Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Isolammi, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation focuses on the concept “1920’s musical modernism in Finland” and what it means in Väinö Raitio’s (1891–1945) orchestral works from 1921–1923 and their reception. The examined compositions are Fantasia estatica op. 21 (1921), Antigone op. 23 (1921–1922), Kuutamo Jupiterissa [Moonlight on Jupiter] op. 24 (1922–1923) and Fantasia poetica op. 25 (1923). The works were written for a full symphony orchestra and premiered in Helsinki in the early 1920s. Their style has often been referred to as modernist. The more detailed analysis focuses on the reviews these aforementioned works received at their premieres. The reviews are examined in relation to Raitio’s own writings, the context of the musical life in Helsinki in 1920s, the modernist traits on the works themselves, as well as the image written music history has established of Raitio as a neglected and misunderstood composer. The dissertation also includes an extensive biographical chapter, which brings out new material about Raitio’s compositions, his aesthetic principles and his life. The viewpoint of this dissertation is biographical and reception-historical (verbal), and the main methods used are close reading and comparative analysis. When examining the reviews of the premieres, the focus is on the special vocabulary the critics used when describing the works as modernist. Some of the words are now used in a slightly different way and have slightly different meanings. On the strength of the modernism-associated vocabulary, I have chosen the parameters – timbre, harmony, thematics and form – which I examine using music analytical methods. Besides biographical and reception history, other research approaches that have influenced this dissertation are microhistory and cultural musicology. The new or previously not-referred-to material I bring out in this study both corrects flawed or incomplete knowledge and elaborates on the previously established picture of Raitio’s aesthetic views and his life. The close reading and contextualization of the contemporary reviews also shows that the image of Raitio as a misunderstood composer is slightly flawed, and the reasoning behind it is based mostly on the modernist features of Raitio’s works, rather than the context.
  • Hämäläinen, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The Internet has changed several areas of our society and culture, including communication and its tool, language. The change of language has been studied from different points of view, but proper names have not received much attention. This thesis fills the gap by examining two name categories in the Internet: user names and level names. Theoretically and methodologically, the study is based especially on onomastics but also on several other disciplines, for example computer-mediated communication (CMC), game studies, digital culture, and drug trade and culture. The thesis consists of four research articles and an extensive summary. In many online communities, a user can create a personal user name, which makes them recognizable to other users. Article I makes an overview of user names in Finnish online communities, using a large corpus. The focus is especially on structure and the semantics of names. Article II studies user names of drug vendors on a global marketplace on Tor network. The article examines especially what kind of information and images vendors share and create of themselves in their names while building the trust that the online drug trade requires. Video games often consist of several spaces of play, which are called levels in this thesis. Article III examines the names of levels in a game called Minigolf, which was located on an online gaming community Playforia (Aapeli in Finnish). Special attention is paid to the principles of naming: what kinds of connections are there between the names and levels’ characteristics? Article IV continues examining level names in Minigolf from the point of view of memorability: what kind of names are easy or difficult to remember? Results of the empirical memory tests completed by game hobbyists show that memorability is influenced by the principle of naming, language and the length of the name, as well as the characteristics of the level itself. The summary part of the thesis evaluates the differences and similarities of user names and level names. The most remarkable common features are uniqueness, intertextuality, the influence of the English language, plentiful use of made-up words, and a somewhat carefree and playful attitude towards naming. The summary also presents the most important research question of the whole thesis: has the Internet changed the ways we give and use names? The answer is an equivocal yes and no. There are some characteristics in the Internet names that do not appear in the name categories of the non-virtual world. On the other hand, there are many resemblances, and some of them seem to be based on the models adapted from real-world names.
