Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Laukola, Iiro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The interaction between Greek and Egyptian cultural concepts has been an intense yet controversial topic in studies about Ptolemaic Egypt. The present study partakes in this discussion with an analysis of the encomiastic poems of Callimachus of Cyrene (c. 305 c. 240 BC). The success of the Ptolemaic Dynasty is crystallized in the juxtaposing of the different roles of a Greek βασιλεύς and of an Egyptian Pharaoh, and this study gives a glimpse of this political and ideological endeavour through the poetry of Callimachus. The contribution of the present work is to situate Callimachus in the core of the Ptolemaic court. Callimachus was a proponent of the Ptolemaic rule. By reappraising the traditional Greek beliefs, he examined the bicultural rule of the Ptolemies in his encomiastic poems. This work critically examines six Callimachean hymns, namely to Zeus, to Apollo, to Artemis, to Delos, to Athena and to Demeter together with the Victory of Berenice, the Lock of Berenice and the Ektheosis of Arsinoe. Characterized by ambiguous imagery, the hymns inspect the ruptures in Greek thought during the Hellenistic age. These poems link Ptolemaic kings and queens with the deities they address and embroider this linkage with Egyptian cultural concepts. The Victory of Berenice and the Lock of Berenice contain a subtext in which Berenice II is portrayed in Egyptian terms whereas the Ektheosis of Arsinoe examines the mortuary aspects of Graeco-Egyptian Ptolemaic Egypt. The Ptolemies created a new audience for the poets of their court when they established a bilingual cadre of scribes. The scribes, together with the indigenous priests, were a heterogeneous group, but some were thoroughly Hellenized, as the case of Manetho confirms. The encomiastic poetry of Callimachus legitimized the status of the Ptolemies amid the native Egyptian elite, but also made their style of kingship more familiar to the Greeks.
  • Käkelä, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) was one of the central writers in the formative period of American science fiction, and among the first to emphasize the societal and political importance of the genre. This dissertation examines the themes of history, frontier expansionism, and guardianship in Asimov's key works, the Robot and Foundation series, in order to view his influence on the development of science fiction when it started to distance itself from pulp fiction and refine its key tropes and themes. A significant part of Asimov's Robot and Foundation stories were first published as serials in the 1940s and 1950s Astounding Science-Fiction magazine, and the pulp publishing context is crucial in order to understand Asimov's impact on the genre. Thus, this dissertation combines the contextual examination of Asimov's main themes with a discussion of the views of the Astounding magazine editor, John W. Campbell, Jr., a key influence on Asimov's work. Moreover, the present study extends to Asimov's 1980s novels that combine much of his fiction into a unified grand narrative of future history. My claim is that in Asimov's series the need to understand history in order to construct a sustainable future becomes the pivotal theme, both on the level of narration and on the level of characters that turn their knowledge of history into action. This awareness of history, I contend, leads to the recurrent realization that human culture will decline if stagnation is not reversed by frontier expansion. The pervasive frontier theme and the role of individual heroes in Asimov s work also reflect the Western backdrop of American pulp fiction. In this way, it demonstrates the science fiction genre's shift from cowboy heroes of Western fiction to problem-solving engineers on the intellectual frontier of the future. Finally, the historical and frontier aspects in Asimov's series point toward the notion of guardianship and the aspiration to apply the understanding of both history and science to engineer a more peaceful, yet non-stagnant future. Throughout his career, then, Asimov displays a tension between a utopian desire and the pragmatic and techno-meritocratic solutions typical to Campbell s stable of writers. Thus, although Asimov's series is usually taken as straightforward prose fiction that focuses on solutions and explanations, this dissertation demonstrates its central tensions, which also serve to highlight the development of the science fiction genre. The readings presented make visible the ambiguous strains between Asimov's cyclical models of history and his admiration of the Enlightenment ideal of progression, between individual freedom and the notion of guardianship, as well as between pragmatism and utopia. Informed by American history, Asimov's series portrays how individuals make bold maneuvers in order to steer humankind toward a more sustainable future, thus engaging in what could be termed the cowboy politics of an enlightened future.
