Faculty of Arts


Recent Submissions

  • Lahtinen, Joonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study discusses the transformative potential of contemporary participatory performance practice and the possibilities for locating and interrogating it through performance analysis that pays special attention to the dynamic of human perception. The writer suggests that the crucial ideological assumptions, power relations, as well as the processes of exclusion and inclusion of participatory projects, are not to be seen solely in their “goals” or “themes”, but, even more distinctly, in the modes of bodily participation that they employ. The study consists of a theoretical part and three case study analyses. In the theoretical part, the writer presents a novel analytical framework for addressing the ways in which artistic performances engage and affect their participants, and for understanding the culture-bound dynamic of perception, power, knowledge and the body both in participatory performance situations and in our everyday lives. Drawing especially on the views of human perception, power, and experience of Jacques Rancière, Marcel Mauss, and Michel Foucault, the main concepts of this framework are “sensory fields”, “experience fields” and “body techniques”. As for the verbalization of experiences through performance analysis, the framework draws on Joe Kelleher’s and Alan Read’s notions of “theatre images”. Based on the analytical framework, the writer locates and interrogates “politics of the sensible” i.e. modes of participation; underlying assumptions regarding the participants and the efficacy of the chosen participatory strategy; potential inclusions and exclusions; and horizons of change in Lois Weaver’s "What Tammy Needs to Know" (2006) and "What Tammy Needs to Know about Getting Old and Having Sex" (2008), the Complaints Choirs of Helsinki (2006), Singapore (2008) and Vienna (2010 –) based on the "Complaints Choir" project concept by Tellervo Kalleinen and Oliver Kochta-Kalleinen, and "dominant powers. was also tun?" (2011) by Claudia Bosse and her group, theatercombinat. This study also shows how all of these projects embody features of post-Fordist work and how they relate to the ethos of de-alienation in participatory art practice. Besides locating productive transformatory potential and tendencies in all of these performances, this study brings about critical perspectives and notions that have not been addressed in previous research on Weaver’s, Kalleinens’ and Bosse’s projects. The writer suggests that the analytical framework presented in this study provides new insights into perception, power and the body in performance theory and analysis, and may also offer productive inputs for artist-researchers, curators and art educators in planning and reflecting on their projects, and for scholars in areas such as epistemology, semiotics, and political science.
  • Yurayong, Chingduang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The present study investigates the use and development of demonstratives that follow head word, postposed demonstratives, which are characteristic of eastern Finnic and North Russian dialects. Some previous studies regard these postposed demonstratives as definite articles, while other recent studies identify additional functions related to information structure and discourse. Given that postposed demonstratives are not a feature common to all East Slavic languages, several studies propose that this characteristic feature of North Russian could have resulted from language contact with the Uralic-speaking population who adopted Russian as their second language, particularly Finnic speakers. The main goal of the present study is to answer three research questions: 1) How do postposed demonstratives function as grammatical markers? 2) What does the development of demonstratives tell us about the history of Finnic and Slavic languages? 3) Do postposed demonstratives result from a Finnic substratum in North Russian dialects? For this purpose, the present study examines spoken language data comprising thirteen Finnic and two North Russian varieties which have been in contact during the latest millennium, as well as Novgorod birch bark documents from the 11th–15th centuries. The typological analysis identifies properties and functions of postposed demonstratives from various perspectives: word order, host attachment, syntactic and pragmatic functions. The analysis also combines results with geographical data, which shows the correlation between the speaking areas and linguistic similarities among varieties. The results achieved in the present study justify the following conclusions. First, postposed demonstratives function as grammatical markers with a basic function to organise information structure. At the same time, the properties of information-structural uses as topic and focus markers have secondarily extended to contexts of use in which postposed demonstratives co-occur with definite referents, and are used to code the speaker’s evaluation. The functional extension is particularly common in North Russian dialects and adjacent Finnic varieties in the east. Second, the development of demonstrative systems from Proto-Finnic to modern Finnic languages is influenced by later contacts among Finnic sub-branches that share areal features. Based on these isoglosses, the Finnic demonstrative system can be classified into four groups: 1) western Finnic (Livonian, South Estonian, and North Estonian), 2) central Finnic (Votic and Ingrian), 3) Karelian Finnic (Olonets Karelian and Northern Lude), and 4) eastern Finnic (Southern Lude and Veps). Third, the postposed demonstrative “-to” and its variants in North Russian dialects do not result from the Finnic substratum, but from the adstratum. Through mutual reinforcement with the Veps demonstrative “se”, the indeclinable “-to” inherited from the Central dialect of Middle Russian has developed further properties to inflect and co-occur more often with definite referents. Such a developed pragmatic use later also spread to Lude and Olonets Karelian.
  • Bahrt, Nicklas N. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This dissertation is a typological study of the cross-linguistic diversity in the syncretism between two or more of the following seven voices: passives, antipassives, reflexives, reciprocals, anticausatives, causatives, and applicatives. The study is primarily based on a survey of 222 genealogically and geographically diverse languages, but also addresses data from dozens more. The main goal of the dissertation is to systematically describe variation in voice syncretism across the world’s languages from a range of different perspectives both synchronically and diachronically, including formal marking, combinations – or patterns – of syncretism, and distribution. The findings of the dissertation show that voice syncretism is a cross-linguistically prevalent phenomenon attested in almost half of the surveyed languages. More than forty different patterns of syncretism are attested in these languages, many patterns of which have hitherto received little or no prior treatment in the literature. These patterns vary greatly in marking, complexity, frequency, and distribution, which suggests that voice syncretism is a more diverse phenomenon than hitherto acknowledged. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the said syncretism can evolve along various diachronic pathways, several of which appear to be bidirectional, indicating that the diachrony of voice syncretism is more intricate than previously assumed. The dissertation is structured in a manner that allows for information on individual patterns of voice syncretism to be conveniently accessed, and it is thus hoped that it will serve as a reference and starting point for further research on the topic.