  • Hamunen, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Mannerless infinitives. Construction Grammar of co-eventive infinitive structures in Finnish dialects Markus Hamunen, University of Helsinki This thesis deals with certain Finnish infinitive structures roughly designating how something happens simultaneously to an event described by a finite structure (e.g. Keijo syö hotkien ‘Keijo gulps his food down’). The thesis consists of two parts: four distinct research articles studying separate infinitive structures, and a theoretical introductory part. The objects of research are the so called colorative construction (e.g. juosta jol-kottaa ‘s/he runs at a trot’ or ‘s/he jogs’), the (T)e-infinitive instructive (TEN-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottaen ‘s/he runs trotting’), the mA-infinitive adessive (MALLA-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottamalla ‘s/he runs (by) trotting’), and the mA-infinitive abessive (MATTA-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottamatta ‘s/he runs without trotting’). The unifying property of these structures is that they all describe how something happens. In the colorative construction, this meaning is incorporated in the lexical semantics of the colorative finite verb (e.g. jolkottaa ‘to run slowly at a trot’). The other three infinitive structures are adjuncts of finite structures. The semantics of their adjuncthood concerns how the infinitive structure characterizes described events by the finite structure. The data in this study is based on approximately 6,000 clausal examples gathered from three distinct corpora: Lauseopin arkisto (LA, Syntax Archive), Digitaalinen Muoto-opin arkisto (DMA, Digital Morphology archive), and Suomen murteiden sanakirja (SMS, Dictionary of Finnish Dialects, in the alphabetical range from A to kurvottaa). The most crucial research questions in this study can be illustrated in: What kind of infinitive structures are the objects of research, and how do theoretical concepts and tools of cognitive linguistics, and especially construction grammar (e.g. Fillmore & Kay 1995), implement the description of objects in this research? First, in the analysis of corpus data, in becomes apparent that both the colorative construction and the infinitive adjuncts are polysemous. In the colorative construction this can be seen in the colorative features characterizing the events in question where they may be dealing, for example, with an actor, an action itself or something emerging causally from the action (e.g. sound, see the article Liike ja tapa). Accordingly, the polysemy of infinitive adjuncts is manifest in the fact that different grammatical factors between verbs and verbal structures (subject and temporal interpretations, hyponymy, causal relations and negation) have an effect on whether the event described by the infinitive structure is interpreted as manner, means, concomitant, method, or as something else attributed to the event described by the finite structure (see articles Juosten vai juoksemalla and MATTA-rakenne). Second, in this study, the application of construction grammar is twofold. On the one hand, it gives a description of constructional development of the colorative construction from the reconstructed Late-Proto-Finnic form to the modern Finnish (see article Kieliopillistuminen). On the other hand, the actual theoretical contribution in this study addresses the constructional character of infinitive adjuncts. This thesis gives an overall grammatical and semantic description for the object structures of this study. At the same time, it offers insight into an extremely challenging topic for any grammar model: adjuncts.
  • Jauhiainen, Tommi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This work investigates the task of identifying the language of digitally encoded text. Automatic methods for language identification have been developed since the 1960s. During the years, the significance of language identification as an important preprocessing element has grown at the same time as other natural language processing systems have become mainstream in day-to-day applications. The methods used for language identification are mostly shared with other text classification tasks as almost any modern machine learning method can be trained to distinguish between different languages. We begin the work by taking a detailed look at the research so far conducted in the field. As part of this work, we provide the largest survey on language identification available so far. Comparing the performance of different language identification methods presented in the literature has been difficult in the past. Before the introduction of a series of language identification shared tasks at the VarDial workshops, there were no widely accepted standard datasets which could be used to compare different methods. The shared tasks mostly concentrated on the issue of distinguishing between similar languages, but other open issues relating to language identification were addressed as well. In this work, we present the methods for language identification we have developed while participating in the shared tasks from 2015 to 2017. Most of the research for this work was accomplished within the Finno-Ugric Languages and the Internet project. In the project, our goal was to find and collect texts written in rare Uralic languages on the Internet. In addition to the open issues addressed at the shared tasks, we dealt with issues concerning domain compatibility and the number of languages. We created an evaluation set-up for addressing short out-of-domain texts in a large number of languages. Using the set-up, we evaluated our own method as well as other promising methods from the literature. The last issue we address in this work is the handling of multilingual documents. We developed a method for language set identification and used a previously published dataset to evaluate its performance.
  • von Boehm, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study focuses on variation in Finnish university students’ use of English verb forms and teachers’ assessment of such use. The goal of the study was to identify the nature and extent of variation in both students’ responses and teachers’ assessment of these responses. The study demonstrates that there is extensive variation in both students’ use of English verb forms and in teachers’ assessment of the forms. The data consist of students’ responses to a fill-in-the-gap test. The study comprised 319 students attending English courses at three Finnish universities in 2003-2004. In addition, 13 English language teachers at the University of Helsinki evaluated the level of acceptability of the students’ responses. The study was conducted by drafting a list of all the suggested answers and asking teachers of English to rate the answers with a four-point scale. After this, the responses were analysed with different levels of strictness. The criteria for this depended on how many teachers were required to judge an answer successful. The results indicate that the level of expected teacher consensus radically affected the results. The criteria applied in assessment have a critical impact on the impression created of the students’ proficiency. The range of variation among teachers mainly resulted from their different interpretations of event time and their reactions to spelling errors and to providing unconventional tense or aspect. Finnish, American and British teachers of English had negligible differences at the group level: the differences were caused by the individual norms the teachers followed. Reliance on only one teacher’s assessment of a student’s performance may create arbitrary results, and more teachers are needed for reliable evaluation, at least for high-stakes purposes. The results also indicate that although some students are skilful at providing the expected verb forms, many students struggle with the provision of any forms beyond the simple past. It seems that investment in communicative teaching practices, although beneficial for promoting students’ fluency in English, does not assist them in their attempts at greater accuracy. Some further attention to grammar would provide students with more options to express their message accurately, proficiently, meaningfully and intelligibly. Of the background factors, increased exposure to and use of English or additional study did not influence students’ skills in the use of English verb forms. Regardingschool and matriculation examination marks, only high marks predicted good performance in the test, while marks in the middle and low end of the spectrum were not reliable indicators of students’ ability to provide verb forms accurately. The findings imply that researchers, raters and teachers need to become more aware of the limitations of reliance on intuition alone in evaluating students’ language skills. Some parts of language use do not readily bend to existing norms. The degree to which teachers are likely to accept unexpected forms significantly contributes to how learners are treated in testing situations. While it is useful to attempt to harmonise testing practices, it is also important to acknowledge the fact that there is variation both in learners’ use of English and in teachers’ assessment of such use.
