Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Pietikäinen, Kaisa Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation investigates English as a lingua franca (ELF) in intercultural romantic relationships. The study attempts to unveil how ELF couples succeed in lingua franca communication: What do their interactions reveal about their pragmatic strategies concerning multilingualism, understanding, and silence, and how do they view their language identity? The data consists of 9h 9min of semi-structured interviews from six couples and 24h 15min of naturally occurring conversations recorded by seven couples. I use conversation analysis (CA) throughout, although the interview data has also undergone content analysis. The results concerning multilingual practices indicate that ELF couples utilise their multilingual repertoires frequently and for a range of interactional purposes, but also for no apparent reason. This implies that translanguaging within the speakers’ shared range diminishes in interactional value over time and becomes a habituated part of the “couple tongue”. The frequency of misunderstanding in ELF couple talk is generally in line with previous findings in ELF, but the closeness of the partners is a factor which both helps them understand each other, yet also causes misunderstandings because they expect to understand each other so easily. ELF couples use a vast array of understanding-enhancing practices similarly to ELF speakers in other contexts, but they also resort to extra-linguistic means such as drawing and onomatopoeia. The ELF couple identity is negotiated and shaped by their shared experiences over time. In this shaping process, the languages the couples use, including but not limited to English, become meaningful as the core around which the shared practice is built. ELF couples identify as English-speaking couples, but multilingualism is also present in their everyday life in their language practices at home and with the surrounding community. In their conflict interactions, ELF couples orient to noticeable silences as indicating troubles extending beyond disagreements. In addition to indicating a strong disagreement, withholding a response at a transition-relevance place is treated as marking avoidance of self-incrimination, resisting an inappropriate change-of-footing, taking offence, or unsuccessful persuasion. Applying CA to investigating turns that follow noticeable silences is found to be an effective methodology for examining the local inferences of noticeable silences. In sum, the findings imply that contextual factors such as the intimacy of ELF speakers and their shared history affects their pragmatic strategies; e.g., speakers in family contexts translanguage more freely and use more varied pre-emptive practices to avoid problems of understanding than ELF speakers in more transient contexts. Also, ELF partners identify as English speakers in their own right, and their naturally occurring talk is found to be valid for conversation analytic inquiry of interaction proper. The dissertation attempts to stimulate mutual understanding between ELF research, multilingualism, and CA.
  • Harinen, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The present thesis investigates the sensitivity of the human auditory cortex (AC) to the contrast between prototype and nonprototype vowels as well as between phonemic and nonphonemic vowels. Activations to vowels were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which was also used to analyze the effect of categorical processing on modulations in AC and adjacent inferior parietal lobule (IPL) observed during active listening tasks. A prominent theoretical view suggests that native phonemic vowels (i.e., phonemes) are represented in the human brain as categories organized around a best representative of the category (i.e., phoneme prototype). This view predicts systematic differences in the neural representations and processing of phoneme prototypes, nonprototypes and nonphonemic vowels. In three separate studies, subjects were presented with vowel pairs and visual stimuli during demanding auditory and visual tasks. Study I compared activations to prototypical and nonprototypical vowels, whereas Study II focused on the contrast between phonemic and nonphonemic vowels. Study II also tested whether activations in IPL during a categorical vowel memory task depend on whether the task is performed on phonemic (easy to categorize) or nonphonemic (harder to categorize) vowels. Study III was designed to replicate the key findings of Studies I and II. Further, Study III compared activations to identical vowels presented during a number of different task conditions requiring analysis of the acoustical or categorical differences between the vowels. The results of this thesis are in line with the general theoretical view that phonemic vowels are represented in a categorical manner in the human brain. Studies I–III showed that information about categorical vowel representations is present in human AC during active listening tasks. Areas of IPL, in turn, were implicated in general operations on categorical representations rather than in categorization of speech sounds as such. Further, the present results demonstrate that task-dependent activations in AC and adjacent IPL strongly depend on whether the task requires analysis of the acoustical or categorical features of the vowels. It is important to note that, in the present studies, surprisingly small differences in the characteristics of the vowel stimuli or the tasks performed on these vowels resulted in significant and widespread activation differences in AC and adjacent regions. As the key findings of Studies I and II were also quite successfully replicated in Study III, these results highlight the importance of carefully controlled experiments and replications in fMRI research.
