Humanistinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Silfverberg, Miikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    A morphological tagger is a computer program that provides complete morphological descriptions of sentences. Morphological taggers find applications in many NLP fields. For example, they can be used as a pre-processing step for syntactic parsers, in information retrieval and machine translation. The task of morphological tagging is closely related to POS tagging but morphological taggers provide more fine-grained morphological information than POS taggers. Therefore, they are often applied to morphologically complex languages, which extensively utilize inflection, derivation and compounding for encoding structural and semantic information. This thesis presents work on data-driven morphological tagging for Finnish and other morphologically complex languages. There exists a very limited amount of previous work on data-driven morphological tagging for Finnish because of the lack of freely available manually prepared morphologically tagged corpora. The work presented in this thesis is made possible by the recently published Finnish dependency treebanks FinnTreeBank and Turku Dependency Treebank. Additionally, the Finnish open-source morphological analyzer OMorFi is extensively utilized in the experiments presented in the thesis. The thesis presents methods for improving tagging accuracy, estimation speed and tagging speed in presence of large structured morphological label sets that are typical for morphologically complex languages. More specifically, it presents a novel formulation of generative morphological taggers using weighted finite-state machines and applies finite-state taggers to context sensitive spelling correction of Finnish. The thesis also explores discriminative morphological tagging. It presents structured sub-label dependencies that can be used for improving tagging accuracy. Additionally, the thesis presents a cascaded variant of the averaged perceptron tagger. In presence of large label sets, a cascaded design results in substantial reduction of estimation speed compared to a standard perceptron tagger. Moreover, the thesis explores pruning strategies for perceptron taggers. Finally, the thesis presents the FinnPos toolkit for morphological tagging. FinnPos is an open-source state-of-the-art averaged perceptron tagger implemented by the author.
  • Kummala, Petteri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study concentrates on urban nature and its significance in terms of the quality of urban environments. Even though the main focus of the study is on the downtown areas of the city of Helsinki, the main arguments about the essential characteristics of urban nature are more generally applicable. This study broadens the scope of aesthetic research to an area that has so far been studied only superficially. The main point of departure in this study is the claim that if one attempts to examine urban nature on its own terms then one has to accept that urban nature is a hybrid. This means that urban nature is both conceptually and in its concrete forms of manifestation a hybrid between human made and natural , a combination or a constantly changing state of intermingling of these concepts. Thus approaches to the concept of urban nature based on, for example, naturalness and authenticity are misleading if the aim is to examine urban nature as urban nature. The concept of hybrid is a way out of this dilemma. The first two chapters of the study discuss the following topics: Western concepts of nature, notions of naturalness and artefact , the concept of hybrid, and urban nature as hybrid. Starting from Chapter 3, an alternative approach to the aesthetic understanding of urban nature is developed. The main starting point is our everyday lived experience as the basic horizon of encountering urban nature. From the point of view of the experiencing human being, different aspects of perception and experiencing urban environments are examined. Also affectivity as a fundamental aspect through which we are responsive and sensitive in relation to our environment is underlined. Chapter 4 concentrates on the main registers through which urban nature affects us as experiencing human beings: otherness , place and atmosphere . The final chapter focuses more concretely on how urban nature affects the quality of urban environments. The matter is approached through the case study of Töölönlahti Bay in Helsinki and especially the southern part of the area. Through the case study, also the questions of planning and managing urban nature as well as the potentialities of urban nature in terms of the quality of urban environments are discussed.
