Faculty of Arts

 

Recent Submissions

  • Wagner, Patrick (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The doctoral thesis examines the philosophical-historical interrelations between boredom and leisure. It follows the central hypothesis that both boredom and leisure express in a mirrored way a reflexive relationship of the human being to the self and the world, sharing a connecting element in their ontological reference to the absolute, i.e., God or the divine. The topics are presented in a threefold structure: Beginning with the modern position of Blaise Pascal and focusing on boredom (›ennui‹), followed by the early Christian and late ancient view of the neo-platonic theologian and philosopher Augustine of Hippo, dealing with curiosity (›curiositas‹) as the dialectical counterpart to boredom, and concluding with the ancient perspective of Aristotle, which has leisure (›scholē‹) as its subject. This inverted chronological arrangement of the three authors and the subject areas is methodologically justified, referring to the effective historical and hermeneutical perspective of the thesis: Starting from the most recent and best-known position of understanding boredom primarily as a psychological phenomenon, it is shown that even this seemingly purely psychological phenomenon has a historical dimension and is ontologically based. From there on, the historical and philosophical references to Augustine’s curiosity are presented, to finally juxtapose the dualism of ennui and curiositas with the psychological, historical, and ontological dimensions of leisure in Aristotle. Thus, the actual hermeneutic gain of the thesis consists in revealing the psychological, historical and, above all, ontological depth layers of boredom and leisure, which in particular broadens the view for the more recent philosophical discussions of the phenomena. Based on the three-stage structure of the thesis, several central results can be identified, which in turn stand in a holistic relationship to each other. Blaise Pascal’s Pensées, which contain the first philosophically profound examination of boredom, closely link ennui with the question of worldliness. Boredom in this specific context acts as mood-related evidence of an ontological dualism that draws a sharp distinction between the sensual world and the sphere of the divine. As a consequence of the apostasy of God, for Pascal boredom is precisely the expression of human worldly existence, even though this mode of being in most cases is suppressed by the means of distraction and diversion (›divertissement‹). In this sense, Pascal proposes an affirmation of boredom through which man orients himself towards the divine, creating ontological stability and establishing a relation to divine tranquility (›repos‹) without reaching it entirely. In this respect, boredom can be understood as a specifically transcendent mood that is essentially based on a dualistic conception of the world. The dialectical counterpart to this affirmation of boredom can be found in the phenomenon of curiosity (›curiositas‹), which is a central motif of the tenth book of the Augustinian Confessions and which can also be understood as an indicator of a dualistic division between the divine and the world. In the comparison of both positions, that of Pascal and that of Augustine, the philosophical-historical reference between a specific tendency of modern and early Christian late ancient thought emerges: The questioning and problematization of the human position within the world. The observed results lead to the conclusion that boredom in this specific context can be read as a form of unworldliness to which one can refer to as lingering in restlessness. It is therefore evident that boredom, in terms of the history of philosophy, has a genuine religious connotation and stems from the dualistic separation of man from God. In contrast to the interrelated perspectives of Pascal and Augustine, the Aristotelian position is characterized by fundamental ontological confidence towards nature, sensuality, and the world. This ontological trust subsequently has an impact on Aristotle’s assessment of the possibility of human tranquility and stability in the world itself. For Aristotle, leisure is a way of being that represents an ontological calmness in which something happens without something being intended. Leisure opens the space for theoretical life and, in doing so, it constitutes the relationship between man and the divine that is, concerning the aspect of worldliness, ontologically undivided. In contrast to the frozen restlessness of boredom, which exposes the ontologically absolute tranquility in its absence, Aristotelian leisure represents a resting in oneself, in which divine and human modes of being temporarily coincide. From an effective historical point of view, both boredom and leisure represent fundamental human forms of reference to the instance of the divine, aiming for some sort of rest and stability. The way they do this, however, is opposed to one another and depends on the ontological conception of the world they are embedded in. In this respect, it becomes clear that the two phenomena are closely intertwined with an ontological self-location of man within the world.