  • Patronen, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how the Orthodox population in Border Karelia, who did not previously have surnames, adopted or were given surnames primarily over the decades from the 1890s to the 1920s. Border Karelia refers to the six municipalities located northeast of Lake Ladoga that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II: Suojärvi, Korpiselkä, Soanlahti, Suistamo, Impilahti, and Salmi. Border Karelia was a stronghold of the Finnish Orthodox church, and it had a population of 50 000 inhabitants in 1939. The adoption of surnames is studied as a part of the Fennification of the culture in Border Karelia, and the Fennification of the Orthodox Karelian population is contrasted with the history of other language minorities in Finland and in neighboring areas. The research material, consisting of 2 357 surnames of the Orthodox population in Border Karelia, was collected from the 1818 and 1820–1925 tax registers of the Salmi region in the Vyborg province. The population of Border Karelia became a target of Fennification due to the rise of Karelianism. The aim was to tie the Karelian-speaking Orthodox population of the borderlands into the central areas of Finland as much as possible. The Fennification began with the founding of the Sortavala seminar (1880) and the newspaper Laatokka (1882). The inhabitants of Border Karelia had always faced East, to Olonets Karelia, but the Western influence increased due to the independence of Finland and the closing of the eastern border. The changes in the Karelian language and culture were observed already in the 1920s. The theoretic part of the thesis examines the status of the Karelian language of Border Karelia by investigating the domains of spoken language and the writers of Karelian articles published in the newspaper Laatokka. The main hindrance to the development of Karelian as a written standard language was the fact that it was not recognized as a distinct language due to political reasons: the languages spoken in Border Karelia and in East Karelia were both considered dialects of the Finnish language due to the aim of the Fennification of East Karelia. Karelian was also not accepted as a suitable language for education. The status and issues of the Karelian-speaking population of Border Karelia, a linguistic and religious minority, can be easily compared to Skolt Sámi: both populations have been targets of Fennification and have not received support, for example, for the development of written standard languages from the mainland. Before 1880 most of the population in Border Karelia were registered in Swedish tax registers and in Russian Orthodox parish registers with only their Russian given names and patronymics; only a few had inherited surnames. The surnames in Border Karelia are divided into ten groups. The largest group is surnames based on hypocorisms of given names that were originally estate names (Reittu) and surnames based on bynames (Löllö). Other name groups include surnames evolved from Russian patronymics (Kononoff), surnames from Orthodox clergymen (Solntsev), various Russian surnames (Komaroff) and randomly assigned or adopted surnames that are similar to surnames in Savonia or Finnish North Karelia. The Finnish elementary school has been recognized as the main factor for the Fennification of the Karelian Orthodox minority in several studies in various research fields. Additional reasons for assigning surnames to the population in Border Karelia were the enclosure carried out in Border Karelia and the independence of peasants in Border Karelia.
  • Karhu, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In this doctoral dissertation, I provide a systematic analysis of the role of social norms in the thought of philosopher and feminist theorist, Judith Butler. More specifically, I investigate the way in which Butler theorizes the relationship between norms and violence in light of her notions of critique and resistance. The key argument of the study is that in order to understand the wide range of topics that Butler addresses in her work—such as gender normalization, the critique of violence, ethical responsiveness, and the biopolitical regulation of life—we need to pay close attention to her account of norms. Although Butler’s theorization of norms has begun to attract increasing scholarly interest, a thorough analysis of the topic has not yet been written. In order to fill this gap in previous research, my dissertation offers the first monograph-length study that explicates the problematic of norms in Butler’s thought. My study seeks to answer the following questions: What is the role of norms in Butler’s work? How does Butler conceptualize the relationship between norms, violence, and nonviolence? How should we understand critique, transformation, and resistance in the midst of norms? What are the ethical and political implications of Butler’s notion of norms? I respond to these questions by examining Butler’s theorization of norms through what I call her twofold understanding of norms. I argue that on the one hand Butler theorizes norms as mechanisms of social power that violently regulate the field of recognizable subjects, bodies, and lives, but on the other hand she conceptualizes norms in terms of the possibility of critical change and resistance. I illustrate Butler’s twofold notion of norms through four key topics, which I have organized into four main chapters. First, by examining Butler’s often-neglected feminist theoretical background in the thought of Monique Wittig, I argue that her conception of the relationship between norms and violence critically builds on Wittig’s argument that normative heterosexuality can be understood as a form of discursive violence. Second, through explicating Butler’s conception of gender normalization vis-à-vis her generally overlooked discussions of transgender embodiment and livability, I challenge recent arguments that feminists should get rid of the concept of gender. By introducing the concept of “trans livability” I highlight Butler’s work as a contribution to trans-affirmative feminist theory. Third, by challenging the general tendency to interpret Butler as a critical humanist, I demonstrate that she puts forward a critique of anthropocentrism that offers insights into problematizing the speciesist norms that uphold not only the human-animal binary but also differentiates between livable and killable nonhuman animals. Finally, by foregrounding Butler’s psychoanalytic account of grief in terms of her critique of norms, I argue that her discussion of the normative separation between grievable and ungrievable lives does not represent a turn away from politics as many critics have argued. I contend that her account of grievability must instead be understood as a theorization of resistance. Taken together, all the four chapters of my dissertation highlight Butler’s theorization of norms as a practice of feminist critique. By elucidating the relationship between norms, violence, and social change, my study emphasizes the close relationship between feminist and queer practices of political resistance and the critique of norms.