  • Shpinitskaya, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation is a study of musical cultural mixtures, essentially focusing on mixtures in contemporary European art music and compositions of the Finnish-Swedish composer Erik Bergman as a complex case of cultural mixtures and mixing processes. The study suggests a theoretical framework and analytical tools for interpreting and deconstructing mixtures defined as multicultural texts. In the second part of the project, the suggested tools are applied to analyse the music of Erik Bergman, whose work is considered to be a particular example of the multicultural texts, in which the initial cultural components have blended into fusion on the level of sound. The project creates various perspectives to study the subject of musical mixtures described as virtual models of cultural communication, where different cultural identities, discourses, and aesthetics are presented simultaneously. Having as its goal the identifying and highlighting of different aspects of mixtures and strategies of their modelling, the multidisciplinary project, with a primary background in musicology and semiotics, combines diverse theories and concepts, involving different branches of semiotics (from Yuri Lotman s cultural semiotics to the intertextual studies and interpretative semiotics of Umberto Eco), as well as the concept of virtual reality, temporal theories, studies of cultural identity, the theory of topics, and studies of cultural forms of sound and their conceptualisation. The research work results in the creation of a comprehensive theory that proposes background, terminology, and several tools and strategies for studying mixtures, while tracing cultural information and its transformation inside them. The theory takes into account processes of virtual cultural modelling, the role of the author and the reader, and addresses an extensive category of the multicultural texts taken as personal creations. This novel understanding of musical mixtures leads to an analysis of mixtures on the level of sound essence and sound strategies. The research also creates a new perspective on Erik Bergman s music, an author with extraordinary cultural experiences and many cultural identities speaking through his authorial voice. The analytical part of the project demonstrates how diverse strategies of modelling, cultural compositional techniques, and sound strategies work to compose (and decompose) a multicultural text.
  • Wuokko, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The Vanguard of the Market Economy: The political activity of Finnish business in the 1970s and 1980s This doctoral thesis examines the motives, means, objectives, and outcomes of the political activity of Finland s major business associations in the 1970s and 1980s. It centres around two influential organisations founded in the mid-1970s, Elinkeinoelämän Valtuuskunta (EVA; the Council of Economic Organisations in Finland) and Teollisuuden Keskusliitto (TKL; the Confederation of Finnish Industries). The analysis focuses on three political processes in which these advocates of Finnish business were particularly involved: the foundation of consensus politics in the late 1970s, the presidential election campaign of 1981 1982, and the formation of the cabinet in 1987. The principal sources are archived documents from EVA, the TKL, other relevant business organisations, and individual business leaders, and these are assessed using three core methods of historical inquiry (source criticism, triangulation, and hermeneutics). Furthermore, the empirical findings are examined in the light of social scientific theories about the varieties and sources of business political power. The thesis offers new insights into the societally relevant, widely debated but insufficiently studied topics of business government relations and the political influence of business. The political activity of Finnish business in the 1970s and 1980s had three fundamental objectives. International competitiveness should be enshrined at the heart of Finnish economic policy. The commercial and cultural and, after the end of the Cold War, also the political position of Finland had to be rooted firmly in the sphere of Western Europe. Finally, the role of the market economy as the cornerstone of Finnish society had to be strengthened through liberating the economy and restricting the social and economic role of the state. The business community was, in principle, unanimous about these goals, but controversies arose about the best tactics with which to achieve them. Moreover, internal contradictions were inherent in these objectives, particularly between pragmatic short-term interests and fundamental long-term goals, which was reflected in the lobbying activities in all three of the political processes. First, the prioritisation of competitiveness was primarily promoted through consensus politics in cooperation with the Social Democrats, even though business circles at the same time wanted to prevent the political left from strengthening. Second, throughout the Cold War era, Finland s orientation towards Western Europe had to be advanced discretely, because business leaders also wanted to maintain good (trade) relations with the Soviet Union. And third, while it was important for business circles to support right-of-centre parties and to secure a non-socialist parliamentary majority, it was in fact more essential to nurture contact with the dominant Social Democratic Party and the Centre Party. Despite these contradictions, the fundamental objectives of Finnish business had either already been or were about to be fulfilled by the end of the 1980s. Although societal development was primarily dictated by international political and economic trends, lobbying by business was significant in accelerating and directing change. In its political activity, Finnish business utilised instrumental power (e.g. election and party funding), network-based power (e.g. contacts between leading politicians and business leaders), and structural power (e.g. crisis rhetoric). It also employed informational power (e.g. influencing opinions and attitudes, taking part in public discussion), which became increasingly important toward the end of the research period. During the Cold War, the political leeway of Finnish business leaders was limited for fear of offending the Soviet Union and damaging Eastern trade. In other respects, however, the political activity of business assumed similar forms and occurred at the same time as that in other Western countries. The political mobilisation of Finnish business groups in the 1970s can be seen as part of a wider international phenomenon, in which capitalist forces in various countries gathered their troops against statism and in defence of the free market economy. This collective action contributed to the strengthening of a neoliberal, market-oriented ideology and economic policy both in Finland and around the world from the turn of the 1980s onwards.