  • Vepsäläinen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study investigates the use of the Finnish particle “no”, its meaning and use in conversation, especially in answers to questions. The theoretical background of the study is in Interactional Linguistics and the method used was Conversation Analysis. The data consist of audio- and videotaped naturally occurring conversations. The majority are telephone conversations, both landline and mobile calls. Some face-to-face conversations were also analyzed. The study had two main goals. First, to show what the use of the particle “no” accomplishes in interaction. The second goal was to investigate a specific action, answers to questions, to see what “no”-prefaced answers do when compared to non-prefaced answers, and what that reveals about the answering system of the Finnish language. The study begins with a comprehensive overview of the sequential positions of the particle “no”, showing that it is used equally often in responsive turns and in transitions that guide or correct the on-going project. In both of these positions, the particle “no” implies that the turn or turn constructional unit (TCU) it is prefacing is relevant for the larger project that the turn is part of, and it either aligns or disaligns with that project. The “no”-prefacing of a response to questions shows the relevance of the response to the project in tandem with the form of the response, which can be minimal, clausal or indirect. The two direct responses, minimal and clausal, occur in answers to specifying questions and in answers to telling questions. In these contexts, the clausal “no”-prefaced answer aligns with the project of the question, whereas the “no”-prefaced minimal answer shows disalignment with the project. When responding to a telling question, the “no”-prefaced clausal answer is the predominant way of answering when the topic is offered as new. The “no”-prefaced indirect response is reserved for situations where there is a need to negotiate the matter that the question has brought up before possibly reaching a jointly constructed decision. These situations can either involve mutual planning or a challenge in the relevance of posing the question.
  • Pääsky, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract This study concentrates on the Dutch artist, Piet Mondrian, as a producer of a Neo-Plastic theory of art. My semiotic reading focuses mainly on one of his article series, Natural Reality and Abstract Reality (Natuurlijke en abstracte realiteit [1919-1920]), and acknowledges also the accompanying writings in the De Stijl periodical where it appeared, and a few photographs of Mondrian’s studio and motifs present in the paintings at the time when Mondrian wrote Natural Reality and Abstract Reality. Mondrian produces his ideas of non-figurative art in a way in which other external cognitive processes from science, certain esoteric streams, modern urban experience and popular culture, are to be taken as integral parts of the theory formation in his own text. This view elucidates the idea of creativity in a new way because it situates the artist’s individual activity within cultural knowledge and memory rather than just taking influences from it. I have reached these findings by relating Mondrian’s little-researched article series to the surrounding international philosophical, esoteric and technologizing cultures of the 1920s. Studying this relation in terms of significations has led to my study reflecting the paradigmatic and related meaning effects in contemporary philosophies and reflections, such as those of Henri Poincaré, Rudolf Steiner, Henri Bergson and Sigmund Freud. By reading the text as a fictive dramatic score my study relies on Roman Jakobson’s poetic function. Following in the lines of literary scholar Jørgen Johansen’s subsequent application of Charles Peirce’s semiotics this study reads Mondrian’s article series as the process of iconization; as a flow of images, as diagrammatic enactment and as metaphors of night and a stroll. To stage the route from ‘natural reality’ to ‘abstract, Mondrian gives to Natural Reality and Abstract Reality the flavour of being a form of logical inference applied by means of images. As a flow of images the text shows a stream of consciousness and, thus, the modern insight of perception, which differs from the traditional Kantian dualistic insight and the notion of the stable subject. The form of the text itself also represents meaning, which shows that Mondrian had literary ambitions. The aesthetic effect of the text as a diagram of many thematic oppositions and as the characters’ relations makes it a self-reflective icon of its own theme of modern consciousness. Metaphorically, the text presents the processual character of an artist’s creative thought as a night-time stroll, while developing the idea of Neo-Plasticism. Thus, there are definite Neoplatonic tenets in Mondrian’s text. This study shows that creative activity takes place not only in the processes of an individual mind but also by actively integrating and using cultural signs, such as the idea of evolution or the cultural text of the Euclidean derivative, the ‘point to line to plane’. By these kinds of ‘cultural artefacts’ Mondrian is able to conduct his own activity within and for the modern culture of the 1920s.
