Faculty of Arts

 

Recent Submissions

  • Alyukov, Maxim (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation focuses on how Russian TV viewers make sense of the news in the context of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. It is based on focus groups with TV viewers and borrows the conceptual apparatus of political communication, psychology, and political science to analyze three separate domains of news processing under an electoral authoritarian regime: the formation of political opinions based on television news, the use of heuristics to evaluate the credibility of TV news, and the use of a range of information sources, both offline and online, in a high-choice media environment. Based on the existing literature, this study relies on the premise that citizens under authoritarian regimes lack incentives, cognitive tools, and opportunities to substantively process news and investigates how these three features are reflected in the political psychology and news processing of TV viewers. First, this study contributes to the literature on news processing under electoral authoritarian regimes. While scholars have identified numerous factors which affect how citizens (dis)trust news in authoritarian contexts, the role of political engagement in news processing is rarely taken into account in the analysis of electoral authoritarian regimes. My findings suggest that crucially affects how citizens make sense of the news. I find that a minority of focus group participants are politically engaged and rely on consistent political schemas to make sense of the news and demonstrate signs of consistency bias. Most participants are politically disengaged. They rely on the ideas which are more accessible in memory, contain both criticism and approval of state policies, and support the authoritarian equilibrium by being unable to articulate consistent opinions. Second, this study contributes to a better understanding of the functioning of low-information rationality under an electoral authoritarian regime. Scholars assume that in dealing with the news and political information, TV viewers rely on a wide variety of heuristics which are drawn from both daily life and the political environment. However, the literature on how citizens use heuristics outside democratic contexts is limited. I find that in dealing with the news, TV viewers prefer to rely on common sense and cultural stereotypes because political and media institutions under an electoral authoritarian regime are not seen as independent and authoritative. Finally, the study contributes to a better understanding of how the development of high-choice media environments affects news processing outside of democratic contexts. I find that politically engaged participants often find information which fits their pre-existing preferences demonstrating signs of selective exposure. Participants who are less politically engaged participants rely on TV news in combination with news aggregators to simplify information search. Since Russian news aggregators include information which is not different from TV news, this synchronization verifies the credibility of TV news. While the original concept of the personalized filter bubble is based on the complex interaction between individuals’ preferences and algorithms, I identify the orchestrated filter bubble effect which is based on the agenda of state-controlled television. Imposed in top-down fashion by the state, this filter bubble effect is used to reinforce the messages of the state-controlled television rather than citizens’ individual preferences under an electoral authoritarian regime.
  • Ortiz-Nieminen, Oscar (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation examines changes in the perceptions and practices of architectural space in the context of the Lutheran sacral building in Finland from the 1900s to the mid-1960s. The topic was approached by studying multifunctional churches completed in Helsinki and its surrounding areas. In addition to a chapel, these hybrid buildings also contain other types of facilities, such as parish halls, club rooms, gyms, offices and employees' apartments. Nearly 40 Lutheran multifunctional churches were built in the Helsinki metropolitan area between 1900 and 1965. Both the temporal evolution and the development efforts associated with the building type have been examined in the light of six main case studies: the Betania (‘Bethany’) City Mission House (now known as the Betania Community Center) in Punavuori and the Kallio evangelical meeting house (now known as the Chapel of the Sacred Heart), both completed in the early 1900s; the Töölö Parish Hall (nowadays Church) and Saint Paul’s Church in Vallila, both built in the early 1930s; and the parish centers of Munkkivuori and Tapiola, both erected by the mid-1960s. The methodology used in this study is based on a close comparative reading of various research materials, such as buildings, drawings, written documents, newspaper clippings, memoirs and photographs. The research method was harnessed to closely reconstruct contemporary perspectives on the definition, design, execution, and everyday use of multifunctional church buildings. Theoretically, the dissertation relies on French theories of space, where the societal dimensions of spatial production are emphasized. Thus, space is defined as a physically, mentally, and socially conceived process. The analysis highlights the interconnections of the functional-structural goals of the multipurpose church building and categories of gender, class, age and language group. One of the key concepts used in the dissertation is that of heterotopia, developed by Michel Foucault. With this term, Foucault refers to a lived utopia, a special site or place where the prevailing social orders are reflected either directly or inversely. From the point of view of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the multifunctional church building became a transformative instrument of internal renewal denoting the ability of Christianity to adapt to the ideological challenges and utilitarian requirements of the modern world. From the users’ perspective, the building type expanded and diversified the spectrum of religious practice. Architects, who relied on modernist design principals that emphasized the functional separation of spaces, were generally resistant to the concept of the multipurpose church building.
  • Bennett, Eleanor (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    During the Neo-Assyrian period (approximately 934-612 BCE, based in modern Iraq) the annals and royal inscriptions of several kings mention women with a curious title: ‘Queen of the Arabs’. These women have been included in previous discussions regarding Assyrian interaction with the ‘Arabs’, but a full investigation into their roles as rulers has been lacking. This is what this dissertation seeks to answer: what were the roles of the ‘Queens of the Arabs’ during the Neo-Assyrian period? The reason for no prior traditional Assyriological research into these women is due to a very small number of texts. As Assyriology has traditionally been a text-based discipline, a corpus of just twenty-eight texts has not been seen as ‘worthy’ of a full investigation. This dissertation goes beyond the traditional approach, by incorporating gender theory and comparative methodology. A key heuristic tool in this dissertation is Michael Mann’s ‘IEMP’ model of power. This has identified three key areas where we can clealy see the roles of the ‘Queens of the Arabs’: military, economic, and religious roles. The most important finding was that the process of researching about ‘Arabs’ meant contending with two layers of misinterpretation. The first of which is the misunderstandings of modern scholars allowing modern stereotypes influence how they write about ‘Arabs’. The second is that the ancient sources themselves do not seem to know who or what they refer to when they discuss the ‘Arabs’. This has resulted in a discussion based on these women as individuals, not as a group. We do not know if they all ruled the same population group, and so they may have all been rulers of different cultures. We see Samsi, Teʾelḫunu, and Adiye in positions of military leadership, and Samsi was potentially even present on the battlefield. Zabibê, Samsi, and Tabūʾa all exhibited the ability to control either resources or access to the networks that transported these resources. And finally, Teʾelḫunu likely had a religious role of some sort as part of her leadership duties, but we do not know what that was. None of these women appear in all of the chapters, and as such should be discussed as individuals.
