Humanistinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Pahomov, Miikul (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Researchers of the Finnic languages have presented various views on the position of Ludian. It has been regarded as an independent language by some and a dialect of Karelian (or Vepsian) by others. Researchers have also pondered whether the Ludians are their own people or a Karelian (or Vepsian) tribe. The goal of this research is to define the historical and taxonomical position of the language variety spoken by the Ludian people. This study is the first comprehensive examination of the history of Ludian and its speakers. The primary research method is the historical-comparative method, supplemented where applicable with language sociology. The historical investigation is mainly based on written sources, while the linguistic analysis is based on material collected by the author in Kuujärvi, in comparison with other available material. The focus is on the structural features of the language. Today, Ludian is one of the most endangered Finnic languages, with at most 300 speakers. Material is not available for all dialects spoken at the start of the 20th century, as those spoken beyond the eastern border of the area were extinct by the 1940s. The number of Ludian speakers at the start of the 20th century can be estimated at 15,000 20,000. Ludians self-identification differs from the official classifications used in Russia. An analysis of Kuujärvi Ludian reveals that it shares features with other Ludian dialects, but also with Karelian-Olonets and Vepsian. Classifying Ludian as a Karelian dialect is problematic, as it is difficult to pinpoint any features shared by both Ludian and Karelian-Olonets but not by Vepsian. Nor can Vepsian be viewed as a substrate of Ludian and Olonets due to its phonological properties. Compared to Vepsian, Ludian contains more evidence of the ancient language from which Ludian, Olonets and Vepsian are presumed to originate. Based on the many similarities between Ludian and Olonets, it can be ascertained that, for example, Southeast Olonets, and developed based on Kuujärvi Ludian. The South Karelian dialects can be divided into those on the Olonets side and the Ludian side. South Karelian, which is on the Ludian side and has features that extend into the Inner-Russian Karelian dialects, is more closely connected to Ludian than to Vepsian. This view is also supported by the Ludian features in North Karelian. Based on diachronic criteria, Ludian, Olonets and Vepsian stand in contrast to North Karelian. Structurally, however, Ludian, Olonets and Onega Vepsian differ greatly from the other Vepsian varieties. Olonets and South Karelian show Ludian substrate features and cannot be studied without regard for Ludian. With their own system clearly distinct from those of the neighbouring varieties, the Ludian dialects do not fulfil the criteria of mixed dialects but can rather be considered an independent variety. An investigation from above-mentioned perspectives demonstrates that Ludian must be approached as its own areal phenomenon.
  • Leinonen, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This work examines: 1) how Kurds and their demands for cultural and political rights were represented in the Turkish-language mainstream press (1999 2005), and 2) the debates over proposals to change the conceptualizations of the citizenship of Turkey within attempts for a resolution to Turkey s Kurdish issue (in 2005 and 2009). To achieve this, news and columns published in the Milliyet, Zaman, Yeni Şafak, Cumhuriyet and Sabah national dailies were examined through five (qualitative) case studies. The analysis is based on selected tools and approaches of critical discourse analysis, influenced by frame analysis. The research problem concerns the reasons behind Turkey s inability to resolve its Kurdish issue, namely these are explored in the continued importance of Turkish nationalist discourses and the shortcomings of the public discourse on the Kurdish issue. To contextualize the debates analyzed, the work includes chapters on: the formation of the Turkish nation-state, and how the citizenship of Turkey and membership in the Turkish nation were formulated (1920s and 1930s); the tracing of these formulations and related minority policies vis-à-vis the Kurdish speaking population over time; and the development of Kurdish nationalism from the 1960s onwards, and pro-Kurdish political activities from 1990 onward. In addition, there is a chapter on the Turkish-language press. From the analyses I derived three interconnected main arguments. First, until 2003 there were no concrete groups, or even individuals labeled as Kurds in the news reports, but rather roundabout labels were used. Because Kurdishness remained an abstract category, we are led to approach claims of a recognition of a Kurdish reality in Turkey in the 1990s with caution. Rather, it was only in the early 2000s that a more sustained discursive transformation took place. Second, the successful utilization of state-centric and security-oriented conservative nationalist discourse by the main opposition party, the CHP (Republican People's Party) to counter the ruling AKP s (Justice and Development Party) attempt for a resolution to Turkey s Kurdish issue in 2009 points towards the continuing power of various stands of nationalist discourse in Turkey. Conservative (Kemalist) nationalism was used as a powerful instrument in a situation of political polarization. Third, while the multicultural state of affairs may have become increasingly acknowledged, even by 2009 there was almost no support for group rights and only limited support for affirmative action. Demands for minority rights continued to be discussed within a framework of security rather than as issues of justice, and the idea of minority right was still presented as an existential threat to the state.