  • Laukola, Iiro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The interaction between Greek and Egyptian cultural concepts has been an intense yet controversial topic in studies about Ptolemaic Egypt. The present study partakes in this discussion with an analysis of the encomiastic poems of Callimachus of Cyrene (c. 305 c. 240 BC). The success of the Ptolemaic Dynasty is crystallized in the juxtaposing of the different roles of a Greek βασιλεύς and of an Egyptian Pharaoh, and this study gives a glimpse of this political and ideological endeavour through the poetry of Callimachus. The contribution of the present work is to situate Callimachus in the core of the Ptolemaic court. Callimachus was a proponent of the Ptolemaic rule. By reappraising the traditional Greek beliefs, he examined the bicultural rule of the Ptolemies in his encomiastic poems. This work critically examines six Callimachean hymns, namely to Zeus, to Apollo, to Artemis, to Delos, to Athena and to Demeter together with the Victory of Berenice, the Lock of Berenice and the Ektheosis of Arsinoe. Characterized by ambiguous imagery, the hymns inspect the ruptures in Greek thought during the Hellenistic age. These poems link Ptolemaic kings and queens with the deities they address and embroider this linkage with Egyptian cultural concepts. The Victory of Berenice and the Lock of Berenice contain a subtext in which Berenice II is portrayed in Egyptian terms whereas the Ektheosis of Arsinoe examines the mortuary aspects of Graeco-Egyptian Ptolemaic Egypt. The Ptolemies created a new audience for the poets of their court when they established a bilingual cadre of scribes. The scribes, together with the indigenous priests, were a heterogeneous group, but some were thoroughly Hellenized, as the case of Manetho confirms. The encomiastic poetry of Callimachus legitimized the status of the Ptolemies amid the native Egyptian elite, but also made their style of kingship more familiar to the Greeks.
  • Käkelä, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) was one of the central writers in the formative period of American science fiction, and among the first to emphasize the societal and political importance of the genre. This dissertation examines the themes of history, frontier expansionism, and guardianship in Asimov's key works, the Robot and Foundation series, in order to view his influence on the development of science fiction when it started to distance itself from pulp fiction and refine its key tropes and themes. A significant part of Asimov's Robot and Foundation stories were first published as serials in the 1940s and 1950s Astounding Science-Fiction magazine, and the pulp publishing context is crucial in order to understand Asimov's impact on the genre. Thus, this dissertation combines the contextual examination of Asimov's main themes with a discussion of the views of the Astounding magazine editor, John W. Campbell, Jr., a key influence on Asimov's work. Moreover, the present study extends to Asimov's 1980s novels that combine much of his fiction into a unified grand narrative of future history. My claim is that in Asimov's series the need to understand history in order to construct a sustainable future becomes the pivotal theme, both on the level of narration and on the level of characters that turn their knowledge of history into action. This awareness of history, I contend, leads to the recurrent realization that human culture will decline if stagnation is not reversed by frontier expansion. The pervasive frontier theme and the role of individual heroes in Asimov s work also reflect the Western backdrop of American pulp fiction. In this way, it demonstrates the science fiction genre's shift from cowboy heroes of Western fiction to problem-solving engineers on the intellectual frontier of the future. Finally, the historical and frontier aspects in Asimov's series point toward the notion of guardianship and the aspiration to apply the understanding of both history and science to engineer a more peaceful, yet non-stagnant future. Throughout his career, then, Asimov displays a tension between a utopian desire and the pragmatic and techno-meritocratic solutions typical to Campbell s stable of writers. Thus, although Asimov's series is usually taken as straightforward prose fiction that focuses on solutions and explanations, this dissertation demonstrates its central tensions, which also serve to highlight the development of the science fiction genre. The readings presented make visible the ambiguous strains between Asimov's cyclical models of history and his admiration of the Enlightenment ideal of progression, between individual freedom and the notion of guardianship, as well as between pragmatism and utopia. Informed by American history, Asimov's series portrays how individuals make bold maneuvers in order to steer humankind toward a more sustainable future, thus engaging in what could be termed the cowboy politics of an enlightened future.