  • Philippova, Nailya (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation describes Amri Karbi, a language that has not received much attention in the past among linguists. This grammar is the first comprehensive and holistic description of the Amri Karbi language, which is a crucial step for the language community and their self-identity. Amri Karbi, also known as a variety of Karbi or Mikir is a Trans-Himalayan/Tibeto-Burman language spoken in scattered villages in the states of Assam and Meghalaya of North Eastern India. The Amri Karbis are agriculturalists, but at the same time some community members also practice hunter-gathering. Some Amri Karbi villages, especially those that are near or inside Guwahati, the capital of Assam, have shifted to Assamese, the state language of Assam. The vitality of Amri Karbi becomes gradually stronger as one moves away from Guwahati and further into the hills. The majority of the population in those areas are bilingual or multilingual; but other languages, like Assamese, English and Hindi are usually acquired through education. This grammar description is based mainly on data collected by the author during the fieldwork. There were three field trips in total, one was a two-year long stay in the area from 2013-2015, followed by two short trips in 2016 and 2017. Besides that, the main language consultant for the grammar visited Helsinki twice to work on the grammar. The theoretical approach for writing this grammar has been framework free but it has been guided and inspired by typological literature. The Amri Karbi phoneme inventory includes 23 consonants and 5 full vowels and two marginal vowels. Amri Karbi is a tonal language, with three tones, low, medium and high, which exhibit low functional load. Amri Karbi is a verb final and agglutinative language with more suffixes than prefixes. Verbs especially may be stacked with numerous suffixes, but a verb stem with a negative suffix may alone function as a predicate. The most frequently occurring morphemes are the general possessive prefix a- and the nominalizer ki-. These prefixes have a wide range of functions that include nominal modification and clause subordination. What is peculiar to Amri Karbi is that the personal names carry gender suffixes -po/-pe. Amri Karbi also has definiteness markers that intersect with gender, evaluative and plural meanings. Most of the adjectival functions are covered by adjectival verbs that convey property or state. As modifiers these verbs are nominalized and then often marked with the possessive prefix a-. Amri Karbi uses numeral classifiers in order to count nouns. The counting system is based on both ten and twenty. Like many related languages, Amri Karbi makes a clusivity distinction in first person plural pronouns.
  • Pallasvirta, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation discusses the Finnish-American relations in Finno-Ugric linguistics and the development of the field in the United States from the Second World War into the 1960s. These academic relations are studied from the viewpoint of four Finnish linguists’ visits to the United States and the correspondence and events surrounding these visits. The study seeks to gain understanding as to why, when and how Finnish-American relations in Finno-Ugristics were formed and how they interrelated with the development of the field in the United States. To achieve this goal, the study traces the institutional history of the field in the United States from war-time language instruction to Cold War area studies and places the Finnish linguists’ visits in this larger context. In this study, the history of linguistics is approached from an externalist point of view, utilizing the broad contextualization of cultural history. The dissertation’s framework draws on histoire croisée, and by focusing on the reciprocal and asymmetrical nature of the relations, the study analyzes the various drivers and barriers that affect the formation and development of academic relations. The study is based on archival sources consisting of linguists’ private correspondence and institutional documents from American universities. The outset of Finnish-American relations in Finno-Ugristics was opposite to that of many other fields, as Finland was in the field’s international forefront while the United States was only beginning to build Finno-Ugristics as an academic field after the Second World War. The study shows how Finland subsequently provided expertise and publications to the newly established field in the United States. By examining the subject from institutional and personal perspectives, the entwined nature of these micro and macro levels is highlighted in the study. Furthermore, the study shows how profoundly factors both internal and external to science influenced the formation and development of Finno-Ugristics in the United States and the field’s Finnish-American relations.