  • Uygun Tunç, Duygu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis presents a communicative account of personhood that argues for the inseparability of the metaphysical and the practical concepts of a person. It connects these two concepts by coupling the question “what is a person” (concerning the necessary conditions of personhood) with the question "how does one become a person"(concerning its genetic conditions). It argues that participation in social interactions that are characterized by mutual recognition and giving-and-taking reasons implied by the practical concept of a person is in fact an ecological and developmental condition for an entity to possess the kind of characteristics and capacities such as reflexive self-consciousness addressed by the metaphysical concept. The chief theoretical contribution of the dissertation research lies, accordingly, in demonstrating that an adequate metaphysical concept of a person has to make reference to the kind of social processes that are necessary for the emergence and development of the distinguishing attributes of persons among other moving, perceiving, desiring and cognizing agents. Methodologically, it undertakes an original philosophical analysis that is enriched by an interdisciplinary investigation of several notions and insights from semiotics, comparative and developmental psychology, cognitive science and anthropology. The main argument of the thesis is that one becomes a person through internally recreating a social, communicative process; namely, that of dialogical transformation of habits. We find the paradigmatic case of this social process in mutual persuasion. The internalization of this process in the form of an inner dialogue cultivates a social self that is in ongoing communication with the embodied, organismic self of uncritically habituated attitudes, convictions and desires. This inner dialogue can be conceived as a temporally extended process of self-persuasion, which is characterized by an ongoing strive for attaining higher degrees of self-control; that is, for achieving a more coherent alignment between our habits and the kind of person we would like to be. It starts with self-interpretation and self-evaluation, and culminates in the formation of higher-order desires that facilitate habit-change and novel habit formation in accordance with certain social, moral, aesthetical or intellectual categories and norms one comes to endorse. For this reason, self-induced, deliberate habit-change is also a process of appropriation or self-appropriation, through which we strive to cultivate habits of feeling, thinking, acting that we can deem more truly ours. The thesis demonstrates that the capacity for engaging in this kind of self-persuasion consists chiefly in the capacities for metasemiosis, perspective-taking, and for cultivating habits of reflexivity. It explicates how all these capacities have a social origin and ultimately a social function by showing that they all presuppose certain higher-order communicative patterns that arose through an evolutionary and cultural history, and develop through the internal reconstruction of these patterns as cognitive-semiotic processes. The thesis concludes that becoming a kind of being who can engage in self-persuasion, thus a person, consists ultimately in internalizing the patterns of communicative social interactions in the form of an ongoing auto-communication.  
  • Hämäläinen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis presents approaches to computationally creative natural language generation focusing on theoretical foundations, practical solutions and evaluation. I defend that a theoretical definition is crucial for computational creativity and that the practical solution must closely follow the theoretical definition. Finally, evaluation must be based on the underlying theory and what was actually modelled in the practical solution. A theoretical void in the existing theoretical work on computational creativity is identified. The existing theories do not explicitly take into account the communicative nature of natural language. Therefore, a new theoretical framework is elaborated that identifies how computational creativity can take place in a setting that has a clear communicative goal. This introduces a communicative-creative trade off that sets limits to creativity in such a communicative context. My framework divides creativity in three categories: message creativity, contextual creativity and communicative creativity. Any computationally creative NLG approach not taking communicativity into account is called mere surface generation. I propose a novel master-apprentice approach for creative language generation. The approach consists of a genetic algorithm, the fitness functions of which correspond to different parameters defined as important for the creative task in question from a theoretical perspective. The output of the genetic algorithm together with possible human authored data are used to train the apprentice, which is a sequence-to-sequence neural network model. The role of the apprentice in the system is to approximate creative autonomy. Evaluation is approached from three different perspectives in this work: ad-hoc and abstract, theory-based and abstract, and theory-based and concrete. The first perspective is the most common one in the current literature and its shortcomings are demonstrated and discussed. This starts a gradual shift towards more meaningful evaluation by first using proper theories to define the task being modelled and finally reducing the room for subjective interpretation by suggesting the use of concrete evaluation questions.
  • Järvelä, Simo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Psychophysiology is a method of measuring physiological signals, such as heart rate or brain waves, and making psychological inferences based on them. The joint changes of physiological signals within a dyad – physiological synchrony – can also be assessed. In previous studies, synchrony measures have been linked to various affective and social phenomena such as empathy or team performance, but a solid connection to background theory is still missing. This work aims to contribute to the collective effort by exploring physiological synchrony and the associated psychological constructs from the perspective of two overarching research questions: “What social dynamics affect physiological synchrony?” and “Is synchrony associated with self-reported empathy and social presence?”. The focus of this work is on providing insight into the possibilities of using physiological synchrony measures to assess protosocial affective processes. The original studies of this thesis include Study I, a theoretical contribution that outlines the core ideas, and four empirical contributions, Studies II-V, that use dyadic psychophysiological measurements and self-reports to examine social dynamics in the context of digital media experience. Study II examined physiological synchrony and social presence in a group movie-watching context and whether chat or biofeedback displays, and physical co-location had an effect. Study III investigated multiple modes of competition and collaboration and their within-dyad effects when playing a digital asynchronous turn-based multiplayer game. Studies IV and V are reports from the same experiment that examined compassion meditation in a shared virtual reality environment by using dyadic synchrony biofeedback to support empathy. In all studies, heart rate-based synchrony indices were associated with social presence or empathy self-reports, but no similar association was found with electrodermal activity indices. Varying physical co-location also affected physiological synchrony, but changes in social dynamics, e.g. different competition modes, did not. The role of attention rose as a central factor in all studies when interpreting the results; it seems that disturbance-free strict focus on the partner or on the communication channel providing important social information resulted in higher synchrony, whereas any division of attention between separate targets weakened it. In general, the effect sizes in these studies were mostly rather modest, and the results not entirely systematic. They support the notion that physiological synchrony and social presence or empathy are connected, and a more general link to affective protosocial processes is suggested. The potential for dyadic synchrony measures is theoretically immense, but its complexity is a serious hindrance when trying to harness it in practice.