  • Auhtola, Nea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of this doctoral thesis is to figure out how and why the caller and/or the call-taker digress from the common communicative task of an emergency call. The communicative task, which both parties engage in, is here also known as a quaestio, a text quaestion, which is to be answered through completed communicative actions. The total quaestio of an emergency call consists of two partial quaestiones: The caller provides information about the incident, whereas the call-taker asks questions to ascertain whether the appeal for help really requires resolution by the police. The materials analyzed consist of 132 German-speaking emergency calls to the national number of the German police, 110. The exact names of the emergency centres, as well as any personal names and toponyms, are anonymised in the transcribed excerpts. This study is grounded on the psycholinguistic quaestio theory. By reference to this theoretical foundation, every text, conversation and single contribution to a conversation rests on an explicit or implicit quaestio or guideline. In some cases, the participants don’t follow the socially agreed main quaestio but rather favour temporary digressive quaestiones. As a consequence, there emerge diverse subsidiary structures, which may bear a distinctive communicative relevance, since they comprise e.g. meaningful background information, personal opinions and other comments. This thesis examines the communicative functions of alternative questiones and differentiates between subsidiary structures which are initiated by the caller or the call-taker, respectively. In their subsidiary structures, callers usually provide additional information about the evidentiality of their perceptions or express their uncertainty. Call-takers in turn mainly inform the callers about the processing of the emergency call. The results of the study reveal that there do exist subsidiary structures aside from the main quaestio in the context of an emergency call. In this manner, the speakers are equipped with a simple medium to communicate essential facts about each emergency, although this further information doesn’t answer the main quaestio. The results of this thesis can be taken into consideration e.g. in the education of call-takers. Key words: quaestio, emergency call, emergency centre, police, subsidiary structure, German
  • Koivisto, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study seeks to draw attention to the lack of knowledge of and the small amount of research dealing with archaeological cultural resources in Finnish wetlands, as well as to demonstrate its huge scientific and interpretative potential. To this end, the study presents a compilation of Finnish wetland archaeological sites, contextualizes and evaluates them with the help of archaeological, environmental, and ethnographic data, and offers an assessment of areas with the highest potential for encountering new sites. The scientific and interpretative potential of Finnish wetland archaeological resources is then illustrated with the help of two case studies representing stationary wooden fishing structures associated with Stone Age fishery sites. The prehistoric fishing theme involves a detailed examination of the fishing structure types and the estuary fishing methods, as well as their contextual circumstances, which provide an analytical framework explicating and illuminating this as yet unexplored archaeological evidence. Finally, the study seeks to further our knowledge concerning the detection and prospection of archaeological sites situated in demanding wetland settings with the help of geophysical testing and trial excavations conducted within stationary wooden fishing structures. The total number of wetland sites has multiplied in the course of this study, even though it is still very low when compared to the extensive area of Finnish wetlands. The areas with the highest wetland archaeological potential in Finland are located in river estuaries, coastal areas affected by strong isostatic rebound, and terrestrialized lakes. Today, stationary wooden structures associated with fishing sites represent the most typical wetland archaeological resource in Finland. The case studies described in this work demonstrate that these wooden archaeological remains yield valuable evidence for investigating fishing methods, technological adaptations, and modes of subsistence among prehistoric populations. The lack of viable techniques for the detection and prospection of sites has been hindering wetland archaeological research in Finland. The most crucial threats to the preservation of our organic archaeological resources situated in wetland landscapes are drainage, peat extraction, acidification, and climate change.