  • Leden, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This interdisciplinary thesis is the first more comprehensive study of girls’ book translations in Sweden and Finland. The study examines adaptation of the image of girlhood in girls’ books translated from English to Swedish and Finnish between 1945–1965. Girls’ literature and girls’ books are children’s literary genres about girlhood, about girls’ lives and what it means to be a girl in a certain historical context. Girlhood is depicted in relation to norms for how girls are expected to behave, which means that the girl protagonists often both confirm norms by adapting to the expectations of society and rebelliously challenge these norms. Translations of girls’ books are influenced by norms of girlhood, narrative norms, and translations norms. These result in adaptation, a translations practice where translations are adapted to the norms of the target context (the target culture and the publisher) and to the target audience, in this case young girls. The frame of reference is the polysystem theory, according to which all genres and literary works belong to the literary polysystem, a network of partly overlapping systems in which tensions arise between the center with higher prestige and the periphery with lower prestige. The objective of this study has been to analyze how the peripheral position of girls’ literature within the general literary polysystem and the internal relations between the center (Bildungsromane with higher status) and the periphery (series books with lower status) within the girls’ literary polysystem influences the amount and type of adaptation in girls’ books. The ways in which this peripheral position impacts the image of girlhood in the books is also examined. A further aim has been to analyze whether the Finnish girls’ book system has been influenced by the Swedish system due to Finland’s peripheral position in the Nordic translation system. The qualitative material consists of three Bildungsromane by L. M. Montgomery, Jean Webster, and Laura Ingalls Wilder, and three series books by Helen D. Boylston, Carolyn Keene (a pseudonym), and Helen Wells, as well as their Swedish and Finnish translations. These books represent the series that, according to my initial quantitative survey, were the most prominent among the girls’ books published in both Swedish and Finnish in 1945–1965 (52 books). To contextualize the material, a paratextual analysis of publisher correspondence and the covers and cover texts of the translations has been conducted. The analysis shows that the Nordic countries were a uniform system with Sweden and Norway at its center, as books and series came to Finland via these countries, and Swedish and Norwegian translations were used as source texts for three of the Finnish translations in my study. This interdisciplinary study has three methodological starting points for the analysis of the effects of adaptation on the image of girlhood. The primary descriptive translation studies method consists of a comparative and categorizing adaptation analysis, my linguistic method involves an analysis of semantic-pragmatic features and pragmatic language functions, and my literature studies method is a narrative analysis of character indictors in relation to gender stereotype schemata for masculine and feminine narration, which represent norm-confirming and norm-breaking narration. The results demonstrate that both target-oriented abridged translations and source-oriented faithful translations appear in both the Bildungsromane and series book material. Thus, the amount of adaptation does not correlate with the polysystemic position of the translation. This indicates that the polysystem hypothesis that translations with a peripheral status are likely to be target-oriented is not supported within the girls’ book genre. Instead, adaptation occurs according to commercial, didactic, and pedagogical norms regardless of the polysytemic position. In the adapted translations, the image of girlhood is influenced by downplaying of character traits associated with norm-breaking girlhood, and by an increase of plot-oriented narration, which is the norm within children’s literature.
  • Rouhikoski, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation examines the variation of directives (in the broad sense, including all kinds of control acts) in Finnish service encounters. Directives can be manifested as various grammatical constructions, e.g. imperative, interrogative, or a zero-person clause. The study is based on three major research questions: 1) Which contexts of use are typical for each grammatical construction? 2) Which factors contribute to the choice of a directive construction? 3) How can the variation of directives be studied from a sociolinguistic point of view? The data consist of 11.5 hours of video-taped service encounters in Finnish Social Insurance Institution (Kela) offices, 131 encounters in total. Focus lies on the employees' directives to their clients: 670 tokens of request, instructions, or advice. While the theoretical framework is interactional sociolinguistics, also conversation analysis is employed in the fine-grained analysis of the ongoing interaction. The analysis shows that each directive construction has a typical environment of use. Imperatives are usually found when the directed action is straightforward and unproblematic. Furthermore, they are often responsive to something that the client has said or inquired earlier. Zero person + modal verb constructions, in turn, are used in more contingent contexts. They typically involve disalignment, imposition, or an action that is previously undiscussed and therefore unprojectable. Once the variation in the local, interactional level has been examined, the analysis shifts to the macro-level, discussing the variation in relation to the macro-level sociolinguistic variables (e.g. age and gender). This analysis reveals some novel correlations: the use of imperative decreases while the client's age increases. 2nd person modal verb phrases, in turn, are mostly directed to the youngest clients who, based on the data, may not yet have very much practice in managing their social insurance matters. Therefore the employees have to highlight the client's own activity and involvement. Both local, situational factors (such as projectability and contingencies) and long-term, macro-level factors (e.g. age) prove to be meaningful in explaining the variation of directive constructions. As it turns out, the long-term factors are often intertwined with situational factors – for instance, the client's high age may indicate more contingencies with granting the directive. The dissertation provides new insights into the use of grammatical constructions as directives in Finnish. It brings together the sociolinguistic and the conversation-analytic perspectives by showing how the macro-level sociolinguistic variables can be integrated into the analysis of interaction. It also suggests that sociolinguistic factors have an impact on variation in the pragmatic level and broadens the scope of sociolinguistics towards syntactic and pragmatic variation.