  • Vihanninjoki, Vesa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis addresses the question of the role of everyday places in the constitution of the contemporary urban lifeworld. The focus of the examination is on the aesthetics of places, understood primarily as the experiential quality and character of places, and on the interconnections between the abstract experiential dimensions and more concrete functional and material dimensions inherent in the mundane places of our urban life. The theoretical framework of the thesis comes primarily from philosophical aesthetics, particularly from everyday aesthetics, and it is complemented by insights from the postphenomenological philosophy of technology and ecological environmental psychology. Certain ideas originating in human geography, planning theory, architectural theory and the theory of design are also applied. On this basis, the thesis introduces a postphenomenologically-oriented affordance-based framework for understanding the aesthetics of everyday urban places. The thesis builds on a Heideggerian place-based ontology that acknowledges “placedness” as the general condition for human experience and existence. According to the Heideggerian line of thought, there is an ontological difference between places as ontic phenomena and places as ontological structures, referring to the difference between places encountered within the lifeworld and places as constitutive of the lifeworld. As ontological structures, places cannot in principle be encountered and thus thematized as objects of conscious experience. This distinction is not acknowledged adequately enough in common accounts of place, including certain forms of place-based urban planning and urban development, such as various design-led place-making policies and practices. The thesis presents an alternative, affordance-based account of places and their experiential qualities that is helpful in understanding the speculativeness of the place-making project that operates at the level of “generalized subject” and “generalized place experiences,” thus ignoring the necessary idiosyncrasies inherent in every possible experiencing agent. According to the main argument, there are certain commonly recognized features in urban everyday places that make them “known” for many people from different backgrounds and with different experiential histories. Using the affordance-based terminology, such features comprise the canonical affordances of the places: they are the possibilities for use and action that first come into one’s mind when thinking of a well-known place in one’s home town. Canonical affordances are normative in that they can be perceived and utilized either correctly or incorrectly, and they manifest the “normal way” of relating to the affordances present in an environment. The canonical affordances inherent in our daily environments largely define the contents of our everyday life, as well as our understanding of our everyday life. However, normativity also prevails with regard to more nuanced and intricate place-based affordances, giving rise to the conventionalization of more personal and reference group-specific relations to a place and its experiential character. Thus the experiential character of an everyday place is, at least partially, the outcome of the processes of familiarization and canonization. Such an outlook on the aesthetics of everyday places highlights the role that certain lesser-known and unrecognized experiential dimensions of mundane places may have in the constitution of the contemporary urban lifeworld. The central outcome of the thesis is that the idiosyncratic and often not-so-obvious experiential qualities inherent in the most familiar environments and places are crucial when looked at from the viewpoint of comprehensive well-being, thus forming a subject that requires more attention when trying to enhance the sustainability of our urban life-form from an all-encompassing perspective.
  • Hyvönen, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Discussions on care of the self have intensified in Finland over the last thirty years. Self-care discourses are produced, for example, in public discussions in which individuals are motivated to become more responsible for themselves under the assumption that the weakening welfare society is no longer able to support each and every individual through difficult times. Concurrently, ideas about caring for and nurturing the self have increased in commercial value. Employers and numerous commercial actors have started to define the proper way to care for the self and to offer individuals means of self-care. For instance, the promotion of mindfulness exercises to deal with work-related stress, various diets as enhancers of physical activity, and the shaping of personal attitudes in response to increased insecurity in the labor market are ways in which individuals are being challenged to shift their gaze to their bodies and behaviors, and shape them to fit the new demands set by working life. Thus, self-care is not a single, undivided social movement, but the site of a struggle wherein disagreements are constituted between interest groups representing different conceptualizations of the proper care of the self. This dissertation focuses on how men think and talk about their practices of work-related self-care, and the norms and expectations placed on men’s work-related self-care. The first empirical dataset of my study consists of interviews with men regarding their conceptualizations, perceptions, and memories of work-related self-care. The second dataset consists of media data from texts addressing men’s work-related self-care. The context of the present study is post-industrialized working life in Finland, where men’s job opportunities lie increasingly in the knowledge-intensive sector, social services and healthcare, and service-based jobs. The changes in the labor market and the ethical deliberation on self-care in both public discussions and workplaces problematizes those masculinities that have traditionally been idealized in the Finnish socio-cultural context. Many men no longer identify with, and are not expected to identify with, the way of being a man characterized by an ethos of surviving alone, a suspiciousness towards authorities, and a reluctance to monitor one’s own health status and emotions. In line with recent theoretical discussions in critical studies on men and masculinities, my study adopts the concept of hybrid masculinity to depict men’s incorporation of performances and identity elements previously associated with various femininities. By adopting Michel Foucault’s concept of care of the self, the study addresses self-care as a practice that is enabled and constrained by institutions and norms. Theoretically and methodologically, the dissertation draws from poststructuralist theorizations. The results indicate that contemporary men identify with masculinities that include performances and behaviors previously associated with femininities. The participants in my study conceptualized their bodily and mental health as partly imperfect and malleable material, which they wanted to and were able to shape and refine. They associated their way of participating in working life with genderless worker citizenship, in which self-reflexivity, adaptability, and responsibility for the productivity of one’s work are the guiding principles in life. Concurrently, the men in the study aimed to maintain their personal health and wellbeing as well as a balance between work and non-work. As a part of their self-care, they expressed a desire to heal from traditional masculinity. This means an intention to abandon the positive male identity achieved through success at work and sacrificing oneself for work. The media addresses work-related self-care in a way that reproduces persistent discursive interrelations between men and paid work. Media texts present self-care aimed at maintaining or increasing work performance in a favorable light. Personal wellbeing is subordinated to workplace productivity in media texts. The masculinities present in the speech of the participants and the idealized masculinities produced by the media have been hybridized, albeit based on different aspirations and problematizations. The participants prioritized their personal wellbeing and the meaningfulness of their lives in ways that escaped the external pressures placed on them. In contrast, the concerns and aspirations voiced in the media highlighted the idea that men should focus purely on their abilities to work effectively, avoid illness, and aim to prolong their careers. My study reveals tensions in the contemporary developments of masculinities in relation to both men’s health behavior and their ways of participating in working life.  