  • Lähteenmäki, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The rapid change in the built environment accelerated the preservation discussion from the 1960s onwards. The traditional preservation criteria, which were the bases of city planning, excluded industrial buildings. Authenticity, historical and aesthetic values were given priority and interest was focused primarily on individual buildings, whereas industrial areas usually consisted of several buildings and were defined by continuous change and practicality. The architectural or historical value of industrial buildings was given only secondary importance. Moreover, the size and the volume of the individual plants and of the entire areas presented both practical and economic problems. A detailed account of the preservation processes of the Verkatehdas and Finlayson industrial areas shows the changes that took place in the attitudes towards industrial heritage during the research period. To understand the complex ways in which the preservation discussion interrelates with the processes of society, the cases were approached from different points of view. The context is the entire city of Tampere and its citizens. The study thus combines the research traditions of art history, urban studies, literature, geography and social and political history. With the chosen concepts, national landscape and industrial heritage, the study seeks answers for the questions how and why the industrial areas by the Tammerkoski rapids became a valuable industrial heritage and how the representations of the city have influenced the preservation discussion. The meanings of the national landscape were formed through a discussion in which historical images were combined with the present. The political and economic actors have had an important role in the definition of industrial heritage. The theoretical standpoint is in urban studies, which sees the city as consisting not only of its built form, but also of its cultural practices. That is, meanings attached to places are constructed in connection with the city s built form and its citizens. Moreover, meanings and values are produced and reproduced in social practices of different discourses. In other words, meanings are collective, shared by a group of people, and can therefore be inconsistent. The hegemonic discourse is city planning in which valuation discussion takes place. City planning advocates modernist ideas, and the need for the continuous progress and welfare of society, amongst other things. In the preservation conflicts the arguments for demolition and the grounds for city planning and political decision-making processes are questioned. In the long term these arguments influence the preservation criteria, the city planning course and the general attitude towards industrial heritage. The role of preservation officials and experts has been of great importance in the valuation of industrial heritage. Yet only the acceptance of citizens has changed the industrial buildings into a valuable heritage. The remembered and imagined representations of the national landscape strengthen the citizens connection to their own and to a collective past and present. The value of industrial heritage cannot be measured on economic grounds since it is composed of values that are important to citizens. Old pictures and stories of the past now serve new uses in representing the industrial heritage of the city. The national landscape pictured from afar represents the collective heritage of the citizens. Even though there is agreement on the importance and value of industrial heritage, the less important or the less authentic factory buildings tend not to be preserved. When we acknowledge that the character of industry is undergoing continuous change, and that the value of industrial building is bound up with their many different functions over the years, then we are closer to comprehending the meaning and value of industrial heritage. Much is still to be done to place individual factories within industrial heritage criteria.