  • Hiltunen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis is about awareness of change in music, as well as future-oriented thinking, and their role in the creative actions and rationales of pop songwriters. My aim is to build an understanding of foresightfulness in the context of creating pop music. I analyse the ways in which pop songwriters relate to changes in music and music trends, and their attempts to foresee alternative musical futures or to influence them. In addition, I investigate the conceptions, values and beliefs of pop songwriters that relate to trend-spotting and future-oriented thinking. The research materials for the study consist of eight (8) interviews with Finnish professional songwriters in the field of pop music as well as three (3) field observations and the related documentation of songwriting sessions at international songwriting camps known as Song Castle and A-Pop Castle in 2015, 2017 and 2018. The resulting ethnographic research data are subjected to directed content analysis. The concepts directing the analysis derive from futures studies: foresight, future consciousness and attitudes towards the future, as well as from sociological concepts applied in studies of popular music, such as space of possibilities. On the theoretical level my study is built on systematic or confluential approaches to creativity. I investigate the creation of pop music as a psychological, social and cultural action, and domain-specific future consciousness as a component of creativity. More specifically, I bring popular music studies, futures studies and creativity studies together in the context of songwriting, examining foresightfulness as an ability, attitude or action that enhances or restricts creativity and thereby broadening current understanding of the concept. From this perspective, my study contributes to dismantling the opposition between creativity and commerce. My main finding is to show the significant role of future-oriented thinking and foresightfulness in pop songwriting, aspects that are scarcely recognised and explicated by the writers. The “targets” of foresight range from other songwriters and artists to expectations of the audience and of gatekeepers. Music trends are observed individually, but knowledge about them is shared with colleagues, and in this way emerging trends are strengthened collectively. Foreseeing and influencing the future are often inseparable. I also demonstrate how several contradictory conceptions, beliefs and values relate to, or influence foresightfulness among songwriters: their thoughts about the dynamics of change in music, audience expectations, individual abilities and being a songwriter, as well as being a pioneer or maintaining autonomy and honesty. The songwriters struggled with foresight, not least because of the new modes of consumption and fragmentism in musical trends. Some of them felt as if they were losing honesty in their creative process in attempting to follow trends, whereas for others, following and anticipating trends inspired them in their work.