  • Björkman, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This doctoral thesis discusses the architecture of industrial communities constructed by forest industry companies from the perspective of cooperation and social networks of an architect and his clients between the two World Wars. The forest industry was the forefront of Finland’s rapid industrialization in the 1920s and 1930s. Success was manifested in the built environment. The main actor of this research is architect Wäinö Gustaf (W. G.) Palmqvist (1882–1964), who designed a considerable number of projects for Finnish industrial companies. In addition to the architect, the study also includes clients: G.A. Serlachius Oy and Yhtyneet Paperitehtaat Oy. The architect-client relationship was emphasized in the 1920s and 1930s as a personal relationship between Gösta Serlachius and Rudolf Walden. Serlachius and Walden are, along with Palmqvist, the ones I look at from the close range. More detailed research is focused on the Mänttä and Myllykoski mills. In both of these, the success of the forest industry's economic growth was – and still is – visible in the built structure and architecture of the entire community. Both are now valued as nationally significant built cultural environments mostly through their industrial history. In addition to economic growth, there were sociopolitical reasons behind building up the industrial communities. Forest industry companies struggled to restore peace after the Finnish civil war and to continue their production. I have described building the industrial communities as work where concepts of corporate social responsibility and welfare capitalism were connected. Besides the factories, the companies built housing, schools, churches and other social welfare amenities for the workers. It was a goal-oriented and guided construction where the idea behind the assignments given to the architect was to get the right, aesthetically high quality and beautiful community. In the study, architecture is linked to the political, economic and cultural contexts of time. This research connects Finnish industrial communities to the international models that first appeared in the United Kingdom, Germany and France and the United States. In this study, I refer in particular to the examples known as model communities. The communities have been designed with the ideas of urban design of the early 20th century, such as a garden city and the ideals of aesthetics. The research complements the art historical perspective in the history writing of forest industry.
  • Jurkiewicz-Rohrbacher, Edyta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The objective of this contrastive research is (1) to determine the rules of correlation between the language-specific category Polish Verbal Aspect (PVA) and the elements of Finnish clause, whilst (2) re-examining the semantic scope of PVA, and (3) improving the definition of the cross-linguistically valid comparative concept of aspectuality. The investigation is empirical, and based on 900 Polish-Finnish clauses compiled in the form of a bidirectional parallel corpus stratified in three samples according to text types. The corpus is annotated on three levels, following the scalar model of temporality: the morphosyntactic and semantic clause-internal levels, as well as the clause-external level, including such elements as taxis and the quantificational-pragmatic context, temporally located (existentially quantified) situation, and generic or generalising interpretation (universal quantification). The reasoning in the study is mostly inductive. In contrast to the previous studies on aspect, the work is organised bottom-up. The data is approached quantitatively, using state-of-the-art methods. First, the descriptive statistics of temporal markers in the corpus are discussed. Afterwards, the data is summarised in a statistical model and visualised in a hierarchical cluster structure. Particularly interesting correlations (e.g. tense-aspect or case-aspect) are further validated with the random-forests method. The quantitative results yield a two-layered model of aspectuality, distinguishing between two levels: the outer, temporal-deictic level and the inner level related to the notion of change in time. Thus, the study confirms the validity of multi-layered concepts of aspectuality as previously postulated. As to language-specific results, PVA correlates with Polish and Finnish tenses within the outer, temporal-deictic layer. This interaction involves the third element – temporal quantification. The inner layer is realised in Finnish in the predicate-argument structure, and therefore, the Finnish argument case-marking is the closest correlate of PVA. Here the most important systematic opposition are between the lative and essive semantic cases (including Translative and Essive), and between the Total and Partitive type of object. The notion of change which is the semantically relevant factor is treated as gradable opposition (next to the traditionally used polar and equipollent oppositions), and therefore, the formal comparison between PVA and Finnish differential object marking is possible within the scalar description. The Finnish derivational valency modifiers (transtivisers and detransitivisers), however, do not seem to play any significant role in the marking of aspectual oppositions. Neither do lexical temporal expressions play much role here, as their generally low frequency does not deviate from the frequency of Polish expressions of that kind. In particular, the study shows that the measure adverbials in the object cases are quite infrequent in language use. Therefore, their contribution in expressing aspect is marginal.
  • Lindblom, Jeanette (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of the study is to sketch a picture of female presence in public space in the urban milieu of the Byzantine Empire in the 6th to the 8th centuries. The ideological framework of society is juxtaposed with narrated praxis. Women’s public presence is viewed from different horizons, taking into consideration aspects such as location, occasion and the diversity within the female population, such as the division into social groups and civil status. Traditional methods of historical research are employed. However, the study also takes advantage of various theoretical considerations evolving in the 20th century. A selection of different source types serves to represent a broad spectrum of society. These sources include legal texts, papyri, chronicles, hagiographies and other religious texts, epigrams, and other poetry, as well as non-textual material such as manuscript illustrations and mosaic decorations. The connection between the sources and the society producing them ensures that the broad selection of relevant material reflects cultural attitudes and practices. The study begins with a theoretical discussion and a review of previous research and the relevant source material, followed by an overview of the cultural and ideological framework within which women operated. The focus in the subsequent chapters is on women’s presence in public in four segments of society: religious, financial, political and social life. Thereafter the discussion turns to female movability, gender correlations and the relationship between ideals and praxis, and chronological shifts. Whereas many previous studies concentrate on one category of women, or treat all women as an entity, this study considers the whole spectrum of women in society and the differences in their situations. Although the basic framework of female behaviour was relatively homogeneous in ideological terms, the study shows that factors such as social class, civil status, locality and circumstances affected the way in which women were present in public and how this presence was evaluated by the surrounding society. Further, there was some chronological fluctuation. An interesting finding is the idea of gender symmetry, also displayed in public space. This was at its peak during the 6th century, when the female public presence generally seems to have been slightly more prevalent than in later centuries.