  • Eskola, Ksenia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study examines the encounter between Finnish and Russian naming cultures (anthroponymy, naming systems and naming practices) in Finland and Russia from 2000 to 2018. It specifically focuses on the criteria for selecting names in Finnish–Russian families, name selections for native-speaking Russian children, official surname changes in Finland for Finnish and Russian name bearers and the use of Finnish given names in Russia. Socio-onomastics and name typology (structure) make up the theoretical and methodological framework of the study. In a broader context, the contact between the two languages is also part of the research. The materials comprise questionnaires and interviews involving criteria for name selection, documents on surname changes from the Names Committee of the Finnish Ministry of Justice, interviews and questionnaires on the use of Finnish given names in Russia and the given names of Russian children born in Finland. This doctoral study is composed of four articles as well as a summary which details the content of the articles and their findings. Articles I, II and III discuss given names and article IV covers surnames. Article I examines given names in bilingual Finnish–Russian families and discusses the criteria for selecting a name and the actual selections. It focuses on the main criteria for name selection in bilingual families: practicality and cultural ties. Article II continues with the investigation of given names, creating an overall picture of names given to native Russian-speaking children born in Finland. Article III covers Russia regionally and looks at the use and adaptation of Finnish given names in a Russian-language environment. The focus of article IV is on official surname changes made in Finland, changes in which the name bearer wishes to Fennicise a Russian surname and vice versa. I also discuss cases where an erroneous Finnish surname is corrected back to its original spelling in Russian. The summary provides a uniform overview of the study, along with its starting points, and pulls the findings of all the articles together. On a more general level, it considers what happens when Finnish and Russian naming cultures encounter one another in terms of naming systems as well as from the perspective of linguistic minorities. The study shows that along with the encounter between naming cultures, Finnish anthroponymy is becoming diverse in that Russian given names and surnames are entering its official nomenclature. In addition, Russian patronyms are being entered in the Finnish population register. These names, which are not found in the native Finnish-speaking population, are being counted as second or third given names as part of official Finnish nomenclature. Moreover, Russian unofficial names, those based on given names, an intrinsic part of Russian naming practice, can also be found in Finnish naming culture. As for Finnish given names, these are enriching the anthroponymy found in Russia, as Russian derivational suffixes are being used to form unofficial names under Russian naming practices.
  • Maasalo, Ida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Traffic crashes are one of the leading causes of children’s injury-related deaths globally. A notable proportion of children’s traffic-related deaths occur while travelling in a vehicle as a passenger. Fatal crashes involving child passengers generally seem to be different from typical fatal crashes, because they often occur for female drivers, under normal driving circumstances in the daylight and without obvious risk-taking behavior. The aim of this thesis was to examine why fatal crashes involving child passengers occur. The crash characteristics and risks of drivers with child passengers were studied using fatal crash data from Finland and the U.S. Previous research indicates that a child passenger in the vehicle may distract the driver and thus impair driving performance. In addition, it has been noted that parents of small children may suffer from sleep deficit which further elevates the risk of crashing. On the other hand, research also suggests that generally parents are responsible drivers who avoid taking risks in traffic. However, the fatal crash risk and characteristics of drivers with child passengers have not previously been thoroughly examined using crash statistics. Study I investigated how the presence of different aged child passengers affects the prevalence of drivers’ risk-taking behavior and crash risk. Study I used a database of fatal crashes that occurred in Finland during 1988–2012. The aim of Study II was to replicate the results of Study I and to examine crash-related characteristics and risks in more detail. Study II used data on fatal crashes from a more extensive database from the U.S. between 1996 and 2015. Study III examined how an infant passenger under the age of one can influence crash characteristics and risks using data of fatal crashes that occurred in the U.S. during the period 1994–2013. In line with the previous research, Studies I, II and III showed that drivers with child passengers were less often intoxicated or speeding when the crash occurred compared to drivers without child passengers. On the other hand, Study II and III showed that in the databases, drivers with only child passengers were more often reported by accident investigators as being inattentive or distracted compared to drivers with no child passengers. Study III showed that young drivers have an elevated risk of crashing when driving with an infant passenger aged under one compared to young drivers without passengers – probably at least partly due to undeveloped schemas of the traffic situations and the ability to share attention between the driving task and an infant. In addition, all studies showed that drivers with child passengers had a lower risk of crashing when there was also an adult passenger in the vehicle - possibly because the other adult could help in child-related tasks, enabling the driver to focus on driving. Results also show that it was more typical for female drivers to be involved in a fatal crash with a child passenger only (i.e. without an accompanying adult) than for male drivers. This thesis suggest that drivers with child passengers are mostly cautious drivers who rarely cause a fatal crash because of risk-taking behavior, but the child in the vehicle may be a source of distraction which may be mitigated by the presence of another adult in the vehicle. The presence of a small child passenger seems to elevate the risk of a fatal crash, especially if drivers are travelling alone with a small child passenger and are inexperienced drivers.
  • Öhman, Emily (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Emotions have always been central to the human experience: the ancient Greeks had philosophical debates about the nature of emotions and Charles Darwin can be said to have founded the modern theories of emotions with his study "The expression of the emotions in man and animals". Theories of emotion are still actively researched in many different fields from psychology, cognitive science, and anthropology to computer science. Sentiment analysis usually refers to the use of computational tools to identify and extract sentiments and emotions from various modalities. In this dissertation, I use sentiment analysis in conjunction with natural language processing to identify, quantify, and classify emotions in text. Specifically, emotions are examined in multilingual settings using multidimensional models of emotions. Plutchik's wheel of emotions and emotional intensities are used to classify emotions in parallel corpora via both lexical methods and supervised machine learning methods. By analyzing emotional language content in text, the connection between language and emotions can be better understood. I have developed new approaches to create a more equitable natural language processing approach for sentiment analysis, meaning the development and evaluation of massively multilingual annotated datasets, contributing to the provision of tools for under-resourced languages. This dissertation is comprised of ten articles on related topics in sentiment analysis. In these articles, I discuss lexicon-based methods and the creation of emotion and sentiment lexicons, the creation of datasets for supervised machine learning, the training of models for supervised machine learning, and the evaluation of such models. I also examine the annotation process in relation to creating datasets in depth, including the creation of a light-weight easily deployed annotation platform. As an additional step, I test the different approaches in downstream applications. These practical applications include the study of political party rhetoric from the perspective of emotion words used and the intensities of those emotion words. I also examine how simple lexicon-based methods can be used to make the study of affect in literature less subjective. Additionally, I attempt to link sentiment analysis with hate speech detection and offensive speech target identification. The main contribution of this dissertation is in providing tools for sentiment analysis and in demonstrating how these tools can be augmented for use in a wide variety of languages and practical applications at low cost.