  • Viitamies, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    A conclusion of my research is that Helsinki City s pedestrian zone increases in size when traffic speeds are slowed down and more room for pedestrian traffic is made, not when car traffic is attempted to get rid of completely. Pedestrian traffic was noted as the most important means of travel by the city of Helsinki by the beginning of 1970s. In spite of that, Kluuvi s pedestrian zone was formed as late as the 1990s after prolonged controversy. Today Aleksanterinkatu, Keskuskatu, Mikonkatu and Kluuvikatu are car-free streets. The changes happened a lot slower than in other Nordic capitals because driving has progressively been increasing and growing stronger culturally in Finland all they way since the 1950s till today. The car was rooted to the society in the 60s. The property owners thought that the streets had to be left for cars to ensure that customer and service traffic could happen without problems. Citizens, activists and planners were well aware of international trends according to which pedestrian streets made cities feel more humane. Also, only the minority of the shopkeepers were against traffic calming in the urban core. The street space s slow gradual change began in the Three Smiths square in the year 1980. As on the following years the Aleksanterinkatu Street s sidewalks were widened, they as a consequence were illegally used as a parking space. On the other hand, the way the streets were used by the citizens also changed in the desired way. Nowadays, a hundred thousand citizens walk on the Aleksanterinkatu Street over the course of a day. Kluuvi´s pedestrian zone was implemented when real-estate owners renewed their buildings and built underground parking lots. They had to approve pedestrian streets as a trade for building rights. The businesses leaned towards traffic calming in 1990´s because walking was thought to be the most effective means to gain customers for stores and restaurants in the urban core. Helsinki´s street culture has gotten richer, following the changes the street space faced that favored events, hanging around and rambling. In the 1970s there weren t any street cafés or street musicians in Helsinki. The meaning of urban street has changed. Thoroughfares became places for trade and other interactions. The City of Helsinki built its brand by redesigning the streets. On the streets minority groups and individuals become visible and join the society. The street life grows stronger and the traffic system in Helsinki becomes less and less automobile dependent. The central pedestrian zone will expand faster than it has in the past. Although this requires certain conditions to be met; urban planning has to come together with business. Shop owners and restaurant keepers etc. have to join the city production. They must practice their right to the city and the streets.
  • Ammunet, Riitta (Unigrafia, 2016)
    The aim of my doctoral thesis is to analyze and describe the manner in which the definite article is used in different kinds of noun phrases (NPs), ranging between i) autonomous titles that represent original pieces of artwork (i.e. film titles) and ii) headings that are linked and interrelated to each other (i.e. news headlines). The definite article can, in principle, always be omitted. However, there are also particular cases which are often related to certain text types or other conventions when the definite article is or is not omitted. My dissertation sheds more light on these pragmatic laws. Before my corpus analysis I conducted a perception study where informants were asked to comment on the acceptability of some examples representing different kinds of titles and headings. I also examined a sample of news headlines dating from 1 October 2013 until 15 March 2014. This study primarily focuses on headlines from daily newspapers (i.e. both paper and online newspapers). Headlines from news broadcasts and current affairs programmes were, however, also examined. My main research data has been collected from the film corpus. As my more specific data I chose to examine one year per decade between 1904 and 2014. The data consists of 2841 NPs from 7585 film titles. My analysis starts with John Hawkins's Location Theory and the analysis of the standard definite article within Italian language. Knud Lambrecht s theoretical description on the Information Structure is then used to examine interrelated headlines. The principle theoretical framework is based on Cognitive Linguistics and particularly Construction Grammar. I describe the characteristics of different linguistic levels, namely the syntactic, the semantic and pragmatic levels, with discourse pattern schemes. This approach has made it possible to describe these characteristics in a way that includes only the contextual aspect, i.e. the situational setting [frame], above all other aspects. The findings show that the use (or the omittance) of the definite article is influenced by multiple variables and conventions, sometimes together and sometimes separately. The dissertation, for instance, demonstrates that, in different types of action films, word choice in film titles contributes to the general omission of the definite article. Similarly, the definite article is omitted when the connection between a noun and its complement could in some way be anticipated. In contrast the definite article is typically written in a title or headline when the noun and the complement are not automatically associated with each other. Finally, my doctoral dissertation also touches on the historical development of the definite article, the so-called 'definite article cycle', and on Latin which, in the background, subtly continues to have its influence on modern Italian. This is the reason why the dissertation's title and also a couple of headings have been written in Latin.