  • Yliniemi, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis is a descriptive grammar of Denjongke, or Sikkimese Bhutia (also known as Lhoke or Sikkimese) (ISO 639-3 sip), an endangered Tibeto-Burman, Tibetic language spoken in the Indian state of Sikkim. The study is based on original fieldwork conducted over more than six years. The theoretical framework is functionalist-typological and may further be characterized as an application of Basic Linguistic Theory. The discussion is data-oriented and aims to describe Denjongke in its own terms. The thesis begins with an introduction to the language and the people who speak it and continues with a description of phonology and an introduction to word classes, suffixes and clitics. The remainder of the grammar presents a mainly functionally-oriented description, starting with phrase-level syntax and proceeding through clausal syntax to discourse. The last chapter on vocabulary and the texts in the appendix provide a cultural window into Denjongke speakers' life. Denjongke is an incipient tone language with 43 consonants and eight vowels. Nasalization and length are contrastive in vowels. The analysis establishes four major word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) and eleven minor word classes. Many nouns and verbs have ordinary and honorific equivalents. Controlled vs. non-controlled verbs occur in phonologically related pairs. Unlike many Tibetic languages, Denjongke does not make a clusivity distinction in first person plural pronouns. There are five case-marking enclitics some of which may be stacked. In syntax, the marking of A argument shows signs of both syntactic and pragmatic control. The marking of P argument is sensitive to animacy, specificity and affectedness. Denjongke has a rich array of copula forms, which mark three evidential values: personal, sensorial and neutral. The semantically oriented category “personal” differs from the more syntactically-oriented Lhasa Tibetan category “egophoric”. Denjongke is a clause-chaining language and has a wide variety of adverbial clauses, which are expressed through various constructions, including ten converbs. Relative clauses are a subclass of genitive-marked constituent-modifying clauses. Denjongke is rich in ideophones, i.e. vividly descriptive words which are semantically, phonologically and morphologically distinct from other words.
  • Castrillón Arcila, Sergio Andrés (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This work analyses the repertoire for solo cello and cello with electronic media from 2000 to 2015 by Colombian composers, focusing on timbre as the main musical element explored. Nevertheless, a historical view on the European and non-European repertoire is included. This thesis consists of two parts. The first part includes chapters 1, 2, and 3. Chapter 1 classifies the cello playing techniques used in the most well-known pieces and studies the solo cello from the 17th century onwards, emphasising so-called extended playing techniques. Such classification serves as a tool for the further musical analyses in this work and as a foundation for the methodological framework in chapter 2, which discusses the notions of timbral modulation, timbral polyphony, and timbral re-signification. Chapter 3 discusses a new timbral development in the solo cello and cello with electronic media repertoire in the 20th and 21st century. This chapter surveys the crucial historical facts that generated a paradigm shift in the cello repertoire. This includes the emergence of different musical tendencies and the work of pioneer composers and performers. The second part of this study includes chapters 4 and 5, where the solo cello and cello with electronics repertoire from 2000 to 2015 by Colombian composers is analysed. The pieces involved emphasise a new timbral development within the repertoire. To summarise, this thesis emphasises how timbre was one of the elements that bifurcated the cello repertoire in the 20th and 21st century. Furthermore, this study describes how progressive composers and performers have deeply expanded playing techniques and the timbre of the instrument, and the exploration and combination of the medium with apparatus, artefacts, and new instruments into new ways of making music.
  • Kirkinen, Tuija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis investigates the skin and fur finds which have been excavated from Iron Age (500 BC – AD 1200/1300) and historical (1200/1300–1700) burials in eastern Fennoscandia during the past 130 years. The research material is unique in Europe, as fur remains usually decompose in archaeological contexts. For eastern Fennoscandian Iron Age research, this study brings new information on the roles that animal skins and wild animals held in societies, which produced furs both for domestic use and for the international fur trade. The main questions of this thesis are 1) How can archaeological fur remains be studied? What information do they provide? 2) What kinds of furs have been discovered in the graves? 3) Why were the furs placed in the graves? 4) What are the recommendations for future research? The research material consists of skin remains from 121 inhumation burials (animal skins and hairs) and 22 cremation burial sites (remains of claws). Animal hairs were found especially in contact with metals. Hairs were also found from the Late Neolithic soil samples in Perttulanmäki Corded Ware burial in Kauhava, which evidences the huge potential of microarchaeological analysis in fibre research. In cremation cemeteries, the predator 3rd phalanges provide evidence for the cremation of brown bear and lynx skins. Animal skins were identified by species by the morphology of the hairs. The method was applied to the identification of species, fur preparation traditions like pulling, and the qualities of origin animals, such as the colour of the coat. In this thesis, morphological identification of hairs proved its usefulness as a cost-effective method for identifying archaeological samples. First, it can be applied in cases that lie outside the scope of scientific methods. These constraints are met when the sample size is very small, when the material is mineralized or when DNA has degenerated in acidic soils. However, most archaeological samples had undergone several taphonomic processes, caused especially by bacterial and fungal activity. This has altered the morphology and other qualities of hairs like the preservation of DNA. As shown in this thesis, animal skin products formed an integral part in burials as grave goods, garments and burial inner structures. For future research on animal fibres, recommendations are made for the handling of finds and samples.