  • Hardwick, Hannasofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In my doctoral dissertation I explore the narrative function of cinema in twenty-first century fiction. In this study literary representations of films are regarded as a narrative strategy through which literary texts accentuate, reflect, and give rise to their principal themes and questions. Since filmic insertions have a noticeable impact upon the narrative construction and hence turn out to be pivotal in the reader's inferential process, I also investigate this narrative phenomenon in the context of reader's meaning-making. I have chosen four novels for my study, namely The Book of Illusions (2002) by Paul Auster, Point Omega (2010) by Don DeLillo, The Understudy (2005) by David Nicholls, and The Ice Cream Man by Katri Lipson, published in Finnish in 2012 as Jäätelökauppias and translated into English in 2014. In these works the dominant meanings are closely linked to the representations of cinema, and films appear both at the discourse level and within the fictional world. Owing to the diversity of the chosen texts in terms of style and genre, my study provides a comprehensive view of the ways in which recent fiction has utilised "moving images" in narration. In this study I draw on the theoretical concepts of intersubjectivity, framing, mise en abyme, possible worlds theory, and indexicality in order to analyse the narrative function of films in the novels and the subsequent effects in the reader's hermeneutic process. I demonstrate that the literary use of cinema greatly affects narration and the reading experience: it disturbs the conventional narrative hierarchy and the subordination between the primary level and the embedded one. Simultaneously, it violates ontological stability, which separates the fictional "real" from the filmic "unreal". My case studies testify to the importance of the reader's role as an active interpreter whose knowledge of and experiences with cinema contribute to the textual processing of the novels. By pointing out the intricate interaction between audiovisual and verbal sign systems in these texts, I show how the audiovisual upsurge in contemporary society has altered how we read literature.
  • Korhonen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation is a mixed methods study of the alleged Americanisation of Australian English as it is perceived by the speakers and evinced in their language use. The study is based on sociolinguistic interview material collected in the small country town of Blayney in New South Wales, with participants from three age groups (adolescent, middle-aged and older speakers). Alongside speaker perceptions of the alleged American influence, this apparent time study investigates the variable pronunciations of a set of lexemes by the interview participants together with morphosyntactic features (subject-verb agreement with there-existentials and stative possessive have (got)) and discourse quotatives. The findings of the perceptual part of the study confirm that the speakers of all ages feel that Australian English is being influenced by American English. While the interview participants across generations confirm the existence of such influence, different language features are regarded as comprising Americanisms by different age groups. Thus, while the young speakers mainly see vocabulary as being Americanised, the older interviewees are more inclined to also include examples of spelling and pronunciation in their accounts. In terms of their actual language use, the investigation of the speakers’ pronunciation reveals that while some of the words are indeed increasingly pronounced in the perceived American style, others show hardly any variation across generations. The distributional analysis of the morphosyntactic features and discourse quotatives, on the other hand, shows generational patterning across all the variables. The findings provide support for the assumption that the younger speakers are more likely to use the more American style variants. Although these changes in the usage patterns cannot be attributed directly to American influence, the possibility of them being perceived as such by the speakers may strengthen their views of Americanisation. By taking into consideration both speakers’ perceptions and their language use the findings presented in this thesis offer significant insights into the alleged American English influence in the Australian English context.