  • Haapoja, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Kalevalaic runo singing was a tradition of metered oral poetry. During the last 200 years, runo songs have been one of the main interests of folklorists in Finland. The vast archival collections of manuscripts and recordings have had an important role in the Finnish nation-building process. Across the last twenty years, professional folk musicians have revitalized the singing of such poetry: runo singing can now be heard in concert halls, and in jam sessions; it has become a visible part of the today s professional folk music field. The archival collections of runo songs provide resources and models for making this music, but new and creative innovations are emphasized in the field. This study examines how the relationship between past and present is constructed in the field of contemporary Kalevalaic runo singing in Finland. The data consist of interviews with professional folk musicians, participant observation and media texts such as newspaper articles, TV documentaries and publications and discussions on the Internet. The methodological foundation of the research combines theories on the concepts of nationalism, authenticity and tradition. The methods of analysis stem from practices of ethnographic research, including autoethnography. In the context of contemporary folk music, a strong bond is formed between past and present performers and songs, and this bond is given both permanence and significance. In the discourses of the data, the relationship between past and present is analyzed on four levels: 1. on the personal level, in which the emotions, experiences and fates of present and past performers are seen as intertwined in the process of singing; 2. on the national level, where the use of Kalevalaic songs is justified by referring to our national past and the kinship of Finno-Ugric peoples; 3. on the level of performances, where the references to past songs are made by using certain authentic generic features that are used to either maximize or minimize the intertextual gap; 4. on the level of cultural mediation, in which the relationship between past and present singers and songs is formed by naming the cultural expression as tradition. The study offers a novel point of view on the contemporary value of the runo singing tradition and, furthermore, on the ideological and discursive processes whereby traditions are made significant.
  • Härkönen, Mitra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study examines the lived experiences of oppression and opportunities encountered by Tibetan Buddhist nuns. The theoretical approach of the research is intersectionality, which aims at describing and analyzing the interconnection of different oppressive status positions and institutions and giving voice to marginalized groups. My study investigates how the intersections of the nuns female gender, their Buddhist religion and their Tibetan nationality on the one hand produce subordination and an unequal distribution of power and, on the other hand, provide the nuns with opportunities and agency. The study is based on research material collected during three field research trips to the traditionally Tibetan regions of Amdo and Kham in the People s Republic of China, and one trip to a Tibetan exile community in Himachal Pradesh in India. The data was collected through multi-sited ethnography. The primary material comprises the life story interviews of 38 nuns. In addition, 49 focused and semi-structured interviews with lay Tibetans and some monks and nuns were conducted and thematically analyzed in order to gain more information about the significance of Tibetan monasticism in the present-day Tibetan society. The analysis shows that power structures and relations that disadvantage nuns as women, as religious practitioners, and as Tibetans are constructed and maintained in different domains of power. In the structural domain, traditional but still dominant institutions such as the distribution of work, marriage and educational practices, as well as religious institutions disadvantage Tibetan nuns. In the disciplinary domain of power, the nuns find themselves monitored by traditional culture and the Chinese authorities. The unequal distribution of power in these domains is justified by hegemonic ideas based on religious and cultural beliefs, ideas of religion and modernity, and religion and gender. These domains of power find their expression in the everyday life of people in the interpersonal sphere. Moreover, the analysis also reveals that many of the nuns were highly active in choosing and determining their life course. It can be suggested that monastic life offers Tibetan women freedom from the suffering faced by laywomen. The juncture of their gender, religion and nationality also provides them with agency that can be understood as resistance. This becomes most evident in their nationalism, which is both visible and more subtle. Finally, monastic life offers them religious agency as compassionate bodhisattvas, who aim to not only benefit other living beings but also themselves. The research shows that depending on the intersection of her status positions, the Tibetan nun can be either disadvantaged or privileged, or in some cases, both at the same time.