  • Viitamies, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    A conclusion of my research is that Helsinki City s pedestrian zone increases in size when traffic speeds are slowed down and more room for pedestrian traffic is made, not when car traffic is attempted to get rid of completely. Pedestrian traffic was noted as the most important means of travel by the city of Helsinki by the beginning of 1970s. In spite of that, Kluuvi s pedestrian zone was formed as late as the 1990s after prolonged controversy. Today Aleksanterinkatu, Keskuskatu, Mikonkatu and Kluuvikatu are car-free streets. The changes happened a lot slower than in other Nordic capitals because driving has progressively been increasing and growing stronger culturally in Finland all they way since the 1950s till today. The car was rooted to the society in the 60s. The property owners thought that the streets had to be left for cars to ensure that customer and service traffic could happen without problems. Citizens, activists and planners were well aware of international trends according to which pedestrian streets made cities feel more humane. Also, only the minority of the shopkeepers were against traffic calming in the urban core. The street space s slow gradual change began in the Three Smiths square in the year 1980. As on the following years the Aleksanterinkatu Street s sidewalks were widened, they as a consequence were illegally used as a parking space. On the other hand, the way the streets were used by the citizens also changed in the desired way. Nowadays, a hundred thousand citizens walk on the Aleksanterinkatu Street over the course of a day. Kluuvi´s pedestrian zone was implemented when real-estate owners renewed their buildings and built underground parking lots. They had to approve pedestrian streets as a trade for building rights. The businesses leaned towards traffic calming in 1990´s because walking was thought to be the most effective means to gain customers for stores and restaurants in the urban core. Helsinki´s street culture has gotten richer, following the changes the street space faced that favored events, hanging around and rambling. In the 1970s there weren t any street cafés or street musicians in Helsinki. The meaning of urban street has changed. Thoroughfares became places for trade and other interactions. The City of Helsinki built its brand by redesigning the streets. On the streets minority groups and individuals become visible and join the society. The street life grows stronger and the traffic system in Helsinki becomes less and less automobile dependent. The central pedestrian zone will expand faster than it has in the past. Although this requires certain conditions to be met; urban planning has to come together with business. Shop owners and restaurant keepers etc. have to join the city production. They must practice their right to the city and the streets.
  • Ammunet, Riitta (Unigrafia, 2016)
    The aim of my doctoral thesis is to analyze and describe the manner in which the definite article is used in different kinds of noun phrases (NPs), ranging between i) autonomous titles that represent original pieces of artwork (i.e. film titles) and ii) headings that are linked and interrelated to each other (i.e. news headlines). The definite article can, in principle, always be omitted. However, there are also particular cases which are often related to certain text types or other conventions when the definite article is or is not omitted. My dissertation sheds more light on these pragmatic laws. Before my corpus analysis I conducted a perception study where informants were asked to comment on the acceptability of some examples representing different kinds of titles and headings. I also examined a sample of news headlines dating from 1 October 2013 until 15 March 2014. This study primarily focuses on headlines from daily newspapers (i.e. both paper and online newspapers). Headlines from news broadcasts and current affairs programmes were, however, also examined. My main research data has been collected from the www.mymovies.it film corpus. As my more specific data I chose to examine one year per decade between 1904 and 2014. The data consists of 2841 NPs from 7585 film titles. My analysis starts with John Hawkins's Location Theory and the analysis of the standard definite article within Italian language. Knud Lambrecht s theoretical description on the Information Structure is then used to examine interrelated headlines. The principle theoretical framework is based on Cognitive Linguistics and particularly Construction Grammar. I describe the characteristics of different linguistic levels, namely the syntactic, the semantic and pragmatic levels, with discourse pattern schemes. This approach has made it possible to describe these characteristics in a way that includes only the contextual aspect, i.e. the situational setting [frame], above all other aspects. The findings show that the use (or the omittance) of the definite article is influenced by multiple variables and conventions, sometimes together and sometimes separately. The dissertation, for instance, demonstrates that, in different types of action films, word choice in film titles contributes to the general omission of the definite article. Similarly, the definite article is omitted when the connection between a noun and its complement could in some way be anticipated. In contrast the definite article is typically written in a title or headline when the noun and the complement are not automatically associated with each other. Finally, my doctoral dissertation also touches on the historical development of the definite article, the so-called 'definite article cycle', and on Latin which, in the background, subtly continues to have its influence on modern Italian. This is the reason why the dissertation's title and also a couple of headings have been written in Latin.