  • Laiho, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study is about ‘literary translation’, and the nature of its being. The notion of literary translation is here understood as a translation of a literary work of art. The doctoral thesis focuses on the relationship between a work of literature as an original and its translation. The research aims to answer the question of whether a literary translation is the same work as the original literary work. This question of identity is an ontological issue. The research question can also be expressed as a question about the ‘translatability’ of a literary work of art. Accordingly, if a work is translatable, it can survive translation and remain the same. What kind of an entity is a literary translation? We know that a literary translation is a new cultural entity that has never existed before, and yet some literary practices, especially the culture of reviewing, seem to approach translations of literature as identical with their originals. The relationship between original and identity appears unclear. Obviously, there are several ways to understand the key notions of translation, original, and identity. This doctoral thesis focuses on exploring the notional complexity of the issue of translatability, and further, on answering the question of ‘being the same’. The research method for investigating the identity issue is qualitative analysis, more exactly, a conceptual analysis. The key notions are examined in two theoretical frameworks, Translation Studies and the Philosophy of Art. To be analysed, there are different scholarly approaches from both academic fields. The doctoral dissertation consists of five sub-studies and a summary. It includes four published original articles. In this study, the ontological peculiarity of a literary translation is clarified. I argue that a literary translation is not the same as the original; it is a work that should be considered as a version. I propose that a literary translation as an ontological derivative is a presented work of art. As a presentation, it can be regarded as a performed work of art. Key notions: literary work of art, translation, original, identity, translatability, ontology, presentation
  • Juvonen, Teo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The doctoral thesis "The language of possession: Genitive variation in Late Middle and Early Modern English" examines the English possessive (e.g. “John’s son”) and its variation with the of-construction (e.g. “the son of John”) in Late Middle and Early Modern English, from about the middle of the 15th century to the middle of the 17th century. The thesis is comprised of four articles and an introduction that discusses the theoretical and methodological foundations for these articles. The first article studies genitive variation (i.e. the variation between the English possessive and the of-construction) in the private correspondence genre. The second article looks at genitive variation in three different genres, sermons, history writing and private correspondence. The third article examines the evidence available in this period for the analysis of the morpho-syntactic nature of the English possessive. The fourth article is a micro-historical study from a linguistic point of view on the use of various linguistic constructions available to express possessive meaning in the letters of John Paston, the eldest son of a rising gentry family in late middle England. One of the main findings of the articles contradicts previous research which argued that the English possessive had almost died out by the Late Middle English period, but recovered over the course of the Late Middle and Early Modern English periods. The results from the articles show rather that the English possessive was an integral part of the language system throughout this period, and that no patterned change over time can be detected despite significant variation in the use of the possessive. Further important findings include the significance of accounting for genre in the analysis of genitive variation, and some of the complexities having to do with the use of genre as a factor in quantitative studies. The minutiae and context of the historical material used to study genitive variation is also examined in a more philological fashion to illustrate the importance of historical detail and background in the research on genitive variation.
  • Huotari, Léa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Prototype effect on subject change in translation A study in a French⇄Finnish bidirectional literary corpus This doctoral dissertation investigates the link between translation and prototype effect through the study of syntactic subject change in a French-Finnish literary bidirectional parallel corpus built specifically for the study. It examines the controversial topic of so-called translation universals and more widely the cognitive approach in the explanation of translation tendencies. More specifically, the study investigates the subject changes found in the corpus through six explanatory hypotheses proposed in translation studies to explain typical features of translations (translation universals, translational laws, translation figures, the gravitational pull hypothesis, orthonymy/prototipicality and anthropocentrism). The subject change is a particularly good candidate to test the explanatory power of the proposed hypotheses because the grammars of both Finnish and French describe the prototypical subject as being animate and cognitively more salient than an inanimate subject. The study found 320 relevant subject changes in the Finnish-->French and 408 in the French-->Finnish parallel corpora. These are categorized into four different types: 1. animation, 2. inanimation, 3. neutral animated change and 4. neutral inanimated change. The most frequent ones corresponded to animations of the subject, i.e. in most cases there occurred a humanisation of the subject in translation (60% in the French-->Finnish corpus and 49,5% in the Finnish-->French corpus). A thorough analysis of the relevant changes brought up five contextual factors that seemed to promote subject change in the corpus. Three factors are semantic (action, experience and possession) and two are pragmatic (particularization and homogenisation). The main contributions of the study are a methodology developed to analyse subject change between two languages from different language families, making use of the notion of shadow translation and a theoretical framework in the form of hypotheses built upon the five factors found. The hypotheses proposed make predictions about subject change that can be easily tested and further developed in other studies. Finally, the analysis shows that prototypicality is the most powerful explanation for the subject changes found in the corpus. This suggests that the most common way to say something and the anthropocentric conception of the world has an influence on the reading of the source text and thus also on the translation of the syntactic subject. Keywords: syntactic subject, French, Finnish, animacy, shadow translation, orthonymy, anthropocentrism, translation universals, translation laws, prototype.