  • Räisä, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI Department of Finnish, Finno-Ugrian and Scandinavian Studies (Nordica) Tiina Räisä, 2016. Media rituals as class- and culture-dependent discourses and functions. Lucia in Hufvudstadsbladet and the construction of Svenskfinland. Abstract This study is an empirical and interdisciplinary examination of Lucia in the Hufvudstadsbladet (HBL) daily newspaper. My aim is to give visibility to a longstanding media text that has become important for the Swedish-speaking people in Finland. I define Lucia as a media ritual and use it as an example to investigate how media institutions, through a reproduction of texts, construct culture and, over time, also symbolic communities such as Svenskfinland. The theoretical aim is to emphasize ritual as a powerful context which has an impact on how language users choose their words, and also, to highlight rituals as constituting borders, and thus, influencing the construction of distinctive and collective identities. The research material consists of articles produced by the HBL at the beginning of each, new ritual season. The focus is exclusively put on the Lucia practices produced and distributed by the HBL rather than on any other Finnish or Scandinavian Lucia traditions. I have also excluded the events of the actual Lucia day, 13 December, and have instead concentrated only on those media texts by which the media institution launches the initial phase of the media ritual. I analyse the reproduction of three participatory groups: Lucia candidates, the trio (also called the Lucia jury) and the various groups that receive the proceeds of the fundraising campaign connected to the media ritual. For a synchronic analysis, I have studied media texts from every ten years during 1950 2012 and have applied a diachronic perspective to establish how the ritual and its meanings have changed over time. The interdisciplinary approach is reflected by the methodological choices. The concept of sequence has been used both in conversation analysis and anthropology to deconstruct the elements of an event. I apply sequence to organize and analyse the different systematic forms of repetition. Names and name-like expressions as well as various verb phrases (active and static conditions of being and doing, as well as quality) are communicated sequentially, thus reflecting the ritual demands of logic and strategy. My study is situated in a constructivist tradition in that language is not taken for granted, but is rather seen as a practice which constructs meaning-making. Words become significant symbols that have an impact on the discursive development of the media ritual and resources that manifest the various functions and tasks distributed to the participatory groups by the media institution. The concept of ritual makes is possible to evaluate the difference between what is presented as natural but which is in fact a means of constructing the social, that is, culture and ideology. The dissertation underlines the social consequences of the discourses and functions established by the ritual context. Media rituals are structurally, functional and culture specific phenomena, implying both who belong to the social centre who are placed in the periphery. I claim that the mythical construction of nation and culture implications for the diversified society and the integration process. It is by highlighting the repeated symbolic practices distributed by journalists and accepted by the public that one can understand the impact of the ritualised media practices that lead to constructions of inclusion and exclusion. Key words: ritual, media rituals, ritualization, myth, construction, discourse, function, sequence, strategy, media language, repetition, symbol, onomastics, participatory groups, types, identity, culture, class, gender, social centre, consensus, inclusion, exclusion
  • Rundgren, Heta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Situated at the intersection between comparative literature and gender studies, this dissertation theorizes what I term the postnormâle novel. It deploys readings of four contemporary European novels along with a corpus of literary and feminist theory. The novels include Doris Lessing s The Golden Notebook (1962), Märta Tikkanen's Manrape (1975), Stieg Larsson's Millenium trilogy or The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2005-2007) and Virginie Despentes's Apocalypse baby (2010). My analysis of these texts examines the way in which the postnormâle novel reclaims social discourses of sexual difference for a mass audience while subtly displacing realist conventions in order to inscribe women s or lesbians experience of sexual conflict into the text. A four step process is used to study the work. First, I anchor the novels to a realist real , and study the function of detail within the postnormâle aesthetic. Then I chart the sociogram feminism in the novels and their reception. Thirdly, I read the narrative of what I call counter-rape , and lastly the inscription of woman-desire and the figuration the constitution even of entr elles, a feminist space. The perspective of my study is postmodern, which implies a suspension but not a disbelief of the twofold question of literary status and literary evaluation, in order to focus on texts in their contexts. In this process, I aim to rethink the link between the notions of the feminine and the queer in light of contemporary feminist and lesbian perspectives.