  • Engelberg, Mila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The study examines the androcentrism in Finnish terms for person reference: generic masculinity, covert male bias, the use of the noun ”mies” ’man, male’ in a pronominal manner and the possible grammaticalization of ”mies”. The study consists of four studies and the compilation part. Generic masculinity (gm) in Finnish shows in masculine expressions which are used to refer to both sexes. The gm forms are compounds (e.g. ”esi-isä” lit. forefather, ’ancestor’), derivatives (e.g. ”veljeillä” < ”veli” ’brother’, ’to fraternize’), phrases such as ”uskottu mies” ’trustee, executor, administrator’, idioms (e.g. ”olla oma herransa” ’to be one’s own master’), and proverbs (e.g. ”Auta miestä mäessä, älä mäen alla” ’Help a man on the hill, not under the hill’). The gm forms are often presumed to be gender-neutral. However, in an experiment the participants (N= 150) interpreted the gm expressions as referring to men more often than their morphologically gender-neutral equivalents (e.g. ”lakimies” lit. law-man ’lawyer’ vs. ”juristi” ’lawyer’). The men interpreted the gm forms as referring to both sexes less often than the women did. Gender-neutral person reference terms such as ”ihminen” ’human being’ may have a covert male bias. In an experiment (N= 295), the boys and the men perceived ”ihminen” as male more often than as female. In a second experiment (N= 220), the adult participants, the men more often than the women, interpreted such category names as e.g. ”tyypillinen suomalainen” ’a typical Finn’ more often as referring to men. In a series of experiments (N= 507), the boys and the young adults, the men more often than the women, perceived the referent of the pronoun ”hän” ’she, he’ more often as male. The contexts of the stimulus terms did not indicate the gender of the referent. The noun ”mies” is also being used in place of e.g. the pronoun ”hän” to refer to a man who has been identified by his name. Data from crime articles (published 1971–1980 and 2008–2013) showed that the pronominal ”mies” is increasingly used in reference to a criminal person. In a questionnaire study (N= 80) the pronominal ”mies” with criminal reference was often perceived to have a weaker referentiality than the corresponding pronoun ”hän”. The study discusses the potential of the noun ”mies” to grammaticalize into an indefinite man pronoun (cf. e.g. indefinite ”man” in Swedish)
  • Enqvist, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The dissertation explores the key concepts of archaeological heritage management in Finland: their aspects, definitions and meanings, the history of the concepts and especially the contemporary, official discourse surrounding them – the ways in which people represent, talk and write about archaeological heritage [arkeologinen perintö] and ancient remains [muinaisjäännös]. The social context of the study was focused on the Finnish archaeologists who worked in the intersecting fields of heritage management and academic archaeology. The texts, produced by the archaeologists, were analysed by means of critical discourse analysis; the findings of the analysis were compared to one of the most important contributions in the development of critical heritage studies: Laurajane Smith's (2005) theory of the authorized heritage discourse (AHD). The study dissects the ideologies, identities and interaction which are constructed and maintained by the Finnish AHD. Consistent with Smith s arguments, the Finnish AHD appears as an ideological construction that is dominated by heritage officials and experts, and thus excludes other members of society from taking part in the processes that define heritage. The world view of the AHD represents reality as being divided into indisputable and naturalized conceptual categories, as well as into the quantitative results of measurements and numbers in the pursuit of scientific rigour. Archaeological heritage is defined and evaluated by the experts as material objects whose physical integrity, interpretation and representation of which archaeologists control. The AHD is maintained in the network of official texts which concatenate and refer to each other. The vital intertextual element of these texts is derived from the Finnish Antiquities Act, prepared in the 1950s, which carries the connotations of nationalism and a juridical discourse. The social significance of heritage management, protection and research of archaeological heritage is thus reduced to obeying the law in the AHD. The results and the conclusions of the study, concerning the historical contingency, causes, effects and action of the official heritage discourse, are vital in order to promote the more inclusive and participatory heritage practices in Finland in the future, the democratised heritage discourse , which consists in the emancipatory interest of the research. Keywords: archaeological heritage, cultural heritage, cultural environment, management, discourse analysis, concepts