  • Butters, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation is a phenomenologically oriented ethnographic study on the experiences of palliative and hospice patients in Finland. The overarching research question concerns how contemporary urban Finns, who have been diagnosed with a terminal illness, experience and negotiate their end of life, death, and dying. The study explores what kinds of language, imageries, and possible rituals exist in relation to dying, the variety of means that dying patients use to face their mortality, and how different environments and perspectives—medicine, rituals, and aesthetics—support patients in their negotiations vis-à-vis their existential situation. The research material was gathered through ethnographic fieldwork comprising interviews and participant observation among terminally ill patients in 2014–2017. The research participants were recruited mostly from two locations, a hospice home and an oncology ward at a university hospital. The former became the primary research site. The analysis is based on data collected from 21 research participants, including materials that they shared (such as photos and artwork), and two blogs. A collection of ancillary materials (such as newspaper articles and reports from the Social and Health Ministry) helped to contextualize the subject. The study explores and analyzes the ways in which patients received their terminal diagnosis, and how they were affected by different spaces and places toward the end of life. The main body of the work concentrates on the practices and activities around and by palliative patients from the perspective of ritual studies. The overall phenomenological orientation of the study highlights the embodied and embedded aspect of the research participants’ lifeworld. This approach is complemented by critical mediated posthumanism as well as anthropological ritual theories. Together these locate the patients’ illness and dying trajectories within the larger cultural and biomedical context. In addition, the study employs critical analysis of the dynamics of the care environments, using the Deleuzoguattarian conceptualization of striated and smooth. The main findings of the study speak to embodied and mediated manners of experiencing death and dying, even as existential matters were expressed in relation to everyday life and corporeality. Rituals at the end of life were twofold: institutional medical rituals and personal ritualizations in the form of death avoidance rituals and death preparatory rituals. Of the various empowering and metaphysically meaningful frames that arose in the material, such as religion and spirituality, aesthetics and nature were the most accessible and efficient means for the research participants to process their approaching death and even find existential comfort as they proceeded toward their end of life.
  • Marton, Enikö (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The present doctoral dissertation addresses the overarching research question of what motivates majority language users to learn and use minority languages. The individual papers focused on the following aspects: What factors support majority language-speaking high school students’ willingness to communicate (WTC, MacIntyre et al., 1998) in the minority language? How does minority language speakers’ feedback influence majority language speakers’ L2 use? How does the difference in the availability of the minority language in a monolingual vs. bilingual municipality influence majority language speakers’ motivation in learning the minority language? Are there contextual limitations to the utility of central concepts from competing L2 motivation theories? How does L2 motivation unfold among hearing L2 learners who learn and use a sign language? How do L2 attitudes and L2 use influence each other among majority language-speaking learners when learning a minority language? The research was conducted in four substantially different bilingual contexts: among Slovene speakers from the Dolinsko/Lendvavidék region in Slovenia who learn Hungarian as an L2 (Article 1), Finnish speakers who learn Swedish as an L2 (Articles 2 and 3), hearing Finnish speakers who learn Finnish Sign Language (FSL) as an L2 (Article 4), and Italian speakers from the South Tyrol region in Italy who learn German as an L2 (Article 5). All the articles utilised path analysis. Article 1 found, among Slovene-speaking learners of L2 Hungarian (N = 119), that WTC was supported by more positive perceptions regarding the ethnolinguistic vitality (ELV) of the L2 group, and that the effect of ELV on WTC was transmitted through a chain of L2 motivational variables. Article 2 found, among Finnish-speaking learners of L2 Swedish (N = 254), that more frequent and more positive contact with Swedish speakers predicted higher L2 confidence (Clément, 1980) in Swedish, which in turn significantly predicted L2 use. However, the effect of L2 confidence on L2 use was moderated by the quality of the feedback that L2 learners received from Swedish speakers. Article 3 found, among Finnish-speaking learners of L2 Swedish, that in the monolingual setting, the role of practical benefits attached to good L2 skills was salient, whereas in the Finnish-Swedish bilingual setting, SLA was supported by integrativeness. The results indicate that ideal L2 self (Dörnyei, 2005) is a key concept in SLA in both contexts, whereas instrumental and integrative orientation (Gardner, 1985) are more context-dependent concepts. Article 4 found, among hearing learners of FSL (N = 173), that L2 experiences, integrativeness, and instrumental orientation significantly predicted ideal L2 self, and that L2 competence mediated the effect of ideal L2 self on L2 use. In addition, integrativeness significantly moderated the effect of L2 competence on L2 use. Article 5 found, among Italian-speaking leaners of L2 German (N = 315), that L2 attitudes and L2 use mutually influence each other. In addition, L2 related peer norms significantly moderated the effect of L2 attitudes on L2 motivation. Overall, this dissertation confirms the assumption that there are two broad avenues to SLA (MacIntyre, 2010), the integrative/affective and the instrumental/cognitive.The results also indicate that the use of minority languages can also be enhanced at the interactional level.