  • Engelberg, Mila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The study examines the androcentrism in Finnish terms for person reference: generic masculinity, covert male bias, the use of the noun ”mies” ’man, male’ in a pronominal manner and the possible grammaticalization of ”mies”. The study consists of four studies and the compilation part. Generic masculinity (gm) in Finnish shows in masculine expressions which are used to refer to both sexes. The gm forms are compounds (e.g. ”esi-isä” lit. forefather, ’ancestor’), derivatives (e.g. ”veljeillä” < ”veli” ’brother’, ’to fraternize’), phrases such as ”uskottu mies” ’trustee, executor, administrator’, idioms (e.g. ”olla oma herransa” ’to be one’s own master’), and proverbs (e.g. ”Auta miestä mäessä, älä mäen alla” ’Help a man on the hill, not under the hill’). The gm forms are often presumed to be gender-neutral. However, in an experiment the participants (N= 150) interpreted the gm expressions as referring to men more often than their morphologically gender-neutral equivalents (e.g. ”lakimies” lit. law-man ’lawyer’ vs. ”juristi” ’lawyer’). The men interpreted the gm forms as referring to both sexes less often than the women did. Gender-neutral person reference terms such as ”ihminen” ’human being’ may have a covert male bias. In an experiment (N= 295), the boys and the men perceived ”ihminen” as male more often than as female. In a second experiment (N= 220), the adult participants, the men more often than the women, interpreted such category names as e.g. ”tyypillinen suomalainen” ’a typical Finn’ more often as referring to men. In a series of experiments (N= 507), the boys and the young adults, the men more often than the women, perceived the referent of the pronoun ”hän” ’she, he’ more often as male. The contexts of the stimulus terms did not indicate the gender of the referent. The noun ”mies” is also being used in place of e.g. the pronoun ”hän” to refer to a man who has been identified by his name. Data from crime articles (published 1971–1980 and 2008–2013) showed that the pronominal ”mies” is increasingly used in reference to a criminal person. In a questionnaire study (N= 80) the pronominal ”mies” with criminal reference was often perceived to have a weaker referentiality than the corresponding pronoun ”hän”. The study discusses the potential of the noun ”mies” to grammaticalize into an indefinite man pronoun (cf. e.g. indefinite ”man” in Swedish)
  • Enqvist, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The dissertation explores the key concepts of archaeological heritage management in Finland: their aspects, definitions and meanings, the history of the concepts and especially the contemporary, official discourse surrounding them – the ways in which people represent, talk and write about archaeological heritage [arkeologinen perintö] and ancient remains [muinaisjäännös]. The social context of the study was focused on the Finnish archaeologists who worked in the intersecting fields of heritage management and academic archaeology. The texts, produced by the archaeologists, were analysed by means of critical discourse analysis; the findings of the analysis were compared to one of the most important contributions in the development of critical heritage studies: Laurajane Smith's (2005) theory of the authorized heritage discourse (AHD). The study dissects the ideologies, identities and interaction which are constructed and maintained by the Finnish AHD. Consistent with Smith s arguments, the Finnish AHD appears as an ideological construction that is dominated by heritage officials and experts, and thus excludes other members of society from taking part in the processes that define heritage. The world view of the AHD represents reality as being divided into indisputable and naturalized conceptual categories, as well as into the quantitative results of measurements and numbers in the pursuit of scientific rigour. Archaeological heritage is defined and evaluated by the experts as material objects whose physical integrity, interpretation and representation of which archaeologists control. The AHD is maintained in the network of official texts which concatenate and refer to each other. The vital intertextual element of these texts is derived from the Finnish Antiquities Act, prepared in the 1950s, which carries the connotations of nationalism and a juridical discourse. The social significance of heritage management, protection and research of archaeological heritage is thus reduced to obeying the law in the AHD. The results and the conclusions of the study, concerning the historical contingency, causes, effects and action of the official heritage discourse, are vital in order to promote the more inclusive and participatory heritage practices in Finland in the future, the democratised heritage discourse , which consists in the emancipatory interest of the research. Keywords: archaeological heritage, cultural heritage, cultural environment, management, discourse analysis, concepts