  • Styrman, Avril (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation introduces economical unification as a method of analysis and shows how it is applied in dealing with some topics that are central in contemporary philosophy. The method resembles a production line that consists of three successive elements which are interconnected in two stages: Economy > Ontology > Applications In the first stage, an economically unified ontology is explicated by applying the principle of economy, which is an evaluation criterion of alternative ontologies. An economically unified ontology is an empirically sufficient, metaphysically minimal and generally virtuous world-view or a belief system of a human being. In the second stage everything else is dealt with in terms of the ontology. The central argument is that economical unification is a more progressive method than plain conceptual analysis which proceeds in the absence of an economically unified ontology and without the principle of economy. Its progressiveness results from having economy as an unambiguous evaluation criterion, which enables explicating a stable and minimal unified ontology which functions as a common base for all topics, and which enables defining and disambiguating meanings of concepts, thereby facilitating their genuine understanding and resolving problems around them, more efficiently than without an economically unified ontology, and without an unambiguous evaluation criterion that would enable explicating it. The progressiveness of the method is substantiated by applying it in disambiguating some of the central concepts that are dealt with in contemporary philosophy such as time, truth and possibility, and in resolving problems around them. The method works: unification efficiently resolves problems whose central source is disunification itself. In other words, the absence of an economically unified ontology is a central source of problems and ambiguities in contemporary philosophy; in economical unification such problems are resolved by removing their source; their source is removed by replacing the absence of an economically unified ontology by bringing it in the center of the analysis. The holistic method that handles special topics in the top-down order by relying on an understandable world-view, is very different from traditional conceptual analysis that proceeds in the absence of an economically unified ontology, and even in the absence of having it as the goal, i.e., without economy or the degree of virtuousness as the criterion. Moreover, the method was formulated in order to systematically overcome those limitations of plain conceptual analysis which result from their absence. Traditional conceptual analysis proceeds typically by investigating isolated topics and various angles to them, but this does not manage to interconnect the isolated topics and thus does not resolve problems which are due to the isolation itself. It is practically impossible to unify many things by concentrating on one thing only, and the optimal rate of progress in philosophy and in science in general cannot be achieved if the analysis is limited into investigating isolated fragments. In order to achieve the optimal rate of progress, unification is needed in counterbalancing specialization. By looking at many individual pieces together, one can start streamlining them into a functional totality. In this process much is revealed about what kinds of parts are needed in the totality and what are not. The totality consists of interrelated parts, but in economical unification the overall picture of reality guides the development of its parts at least as strongly as the requirements for the parts guide the development of the totality. Economical unification can thus be seen merely as the project getting hold of the natural order where the totality and its parts interact, and whose alternative is to keep on investigating details of isolated parts blindfolded without worrying about their roles in a totality, for all parts that are applicable do have a role in a totality. One can and one should scrutinize any suggested totality and replace it when a better one is available, but not before a better one has been presented. This holds for contemporary paradigmatic theories and for everything that comes after them. This brings the focus to the question of what is the objective meaning of better. The suggested answer is: the more economically unified, the better. The most important starting point in the project of economical unification is the acceptance of the principle of economy or the degree of virtuousness as the evaluation criterion, for without a commonly accepted and acknowledged criterion the path towards consensus is unnecessarily long and painful. The easiest way of accepting economy as the criterion is understanding that its general acceptance would accelerate the progress rate of science, including philosophy: virtuousness as the criterion of theories likely results into more virtuous science, faster than without it. Once we have a common criterion, people no longer have to settle on agreeing to disagree, but people have leaped forward into evaluating which theory is objectively better. Everything can be scrutinised, including economy, but rejecting it without replacing it with a more progressive criterion means that one does not fully appreciate progress.
  • Stolt, Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Finding the final grade - A study of evaluative remarks in grading comments for matriculation examination essays in Swedish as a mother tongue and literature The main purpose of the study is to illuminate evaluative remarks and an institutional interaction in a social context. The overall focus is on qualitatively demonstrating patterns of expression that censors, through attitude remarks, use in their grading of good and excellent matriculation examination essays in Swedish as a mother tongue and literature, as well as how these remarks fulfill an interpersonal function in the grading process. The matriculation examination in Finland constitutes an institutionalized writing practice and the censors can be seen as authoritative graders in this context. Through evaluative remarks in interaction with each other the censors show qualities of the matriculation examination essay or the author of the essay, which they as graders want to bring to light. Theoretically and methodically, the study follows the appraisal system, which makes it possible to analyse and examine rhetorical elements in texts as well as to look at the relation between the author and the reader. In this study appraisal is used to examine the censors comments on matriculation examination essays and the relations between grading comments. The study shows established patterns of writing practices and the result of the study should be seen as indicators of connections in grading comments. The results of the analysis shows that censors in their comments do not express their own emotions (AFFECT) but express values through the subsystems ENGAGEMENT and ATTITUDE mainly through appreciative remarks on the matriculation examination essay. In a dialogue with the other censors, they reference external sources such as standardized policy documents and the teacher s scoring; consensus in their grading is reached by collegial dialogue. Keywords: writing practice, institutional writing practice, grading, summative grading, evaluative remarks, appraisal, censor evaluative comments as dialogue, Swedish with a didactic alignment.