  • Kajanne, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The subject of this study is the Cultural address, a petition in which were collected more than 1,000 signatures from widely known personalities in various fields of science and culture. The work was completed in about two months in the spring of 1899. The signatures were gathered in nearly sixty cities in twelve different countries. The visually impressive address letters, laid out in alphabetical order of the countries, consist of petition texts and signatory lists. The formal purpose of the petition was to put pressure on Russian Tsar Nicholas II to take into account the public demands and demonstrations made in Finland to cancel the so-called February manifesto. According to them, it restricted the legislative rights of the Grand Duchy based on its constitution. My research is the first comprehensive presentation on the topic and is based on extensive original source material. The purpose of the study is to find out how the address was implemented and what made it necessary and possible. In my dissertation, the Cultural address is examined from the broader international as well as from a private and personal perspective. The purpose of the work is to bring the topic to the 21st century by releasing it from the aftermath of the traditional national Finnish historiography of the first decades of the 20th century and by giving it a thorough and object examination according the transnationalist research trend. As a result, the starting point of my research is that the address campaign, the external form of the petition and particularly the reasons for its successful implementation were not only related to the conditions in Finland and the dialogue between Finland and Russia, but also to wider international development and phenomena, as well as to to personal backgrounds and goals of the main protagonists behind the scheme. In line with the transnationalist research trend, the address is seen as a consequence and phenomenon of transnational interdepencies, interconnections and circulations. The address was originally conceived, the idea of it floated and the work followed up and combined by a few Finnish intermediaries, but its implementation depended almost entirely on the contacts and activity of several small, local and translocal groups. The actual petition texts of the addresses were also prepared by local connectors. Arguably, instead of a singular address, several local petitions would be a more suitable description of the Cultural address. The dissertation assesses the address both as part of the current personal situation of those who implemented it, as well as the international public debate associated with it. The address was accompanied by a public debate on the Tsar's personality and his objectives for the Hague Peace Conference, as well as the general military-political situation in Europe and its reflections on Finland. As for the masterminds and implementers of the address, it was about keen interest in following international events and participating in the public debate about them. Even though having been named afterwards as “Cultural Address”, it was rather an international academic address that served in the interests of all its collaborators for efforts to promote the treatment of non-national issues such as fundamental human rights and to bring about international structures or bodies to promote them. In part, these were opportunities offered by increased communication and the press in the public debate in the late 19th century. As a project, the address also promoted the utilization of existing and construction of some new transnational networks based on professional grounds created contacts. Participation in the discussion on Finland's constitutional status did not explain or show up in the address as much as its Finnish designers had hoped. The Cultural address was intended to put pressure on the Tsar to refrain from curtailing Finland's autonomous rights and renewing Finland's Conscription Act. In the European context of its origin, the address sought, above all, to protest to the addresses that had been drawn up throughout Europe in favor of the Tsar’s peace conference proposal. The aim was to question the sincerity of the Tsar’s reasoning and to demonstrate flaws and inconsistency of Russian policies between home and abroad in order to halt the growth of his personal popularity in Europe. In addition to the bold criticism of the sovereign, the measure was aimed at acquiring more visibility to the conditions in Finland in international news and, simultaneously, finding a perspective that would guarantee the support and enable building up of the connection sphere needed to implement the address. Against the tsar's policy and growing public support, there was a desire to present the opposite view of the widely known intellectuals of the era. The roots of the address were more in the European public debate than in the internal situation in Finland. The Cultural address was not a joint project of artists and cultural celebrities, but above all of the so-called intellectuals: the European academic community and literary Hommes de lettres combined. Public petitions in the context of the current Dreyfus case served as a key model for this campaign, although addresses had been used by the European bourgeoisie as a tool for passive resistance and public provocation throughout the 19th century. Indeed, the research is based in part on longer-term development. Increased interest in Finland's economic and professional connections with Western Europe, together with a growing interest in common European history and cultural heritage in academic circles on a European scale, created the conditions for supporting a distant minority culture such as Finland. The address offered its predominantly liberal supporters the opportunity to criticize Russia’s Monarch as part of a public critique of autocratism, conservatism, and cynical alliance politics of Great Powers. Therefore, the address was intended to be implemented in a European context, as the Tsar's peace conference proposal had provided an opportunity to do so, and because the collaborators of the petition had a common interest in international news, cooperation and networking. Through the address and the Finnish civic protests following the February manifesto referred to therein, it was possible to take part in various debates and address different audiences. This versatility and flexibility was the reason for the broad support and implementation of the address in a very fast timeframe. If the address was for the Finnish audience about the Tsar’s misconceivings of the Grand Duchy’s constitutional rights, for the international audience it was always not so. In fact, the message of the addresses has to put in each case both in national and international context. For the French intellectuels it could be internal criticism towards the military and financial alliance between Russia and France, for the British liberals a call for individual rights and a comment in the debate of Irish Home Rule, or for the Italian legal scholars a case study suitable for Institute of International Law. For the Swedish, Danish and Norwegian supporters the address manifested cultural, geographical and historical connections and the need of warranties for the neutral position of small countries. In many cases, the international address was about family relations and friendship. In the end, the implementers of the address considered the project a success, regardless of whether the ruler had accepted the petition, as it could in any case promote the personal and ideological agenda of the collaborators and erode the positive public image of the tsar.