  • Mäkitalo, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation is the first monograph written on Anna-Maija Raittila´s poetry. Raittila published 11 collections, the first of which is Ruiskukkaehtoo in 1947 and the last Paratiisini puut in 1999. The study discusses Christianity in Raittila s poetry and shows that it follows Christian mysticism, a contributing tendency to modernism. It is reflected in experiences portrayed by the poetry where the border of concrete reality is broken and the speaker is touched by, and feels, the presence of transcendent divine reality. Five frames of reference repeatedly occurring in poetry are utilised in this study to examine the content and characteristics of Raittila s poetry. These frames of reference are Christian art, Mary the mother of Jesus, intimate interaction without words, natural landscape and birds, and the paradisiacal garden. These frames of reference, introduced in the sections of this thesis as starting points, synthesise themes of poems. Poems analysed using the close reading method reveal the symbols of Raittila s poetry and the Biblical intertextuality in it. The study shows that the poet has used episodes described in her diary as an aid when writing a poem. Verbal traces left by the diary enrich the interpretation of the published poetry analysed by revealing information connected to the creation of a poem. According to the study an experience transcending the concrete reality of the poet is in particular connected to suffering, distress and a crisis of life. This experience transforms the relation of the poet to herself, other people and life, and fills the poet with a presentiment of the emergence of new life-energy. The experience is often associated to Revelations in its descriptions of the new heaven and earth, and references to it complement the image of the presence of divine reality in everyday situations and/or point to the poet seeing around her the garden of paradise and sensing its atmosphere. The paradisiacal moment is described by grace, joy and playfulness, non-hierarchical sense of community, unconditional mutual openness and sensual non-verbal interaction. Nature symbolism restates the image of man as earth, connected to the cyclical flow of life-energy in nature receiving symbolical meanings depicting human life. Among birds the nightingale is central and its voice transforms itself into an image of man consumed by passionate life-energy of paradisiacal origin. Also the meditative nature of the poetry reflects Christian mysticism, and it is connected to the structure and expression of the poetry. A medieval work of art often becomes the medium of meditation: the poet identifies herself with the events and figures therein and finds a response to a topical problem, to suffering and to distress. Ekphrastic poems convey the image of God as mother. key words: Anna-Maija Raittila, modernism in lyrics, Christian mysticism, ekphrasis, meditative poetry, nature lyrics, Bible in fiction, diaries
  • Merke, Saija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Student-initiated question sequences as learning potential in Finnish-as-foreign-language classes This dissertation examines sequences of student-initiated questions in classes of Finnish-as-a-foreign-language at a French university. The data were videotaped during two two-week periods separated by five years. During each session, two different student groups were videotaped, both a beginners group and one of advanced learners of Finnish. The data were videotaped and recorded by two cameras, one capturing the student group and the other filming the teacher and the blackboard. The research method adopted was ethnomethodological conversation analysis. The analysis focuses on sequences in which students express their surprise concerning a grammatical detail. The student s question is connected to a noticing that is based on mutually shared grammatical knowledge. By posing a question the student can take the floor and introduce a topic that is personally relevant. Student questions interrupt the on-going classroom activity so that they simultaneously engage in individual epistemic search sequences and a collective knowledge co-construction. The specific question sequences identified were those initiated by negatively formatted declaratives, adversative declaratives and question-word question that imply a contrast. A detailed sequential analysis demonstrated that these questions also activated issues of right and wrong that were connected to social and moral order. The question formulations related to previous norm violations and in this sense, to moral issues. Concretely, when a student asked a question, the other participants considered issues of epistemic primacy and territory, and evaluated the legitimacy of the question. This research offers new information on the construction of intersubjectivity and its relationship to learning opportunities. The analysis demonstrates that intersubjective understanding is at first under-mined when the students notice unexpected and contradictory grammatical details that are investigated in terms of the question. The study illustrates how these questions acquire a challenging quality and morality. Nonetheless, the question sequences constitute a positive potential for the ongoing collective learning activity. The re-examination of expectations regarding linguistic issues creates opportunities to test and re-establish linguistic knowledge. The question sequences also provide tools that aid the students in structuring their personal linguistic understanding and in advancing their collective language learning. A central result is that the emotional and moral dimension of asking a question in a language classroom simultaneously challenges the foreign language, the teacher and intersubjective understanding. The interactional dynamics in epistemicity, affectivity and morality creates shared learning spaces. Keywords: question-answer sequences, Finnish-as-foreign-language, classroom interaction, conversa-tion analysis, moral communication