  • Vulovic, Marina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis examines Serbia’s changing approach to dealing with the Kosovo question since 2012. The claim of Serbia that Kosovo is an indivisible part of its territory has been anchored in the institutional framework of the country ever since the Kosovo war (1998-1999). Serbia’s attachment to Kosovo is not only an institutional matter, but is also woven into the cultural fabric of the Serbian political collective. It resonates with the Kosovo myth, the main element of which is the physical and symbolic claim to Kosovo. Since Kosovo declared its independence in 2008, countering Serbia’s claim to Kosovo, the Serbian Government has struggled to accommodate this state of affairs with its EU integration process guided by the incentive of the Brussels dialogue for normalizing relations between the two entities. I study the Brussels dialogue between Serbia and Kosovo as a dynamic process of contestation of meaning. It is conceptualized as a contact zone that both enables and constrains the re-articulations of the constitutive Other, either as an enemy (through antagonism) or as an adversary (through agonism). The thesis particularly inquires how the Serbian Government led by the Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) since 2012 has re-articulated Kosovo within the Brussels dialogue. It locates two central moments in this process: adopting the Brussels agreement in 2013, and re-introducing the idea of partitioning Kosovo along ethnic lines as a solution to the Kosovo-Serbia dispute in 2018, both of which are understood as myths. The theoretical and methodological contribution of the thesis lies in the re-conceptualization of “myth”. While existing studies of myth in the context of Kosovo-Serbia relations have been focusing on the Kosovo myth, this thesis considers the Kosovo myth as a sedimented discourse, guided by a discourse theoretical lens. This discourse has turned into a social imaginary in Serbia, a horizon of meaning that defines and constrains what is said, felt, and otherwise practiced concerning Kosovo. The social imaginary structures the “Kosovo is Serbia” discourse based on Serbia’s physical and symbolic claim to Kosovo, which is deeply rooted in the political and cultural life in Serbia. In 2018, it was re-articulated into the idea of partition for Serbia to retain its claim to Kosovo. Making a claim to only a portion of the territory, Northern Kosovo, the partition leaves outside of contestation the “mythologically” laden central and Southern Kosovo where the sites that embody the Kosovo myth, the Serbian medieval monasteries, are located. A deconstructive reading of the Kosovo myth developed in this thesis reveals that the main discursive element that connects the Kosovo myth, the Kosovo social imaginary, and the idea of partition is territoriality. The thesis argues for a distinction between an ontological and empirical dimension of myths. As an ontological concept, myth specifically relates to an attempt to repair a dislocated discourse and potentially embodies an alternative political project that promises to fix what is broken. As such, myths do not only relate to past events, such as most of the scholarship on national myths would conceptualize it, but also to anchoring future but not yet realized political projects. Hence, the category of myth in this thesis is reserved for the Brussels agreement, and the idea of partition, since both emerged from dislocations as means to repair them. Developing a novel approach, the thesis highlights specifically temporal, material and affective dimensions of myth for discourse-theoretically inspired scholarly discussions to stress the necessity of myths for meaning-making. Myths are generated whenever we attempt to escape the constraints of a dislocated discourse by imagining alternative orders. Empirically, the thesis examines how the “Kosovo is Serbia” discourse becomes dislocated through Kosovo’s declaration of independence and is “repaired” by the two myths that resulted from the Brussels dialogue. Hence, this thesis also makes an empirical contribution to the field of Southeast European studies, by introducing a discourse-theoretical, performative/material, and affective dimension in mythmaking. Apart from operationalizing the elaborate theoretical framework I developed, the empirical aim of the thesis was to demonstrate that even the most entrenched discourses, such as the “Kosovo is Serbia” discourse, are not resistant to change under the right circumstances. In the empirical analysis, the thesis focuses on the various representations of Kosovo in Serbian political discourse and draws attention to the re-articulation of political frontiers. It argues that the main transformation relates to the question of who constitutes the political “us” and “them”, recognizing a clear shift from the agonistic discourse in 2013 (which emphasizes the “sharing” of Kosovo with Kosovo Albanians) to an antagonistic discourse in 2018 (which emphasizes a total separation between the two ethnic groups as the only solution). In this analysis, two central nodal points emerge: “territory” and “the people”. The thesis demonstrates how these elements have been reconstituted over time and how this process enabled the deepening of the divide between Serbia and Kosovo, which could have implications for the Brussels dialogue and for Serbia-Kosovo relations more broadly..