  • Huttunen, Silja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Information Extraction (IE) is the systematic harvesting of information from natural language text and speech into structured form, e.g., into a database, for further downstream use. The most typical use cases are related to media monitoring. Research in IE is driven by the need to find accurate information about a particular topic in massive collections or streams of text. In addition to the traditional methods of evaluation in IE, we introduce a second measure of quality, which indicates the relevance, or usability, of the extracted facts for an end-user. An extracted fact may be correct, but irrelevant from the user's perspective. This dissertation presents work on two problems: 1. porting an IE system from one topic to another, and 2. assessing the user-oriented relevance of results produced by an IE system. All tasks are not equally responsive to IE, and performance on some tasks remains worse than on others, despite extensive customization. The first part of this study is motivated by the gap between performance obtained by IE systems for different topics. Our experience with customizing IE confirms the intuition that different domains exhibit different kinds of complexity, e.g., the business-related domain vs. the domain relating to natural events. The underlying reason is the variation in the language that is used to report the topics. The aim of this thesis is to improve IE results by determining which linguistic and structural features should be taken into consideration when customizing an IE system to a new topic. In the process of adapting the IE system to several domains and building their knowledge bases, we analysed the linguistic and structural characteristics of the domains, and the style of reporting. Information extraction is used as a methodological tool for linguistic observation, as it enables us to expose and explore how linguistic variation affects the IE results. The second part focuses on measuring relevance of the IE results, that is, how well the extracted information satisfies the user's interest. We identify which linguistic and structural features are useful for improving the performance on these scenarios. It has been observed elsewhere in NLP settings, that taking the features into account can produce better results. Thus, the findings presented in this work can be beneficial for a variety of approaches to IE, including those based on machine learning techniques.
  • Drobac, Senka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The corpus of historical newspapers and journals published in Finland, with more than 11 million pages of historical text, is of great value to the research community. The National Library of Finland (NLF) has OCRed the corpus with ABBYY FineReader, a commercial software that provides OCR models pre-trained on general historical fonts. The estimated accuracy of the OCRed text is between 87% - 92% on the character level, which is rather low even for scientific research. Optical character recognition of printed text commonly reaches over 99% accuracy for modern Latin fonts. Historical documents, on the other hand, contain a large variety of fonts, can be of poor condition and often are written without an orthographic standard (the same words are spelled differently). All these reasons present a challenge to creating robust and highly accurate OCR models for historical data. The corpus of historical newspapers and journals published in Finland is particularly challenging because it is written in both the official languages of Finland (Finnish and Swedish) and is printed in two font-families (Blackletter and Antiqua). With two main languages and a large number of different fonts from two font-families, it is not possible to achieve high OCR accuracy with models pre-trained on different materials. A research group at the NLF has worked on re-OCRing this corpus and they have trained OCR models using the open-source software Tesseract, but only for the Finnish Blackletter part of the corpus. They report high accuracy results (97.64% on character level) for Finnish Blackletter but also slow performance. For the Antiqua part of the corpus, they reportedly use Tesseract's pre-trained Antiqua model, but they do not report any accuracy results. Also, they have still not published any work done on the material written in Swedish. In this work, we have explored methods and practices for training high-accuracy OCR models that can be used for efficiently recognizing the entire corpus of historical Finnish newspapers and journals. We selected 13,000 Finnish and 11,000 Swedish text lines from the corpus, of which half are printed in Blackletter and half in Antiqua fonts. After transcribing these lines, we used them for training and testing OCR models with two open-source OCR tool-kits, Ocropy and Calamari. We performed experiments with different training data setups, along with different neural network configurations and architectures. Furthermore, we tested how the voting mechanism behaves with different OCR models. Post-correction can further improve the final OCR results, especially in cases when the text, due to material damage or ink bleed, is incomprehensible without a broader context. Therefore, we have also explored different post-correction methods and implemented one of them. We compared the method's effect on OCR results of different accuracy. The biggest accomplishment of this work is succeeding in training a high-accuracy model that is capable of recognizing both Finnish and Swedish text, as well as Blackletter and Antiqua fonts. Having a mixed model for all the data and not needing to separately perform language or font identification is extremely practical when dealing with such a large corpus. Furthermore, we found that the results improve when voting with five mixed models, resulting in accuracy between 97.2% and 98.4% on the character level, which is up to 11% better than the current ABBYY results. Finally, the post-correction experiments showed that, even with a simple automatic method, post-correction can further improve OCR results. Depending on the starting OCR accuracy, the post-correction improved accuracy between 0.1-0.4%, which is a relative improvement of 0.9-12.5%.