  • Ala-Risku, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The topic of the dissertation is multilingualism, dialect and metalanguage in contemporary Italian fiction. In spite of pessimistic prophecies, dialects have resurfaced in fiction since the 1990s, and a number of authors have chosen to use them alongside and mixed with Italian in their literary works. This research analyses 33 fictional prose works published between 1991 and 2011 by 11 Italian authors who represent the new wave of literary dialect. The corpus contains elements of various Italian dialects (Sicilian, Neapolitan, Romanesco, Lombard, Genoese) and Romance minority languages (Friulian, Sardinian), but also other languages (e.g. Spanish). This dissertation draws upon both sociolinguistic and narratological studies on literary multilingualism, in order to outline the most salient formal, functional and textual aspects of dialect use in the texts. It also makes use of translation studies theory. Authors frequently frame the actual mixture of languages with intratextual translation techniques: the aim is to ensure the reader s comprehension. This interdisciplinary theoretical background comes together in a metalinguistic viewpoint that guides the analysis. Through the narrator s voice, they also explicitly comment on the characters language choices, thus contributing to the contrast between language varieties. Comments and translations can be further highlighted with peritextual and graphical tools: together, these elements are considered side effects of literary multilingualism. This dissertation shows how multiple languages are used in the text torepresent regional culture and dialect community with the help of metalinguistic comments. Single insertions of realia concepts (culturespecific terms) typically fill lexical gaps; longer quotes are recalled to represent oral dialect culture (verses, proverbs). In addition, multilingualism is essential to character construction and composition of the story. Dialectal names and their vocative use in literary dialogue carry important information about interpersonal relationships between characters and their linguistic repertoire. Similar extra-sentential insertions, such as interjections and other high impact terms are used to create the illusion of orality with a selection of identifiable elements. Also, a more profound degree of switching and mixing contribute to the mimetic representation of characters and their voices. The importance of metalanguage emerges clearly from the analysis. Various comments concern both collective and individual sociolinguistic processes. Metalinguistic remarks about language contact, bilingual identities,otherness and liminality are all essential to a more profound understanding of multilingualism and dialect in contemporary Italian fiction.
  • Uusikoski, Risto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The dissertation examines the concepts of tense. There is not and cannot be one true concept for any linguistic phenomenon as there are no "true", language-independent linguistic phenomena. This means that studies employ concepts that differ from each other. However, the concepts should not differ from each other randomly; the concepts cannot be "right" or "wrong", but they can be more or less appropriate. Yet, it is not enough to just build or use an appropriate concept. It is also important to be explicit on the choices made to prevent further misunderstandings and to make the results of the study easier to understand and to compare; the results are always dependent on the theoretical background, yet the composition of concepts is too often too implicit. The dissertation is metatheoretical in its nature: I examine twelve already existing concepts of tense: I have broken their structure down into individual components, which may have several different values. I have compared this theoretical data with a typological data of 193 tense markers from 62 languages and evaluated how each component value affects the possible data, the analysis and the results of any given study (typological or other). The objectives of the dissertation are to make past and future tense research more comparable, to examine how the choice of concept affects the data, the analysis and the results, to help in building appropriate concepts that best serve the research question and to highlight the importance of making concepts and their component values explicit. The work has been structured in such a way that the central ideas are easy to transfer to the study of other linguistic phenomena as well. The results show that carefully considering the concept is indeed an essential part of any linguistic study: Using different component values as a part of the concept results in different types of data that may be more or less suitable for a given purpose. These effects are individually illustrated with the typological data and the studies used as examples. The results also include a detailed list of components and their values relevant for tense as well as an analysis of their frequency, centrality and canonicity in regard to the concepts of tense. The typological data also serves as a typological study of tense in its own right. This means that in addition to addressing the main objectives the dissertation also provides answers to the questions "what is typically considered as tense in the literature" and "what tense markers are typically like". The dissertation also provides methodology for the systematic analysis of concepts in general.