  • Möbius, Michael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The field of computer assisted language learning (CALL) is a polarising issue with many demands and expectations directed towards it. Its importance was raised during the 2020/2021 Covid pandemic. The resulting need for distance courses and the swift progression in university grammar presence courses raises the need for additional computer-based materials to enable self-directed learning. As existing exercise material often leans towards behaviouristicly founded drill exercises, new forms of CALL exercises need to be developed. The main objective of the study is to lay the foundations for a comprehensive learning platform for Bachelor students of Germanic philology in Finland. This study examines curricular goals, derives designing principles for a pedagogical grammar, which eclectically includes different streams of grammar such as traditional (school) grammar, dependency grammar, functional grammar, case grammar and some concepts of construction grammar. Furthermore, attention is needed regarding the grammar description, selecting “prototypical” examples to illustrate the use and the communicational purposes of the structures, thus enabling inductive-explorative learning. To study autonomously, students need to be familiar with learning strategies and techniques to enable self-regulated or autonomous learning in the future. The needs of different types of learners with different learning strategies must be accommodated in the grammar exercise material. The focus lies on designing complex learning tasks instead of single, stand alone exercises. The use of computer and the Internet in foreign language training is the subject of part III in this study. The teaching potential of basic CALL and the more developed stage of ICALL (Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning) are being explored. An Online learning platform for grammar should make use of the latter in the form of Intelligent Language Tutoring Systems (ILTS), as they provide linguistical analysis of learner input via Natural Language Processing (NLP), instead of string-matching and error anticipation algorithms we find in simple CALL-exercises. ICALL also enables meaningful corrective feedback. The use of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) and Data-Driven Learning (DDL) aims at the practical use of the acquired knowledge, for instance by means of group research and metacommunication as in Language-Related Episodes (LRE). Based on a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative error analysis of written texts by students in the target group (part II), distinct areas of focus for the intended ILTS could be derived. Practical issues as to the overall design of the learning platform, such as alternative ways of content presentation complete this study.
  • Heinonen, Tuuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this thesis is to study the material and social world of medieval and early modern (c. 1200–1650 AD) villages in Uusimaa, Southern Finland. This is done by focusing on five case studies, which are all extensively excavated medieval and early modern villages: Mankby, Köklax, Mäkkylä, Mårtensby, and Västersundom. The material of this study consists of both archaeological material and written sources concerning the villages. These sources are used to study the different inhabitants living in the villages and their material culture, including both buildings and objects. The source material is also evaluated to discuss, how written sources and archaeological material can best complement each other when the medieval and early modern countryside is the focus of the research. Based on the five case studies, the social life and material life in the villages are studied from different perspectives. The results of the study show that the medieval villages in central Uusimaa were a varied environment. The villages were established by both Finnish- and Swedish-speaking groups during the Early Middle Ages. They were dynamic environments where the building practices, use of space, and used objects changed throughout the studied period. The material culture of the villages was varied, and besides objects manufactured locally, imported items were used regularly. The villagers not only used imported tableware and personal items related to clothing for practical reasons, but also to communicate and negotiate their social position and identity. Besides agriculture, many villagers gained their livelihoods from varied sources, like handicrafts and trade. Because of the small number of towns in Uusimaa, peasant tradesmen who sailed regularly to Tallinn were important for the economy of the area, and they also transmitted material and social influences through their extensive networks. Besides the peasants, there were likely noblemen and soldiers living in the villages. In addition, the villagers included a large number of people like women, children, and servants, who are not easily visible in either archaeological or historical sources. The five villages offer a good example of the varied nature of medieval and early modern villages as both material and social environments. By combining both archaeological and historical data, a more nuanced picture can be gained of the different sides of rural life than by using just one type of source. Although there are challenges in using the different types of sources together, the results are good, and in the best cases the life history of single farms can be studied in detail. The examples studied in this work clearly demonstrate how a detailed study of archaeological and historical sources offers new insights into the material and social world of medieval and early modern villages.