  • Mäkitalo, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation is the first monograph written on Anna-Maija Raittila´s poetry. Raittila published 11 collections, the first of which is Ruiskukkaehtoo in 1947 and the last Paratiisini puut in 1999. The study discusses Christianity in Raittila s poetry and shows that it follows Christian mysticism, a contributing tendency to modernism. It is reflected in experiences portrayed by the poetry where the border of concrete reality is broken and the speaker is touched by, and feels, the presence of transcendent divine reality. Five frames of reference repeatedly occurring in poetry are utilised in this study to examine the content and characteristics of Raittila s poetry. These frames of reference are Christian art, Mary the mother of Jesus, intimate interaction without words, natural landscape and birds, and the paradisiacal garden. These frames of reference, introduced in the sections of this thesis as starting points, synthesise themes of poems. Poems analysed using the close reading method reveal the symbols of Raittila s poetry and the Biblical intertextuality in it. The study shows that the poet has used episodes described in her diary as an aid when writing a poem. Verbal traces left by the diary enrich the interpretation of the published poetry analysed by revealing information connected to the creation of a poem. According to the study an experience transcending the concrete reality of the poet is in particular connected to suffering, distress and a crisis of life. This experience transforms the relation of the poet to herself, other people and life, and fills the poet with a presentiment of the emergence of new life-energy. The experience is often associated to Revelations in its descriptions of the new heaven and earth, and references to it complement the image of the presence of divine reality in everyday situations and/or point to the poet seeing around her the garden of paradise and sensing its atmosphere. The paradisiacal moment is described by grace, joy and playfulness, non-hierarchical sense of community, unconditional mutual openness and sensual non-verbal interaction. Nature symbolism restates the image of man as earth, connected to the cyclical flow of life-energy in nature receiving symbolical meanings depicting human life. Among birds the nightingale is central and its voice transforms itself into an image of man consumed by passionate life-energy of paradisiacal origin. Also the meditative nature of the poetry reflects Christian mysticism, and it is connected to the structure and expression of the poetry. A medieval work of art often becomes the medium of meditation: the poet identifies herself with the events and figures therein and finds a response to a topical problem, to suffering and to distress. Ekphrastic poems convey the image of God as mother. key words: Anna-Maija Raittila, modernism in lyrics, Christian mysticism, ekphrasis, meditative poetry, nature lyrics, Bible in fiction, diaries
  • Merke, Saija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Student-initiated question sequences as learning potential in Finnish-as-foreign-language classes This dissertation examines sequences of student-initiated questions in classes of Finnish-as-a-foreign-language at a French university. The data were videotaped during two two-week periods separated by five years. During each session, two different student groups were videotaped, both a beginners group and one of advanced learners of Finnish. The data were videotaped and recorded by two cameras, one capturing the student group and the other filming the teacher and the blackboard. The research method adopted was ethnomethodological conversation analysis. The analysis focuses on sequences in which students express their surprise concerning a grammatical detail. The student s question is connected to a noticing that is based on mutually shared grammatical knowledge. By posing a question the student can take the floor and introduce a