  • Granqvist, Juha-Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    THE HELSINKI BURGHER COMMUNITY DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF FORTRESS SVEABORG (1748- 1808) The aim of this study is to examine the structure and dynamics of the burgher community in late 18th century Helsinki. The construction period of sea fortress Sveaborg, beginning in 1748 and lasting up until the Finnish War (1808- 1809), revolutionized the course of history for Helsinki. In the mid-18th century it was an economically menial small-town with some thousand inhabitants. On the eve of the Finnish War, Helsinki and Sveaborg formed an integrated twin town with nine thousand inhabitants and a blooming economy. Due to the fortress construction, Helsinki does not represent a typical Swedish town of that time. However, the fortress construction turned it into a typical representative of another common urban form: the early modern European military town. The development of the Helsinki burgher community was a mixture of national trends and features typical for an early modern military town. The most notable features are the contradictory developments of the groups of merchants and of lesser burghers, and the relations of the burgher community with the Sveaborg fortress. The fortification works helped the merchants to form a closed profession more efficiently than in most other towns, and thus helped the national trend forward; on the other hand, the lesser burghers, who were on the brink of extinction in most towns, survived and even strengthened in Helsinki by serving the military population. The structure and dynamics of the Helsinki burgher community explain why the town was the home of the most heated municipal power struggles in the late 18th century Swedish Realm, as despite their rapidly growing numbers, the lesser burghers had little influence on the town's politics. The burghers formed an integral part of the army maintenance, as they were expected to keep necessities for sale for soldiers to buy. However, due to geographical conditions, the burghers were unable to serve the military population of Sveaborg without settling to the fortress islands. This caused a series of conflicts between the army and the burghers, and finally resulted in the birth of a new kind of business circle that shattered the barriers between civil society and military society.
  • Sandman, Erika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    My dissertation is a comprehensive grammatical description of the Wutun language (ISO 639-3 WUH), a distinct local form of Northwest Mandarin spoken by approximately 4000 people in Upper Wutun, Lower Wutun and Jiacangma villages in Tongren County, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, People s Republic of China. While the basic vocabulary and grammatical morphemes of Wutun are mainly of Chinese origin, it has adapted phonologically and structurally to its current linguistic environment, where varieties of Amdo Tibetan are dominant regional languages and lingua francas. The Tibetan influence manifests itself in all domains of Wutun grammatical structure, including phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon. This has yielded some phonological and grammatical properties that are unusual for a Sinitic language and cross-linguistically rare, including the size of the phoneme inventory, multiple aspect marking and egophoricity. In addition, there are some grammatical features, such as the paucal-plural distinction and sociative case marking, which represent areal interference from Bonan, a small Mongolic language spoken in the immediate vicinity of Wutun-speaking villages. The dissertation is based on first-hand field data collected during three field trips to the province of Qinghai in June-August 2007, June-August 2010 and June-July 2013. My data consists of approximately 1300 clauses of descriptive and narrative texts as well as conversations that were complemented by elicitation and grammaticality judgements. The theoretical framework used for language description is based on an informal descriptive theory referred to in the literature as Basic Linguistic Theory (BLT) (Dixon 1997, 2010; Dryer 2006). My dissertation aims to detail aspects of Wutun phonology, morphology and syntax, including phoneme inventory, noun phrase, verb complex, minor word classes, clause structure, non-declarative speech acts and clause combining. It also includes an appendix with three oral texts in Wutun. It is my hope that the present study will be accessible to a wide audience, including linguists working on Sino-Tibetan languages, languages of Northwest China, linguistic typology and historical linguistics.