  • Loponen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study discusses the evolution of racialized concepts in the genres of the fantastic, especially fantasy, science fiction, and supernatural horror. It provides the first detailed interpretation of how such concepts are constructed and how they develop based on their interaction with the evolving cultural landscapes, thus showing how characteristics are borrowed from real world cultural stereotypes. The analysis concentrates on fantastic renderings of racialized stereotypes based on real world cultural fears. The concepts are examined both in their source cultures and through the lenses of transmediality and translation. As the fantastic arts have always been heavily transmedial in nature, the study is not limited to a certain art form, but views all media as complementary in producing concepts of the fantastic, either by adding new facets to the concepts, or by changing them on a temporal basis. Contextualizing concepts in the fantastic arts through their linkage to the real world cultural development provides a method through which we can perceive how the concepts are built on – and preserve – racialized stereotypes of their cultures of origin. In order to do so, this study provides a framework that utilizes several approaches from cultural semiotics as well as translation studies. Furthermore, it presents a view of the evolution of the genres in specific media through case studies. The framework is applied to some well-known fantastic concepts (orcs, dwarves, goblins, and gnomes), by mapping their entry into the fantastic arts and examining how the changes in their signifying imagery have affected their allusive links to the real world stereotypes that are (intentionally or non-intentionally) portrayed through them. In addition, translational tools are applied in a case study to examine how racialized features are transported to a new cultural setting in translation. The study argues that the inclusion of properties of racialized stereotypes from real world cultures to fantastic concepts is widespread and that especially negative racialized allusions often survive in texts of the fantastic, even after they have been perceived as offensive in the real world cultures from which they stem. It displays how racialized narratives can change when fantastic concepts inherit properties from new real world racialized stereotypes, and how inheriting signifiers from a “positive” real world racialization can affect the negative properties of fantastic concepts. Keywords: semiotics, fantasy, science fiction, game studies, transmediality, racism
  • Greed, Teija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This doctoral thesis consists of four language-specific articles and an introductory article. In it I investigate evidentiality and related functional categories in four non-Slavonic languages spoken in the Russian Federation: Nakh-Daghestanian Lezgi, two Turkic languages Bashkir and Tatar, and Tungusic Even. Evidentiality pertains to the expression of source of information. This study focuses on the grammatical expression of information source. To gather the data I worked with mother-tongue language consultants, studied language descriptions, utilised digital language corpora and analysed texts. My research concentrated on finding out how evidential meanings are expressed through grammatical means in these four languages, and how evidentiality interacts with other related categories. I discovered that the key categories interacting with evidentiality are tense/aspect, mirativity, person, subjectivity, discourse, and (epistemic) modality. In a number of languages of the world the verb forms expressing tense and aspect have been documented as central for the expression of evidentiality. This is also true of the languages in this study. In all four languages the verb form expressing the resultative or perfect meaning has extended to convey the evidential meaning of inference, or non-witnessed. In three of these languages these meanings have crossed over from evidentiality to the domain of discourse, as the verb form conveying the non-witnessed meaning has acquired the function of a specific narrative genre. Mirativity manifests itself in these languages mainly in the context of evidential inference, with grammatical person also being involved. In three of these languages inference in first-person contexts receives a mirative interpretation, that is, the speaker expresses that the event she experienced was not in her control or in her consciousness. With regard to mirativity, the key discovery of the study is that in Even inference in second-person contexts also conveys a mirative meaning. In my research it became clear that subjectivity, that is, how the speaker or experiencer expresses her own involvement in the processing of the information she is conveying, functions together with evidentiality. In Bashkir and Tatar the evidential quotative, that is, a marker coding a citation, can connect with verbs of perception, cognition and feeling, in addition to regular speech verbs, and together with them express subjective meanings at differing levels. Through the use of the quotative marker in Bashkir subjectivity expands further in conjunction with the verb “know” into multisubjectivity, in which the perspective of the original communicator is conveyed in addition to the viewpoint of the person currently “knowing” the conveyed message. In the languages studied the expression of evidentiality does not in general contain meanings of epistemic modality which would show the speaker’s attitude or evaluation of the message conveyed. Evidential meanings can, however, receive a contextual epistemic interpretation. The key results of the thesis are presented in a figure which depicts both the way the studied semantic categories fit in semantic space and also their interaction. The figure also displays the meanings conveyed by the grammatical markers discovered in the four languages. In semantic space these meanings settle in places where the categories partially overlap, which underlines the foundational idea and contribution of my thesis: the complexity of the interaction of different semantic categories in human communication.