  • Kuha, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    ABSTRACT Jukka Kuha: Suomen musiikkioppilaitoshistoriaa – toiminta ulkomaisten esikuvien pohjalta vuoteen 1969. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Arts, Department of Musicology The topic of this doctoral study, as mentioned in the title, is the history of educational institutes of music in Finland during the years 1882–1969. In addition, a common thread throughout the study examines knowledge about European music life, especially about music education from the very early centuries up to the year 1880, and knowledge about the common music life in our country, mainly that previous to the founding of permanent educational institutes of music. The goal of this study is to review the intellectual background and identify the reasons which have enabled the establishment of institutional art schools of music (schools for sacred music, schools for orchestra musicians, schools of music, colleges of music and conservatories). Among the included initiatives are those concerning the establishment of institutes that have not been previously examined, because these initiatives can reveal common attitudes of the community concerning music education. The primary idea is to introduce the creation of educational institutes of music as a phenomenon and to describe their course of development. The aim is not to write the history of every institute but to clarify the organization of the educational institutes of schools of music. Only a few of these have been described from their beginning over some years or decades. The focuses of this study are to outline the importance of the mentioned schools of music, to describe their growth during the time of the study, to name the directors and teachers of the first institutes founded, to list the subjects and total amount of the students in each institutes, to describe political initiatives toward the law of state aid and the confirmed law, to give an account of the opinions concerning the law, and to identify two types of curriculums (developed over the long term and developed in only a few years) of educational institutions of music compared with the curriculum of Sibelius Academy in the year 1969. In fact, this study does not concern Sibelius Academy (nowadays part of an art university), but its activities under the leadership of its first director Martin Wegelius (1882–1906) have been examined because of the extensive amount of inaccurate and wrong information written in the history books on this academy. In addition, the preparations of law concerning state aid for Sibelius Academy have been clarified because these were carried out at the same time as similar initiatives for other educational institutions of music. My interest in this subject arose during my career. As I had dealings with the educational institutes of music throughout this time, I became interested in obtaining information about previous activities in these institutions in Finland, but I only found time for this research after retirement. Keywords: institutionaalinen, musiikkioppilaitos, lukkari- ja urkurikoulu, musiikkikoulu, musiikkiopisto, konservatorio, orkesterikoulu, valtionavustus
  • Bastman, Eeva-Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation examines Finnish Pietist hymn poetry from the 18th and 19th centuries. The study focuses on the hymn as a lyric genre and investigates the poetics of Pietist hymns; that is, the formal and thematic features and the ways of creating meaning that are characteristic for the hymn as a genre and for Pietist hymns in particular. The research material consists of two hymn collections: a handwritten hymnbook compiled in the 1780s in the town of Orimattila in southern Finland and a printed hymnbook, Halullisten Sieluin Hengelliset Laulut from 1790 (“Spiritual Songs for Devout Souls”), together with its extended editions published in the 19th century. The introductory chapter of the dissertation places the hymns in their historical and religious context. It is followed by the analysis part, which consists of two chapters. The first deals with questions of metre, and the second discusses forms of speech and address in hymn poetry. The chapter on hymn metrics focuses on stanza structures, metres, and rhyming. In addition to detailed textual analyses of individual hymns, it provides an overview of the poetic structures used in hymn poetry and discusses the changes in hymn metrics that took place in the 18th and 19th centuries. The analysis casts new light on the rhyming of the hymns. Here, rhyming is understood as one form of phonetic repetition together with assonance and alliteration, and emphasis is placed on the poetic functions of these phonetic devices. The second analysis chapter examines poetry as speech and lyric address. In particular, ritualistic and performative elements, which seek to involve and engage the reader or the listener, turn out to be central features of hymn poetics. These elements include, in addition to rhythm and sound, forms of speech and address, rhetorical devices that activate senses and emotion, as well as imagery used to illustrate the speaker’s innermost thoughts and feelings. The study shows that the poetics of Pietist hymns has three central features: rhetoric, oral-literary forms of expression and the recycling and reshaping of a traditional repertoire, formed in the interaction between the hymn and its neighbouring genres, such as biblical texts and devotional literature. These features have a common function: to create a sense of community and belonging in singers and listeners and to depict inner change in an engaging way.
  • Pajunen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This thesis is a case study of The Unknown Soldier (Tuntematon sotilas) by Kristian Smeds. The performance, based on a novel by Väinö Linna (1954), was played at the Finnish National Theatre from 2007 to 2009. My aim is to examine how Smeds’ directing created a performative tension between presenting and representing the well-known war story considered to be one of the most important books in Finnish cultural history. I approach the process of it becoming a national theatrical event as a performative multitude of interpretations. I analyse the elements that affected the event from different points of view, concentrating on the directing and reception. The theoretical framework is based on performance studies and analysis. I examine The Unknown Soldier especially in the context of the theories of performativity. I also use other theories, such as Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of forms of capital and Richard Sennett’s theory of the culture of new capitalism, to connect Smeds’ performance to contemporary society. The concept of collective cultural memory provides a background to understanding the extraordinary status enjoyed by The Unknown Soldier and its adaptations in Finnish culture. The aim of the research is to study the possibilities of a theatre performance with respect to challenging collective memory. I analyse the new interpretations that Smeds brought to the novel, address the media response in relation to the directing and my analysis of it, and raise questions that were left out of the public discussion. Through Smeds’ performance, I also examine the cultural position of The Unknown Soldier in current society. My analysis has three primary points of view. At first, I examine the role of the media in creating an event around this performance. Secondly, I raise the question of how the role of the audience in the performance reflected and embodied the experience of living in a 21st century information society. Thirdly, I examine how the performance was interpreted by the media and how it was discussed. The study shows why the performance was discussed in public and how Smeds’ directing challenged the well-known war narrative for example by depicting on stage a group rape carried out by Finnish soldiers, as well as the mental effects of the war. These topics were not discussed in public – the discussion concentrated on creating a stir around the performance. As well as opening up the case of Smeds´ performance, this research shows how the narrative of The Unknown Soldier has separated itself from the novel and become a partly imaginary construction in Finnish cultural memory. This construction is used separately from the war context and for the purpose of cultural capital and prestige.