  • Ahmala, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation analyses the character depiction of Joel Lehtonen s early Symbolist-Decadent works Perm (1904), Paholaisen viulu (1904), Villi (1905), and Mataleena (1905) from a new perspective, in the context of the cultural dialogue concerning authenticity and particularly in relation to Friedrich Nietzsche s views on existential authenticity and self-alienation. The themes of authenticity and alienation are treated as central early modernist concerns of Lehtonen s peculiar brand of fin de siècle Decadence. The thematization of these existential issues is part of the inward turn, which takes place in Finnish literature at the turn of the 20th century. Authenticity, as Nietzsche views it, can be defined in a very broad sense as wholeness of an individual s life and self-identity. Alienation, in turn, means not realizing the potential of one s existence. Alienation can be brought about in various ways, for instance through the influence of upbringing or by succumbing to the temptations of a comfortable life. As many studies on literary Decadence have noted before, Decadence cultivates experiences of alienation from society, the self or even life in general and typically presents human life as fragmented. In Lehtonen s early works, the Naturalist-Decadent depiction of entropy and determinism puts into question even the possibility of freely constructing oneself. The study argues that Nietzschean authenticity represents an anti-decadent ideal, which is relevant in fin de siècle Decadence and which plays a special role in Lehtonen s Nietzschean-Dionysian Decadence. For Nietzsche, striving to become authentic involves, first of all, taking a critical stance towards socialization and the moral values transmitted by tradition. Secondly, becoming what one is means unleashing one s creative powers in the construction of one s identity. Lehtonen s exceptional individuals express a pathos of transgression, which is aimed at the conservative Christian-patriarchal values of society. Still, having rebelled against tradition, the protagonists of Paholaisen viulu, Villi and Mataleena unlike the strong hero of Perm feel they have become at least partly alienated from what they could have been, from their innate potential or from what they perceive as their ideal self. Even the desirability of the kind of will to power over the self advocated by Nietzsche becomes questionable.
  • Pekkola, Airi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ABSTRACT THE AGONY OF TOOTHACHE ON THE USE OF FOLK MEDICINE TO CURE TOOTHACHE AND PREVENT TOOTH DECAY IN FINLAND AND ESTONIA Today, Finnish parents-to-be receive guidance on oral health at maternity clinics even before their child is born. An abundance of information is also available via newspapers, radio, television and the Internet. Although people know full well which foods, stimulants and lifestyles damage their teeth, tooth decay (caries) is an endemic disease, and its treatment is a major cost to both society and individuals. However, tooth decay is not the scourge of industrialised societies alone; rather, the aches and pains it causes have been deplored in texts ranging from the writings of classical antiquity to Finnish folk poetry. This study explores the use of folk medicine to cure and prevent toothache. The central theme is popular medicine as practised at home and in the domestic environment. The study spans from the 1750s to the 21st century, thus encompassing a period when no profession of medically trained dentists even existed. The research area covers Finland and Estonia, and the theoretical foundation is based on comparative research and hermeneutics. The primary research material has been obtained from archives which contain information on curing toothache, gathered through data collection, surveys and writing competitions. The research material also includes letters sent by Finns and Estonians in response to my newspaper advertisement requesting people to describe how they cure toothache at home. In addition, I examine the literature that has been available on oral healthcare and medical treatment, including laymen s medical and self-help books, medication guides, publications on medical plants and articles in professional journals, newspapers and magazines. This study demonstrates that the prevention of oral disease was effectively considered in past literature on medication. Dental decay is a disease that does not heal itself. The initially mild symptoms gradually get worse and become more frequent. As the disease progresses, its nature changes when the infection spreads to the jaw bone and an abscess is developed there. This study shows that people used to know about the many different types of toothache and could choose ways to cure toothache that stopped the pain and made the tooth healthy until the following pain episode. The magical elements involved in folk medicine did not play a key role in curing toothache in the domestic environment. Instead, efficient instruments and substances were employed to target each stage of the disease. This was impossible with internal diseases, which caused equally severe pain. It is unlikely that any other disease has been treated in the home environment with as many instruments, substances and methods as toothache. The recurring pain did not stop until the tooth was removed or it disintegrated as a result of the strong remedies used. Finns and Estonians have had access to knowledge and