  • Nurminen, Katariina (Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistys ry, 2021)
    ABSTRACT Burned fish bones are constantly being discovered in the excavations of Stone Age settlements in Finland. This abundance of fish bones, as well as the usual location of the settlements on the shore of lakes or the sea, illustrate the importance of fishing to the Stone Age economy. Added to this, examples of the fishing gear that was used, mostly made of stone, are also occasionally found in Stone Age contexts. Yet, despite the clear importance of fish and fishing in Stone Age Finland, the fish bones themselves have not been studied thoroughly before, although the diversity of the fishing culture at the time could be clarified by such analyses. I am interested in the everyday food acquisition strategies of the Stone Age forager communities. By studying the surviving bones and tracking the distribution of fish species, I have been able to create a picture of the fishing methods used at the time and the importance of fishing to the community. The availability of fish is highly dependent on the prevailing environmental conditions, and their behaviour directly influenced their potential as a food source. This empirically driven multidisciplinary study combines data from zooarchaeology, archaeology, ethnography, fisheries biology, environmental studies and, the most importantly, taphonomy. Research on burned bones is rare throughout the international research literature. The essential aspect of this research is to understand the nature of the bone material itself, because with burned bones many different factors can affect the results. Studying the effects of bone survival and the recovery methods used in excavations are thus an integral part of my research. For this study, I have selected ten sites with concentrated burned fish bone deposits, either on a hearth bottom or in a waste pit. In addition to these site-specific studies, I also address the specific issues of bone burning and excavation methods raised during the study. The archaeological bone fragments were analysed morphologically by comparing them with modern reference bones. However, due to the lack of reference bone material in Finland when I began this study, I started by preparing my own reference collection. There are several topics can now be more thoroughly and accurately discussed based on this study. According to results provided by the fish bone finds, it is argued that fishing was the most reliable source of daily food in Finland during the Stone Age. Fishing was a mostly opportunistic, low-level daily activity, and all types of fish were considered equally fit for consumption. Burning is a major taphonomical cause of bone loss. At the same time, it contributes to the preservation of compact skeletal parts. Based solely on the number of bone fragments preserved, no single species can be asserted to have been more important than another, as the bones' taphonomical stability varies between individual species. Fish bone finds from Finland are generally uniform throughout the Stone Age. All variation in the distribution patterns of fish species can be explained by the location of sites, environmental aspects, and excavation methods. The Stone Age fish bone finds support the theory postulating the use of historically known simple fishing gear. Based on the fish bone data, the fishing methods utilized remained the same throughout the Stone Age. Fishing was probably a year-round activity with some seasonal variations.
  • Eskola, Seppo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study examines cameral bookkeeping in Sweden in the mid-sixteenth century. At the time, the Swedish state was moving away from the medieval Union period towards a centrally led nation state. At the core of this process was the control of resources through improved bookkeeping practices. This study shows that the Swedish cameral administration adopted a version of bookkeeping known as charge and discharge, commonly used in certain contexts in medieval and early modern Europe. The system emphasized the accountability of bailiffs to the Crown and enabled the Crown to effectively gather information and extract resources from local communities. The study analyzes in detail the records produced by this system as well as the processes behind them. Additionally, the structure and content of the surviving archival collections is also examined. The cameral records produced by the Swedish sixteenth-century tax administration are known as the bailiffs’ records (Fin. voudintilit, Swe. fogderäkenskaper), and they comprise the largest surviving literary material of their time. These sources have been widely employed by historians in a plethora of studies starting from the nineteenth century. However, the records themselves have been studied in only a limited capacity, leaving many open questions. The present study addresses the current status of research from two viewpoints. First, emphasis is placed on understanding the provenance of the existing records, that is, their origin and the process of composing them. The lack of knowledge concerning this issue has at times been raised in previous studies, with calls for more scholarly engagement. Second, this study views Swedish cameral bookkeeping in the wider context of European bookkeeping traditions, an approach in stark contrast with previous studies, which typically discuss the bailiffs’ records in isolation from the general history of bookkeeping. Empirically, this study focuses on the duchy situated in south-western Finland in 1556−1563 and ruled by Gustav Vasa’s second son Johan (as King Johan III, 1569−1592). The duchy consisted of the provinces of Egentliga Finland, Satakunda, Åland, and Raseborg, providing this study with a clearly defined administrative context and source material. The cameral records of the duchy consist of more than a thousand bookkeeping records, adding up to approximately 27 000 folios. This material is first engaged by methods associated with manuscript studies, analyzing scribal hands, watermarks, and other codicological features of select sets of records to identify patterns and clues explaining the process of bookkeeping. All of the material is then analyzed quantitatively, to better understand how the bookkeeping records were produced as well as the structure of the current archival collections. Structurally, the study consists of seven chapters. Following the introduction, chapter two discusses the history of the archival collections containing the bailiffs’ records. Chapter three provides the codicological analysis and focuses on the question of the origin of the records. In chapter four, the characteristics of the bookkeeping system are analyzed, and the system is placed within the context of broader European bookkeeping traditions. Finally, chapters five and six describe the variety of surviving bookkeeping records. A catalogue of the records deriving from the duchy of Johan, used as a basis for the quantitative approach, is presented at the end of the study.