  • Pesonen, Petro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The focus of this dissertation is on eastern Fennoscandian Early, Middle and Late Neolithic pottery types and their chronologies. The study presents and evaluates the available radiocarbon dates connected with these types and builds a radiocarbon chronology with the help of Bayesian statistics, i.e. using model building to define the starting and ending boundaries for pottery type phases. The phases are also visualized through summed probability distributions of the radiocarbon dates. Birch bark tar used as a repair material and charred food crust in the pots themselves form the most reliable group materials for deriving radiocarbon dates and are furthermore directly connected to specific pottery types. Several error sources within the corpus of radiocarbon dates are evaluated, and the marine reservoir effect (MRE) is specifically considered problematic for charred crust dates. In the case studies, a MRE correction procedure utilizing stable carbon isotope values to signal the marine content of the crust is reviewed and then used to correct these dates. A salient issue of typology and chronology studies is the identification of the continuity and discontinuity of archaeological cultures, or rather the traditions and influences associated with and maintained by societies. In eastern Fennoscandia, two cases of rapid and widespread migrations now seem to be confirmed by aDNA-studies: those connected with the dispersion of Typical Comb Ware and Corded Ware. On the other hand, the slower dispersion rates and changes seen in other artefact cultures may have been caused by shared societal networks diffusing commodities at a slower pace. It is possible to study these types of cultural continuities, discontinuities, and contemporaneous trends with the help of Bayesian modelling of ceramic type phases. In this work, I have identified the following points of time that can be interpreted as times of disruption or disconnection: 1) the termination of pottery production in the northern parts of eastern Fennoscandia at the end of the Early Neolithic, 2) the end of Sperrings 2 Ware in the Early Neolithic, 3) the end of Jäkärlä Ware in southwestern Finland, 4) the end of Early Asbestos Ware in eastern Finland, 5) the arrival of Typical Comb Ware, and 6) the arrival of Corded Ware. On the basis of typological similarity and strong overlaps in the Bayesian models, it is also possible to identify points of continuity: 1) the continuity between Sperrings 1 and Sperrings 2 Wares; 2) the continuity between Typical and Late Comb Ware; and 3 & 4) the continuity after the Middle and Late Neolithic, after the time of Late Comb Ware and after Corded Ware. One of the main assets of Bayesian modelling is its flexibility, allowing models to be updated according to the accumulation of new data. Potential outliers within the corpus of radiocarbon dates can also be detected when larger amounts of data become available.
  • Taipale, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis examines how religious arguments, concepts and viewpoints were used as instruments to instruct soldiers and dehumanise enemies in the first English Civil War (1642-1646). I argue that religion had an important role in encouraging soldiers, enforcing military discipline and creating group cohesion and comradery. Furthermore, I suggest that religion was used to delegitimise the enemy and thus prepare the soldiers to fight their fellow countrymen in an efficient and bloody manner. The differences between the ways in which the King and Parliament understood religious warfare form the main argument of the thesis. The Royalist ministers and Puritan preachers had quite opposite views on the use of religion as a tool of war. Whereas the King’s clergymen underlined peaceful aspects of the Christian faith and merciful and compromising attitudes of its practitioners, the Parliamentarian chaplains thundered harsh words and black-and-white images of an eschatological battle between God and the anti-Christ, which left room for neither peace nor compromise. The Royalists took the nation’s sins on their shoulders, accepting God’s wrath and judgement and praying for the calamities to end with the passive submission of a martyr. The Puritans, by contrast, portrayed themselves as actively participating in Christ’s battles against the Devil as saints. They did not hesitate to frame the conflict in religious terms and use the martial aspects of the Protestant faith to advance their cause. I examine printed sermons and pamphlets to produce a comprehensive view on the public press and its significance in propagating these different ideas about the relationship between religion and war. The more radical, revolutionary approach of the Parliamentarian ministers and authors is evident from the beginning of the conflict, and I suggest that, even though the pinnacle of religious-martial education was reached when the New Model Army was formed in 1645, in itself it was not exceptional in its religious character compared to earlier Parliamentarian armies. The Royalist clergymen, for their part, were equally constant in combatting the sins of the King’s soldiers instead of preparing them to fight the war. Similar differences manifested in the dehumanisation of the enemy. On the one hand, the Puritan ministers stressed the judgemental, uncompromising work that they had to do in order to wash the nation’s sins away with blood. They juxtaposed the King’s men with the Catholic Irish, who had rebelled in 1641 and who had been very harshly treated both in publications and in battle. On the other hand, the Royalists were hesitant to condemn the Parliamentarians to an equal extent; they were rather trying to reclaim the Parliamentarians from their revolt back to the good graces of the King by offering mercy and pardon in exchange for repentance. The thesis re-evaluates the role of religion in the English Civil War by focusing on military preaching and publishing. In this way it contributes to the debates about the significance of religion in the political and societal landscapes of the period. Furthermore, I seek to show that religion was an important instrument of war, whose different uses by the Royalists and Parliamentarians played a part in how the conflict proceeded and culminated.