  • Immonen, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This dissertation examines the interaction of words and images from the perspective of language research and investigates televised news interview as a multisemiotic text entity and genre. The research seeks to answer the following questions: 1) What is the nature of the co-operation of verbal and visual language in televised news interviews? 2) What is the text that is created by words and images; that is, what is the multisemiotic televised news interview as a genre, and how is it constructed? The thesis is comprised of a summary and five studies that examine televised news interviews from various perspectives. Two of the articles investigate their schematic structure and speech variation. Three of the articles focus on both the verbal and visual language in the news interviews and investigate their coordinative and subordinative relation, methods of interaction and textuality. The theoretical basis of the study is M.A.K. Halliday’s systemic functional (SF) theory of language and Günther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen’s approach to visual design, which is based on SF theory. As well as constituting the theoretical background, SF theory provides the methodology for the analysis of words and images: SF grammar allows for the analysis of verbal language, while the grammar of visual design makes it possible to analyse the collaboratorion of words and images in the resulting text as a multi-semiotic entirety. The research material consists of 40 examples of archival news interview footage taken from the 8:30 p.m. evening news, broadcast by the Finnish Broadcasting Company YLE in the autumn of 2005. The overall duration of the data is one hour. The first of the five studies also analyses the Swedish evening news, broadcast by Finlands Svenska Television. The key findings indicate that the news interview format is an established genre, in which the reporter, after an introduction by the newscaster, first gives their report on the topic outside the image area and then, in the introductory scene, brings in the interviewee to talk and comment on the matter at hand. In the introduction scene, the verbal and visual language have either a coordinative or a subordinative relationship. The initial clause of the introductory scene is usually declarative. An interrogative clause is used only when the reporter is in some way featured in the image area together with the interviewee. The textual analysis conducted revealed that the scenes of the news interview sequences contain audiovisual information units that are, in turn, composed of units of verbal and visual information. The verbal information unit comprises a theme-rheme structure, while the visual information unit consists of the alternation of given and new features combined with visual framing and salience. One characteristic feature of the interaction of words and images is the demonstrative deixis, which can refer not only to the referents of verbal language but also to the objects and actions present in the visual language. All in all, the multisemiotic examination of the interaction of verbal and visual language indicated that the televised news interview is a text consisting of highly varied and diverse phenomena which the modern viewer is able to immediately understand in the rapid flow of the text. The research provides new information on televised news interview to the extent that it is now possible to talk about audiovisual grammar and multisemiotic text analysis. Both of these are novel at least in the analysis of Finnish multisemiotic television texts. Keywords: television news, news interview, multisemiotic text, multisemiotic text analysis, audiovisual grammar
  • Westerlund, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In translation studies, the notion of collocation has gained growing interest during the past 20 years. However, no generally accepted definition of the concept is as of yet available. Collocation is rather defined from various points of view, subject to the domain and research interests. As part of my research project, I seek to form a coherent picture covering collocation, and to identify properties of collocation in order to identify instances of collocation in corpora. Rooted in the Firthian tradition of language studies, the theory is reflected upon the findings which stem from the data observed. The properties identified comprise frequency, structure, meaning and association. The present research seeks to find out whether collocations in the translated European Union regulations are similar to those in statutes originally written in Finnish. For this purpose, two corpora were created, and three reference corpora provided by the Language Bank of Finland were consulted during the research process. The research corpus comprises regulations by the European Union at the time Finland joined the community, and the first reference corpus comprises parts of the Finnish legislation from the same period. The findings in these two corpora are compared with the Semfinlex corpora of original statutes, the corpus of laws and directives originally compiled at the Institute for the Languages of Finland, and a corpus of newspapers and magazines. The research methods are basic language technology tools, and the method is descriptive in nature. One concurrent term is studied in detail, toimenpide [‘measure’], and its collocative behaviour with six verbs is recorded. These verbs are ryhtyä, soveltaa, suorittaa, säätää, tehdä and toteuttaa [verbs of ‘doing’]. Besides offering insights into theory formation, the results show a clear tendency for the translations of the EU regulations to choose different verbs from the Finnish legislation to form collocations with the term subject to research. Analysis of the collocates in various corpora suggests that there is a change taking place in the Finnish legislative language with more variation in the usage of the term and new meanings added to the existing ones.
  • Ojanen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In this study, I concentrate on the history and analysis of electroacoustic music and electronic musical instrument design in Finland during 1961–1978. The study can be introduced with three main threads; music history (the historical and cultural context in the Nordic countries in the 1960s and the 1970s), music technology (the electronic musical instrument design and use) and electroacoustic music (aesthetics and musical analysis). The study belongs to the domain of music technology research and its scientific stance is interdisciplinary. On the one hand, for analyzing and describing the cultural and historical context of electroacoustic music I employ music analysis and the concepts of the modern historiographical paradigm, ethnography and aesthetic theory. On the other, for describing the technological development and social networks I employ the concepts from the Science and Technology Studies (STS). At the core of the study are the musical instruments and music of the Finnish instrument designer and composer Erkki Kurenniemi (1941–2017). At the time when technology dedicated to electronic music production was practically nonexistent and the studios of the genre were rare and expensive to design, Kurenniemi’s designs enabled and facilitated the work of several composers. In addition to his Finnish collaborators, Kurenniemi worked with many Nordic composers and artists. His visionary ideas and technical expertise had its influence on the works of many of his contemporaries – and vice versa. Kurenniemi’s work serves here as a lens through which I observe the broader picture of the cultural and historical circumstances of electroacoustic music – even beyond the Finnish scene. Instead of concentrating on the canonical works and central actors in the field electroacoustic music, the focus of this study is on Helsinki-based small community, which had active links to Sweden and Norway as well as frequent connections even to the central European studios. The study sheds light on these less studied social connections. Beyond the temporal and geographical frames, the works by Kurenniemi and his Nordic collaborators provide overarching points of view to the interaction between music and technology. For example, the static and detailed descriptions of musical instruments are not enough to depict the impact of music technological development on musical aesthetics. To study this aspect further, I examine Kurenniemi’s instruments in the hands of their users. By analyzing the use of Kurenniemi’s instruments, I show how technological artifacts develop in complex interaction between the original designer, the users and the technological artifact itself rather than in an isolated laboratory by the lonely designer. Kurenniemi’s own musical output, on the other hand, provides an example of a music production process where the works are created in a close – and often real time – interaction with the production technology. In the extreme case, the role of the technology is strongly emphasized and can even be the most important factor of music making. This type of technology-driven music production and composition process challenges the traditional concept of a musical work, questions the typical intention of a composer and anticipates many production methods, which have emerged especially in many experimental and popular music productions.