training on oral health based on the science of dentistry since the 19th century. My research material and current knowledge indicate that the methods Finns use for dental care have improved over the past 100 years, albeit slowly. Preventive dental care used to begin in the same way as at present with pregnant women. They had to comply with certain rules to prevent permanent damage to their unborn child s developing teeth. Preventive measures continued immediately after delivery with the use of magical spells. The responsibility for children s oral health remains in the family. Modern dental experts have found it necessary to record this basic tenet in the Finnish Current Care Guidelines, but it was self-evident for our ancestors because no other type of dental care was available. This study on curing toothache explores an extensive and multidimensional field of popular medicine that has not yet been comprehensively charted. Keywords: folk medicine, toothache, magic, popular medicine, education, prevention
  • Vidberg, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Maria Vidberg University of Helsinki Place names in contact in Helsinki. Finnish elements in the use of street names in Swedish-language contexts This study focuses on Finnish elements in the usage of Swedish place names in Helsinki. The emphasis is on name usage and toponymic competence and the material consists of spoken and written data. The study uses socio-onomastic, folk-onomastic and contact-onomastic methods. The results from the study of name usage show that there are three categories in the use of Finnish elements, i.e. 1) the use of a Finnish name only, 2) the use of a hybrid name, and 3) the parallel use of a Finnish and a Swedish name. The study distinguishes between the use of Finnish elements in names as either actual or meta-linguistic, depending on whether the names are used as such or whether they are talked about, respectively. The study of toponymic competence builds on the findings in the study of name usage and investigates which resources Helsinkian name users utilize when they only know a Finnish name but need to refer to the place in question in a Swedish context. The status of Finnish elements in Swedish contexts is furthermore studied in order to find out what status the Finnish names have when they are borrowed into Swedish discussions. The study shows that the established models of contact onomastics need to be expanded with a category of unadapted name loans. On a theoretical level, the study shows the importance of a socioonomastic approach in modern name research and how this can be combined with contact-onomastic research. Since the study addresses both spoken and written data, it is methodologically possible to study name usage from different perspectives and in particular in context, which opens up for studies on how name users deal with the encounter of names in two languages exactly at the moment when the contact occurs. Keywords: name usage, toponymic competence, name contact, Swedish place names, Finnish place names, Helsinki, socio-onomastics
  • Buysse, Manon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Clause linking, or the incorporation of multiple predications within a complex linguistic unit, is an essential component of efficient language use, but also a major hurdle in the language learning process. Although discrete aspects of clause linking and its development in second language acquisition (SLA) have been studied before, a comprehensive and theoretically unified approach to the phenomenon in SLA is still lacking. To redress this gap, the study presented in this doctoral dissertation proposes a model of clause linking and its development in SLA based on the theoretical framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG; Van Valin and LaPolla 1997, Van Valin 2005) and its application to first language acquisition (Van Valin 2001). It provides a detailed account of clause linking, formalized in the Interclausal Relations Hierarchy (IRH; Van Valin 2005), which takes into account various structural levels of language and considers both the syntactic and the semantic aspects of clause linking. Oral narratives in L2 French and English were transcribed and divided into four groups based on their overall proficiency level in the L2, resulting in a total of 100 (4 x 25) samples per L2. Matched narrative production data from 25 native speakers of each target language served as a benchmark for our analyses. Results provide evidence for the universality of RRG s hypotheses in the sense that L2 learners seem to be guided by the same principles as L1 acquirers; forms of linkage characterized by similar syntactic and semantic strength are acquired more easily (as predicted by the IRH), and syntactic junctures at particular structural levels are associated with particular semantic relations between events. However, our L2 productions were also found to develop differently from those of Van Valin s (2001) young L1 acquirers in various respects: our L2 learners produce complex clauses from early stages of development onwards, as the hurdles they encounter in mastering the various L2 linking devices are unrelated to the development of their cognitive abilities or discourse organization capacities. In addition, we observed that the learners of L2 French and those of L2 English behave rather similarly in how they establish clause linking at various stages of development, but also deviate from one another in non-trivial ways which merit further research.