  • Puura, Ulriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation consists of four articles and an introductory chapter that describes the background of the study and draws together the main results of the independent articles. The study focuses on the perceptions of speakers of the Veps language on the importance of the Veps language in identifying as a Veps. Veps is a severely endangered language spoken in North-Western Russia in three different administrative areas. Currently there are less than 3,500 mostly elderly bilingual speakers of Veps. Theoretically, this research falls under critical ethnographic sociolinguistics (e.g. Heller & Pietikäinen & Pujolar 2018). Not only does the study discuss the metalanguage of speaking Veps and being Veps, it also foregrounds language ideologies behind these discourses. The language ideologies in turn affect the expectations about language maintenance and revitalization. Further, reflections of bilingualism and language revitalization are analysed in conversational code-switchings of two speakers from the same family. The data consists of Veps speakers’ interviews from 2006‒2011 and of newspaper material from 1993‒2016 from the only Veps language paper Kodima. The interview data are drawn from two research projects, the ELDIA project and the project the Veps language community in the 21st century. The researcher’s field notes were used as ethnographic background data. The study suggests that although the Veps language has been revitalized and standardized since the turn of the 1990s, the discourses of a common Veps ethnic identity have not reached all the speakers. Language endangerment and shift as well as simultaneous language revitalization bring about partly conflicting ideologies and constructions of language and ethnicity. Two different communities are discerned in the data: traditional speakers living in bilingual Veps villages and Veps intelligentsia developing the Veps language in Petrozavodsk, Karelia. The concepts of mother tongue, speakerhood and language acquisition are constructed differently in the discourses of these two groups. In addition, the official representation of Veps space, spread through the main minority media, the Kodima newspaper, differs from the subjective space constructed by traditional Veps speakers living in the villages. The former locates the Veps mainly in the Republic of Karelia and as part of the (trans)national minority people category, whereas the villagers’ view on being Veps is based on locality. Language standardixation and the purist ideologies behind it are reflected in the level of idiolects, as the micro-study on code-switching reveals. The Veps do not have high expectations for intergeneral language transmission or Veps language education, but they do expect the language to be conserved by the small activist group through documentation and new language products.
  • Pääkkönen, Hanna-Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this dissertation, I research the social realities of Nicaraguan university students and how their experiences are constructed within different social fields. Youth studies in Nicaragua have focused strongly on gang-related violence and reproductive health. Academic youth is often left out of the studies, even though there has been an increased incorporation of young people, especially of the female population, in higher levels of education during the last two decades. The main objectives of this study were to broaden the view of Nicaraguan youth in a changing society by researching the experiences and social realities of Nicaraguan students, and to discuss the questions and contradictions of global and local youth from a Latin American perspective. This study is based on ethnographic material collected in Nicaragua during several periods of fieldwork from 2008 to 2016. The data are, so far, the most comprehensive material on Nicaraguan university level students yet produced. The material was analyzed within the interdisciplinary framework of the social and cultural construction of knowledge and the concept of the life course. Central to this study are the concepts of ‘social fields,’ ‘capital’ and ‘habitus’ as used by Pierre Bourdieu and the idea of the life course, originally presented by Glen Elder, as nonlinear and complex. My results show that despite global influences and global opportunities,, local networks provided the students with a sense of belonging as well as produce social capital. My data shows that despite increased globalization the importance of locality as a source of social capital cannot be underestimated, since according to my results social capital enabled the students in this study to move with ease within different conceptual frameworks. In the light of my material I also note that it is important to consider the influence of social media and virtual space when the reproduction of capital in the lives of the young is discussed. Gender and class are also still relevant in the lives of the students who participated in this study. The students reworked and modified the spaces and places of gender in multiple ways. My results show that the knowledge of the correct manner of discussing gender and gender equality at the university and in the labor market is an important part of adapting the specific social rules expected from a student, while many of the traditional attitudes of gendered division remain intact in the private sphere of life. A central result of this study is the importance of education as a transition rite. Education itself has become a value, and being a student produces valuable social capital. Becoming a professional, as the students expressed it when discussing graduation, is a transition rite to becoming a fully recognized adult member of society. Thus, studying is not just a way of acquiring better access to economic capital or a necessity to maintain oneself financially, it is also an important rite and transition into adulthood; a process of endorsing a new place and role in society, independent of possible labor market integration.