  • Mönkkönen, Ilkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this thesis consisting of four published research articles is to uncover factors that explain the variation among a set of negators in litotes-type adverbial phrases (Article I), contrastive constructions (Article II), and constructions in which negators are used independently (Article III). The aim is also to provide evidence of transfer of negation from the nominal clause to the matrix clause (negative raising, NR) with four verbs expressing thinking and assumption (Article IV). The data of the thesis are drawn from two corpora. Articles I and II are based on a select corpus of 19 Old English (OE) texts. The compilation of this corpus of 641,321 OE words, both prose and glosses, was planned in view of the various text types, dialects and periods of OE. In articles III and IV the examples were searched one by one from the DOEC. The analysis of the data was based on both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The combined method proved to be beneficial in providing answers to the research questions and in constructing comprehensive accounts of the use of negators in the data. The findings of article I suggest that the variation among the negators in litotes-type adverbials may partly be explained by the author’s dialect, and partly by text type. Such adverbials, which mainly occur in narrative texts, point to language contact through translation. The adverbials are stylistically marked and are used as embellishments. The results of article II indicate that contrastive constructions are mainly used as rhetorical means to emphasize ideas that the author considers important. The preponderance of such constructions in homilies and other texts which are intended to influence people point to genre-based variation. The use of special rhetorical devices, such as anaphora and antimetabole, belong to literary style. Article III indicates that the adverb nese is used in answers to both affirmative and negative polar questions. The negator nic occurs a few times as an answer word to polar questions in which a response in the first person singular is expected. Na, which has given PDE no in answers, occurs in responses to polar questions and in polar-alternative questions. The findings of article IV suggest that the variation between matrix clause negation and nominal clause negation with four verbs indicating thinking or assumption in a complex sentence is due to pragmatic factors. It seems that negative raising is used as a hedge to lessen the impact of an opinion in OE. The extension of the notion of negation to subclausal units in two of the articles, opens up new perspectives to the study of negation in OE, which so far has mainly focused on the particle ne and sentential negation.
  • Moisio, Tomi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Composed Reality. The Artistic Discourse of Erik Enroth My doctoral thesis consists of a monograph on the life work and artistic production of Erik Enroth (1917–1975) written for the discipline of Art History in the Department of Cultures of the University of Helsinki. Previous research on the artist has covered only part of his oeuvre, and particularly his late work in the years 1963–1975 has remained uninvestigated. My thesis is thus the first academic research project to cover the whole of Enroth’s artistic career. I have three particular perspectives in my examination of Erik Enroth’s artistic discourse. They can be encapsulated in the concepts: narrative, context and the problematics existing between the image and the word. In my methodological approach, I employ in particular cognitive narratology, narrative hermeneutics and Quentin Skinner’s theory regarding the concept of context. My central research question is: What kind of influence did the postwar societal and artistic context have on the development of Erik Enroth’s artistic discourse? Although Enroth was above all a painter, he also expressed himself in writing. Therefore, in my thesis I also examine his written production and attach the themes he expressed in it to his pictorial expression. Thus Enroth’s paintings and poems constitute my primary research material. The objects of my research include offering a comprehensive view of Erik Enroth’s artistic discourse, supplementing the omissions of previous research and questioning certain prevailing conceptions and locating Enroth’s oeuvre within the context of Finnish and partly also international modernism in the fine arts. In my research, the concept of discourse, with its multiple ramifications, refers primarily to self-expression. It includes the written text, speech and the idiom of pictorial art. My starting point is semiotic, since this self-expression is also examined as text. In my monograph, I have striven to gather together for the first time certain rather scattered observations. My thesis also considers what directions future research on Erik Enroth might take and opens up a debate on the need for a re-evaluation of his oeuvre.
  • Kurkinen, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In the present study, I examine countryside shopkeepers’ everyday life in the Kainuu province based on their perception of their work. I examine the shopkeepers’ work and work strategies under social crisis in the Kainuu countryside from the 1940s to the end of the 1970s with a special focus on small entrepreneurs. At the same time, the study sheds light on the social reality and way of life in the Kainuu village communities during the period. Biographical interviews that were collected in 1996 form my primary study material. They give voice to the generation of shopkeepers’, who struggled through the greatest changes in retail trade in recent history. The key experience of the interviewees is the rapid crisis that the Finnish countryside experienced after World War II. Structural change in the countryside, and its economical and social crisis, which took place in Eastern and Northern Finland in particular, become emphasized in the work-focused biographical narratives analysed in the present study. By examining community members’ experiences, cultural habits and their capacity to influence their own conditions, one may see the impact of structural change on individuals and communities – how an individual is formed and reformed in active interaction with the social structure. This approach aids in understanding the kind of resources and strategies that individuals had at their disposal when trying to cope with the changes in their social environment. Countryside shops were symbols of the flourishing post-war countryside. Shopkeepers naturally played a vital role in delivering goods within village communities. In addition, they served important social, psychological and economic roles within the communities – the shops were simultaneously centres of social life in the villages. The decision to become a shopkeeper was often influenced by many factors. According to the narratives, women had difficulties – especially in the beginning of their careers – in working on equal terms with men in an occupation perceived as having a male image. Problems in combining work and family life were also expressed in the narratives. In addition the central status of work was emphasized. Devoting oneself to work strongly determined one’s life. Work was marked by both change and continuity. Knowhow was grounded in information and experiences accumulated through living and working in the village community. Shopkeepers on the countryside did not perceive their work as a job or just as an occupation, but rather as a comprehensive attitude, covering several aspects of life. The interviewees were unlike entrepreneur stereotypes. One could, instead, describe them through the notion “way-of-life entrepreneur”. In the study material, running a shop in the countryside was strongly seen as a process in which work is slowly reformed into a way of life. Social preconditions for running a shop were created through everyday social contacts. The countryside shopkeepers were also motivated by the perception of meaningfulness and significance of their work as part of the village community. Interaction acquired a particularly important role in the narratives of the occupation. The new biographical research emphasizes understanding individuals comprehensively, socially and as members of social networks. The biographies can also be seen as examples of social communication. These factors also become apparent in shopkeepers’ narratives. The local village social systems lost their functionality due to shrinking populations in spite of continual adaptation. While the position of the countryside shopkeeper initially exercised the prerogatives of an independent agent, this authority gradually and progressively shifted away from both the local shopkeeper and the village community. When the village communities withered away, the shops also disappeared. In building up the welfare society following the Second World War, a part of the country was certainly marginalized, thus bearing witness to the cultural process of continuity and change as shown throughout this study. In conclusion, the shopkeepers reacted to this process of change through strategies appropriate to their situations, some by adapting their activities to shrinking resources and others through modernizing, extending and developing their work.