  • Nissin, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Abstract Roman sleep - Sleeping areas and sleeping arrangements in the Roman house The main themes of this study are the sleeping areas and the sleeping arrangements in the ancient Roman house (domus). Sleeping is fundamentally important to the well-being of humans. In order to solve the sleep related problems, it is crucial to understand how sleeping is arranged in different societies past and present. According to the premises for sociological sleep studies, especially outlined by Simon Williams, how we sleep, when we sleep, where we sleep, what meanings we attribute to sleep, who we sleep with, are all important socially, culturally and historically variable matters . In this work, I have pursued a new, cross-disciplinary approach to the social aspects of ancient Roman sleeping culture by applying these premises and asking the research questions, how, when, where and with whom Romans slept, and which factors determined these arrangements, drawing on the evidence from Latin literature and Roman archaeology. Written sources consist of Latin texts which mention sleeping and resting. Texts were chosen by using reference books and electronic databases and studied with source critical text analysis. Archaeological material was collected from private dwellings of Herculaneum, where evidence of beds has survived. The data concerning the material culture and architectonic elements of Herculaneum was gathered mainly from the excavation reports. In addition, I documented the houses during two short fieldwork periods. The data was studied by using the methods of buildings archaeology and artifact studies. The analysis of data was influenced by the theories on the use of domestic space and on the theories of privacy. The main factors influencing the sleeping arrangements in Roman society included the social status, climate, urban culture, need for control, moralistic outlook as well as ritualistic behaviour. Roman households had routine-based nightly activities and very likely also permanent sleeping spaces. However, the locations of sleeping areas could have changed according to season. The wealthiest Romans appreciated the peaceful bedchambers and cubiculum was this separate, even private bedroom of the (elite) domus. Roman sleeping culture was biphasic, consisting of two main divisions: the midday rest and one period of sleep at night The settings for sleeping among upper class Romans were more solitary than social and group sleeping among the members of the elite nuclear family in the houses was not typical. Slaves on duty slept outside the owner s bedroom rather than inside and, in general, slaves had few possibilities to influence their sleeping arrangements. Children were taken into consideration in all areas of life including sleeping arrangements. Night-time and darkness influenced the Roman space use as well; even the Roman night was dark and full of terrors and sleeping had many negative connotations. However, in spite of the negative outlook on sleeping and night, even the positive aspects of resting were admitted, sleep deprivation was understood to be harmful and problems of sleeping were actively remedied.
  • Piippo, Jarna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation examines the current state of tuition of Spanish and Portuguese as mother tongues (heritage languages) in the basic education of the metropolitan area of Helsinki, where the number of plurilingual pupils is rapidly increasing. The theoretical framework is based on U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The research object is approached from both micro and macro perspectives in the light of demographic statistics, official documents and qualitative and quantitative data collected by questionnaires. The Finnish Constitution promotes the preservation and development of all mother tongues; however, the local authorities are not obligated to provide their tuition. Around 50 mother tongues are being taught with a State subsidy. Among the observed municipalities, Espoo has created the best framework for the tuition. The Education Department's centralized practices are the most efficient for information, enrolments, timetables and formation of groups, as well as for teacher recruitment, orientating and training. The biggest challenges for the teachers are the heterogeneity of the groups, the uncertainty of their own post and not belonging to the rest of the school community. They wish the parents had a more serious attitude towards the tuition and their own role in sustaining the mother tongue. The teaching is not systematically planned. The lack of materials could be compensated by digital resources, which would connect the pupils to the whole Spanish and Portuguese speaking world, but the equipment is often incomplete or the teachers don't have enough know-how to exploit it. Even though plurilingual practices would be particularly fruitful for these groups, many teachers prohibit the use of Finnish. Parents support their children's language development in different ways, having succeeded in maintaining their oral language skills and positive linguistic attitudes. The perceptions and experiences of the tuition vary. In general parents considered reading, writing and oral language skills to be more important than linguistic identity, history and culture. Pupils have a predilection for games and play, but they do not feel that they learn in the classes, nor are they interested in the contents. Currently, only a fifth of those entitled to tuition can or want to take part in it. Investigation on mother tongue tuition is almost non-existent in Finland, and the results of this study will help to improve the tuition of Spanish and Portuguese, and also other languages. The most urgent areas to be developed are shown to be the rationalization of the municipal-level practices, the elaboration and implementation of concrete language-specific curricula, teacher training and the commitment of the families. All this would be achieved best if mother tongue tuition were given the same status as other school subjects.