (gm) in Finnish shows in masculine expressions which are used to refer to both sexes. The gm forms are compounds (e.g. ”esi-isä” lit. forefather, ’ancestor’), derivatives (e.g. ”veljeillä” < ”veli” ’brother’, ’to fraternize’), phrases such as ”uskottu mies” ’trustee, executor, administrator’, idioms (e.g. ”olla oma herransa” ’to be one’s own master’), and proverbs (e.g. ”Auta miestä mäessä, älä mäen alla” ’Help a man on the hill, not under the hill’). The gm forms are often presumed to be gender-neutral. However, in an experiment the participants (N= 150) interpreted the gm expressions as referring to men more often than their morphologically gender-neutral equivalents (e.g. ”lakimies” lit. law-man ’lawyer’ vs. ”juristi” ’lawyer’). The men interpreted the gm forms as referring to both sexes less often than the women did. Gender-neutral person reference terms such as ”ihminen” ’human being’ may have a covert male bias. In an experiment (N= 295), the boys and the men perceived ”ihminen” as male more often than as female. In a second experiment (N= 220), the adult participants, the men more often than the women, interpreted such category names as e.g. ”tyypillinen suomalainen” ’a typical Finn’ more often as referring to men. In a series of experiments (N= 507), the boys and the young adults, the men more often than the women, perceived the referent of the pronoun ”hän” ’she, he’ more often as male. The contexts of the stimulus terms did not indicate the gender of the referent. The noun ”mies” is also being used in place of e.g. the pronoun ”hän” to refer to a man who has been identified by his name. Data from crime articles (published 1971–1980 and 2008–2013) showed that the pronominal ”mies” is increasingly used in reference to a criminal person. In a questionnaire study (N= 80) the pronominal ”mies” with criminal reference was often perceived to have a weaker referentiality than the corresponding pronoun ”hän”. The study discusses the potential of the noun ”mies” to grammaticalize into an indefinite man pronoun (cf. e.g. indefinite ”man” in Swedish)
  • Enqvist, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The dissertation explores the key concepts of archaeological heritage management in Finland: their aspects, definitions and meanings, the history of the concepts and especially the contemporary, official discourse surrounding them – the ways in which people represent, talk and write about archaeological heritage [arkeologinen perintö] and ancient remains [muinaisjäännös]. The social context of the study was focused on the Finnish archaeologists who worked in the intersecting fields of heritage management and academic archaeology. The texts, produced by the archaeologists, were analysed by means of critical discourse analysis; the findings of the analysis were compared to one of the most important contributions in the development of critical heritage studies: Laurajane Smith's (2005) theory of the authorized heritage discourse (AHD). The study dissects the ideologies, identities and interaction which are constructed and maintained by the Finnish AHD. Consistent with Smith s arguments, the Finnish AHD appears as an ideological construction that is dominated by heritage officials and experts, and thus excludes other members of society from taking part in the processes that define heritage. The world view of the AHD represents reality as being divided into indisputable and naturalized conceptual categories, as well as into the quantitative results of measurements and numbers in the pursuit of scientific rigour. Archaeological heritage is defined and evaluated by the experts as material objects whose physical integrity, interpretation and representation of which archaeologists control. The AHD is maintained in the network of official texts which concatenate and refer to each other. The vital intertextual element of these texts is derived from the Finnish Antiquities Act, prepared in the 1950s, which carries the connotations of nationalism and a juridical discourse. The social significance of heritage management, protection and research of archaeological heritage is thus reduced to obeying the law in the AHD. The results and the conclusions of the study, concerning the historical contingency, causes, effects and action of the official heritage discourse, are vital in order to promote the more inclusive and participatory heritage practices in Finland in the future, the democratised heritage discourse , which consists in the emancipatory interest of the research. Keywords: archaeological heritage, cultural heritage, cultural environment, management, discourse analysis, concepts