  • Vikström, Tarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Anni Polva was a Finnish author who wrote children’s literature and romantic novels from 1945 to the early 1990’s. This study analyzes Anni Polva’s romantic novels from the late 1940s to the turn of the 1970s and argues that by the end of the period the author name Anni Polva formed a brand. The study examines the Anni Polva brand from the perspective of production process, marketing strategy, the audience, and the critical reception of the works. Brand is defined as a relationship and interaction, that consists of the values, presuppositions, and notions made by its various stakeholders. The theoretical framework is based on the concept of brand, cultural value judgements, and on the market-related issues. In the analysis of the brand's operating environment, Pierre Bourdieu's concept of a field of cultural production is used. The research method is close reading of the texts. In the study, Anni Polva’s writing process and strategy is analysed. The close reading of the novels indicates that besides offering the obvious familiar and harmless mishaps, the stories also built a mythical romantic world where a goal-oriented woman is the actor of the stories, and a tireless heroine of the everyday life. This story structure formed the core of the brand. Polva published one romantic novel each year and systematically built a customer promise of a moments rest in the middle of a stressful every day. This promise was the object of criticism, culminating on an attempt to ban the novels from public libraries in the 1960’s. Anni Polva built her brand from a commercial point of view, and sought good sales. However, Anni Polva's writings and her later recorded author interviews convey a genuine desire to serve and cheer up her readership, despite of the critics.
  • Kekki, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This crossdisciplinary doctoral dissertation in the field of North American Studies utilizes historical big data and dynamic network analysis to study the Japanese American community of the Heart Mountain Relocation Center during their World War II incarceration. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States incarcerated (interned) 120,000 people of Japanese descent, two thirds of whom were US citizens. Half of the incarcerated people returned to the West Coast, while the rest were dispersed across the country through the government’s resettlement program. Incarceration remains a controversial subject in the Japanese American community, and while much has been written about the era, it is an unknown topic to the general public in states that it did not directly touch. At the same time, incarceration reverberates today both in the United States and in Europe in the treatment of immigrants from Mexico or the Middle East. My objective in this study is to look at the manifestation of “loyalty,” “assimilation,” and “resistance” through networks in one of the ten incarceration camps, Heart Mountain in Wyoming. To investigate the different ways and layers of individual and community level assimilation, loyalty and resistance, I have developed a dynamic network model that reconstructs the structure, various types of networks, and their changes in the Heart Mountain Japanese American community during the war. The dynamic network model applies historical big data and network analysis, but it also draws from traditional historical sources and methods. I use diaries, government reports, and oral histories to complement the narrative and support my findings. This type of work is novel in the field of humanities and the study of past human societies, and especially my creation of multi-mode networks depicting relations between individuals and institutions, and those between institutions, instead of only individual-to-individual networks makes this a groundbreaking study. The data resulted in the construction of four multi-mode subnetworks depicting the relationships between different types of actors: administrative-political, employment, social, and geospatial. Each conveys a slightly different aspect of the community, and all layers put together as an integrated network recreates the formal Heart Mountain networks. They show division between generations (Japanese-born Issei to a large extent separated from the American-born Nisei) and genders, and that education was often the key to reaching influential positions in the community. Education was also the driving force for resettlers: those who left the camp in the early stages were either already well-educated or left to pursue college studies. It has long been understood that there was no singular incarceration experience but all too often the emphasis has been on separating only a few lines of thought. What became evident through network analysis in this study, was that depending on the context, a group of people or even an individual could be portrayed in multiple lights depending on the network and the viewpoint. This research project has demonstrated that there is enormous potential in applying dynamic network analysis to historical materials. While life at Heart Mountain cannot be reduced to nodes and edges alone, this study combined with other studies, historical narratives, diaries, and biographies enhances our understanding of this important time in American history that continues to reverberate today.
  • Loorits, Kristjan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Understanding and explaining consciousness has proven to be one of the hardest tasks for contemporary neuroscience and philosophy. First, there is the famous hard problem: why should any information processing in our brains feel like something to us? Second, there is a problem concerning the apparent privacy of consciousness. The content of my consciousness seems to be directly accessible only to me. That intuition fits nicely with the neurobiological conception of consciousness: it is plausible that an organism has privileged access to some of its neural processes. However, it has been argued that we can only talk about phenomena whose defining properties are known to us from the public realm. So, arguably, since we can talk about the content of our consciousness, it cannot be entirely private. According to the main thesis of this work, conscious experiences are fully structural phenomena that reside in our brains in the form of higher-order patterns in neural activity. That position allows us to tackle both the hard problem and the problem of privacy. Regarding the latter, it can be argued that fully structural phenomena are describable and analyzable in public terms even if those phenomena themselves are private. For instance, one could describe privately experienced neurobiological structures by referring to public phenomena with similar structures. The hard problem can be formulated in the structuralist context as follows: although many properties of consciousness are clearly structural, there are some that seem to be qualitative and nonstructural. Those seemingly qualitative properties, the so-called qualia, are at the very heart of the hard problem, for those are the properties that define and determine what it is like to be conscious. In this work it is hypothesized, based on the theory of Crick and Koch, that qualia are the structures of vast networks of unconscious associations whose precise nature can be specified in neural terms. It is suggested further that with the proper brain-stimulating technology, it should be possible to reveal the structural nature of qualia to the experiencing subject directly. The structural view of consciousness rises some general questions regarding the metaphysical nature of structures. In this work, those questions are approached from the perspective of structural realism.

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