  • Ilmolahti, Oona (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2017)
    This study discusses return to peace in Sörnäinen, Helsinki, after the Finnish Civil War in 1918. Situated in (labour) community research the study examines the relationship between the local elementary (folk) school teachers and the Sörnäinen labour community. Methodologically, qualitative tools are complemented by using the notion of emotional communities and the method of close reading. The theoretical framework is the psychological resilience linked to return to peace from war and to recovery from crisis. Emotions are seen primarily as a social force sustaining emotional communities. Social resilience was communal, making one’s own reference group crucial to recovery. After the Civil War, the National Progressive Party-dominated management of the National Board of General Education defined national unity as the goal of education, but in the wake of the war, schools were made into a battleground of bottled-up emotions. The Civil War exacerbated the relations between the school teachers and the working-class population, and the emotional regime hardened by the experiences or interpretations of the war made it impossible to present alternative views of the other party. Still, the emotional communities analysed were not homogeneous; they contained within them smaller subcommunities, which acted as emotional refuges. How the relations reached a crisis point was encapsulated in children. They saw a disconcerting chain of events, facing many different truths about what had happened. The teachers’ Fennomanian, education-based view of the Finnish people was shattered by the war, while among the workers, the defeat and the split of the labour movement laid to waste the ideal of a better world built with combined efforts. The grief was mixed with bitterness and the resultant ideas of revenge or a need for reconciliation. Most of the elementary school teachers knew where they stood in these exceptional circumstances, but it was not easy. Many were drawn to social democratic ideas, sympathising with the efforts to improve the lot of the people, which made it hard for them to take a stand. In addition to rekindling a passion for the redeeming force of education, many teachers found in the Finnish kinship ideology a tool of social resilience and of managing their relationship to the ordinary Finnish-speaking people. Among the teachers and the political labour movement alike, the resilience was grounded in building a better world through children and education. The left-wing socialist labour movement dissociated itself ever more clearly from the bourgeois education system, seeking to equip the Red orphans with an alternative worldview. Similarly, the teachers turned into action the self-accusations rising from the failure of their educational work. The crisis was proof of the inadequacies of education, which is why their own future work was key to Finnish national unity. All parties also endeavoured to awaken the working-class parents seen as too passive or as providing their children with the wrong sort of education. Mental peace was not attained in the immediate aftermath of the war, but there were occasional incidences of calming down. The emotions aroused by the crisis, the way in which the war was interpreted and the creation of a new vision for the future helped to manage these emotions but did not enable an understanding of the other party. The crisis was also used as a rhetorical device to strengthen the contradictions between the working-class population and the teachers.
  • Dahlgren, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In this work I have studied the language contact situation between Egyptian and Greek in Roman period Egypt. I have analysed the language use of a corpus written by Egyptian scribe apprentices, OGN I (Ostraca greci da Narmuthis), rich with nonstandard variation due to the imperfect Greek learning of the young scribes. I concentrated on finding Egyptian phonological influence from the misspellings of the vowels that displayed variation atypical for native language writers. Among the nonstandard features were, for example, underdifferentiation of foreign phonemes, the reduction of word-final vowels, allophonic variation that matched Coptic prosodic rules, and coarticulation of consonants on vowels. All of these linguistic characteristics can be found also in the near-phonetic nonstandard spellings of Greek loanwords in Coptic, which I used as parallel reference material. Studying the similarly phonetically-based orthographic variants in Arabic loanwords in Coptic from a later period gave me information on Coptic vowel qualities, by which I could confirm that most of the nonstandard vowel variation in the texts of OGN I was not related to Greek internal phonological development but Egyptian influence. During the project I began to suspect that there might have been an independent Egyptian Greek variety in existence, similarly to for example Indian English, with transfer features from especially the phonological level of Egyptian. I found enough conclusive evidence of a variety of this type to be able to continue research on it after the doctoral dissertation. In order to be able to obtain knowledge of the spoken level of these languages which are no longer spoken, I used modern phonetic research as my aid, and especially concentrated on loanword phonology. I believe I have found enough evidence of the methods of integration of these loanwords and foreign words into Egyptian to be able to contribute to the ongoing debate about whether loan adaptation is based on the phonological level or the phonetic one. I found evidence of both, quite often working simultaneously.