  • Telakivi, Pii (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Where does conscious experience stop and the rest of the world begin? Is the material basis of consciousness confined to the brain, or can it be extended to include other parts of the body and environmental elements? This study proposes an extended account: when all the requirements are fulfilled, an external tool may become part of the realising basis for certain experiential processes. Andy Clark and David Chalmers argued famously that the material basis of cognitive states sometimes extends out of the barriers of skin and skull to external objects such as notebooks and other everyday tools. However, they draw the line there: only cognition, but not consciousness can have an extended base. The central argument of this study is that their constraint is not legitimate. If one is accepted, the other one follows. The first chapter lays an overview of the theoretical background of externalism and the 4E-theories in present-day philosophy of mind and cognitive sciences. It also examines the central concepts, accounts and methodological questions that will be used and further developed in later chapters. The second chapter presents three arguments for the position defended in this thesis, namely the hypothesis of extended conscious mind. The third chapter analyses the ongoing debate in the interface of philosophy of mind and philosophy of science about the causal–constitution distinction, and argues that rather than in mechanist terms, the causal–constitution distinction should be interpreted in diachronic terms when dealing with mental phenomena. When depicted that way, the extension relation in the hypothesis of extended conscious mind counts as constitutive. The fourth chapter distinguishes between several different levels of extension, from mere short-term extension to more robust functional incorporation, where the external tool has become part of the transparent bodily point of view of the subject. Based on the notion of functional incorporation, a set of demarcation criteria for the hypothesis of extended conscious mind will be developed. The chapter closes by discussing sensory substitution as a concrete example of functional incorporation. Finally, the fifth chapter introduces the most influential counter-arguments that have been set forth against the hypothesis of extended conscious mind. The critiques will be examined and answered.
  • Grandell, Jens (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    From the mid-nineteenth century onwards, the political culture in Finland started to shift towards a more modern path. This turn was widely influenced by western liberal and republican languages. Although the history of liberalism in Finland has been broadly discussed in previous historical research, the discussion has often lacked a clear understanding of the concept of liberalism. This has in turn lead to a deficit in the understanding of republicanism as part of the Finish political landscape. This thesis addresses these questions by studying how a liberal and republican language was formulated and disseminated in Finland around the middle of the nineteenth century. The underlying notion of the theses is to nuance and broaden the understanding of the ideological turn that took place in Finland during the second half of the nineteenth century. The three main research questions that I pose are: 1) In what kind of spatial, social and historical context did August Schauman's liberal and republican language take form? 2) Which ideological elements were included in Schauman's worldview, and what does this say about the Finnish ideoscape around the mid-nineteenth century? 3) What strategies did Schauman use for the dissemination of ideas and what does the relationship between public and private thinking look like in a nineteenth-century context? The methodological framework is built around a biographical understanding of history. The individual perspective in connection with a source close reading reveals a nuanced thought landscape, which is something that has been overlooked in previous research. By regarding the individual, in this case the journalist August Schauman, as a representative of his times and as a prism in which the times are reflected, it is possible to highlight elements of history that would otherwise be challenging to capture. Studying one of the key public voices in ninteeenth-century Finland, August Schauman, this thesis shows how ideas are formulated on a personal level, processed within different collectives and in interaction with the surrounding society. Using newspapers, letters, and published memoires, I show the dynamics that describe the movement of ideas during the nineteenth century and how republicanism alongside with liberalism was part of the Finnish spectrum of ideas. In Finland, it was not until the 1860s that the term liberal was applied to domestic conditions. In the intellectual discussion that had taken place before this, one can, as I show in this thesis, find traces of republican thought, which, on the other hand, is not surprising given that republicanism lent central features to early liberalism. August Schauman's republicanism is brought to the fore by studying him in relation to time and space and by making him part of the public discussion of Finland's future.
  • Laitinen, Kari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study examines military music activities in Finland during the last decades of Swedish rule (1770-1809), and the effect of these activities on Finland’s music life in general. The research topic is examined through military musicians of the six infantry regiments based on the allotment system. The research field thus covers the entire Finnish area of the Swedish realm. The research has two main research questions. The first question investigates the background and history of music activities at Finnish regiments: why did regiments begin to establish military bands during the Gustavian era, and how was this process carried out? The second question focuses on individual military musicians: who were they, how was their training organised, and what did their work consist of? In addition, the research examines military musicians’ activities in Finland’s mainstream music life, as well as providing an overview of the instruments they used and the repertoire they performed This research can be categorised as basic research in music history, with a strong source-based approach. The extensive archival materials and existing research literature were used to find answers to the questions posed in the research. The most important research materials include the army’s official document archives and correspondence, parish registers and research literature on individual and local history. Information on individual military musicians has been compiled into a military musician register (appendix). Research results indicate that the establishing of military bands in Finland was systematic and wide-ranging, and it was modelled on European examples. These activities, however, were not organised by the state but relied instead on the activeness of regiments and officers, who were also largely responsible for funding their military bands. The regiments covered in this study had approximately three hundred serving military musicians between 1770 and 1809, most of whom came from the local area. In addition, a number of European professional musicians, who had arrived in Finland via Stockholm, were employed to train military musicians. Likewise, the instruments and repertoire were largely imported from abroad. Even though the training of military musicians in the last decades of Swedish rule was modest and individual players’ skills remained intermediate, Finnish regiment players had a role in participating in their local music communities in a range of ways.