topic that is personally relevant. Student questions interrupt the on-going classroom activity so that they simultaneously engage in individual epistemic search sequences and a collective knowledge co-construction. The specific question sequences identified were those initiated by negatively formatted declaratives, adversative declaratives and question-word question that imply a contrast. A detailed sequential analysis demonstrated that these questions also activated issues of right and wrong that were connected to social and moral order. The question formulations related to previous norm violations and in this sense, to moral issues. Concretely, when a student asked a question, the other participants considered issues of epistemic primacy and territory, and evaluated the legitimacy of the question. This research offers new information on the construction of intersubjectivity and its relationship to learning opportunities. The analysis demonstrates that intersubjective understanding is at first under-mined when the students notice unexpected and contradictory grammatical details that are investigated in terms of the question. The study illustrates how these questions acquire a challenging quality and morality. Nonetheless, the question sequences constitute a positive potential for the ongoing collective learning activity. The re-examination of expectations regarding linguistic issues creates opportunities to test and re-establish linguistic knowledge. The question sequences also provide tools that aid the students in structuring their personal linguistic understanding and in advancing their collective language learning. A central result is that the emotional and moral dimension of asking a question in a language classroom simultaneously challenges the foreign language, the teacher and intersubjective understanding. The interactional dynamics in epistemicity, affectivity and morality creates shared learning spaces. Keywords: question-answer sequences, Finnish-as-foreign-language, classroom interaction, conversa-tion analysis, moral communication
  • Ahmala, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation analyses the character depiction of Joel Lehtonen s early Symbolist-Decadent works Perm (1904), Paholaisen viulu (1904), Villi (1905), and Mataleena (1905) from a new perspective, in the context of the cultural dialogue concerning authenticity and particularly in relation to Friedrich Nietzsche s views on existential authenticity and self-alienation. The themes of authenticity and alienation are treated as central early modernist concerns of Lehtonen s peculiar brand of fin de siècle Decadence. The thematization of these existential issues is part of the inward turn, which takes place in Finnish literature at the turn of the 20th century. Authenticity, as Nietzsche views it, can be defined in a very broad sense as wholeness of an individual s life and self-identity. Alienation, in turn, means not realizing the potential of one s existence. Alienation can be brought about in various ways, for instance through the influence of upbringing or by succumbing to the temptations of a comfortable life. As many studies on literary Decadence have noted before, Decadence cultivates experiences of alienation from society, the self or even life in general and typically presents human life as fragmented. In Lehtonen s early works, the Naturalist-Decadent depiction of entropy and determinism puts into question even the possibility of freely constructing oneself. The study argues that Nietzschean authenticity represents an anti-decadent ideal, which is relevant in fin de siècle Decadence and which plays a special role in Lehtonen s Nietzschean-Dionysian Decadence. For Nietzsche, striving to become authentic involves, first of all, taking a critical stance towards socialization and the moral values transmitted by tradition. Secondly, becoming what one is means unleashing one s creative powers in the construction of one s identity. Lehtonen s exceptional individuals express a pathos of transgression, which is aimed at the conservative Christian-patriarchal values of society. Still, having rebelled against tradition, the protagonists of Paholaisen viulu, Villi and Mataleena unlike the strong hero of Perm feel they have become at least partly alienated from what they could have been, from their innate potential or from what they perceive as their ideal self. Even the desirability of the kind of will to power over the self advocated by Nietzsche becomes questionable.