  • Koivikko, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The study site is the underwater seascape of the 18th-century fortress islands of Suomenlinna (Sveaborg) in the harbour of Helsinki, Finland. The site is located in the Gulf of Finland, in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea. The fortress has global significance as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This study had its origin in the insight that a ship's hull, while comprised of numerous individual artifacts, could be treated as one object from the viewpoint of archaeological research. From that premise, it followed that the study of the ship as an artefact can be continued through processes of reuse. This change in approach allowed evaluating the reuse of ships in a different way than the traditional concept of recycling, which involves demolishing and cannibalizing all the material of the vessel. This study states that the hull can also be recycled intact to serve the contemporary community. Accordingly, it is called recycling rather than simple reuse, since it involves a change in the function of the hull. The activities of different periods have left footprints in the underwater seascape, which create a basis for interpretations of a maritime cultural landscape. The author used maritime archaeological field methods to collect data throughout the 80-hectare water area around Suomenlinna. This archaeological record has not been analysed earlier. For this study, an interpretation tool was developed for unidentified shipwrecks, especially for data produced in surveys. The three primary aims of this study are raising awareness of the possibilities of maritime archaeological studies, broadening the concept of recycling, and increasing the appreciation of old and poorly preserved wrecks. In addition, this study reveals recycling processes undertaken on some of the first vessels of the Swedish Army Fleet, and the locations of the last wooden sailing warships of the Russian Baltic Fleet. Maritime archaeology should be challenged to apply its methods and perspectives to address contemporary global concerns and the well-being of our waters, as well as ourselves.
  • Sosa, Sachiko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Khanty is a Uralic language spoken in Western Siberia. Surgut Khanty with 2000 speakers is one of the variants of Eastern Khanty. Most speakers are bilinguals and Surgut Khanty is nowadays an endangered language. The main aim of this dissertation is to find the functions of rich morphosyntactic devices in Surgut Khanty. I limited the analysis on comparisons variation between alignments. The main theoretical frame is founded on discourse-based functionalism. Mainly the model of the method derives from Preferred Argument Structure (Du Bois 1987) and in this framework, morphology (noun phrase types of referents as lexical NPs, pronouns or zero anaphora), semantics (animacy and person) and pragmatics (information status as new or given information, referentiality as referent tracking, topicality) will be studied. Referent tracking means here coding the discourse referentiality of noun phrases in discourse. I mapped the distribution of each category and configured them with a pragmatic frame. The data used in the dissertation is originally spoken narrative text from after 1980 s, including the data I collected from interviews with native Surgut Khanty speakers. The data consists of 295 minutes 20 seconds of audio recorded personal narratives. The dissertation contains an abundance of grammatical sketch which also contains previously undescribed grammatical features. I have analysed five alignments. The remarkable findings are the followings. 1) The dative shift alternation can also trigger subject conjugation regardless of the typological tendency and previous study on Khanty. 2) In object variations, I have compared nominative/accusative object and oblique object which has not been mentioned in previous studies of Khanty. The analyses demonstrate that the oblique object can be regarded an object since it is a semantically obligatory argument, but it also functions as an oblique in referent tracking in discourse. 3) The object conjugation does not pertain to the first and the second person pronouns as object in Surgut Khanty. 4) The locative subject and its object are highly topical. In Surgut Khanty data, the locative subject functions as recurring topic. It also appears in local discourse that has competing topical referents. In a word, topic, local discourse, text genre and also speaker s strategy control the morphosyntactic choice in Surgut Khanty. As mentioned above, the analysis demonstrates that the morphosyntactic devices have their own functions in discourse. It is the speaker, however, that chooses the morphosyntactic form in discourse. The data for Surgut Khanty reveal that speakers choose the morphosyntactic forms based on the functions and on the strategy of the speech for effective communication even when the choice does not depend on the tendency/basic function. Since narrative is a genre which can reveal the speaker s command of speech, the result is not surprising.