  • Saari, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study in the field of general history examines how the national park idea was constructed as an American invention through the international connections of national park officials. This dissertation argues that the national park idea—often popularly referred to as "America’s Best Idea"—was effectively constructed as an American idea through the U.S. National Park Service’s international work and park co-operation programs during the Cold War years. By the 1970s and 1980s, the national park idea was viewed as an American invention even in Finland, where nature conservation philosophy had traditionally derived from Swedish and German traditions. The first national park in the world, Yellowstone National Park, was established in the United States in 1872. The United States has been viewed as an inspiration in national park matters from early on, but the national park idea as an American idea—a skillfully created and utilized story—was fully embraced only later as Yellowstone was powerfully promoted as the mythical origin of all national parks globally during the Cold War. The study is mainly based on extensive archival research in the United States, Canada, and Finland, but it also utilizes several printed primary sources. The main focus of the study is on the international work of the U.S. National Park Service. The four chapters of the thesis examine the early promotion of national parks in the United States and the beginning of the U.S. National Park Service’s international work, international national park co-operation and the uses of the national park idea during the Cold War, the mythical narrative of Yellowstone and the U.S. as the origin of the national park idea, and a case study of how the national park idea in Finland became "Americanized." The theoretical and methodological framework of the study is within the field of environmental history. The dissertation is connected to the ongoing scholarly discussion of national parks in global perspective, which is a vibrant research interest among environmental historians. The study views national parks not only as nature conservation areas, but also as cultural constructions that reflect a society’s relationship to nature, while also examining the use of national parks as forms of Cold War cultural diplomacy and export.
  • Eerolainen, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Science and technology have been paramount features of any modernized nation. In Japan they played an important role in the modernization and militarization of the nation, as well as its democratization and subsequent economic growth. Science and technology highlight the promises of a better tomorrow and future utopia, but their application can also present ethical issues. In fiction, they have historically played a significant role. Fictions of science continue to exert power via important multimedia platforms for considerations of the role of science and technology in our world. And, because of their importance for the development, ideologies and policies of any nation, these considerations can be correlated with the deliberation of the role of a nation in the world, including its internal and external images and imaginings. In Japan, narratives of the weird, fantastic and horrific have been present for centuries, culminating in the popularity of Japanese horror cinema with the worldwide success of Ringu (1998). In Japanese cinema studies, however, the study of these narratives is still limited, especially with regard to scientific narratives. This thesis is an attempt to remedy this situation. I will look into the way images of Japanese nationhood are mediated through male characters that are associated with science and technology. I argue that by analyzing these characters within their respective contexts and the general framework of both the history of science and technology as well as Japan’s postwar policies, it is possible to understand how the films deal with various, sometimes contradicting self-projected images of the Japanese nation. My study is located at an intersection of four particular fields: the study of Japanese cinema, the study of horror and the fantastic, the study of Japanese masculinities and the study of the history of Japanese science. The following films will be analyzed: Gojira (1954), Chikyū bōeigun (The Mysterians, 1957), Bijo to ekitainingen (The H-man, 1958), Densō ningen (The Secret of the Telegian, 1960), Gasu ningen daiichi-gō (The Human Vapor, 1960), Matango (1963), Tanin no kao (The Face of Another, 1964), Kairo (Pulse, 2001), Sakebi (Retribution, 2006), Doppelgänger (2006), the Tetsuo series (1988, 1992, 2009) and the three HAYABUSA films (2012). I will start by redefining “horror” and “science fiction” as “speculative cinema” (kaiki eiga), a cross-generic mode that as an umbrella term enables the analysis of both supernatural tales and more scientifically inclined works. In order to theorize the concept, I will draw from previous literature on the weird and the fantastic. Torben Grodal’s (2009) biocultural framework will be also utilized in order to provide one possible explanation for the prevalence of certain motifs worldwide. Next, I will highlight the role of men as functional tools for the mediation of national images. This is done by theorizing the notion of “scientific masculinity,” a type of masculinity that contributes to the creation of knowledge, as defined by Erica Lorraine Milam and Robert A. Nye (2015). Scientific masculinity is a trope with a function—to mediate images of nationhood by calling for advancements of science and technology. The Frankenstein myth is present in almost all of the fictions, as manifested in Sharalyn Orbaugh’s (2007) so-called Frankenstein Syndrome. Shimura Miyoko’s (2008) concept of otoko no kaijin, the male phantom, is also useful. In order to understand scientific masculinity, I will draw both from the history of science and from studies on masculinity. Understanding the role of hegemonic masculinity (Connell, 1995) is particularly important, as it works as an ideological reference point for the fictional, non-hegemonic characters. This creates an interdisciplinary theoretical model that contributes to the understanding of the function of scientific masculinity as a representation of a certain national image. The results of this thesis suggest that Japanese speculative cinema engages in the process of dissecting national images—and ideals—on screen. This is accomplished by the use of scientifically minded masculine agents which subvert, challenge and negotiate ideologies that have contributed to Japan’s postwar history. Because of the importance of science and technology for social policies at various points in history, they provide a fine context for the dissecting of these ideas. It is clear that kaiki eiga actively participates in negotiating a multitude of salient national images—imperialist, pacifist, racial, technological, economic and, last but not least, patriarchal. These images reflect the changes that Japanese society has undergone since the Pacific War, as well as those that the society should undergo, according to the filmmakers.

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