  • Pekkola, Airi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ABSTRACT THE AGONY OF TOOTHACHE ON THE USE OF FOLK MEDICINE TO CURE TOOTHACHE AND PREVENT TOOTH DECAY IN FINLAND AND ESTONIA Today, Finnish parents-to-be receive guidance on oral health at maternity clinics even before their child is born. An abundance of information is also available via newspapers, radio, television and the Internet. Although people know full well which foods, stimulants and lifestyles damage their teeth, tooth decay (caries) is an endemic disease, and its treatment is a major cost to both society and individuals. However, tooth decay is not the scourge of industrialised societies alone; rather, the aches and pains it causes have been deplored in texts ranging from the writings of classical antiquity to Finnish folk poetry. This study explores the use of folk medicine to cure and prevent toothache. The central theme is popular medicine as practised at home and in the domestic environment. The study spans from the 1750s to the 21st century, thus encompassing a period when no profession of medically trained dentists even existed. The research area covers Finland and Estonia, and the theoretical foundation is based on comparative research and hermeneutics. The primary research material has been obtained from archives which contain information on curing toothache, gathered through data collection, surveys and writing competitions. The research material also includes letters sent by Finns and Estonians in response to my newspaper advertisement requesting people to describe how they cure toothache at home. In addition, I examine the literature that has been available on oral healthcare and medical treatment, including laymen s medical and self-help books, medication guides, publications on medical plants and articles in professional journals, newspapers and magazines. This study demonstrates that the prevention of oral disease was effectively considered in past literature on medication. Dental decay is a disease that does not heal itself. The initially mild symptoms gradually get worse and become more frequent. As the disease progresses, its nature changes when the infection spreads to the jaw bone and an abscess is developed there. This study shows that people used to know about the many different types of toothache and could choose ways to cure toothache that stopped the pain and made the tooth healthy until the following pain episode. The magical elements involved in folk medicine did not play a key role in curing toothache in the domestic environment. Instead, efficient instruments and substances were employed to target each stage of the disease. This was impossible with internal diseases, which caused equally severe pain. It is unlikely that any other disease has been treated in the home environment with as many instruments, substances and methods as toothache. The recurring pain did not stop until the tooth was removed or it disintegrated as a result of the strong remedies used. Finns and Estonians have had access to knowledge and training on oral health based on the science of dentistry since the 19th century. My research material and current knowledge indicate that the methods Finns use for dental care have improved over the past 100 years, albeit slowly. Preventive dental care used to begin in the same way as at present with pregnant women. They had to comply with certain rules to prevent permanent damage to their unborn child s developing teeth. Preventive measures continued immediately after delivery with the use of magical spells. The responsibility for children s oral health remains in the family. Modern dental experts have found it necessary to record this basic tenet in the Finnish Current Care Guidelines, but it was self-evident for our ancestors because no other type of dental care was available. This study on curing toothache explores an extensive and multidimensional field of popular medicine that has not yet been comprehensively charted. Keywords: folk medicine, toothache, magic, popular medicine, education, prevention
  • Vidberg, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Maria Vidberg University of Helsinki Place names in contact in Helsinki. Finnish elements in the use of street names in Swedish-language contexts This study focuses on Finnish elements in the usage of Swedish place names in Helsinki. The emphasis is on name usage and toponymic competence and the material consists of spoken and written data. The study uses socio-onomastic, folk-onomastic and contact-onomastic methods. The results from the study of name usage show that there are three categories in the use of Finnish elements, i.e. 1) the use of a Finnish name only, 2) the use of a hybrid name, and 3) the parallel use of a Finnish and a Swedish name. The study distinguishes between the use of Finnish elements in names as either actual or meta-linguistic, depending on whether the names are used as such or whether they are talked about, respectively. The study of toponymic competence builds on the findings in the study of name usage and investigates which resources Helsinkian name users utilize when they only know a Finnish name but need to refer to the place in question in a Swedish context. The status of Finnish elements in Swedish contexts is furthermore studied in order to find out what status the Finnish names have when they are borrowed into Swedish discussions. The study shows that the established models of contact onomastics need to be expanded with a category of unadapted name loans. On a theoretical level, the study shows the importance of a socioonomastic approach in modern name research and how this can be combined with contact-onomastic research. Since the study addresses both spoken and written data, it is methodologically possible to study name usage from different perspectives and in particular in context, which opens up for studies on how name users deal with the encounter of names in two languages exactly at the moment when the contact occurs. Keywords: name usage, toponymic competence, name contact, Swedish place names, Finnish place names, Helsinki, socio-onomastics