  • Munck, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    From Enlighteners to Professionals. Finnish Journalists Long Road from 1771 to 1921 The From Enlighteners to Professionals research presents a new interpretation of the professionalization process of the Finnish journalists from the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. According to the research, the journalist occupation was professionalised much earlier than has been presented in previous studies. This interpretation of Finnish journalists professionalization is based on exploring professional co-operation, the structural changes of the profession and the development of journalistic culture. The evaluation is made in the economic, political and social contexts. The important part of the research is a socio-economic examination of Finnish journalism between 1771 and 1921. The development of newspaper work into a profession began in Finland in the second half of the 19th century. The professionalization process followed in the footsteps of Nordic colleagues, especially Swedish journalists. The research focuses on the changes in the social position of journalists and the different defensive strategies the profession used to improve its position. The most effective strategy to improve the occupation s social status was the foundation of professional organisations. The Finnish journalists organized six national congresses between 1876-1900 and founded their first professional organisation, the Finnish Association of Journalists. Between 1905 and 1920, professional co-operation developed into political journalist associations and in 1921 the journalists established a national trade association, the Union of Journalists in Finland. Participating in journalists international co-operation was also an important part of the Finnish journalists professionalization process. The number of Finnish journalists increased rapidly from the second half of the 19th century. There were over 2,000 people who worked at Finnish newspapers as journalists or contributors between 1771 and 1921. The increase in the number of professional journalists escalated the professionalization and affected the organisation of professional co-operation. The relationship between journalists and political parties was very close in Finland at the beginning of the 20th century. This connection was highly accepted and political commitment was not considered an obstacle to execute the public duty of journalists. Keywords: journalists, journalistic profession, professionalization, journalist organisation, journalism, Finnish Association of Journalists, Union of Journalists in Finland, International Union of Press Associations.
  • Pussinen, Olga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Olga Pussinen's study "Functionally limited Russian language: Contact varieties, variations in language consciousness and diverse communication types" reviews the phenomenon of functional limitations of the Russian language (FLRL). The author defines the bilingualism within an everyday communication system that comprises two types of languages: functionally dominant and functionally limited. The work represents a complex analysis of Russian language functional limitations inside Russia (in Mordovia) and outside of it (in the Russian-speaking diaspora of Finland). The research describes the different types of the acquisition of FLRL and different levels of their existence and usage: lexis-grammatical, cognitive-psychological and socio-pragmatic. The author analyses the findings with the data collected from the interviews and from free associative experiments. Part 1, The Transformation of FLRL linguistic levels , consists of the chapters Language used at home . Russian language as the second mother tongue: The strategy of its functioning in the Russian-speaking diaspora in Finland ; Features of the language situation and the Russian language in Mordovia ; and Key features defining the pronunciation of Russian vowels by Erzyan bilinguals . Part 2, The Transformation of the FLRL cognitive level: The balance and dynamics of a bilingual thesaurus , consists of the chapters Formation of an associative-verbal network in bilingualism (based on interaction materials between the Russian and Finnish languages) and The specificity of language consciousness formation for Russian-Finnish bilingual students . Part 3, The transformation of FLRL communicative-pragmatic usage , consists of the chapters Changes in etiquette communication in the Russian-speaking diaspora in Finland ; The types of communication failures occurring when Russian language is functionally not the first ; and The ratio of functionally dominant and functionally limited languages in a bilingual speech system .
  • Lafontaine, Juan Francisco (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ABSTRACT The Healthy, Happy and Holy Organization (3HO) was founded in 1969 by the Indian Sikh and Yogi Harbhajan Singh Puri (1929-2004), AKA Yogi Bhajan , to spread his teachings and build a spiritual community. Since its foundation in Los Angeles, 3HO has reached many countries worldwide. Several ethnographical researchers have studied 3HO and most of these studies recognized 3HO as a part of the Sikh religion. Others have paid attention to 3HO as a New Religious Movement with New Age overtones. Some of these studies have focused on Yogi Bhajan s Kundalini Yoga and a small percentage have addressed all three constituent elements of the organization (Kundalini yoga, Sikhism, and New Age/Aquarian Age), but none have studied 3HO s experiential dimension. Thus, this study primarily concerned itself with the key experiential dimension of the organization, with the aim of identifying and describing the role that experience plays in 3HO s three-folded construction, and how a group of members of the movement deemed their experiences. The first data used for this study was the official manuals and books that have been published by the organization. This was complemented by the main data, which was gathered in interviews in a field research context with eleven 3HO members who were participating in the European Yoga Festival in France. All the material was approached through the perspective of Attributional Theory, which looks at how the notions of experience or experiences have been presented through a deeming making process. According to this approach, the findings achieved showed that experience plays a primary role in encompassing the three-folded parts of the movement. Also, 3HO gives their people the prescriptive aim to have an experience rather than believe or merely study the teachings of the founder. Thirdly, the study indicates that the attributions to the experiential dimension were based on the idea of its efficacy in order to experientially achieve a progress deemed spiritual . Similarly, the study was able to distinguish that a key encompassing notion attributed to the experiential perspective was that experience works. Ultimately, this dimension was more important than beliefs or theoretical discussions in opening the potential members to affiliate or assume an external as well as an internal involvement with the 3HO way of life.