  • Lahtinen, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This dissertation considers the concept of performativity as it originates from philosopher of language J. L. Austin (1911–1960) and examines how the concept functions with respect to a theatre production. The focus of the study is two-fold. First the trajectory of the concept is examined and an appropriate interpretation to suit the purposes of performance analysis is formulated. Second, an analysis of a production is carried out. The discussion about the concepts of the performative, performativity and a speech act is multifaceted and ramified. It includes debates and contradictory interpretations. This study presents an introduction to Austin’s original theorization about exploring speech as action. The main source for this discussion is How to Do Things with Words (1962), a book that was posthumously composed and edited based on Austin’s lecture notes. The continuation of the discussion on performativity is presented selectively. A debate between Jacques Derrida and John R. Searle is discussed thoroughly because of its further influence, particularly in the fields of theatre and performance studies, which is the home ground of this study. Philosophers Stanley Cavell, who sustained the orientation of Ordinary Language Philosophy – the original context for Austin’s philosophy – and Judith Butler, who has expanded the range of performativity from speech to, for instance, the fields of gender theory and political activism, feature as the most important participants in the discussion. Literary scholar Shoshana Felman, who made an original reading of Austin both in terms of thought as well as speech (as action), is also included among the interlocutors of the study. Furthermore, adaptations of the concepts of the performative and performativity in the field of theatre studies are mapped in broad outline. The case study for which the majority of this dissertation is dedicated is called Tulitikkuja lainaamassa eli elämän ihmeellisyys (Gone to Borrow Matches or The Strangeness of Life) (adapt. Veijo Meri – Kalle Holmberg, dir. Kalle Holmberg) and it was performed at Tampere Workers’ Theatre as the 100th anniversary production of the theatre in 2001. The production was a multilayered and palimpsestuous composition that combined an adaptation of a popular classic, Tulitikkuja lainaamassa (Gone to Borrow Matches) by Maiju Lassila, with a selection of related texts both from literary and biographical sources. The analysis of the aesthetic features of the production, the conventions to which it relates, its contexts and intertexts as well as its relation to the assumed audience exposes fractures in the conception of theatre and the identification assumed to its spectators. My study shows how an analysis that explores a theatre production from the viewpoint of performativity offers a possibility for a nuanced understanding of a theatre production as a communicative act whose success is dependent on several aspects in the entirety of the deed.
  • Metsäranta, Niklas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The focus of this dissertation is on etymology and lexicon of Mari and Permic languages (Udmurt and Komi), two branches of the Uralic language family spoken presently in Central Russia. Using the etymological method, my aim is to study the development of their respective lexicons – often intertwined in etymological research – both from the point of view of inheritance and intra language family borrowing. In addition, several other topics related to this aim are discussed in length, these include historical word derivation and (Indo-)Iranian loanwords in Mari and especially in Permic. The reconstructed earlier stages of Mari and Permic languages, Proto-Mari and Proto-Permic, both contain several hundreds of words of unknown origin. Basic etymological research into this vocabulary has been wanting in recent years and in this dissertation an attempt is made to explain some of these words through inheritance by presenting etymologically valid cognates in other Uralic languages. As a result several dozen new etymological comparisons for Mari and Permic words arise. Taking a fresh look at inherited vocabulary is also done in order to determine what can be regarded as regular phonological development as assessing loanwords within the language family has to be done against what is thought to be regular in inherited Uralic vocabulary. Historical phonologies written on Mari and Permic are based on outdated data and thus contain several assertations about the historical phonology of these languages that cannot be maintained. An updated list of Uralic cognates in Mari and Permic is compiled and based on this list a brief overview of their historical phonology is provided in the dissertation. Along with inheritance, borrowing within the Uralic language family is the other main topic of this study. This dissertation examines critically two proposed historical loanword layers: Proto-Permic loanwords in Mari and Proto-Finnic loanwords in Permic. The assumed Proto-Permic loanword layer in Mari is shown to be of heterogeneous origin, consisting mostly of erroneous comparisons. A few words in Mari can be regarded as borrowings from Permic but even in these cases borrowing from Proto-Permic has to be rejected and instead a more recent Proto-Udmurt chronology can be established. With the help of (Indo-)Iranian loanwords in Permic, a more nuanced chronology of sound changes in Permic is formulated. After comparing Proto-Finnic loanwords in Permic against this newly acquired chronology, they are mostly deemed doubtful. A new (Indo-)Iranian loan etymology is also proposed for several dozen Permic words. Many of the new etymologies proposed for Mari and Permic rely on analyzing the words as historical derivatives. Because of this a significant portion of the dissertation is dedicated to examining this possibility in detail. The dissertation also discusses general questions concerning etymological research and Uralic lexicon.
  • Hekanaho, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This dissertation examines present-day generic and nonbinary uses of English 3rd person singular pronouns from a sociolinguistic perspective. Investigated are generic uses of singular they, he, she, he or she, and the neopronouns ze and xe. In addition, singular they, ze and xe are studied in nonbinary contexts. What connects these pronouns is their relevance to gender-fair language use; who is allowed representation in language? With data from a large online survey (n=1128), the study explores both types of pronouns from three related aspects: usage, acceptability, and attitudes. The participants include both cisgender and transgender participants, and both native and non-native speakers of English, the latter comprising native Finnish and Swedish speakers. The survey produced both quantitative (usage, acceptability) and qualitative data (attitudes). The participants’ attitudes towards the pronouns are explored using thematic analysis, while logistic regression analysis is employed to investigate the effect of the background variables (e.g. age, gender) on usage and acceptability. The results demonstrate overwhelming support for singular they in both generic and nonbinary contexts. In generic contexts, gendered pronouns were rejected as gender-exclusive, whereas singular they was preferred specifically for its inclusivity and ease of use. In nonbinary contexts, while many participants objected to nonbinary pronouns in general, singular they was accepted considerably more often than either of the neopronouns. Nonbinary pronouns were most often rejected due to perceiving gender as a binary construct. In contrast, supporters of nonbinary pronouns recognized the role of language in providing representation to individuals, arguing that any pronoun a person chooses for themselves should be acceptable. The nonbinary participants (n=79) also favored they over the neopronouns as their personal pronoun. These participants elaborated on their relationship with pronouns, revealing a strong but complex relationship between pronouns and identity. Overall, these responses highlighted the importance of using a person’s chosen pronouns. The participants described feelings of validation and acknowledgment when others respected their pronouns, and feelings of invalidation and alienation when others misgendered them or refused to use their pronouns.

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