  • Lahdenperä, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This article-based dissertation is a discussion of the relationship between fiction and theory/philosophy as well as a philosophical reading of Finland-Swedish author Monika Fagerholm’s novel "Diva. En uppväxts egna alfabet med docklaboratorium (en bonusberättelse ur framtiden)" (Diva. The Alphabet of an Adolescence with a Laboratory of Dolls (A Bonus Tale from the Future), 1998). The central questions concern the relationship between theory/philosophy and literature: What role does theory/philosophy have in readings if scholars are not to apply them as theory in a methodological sense, i.e. as a predetermined framework? What does such work look like concerning "Diva"? The theoretical focus is on the thinking of Toril Moi, who argues for a renegotiation of the traditional relationship between literature and theory and/or philosophy. Moi’s primary criticism concerns the influence hermeneutics of suspicion, poststructuralism, and its deconstructive methods have had on the relationship between theory, philosophy, criticism and fiction. Instead, she proposes a reading which has a philosophical interest but which takes the literary text, its concepts and preoccupations, as its starting point. The dissertation identifies three key concepts in "Diva": language, corporeality and spatiality. These form the basis for a philosophical reading in which the concepts function as motifs in the novel, as well as a thematic, philosophical discussion on the role of narrative, literature and representations for the protagonist. This opens for a feminist context, and "Diva" is related to Judith Butler’s and Rosi Braidotti’s thinking. The second half of this study consists of five research articles, which show how the novel’s recontextualization of the universal subject as a teenage girl is a way to critically examine the cultural conditions and presuppositions of the subject. A central trait in Fagerholm’s fiction is identified: categories mix and coincide. This occurs on two levels. Firstly, concerning language, and corporeality in "Diva", the thematic and the textual coincide in such a way that both narrative style and the printed page verge on poetic expression – the flow of meaning is disrupted in both form and content. Secondly, space and place coincide and form an abstract, mental spatiality, which opens an exploration of norms and transgressions, of potential subjectivities.
  • Niskanen, Lauri A. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    A Hubbub of Phenomenon: The Finnish and Swedish Polyphonic Translations of James Joyce’s Ulysses explores James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922) and its Finnish and Swedish translations and retranslations as polyphonic intertextual processes. I call this new, experimental view of translation – presenting translation and retranslation as a polyphonic hubbub of voices, a choir of competing and supplementary comments on a source text – the Polyphonic Translation Model (PTM). Every translation is fundamentally polyphonic, as translation can never carry the source text over to a new target audience as such but must always rather represent the original text in its place in the new lingual and cultural context. In A Hubbub of Phenomenon, however, the focus is on translations of explicit cases of literary intertextuality and intermediality. The study construes the process in which translations and retranslations form a polyglot macrotext, in which the source text is commented on, reread, and rewritten. The question is approached through Gérard Genette’s notion of palimpsest: the source text and earlier translations are present “under the surface” of a new translation. The relationships between these texts are studied from the viewpoint of intertextuality. The study focuses on James Joyce’s Ulysses, a source text in which the implicit intertextual nature of all texts is made explicit through intertextual literary techniques such as pastiche, parody, and the musicalization of fiction. In my thesis, I study the way Joyce’s influential novel exists for Finnish and Swedish readers. The material of the study is the Finnish and Swedish translations of the book, which vary widely in their translation project and the horizon of the translators: Thomas Warburton’s Odysseus (1946/1993), Pentti Saarikoski’s Odysseus (1964), Erik Andersson’s Ulysses (2012), and Leevi Lehto’s Ulysses (2012). Comparisons between these translations and retranslations make the problematic of translating intertextual literary structure become clearly visible. Furthermore, much of the cultural and literary value bestowed upon Ulysses was originally “found in translation”, as Stuart Gilbert wrote the first major study of the book on the basis of his conversations with Joyce during the process of the first French translation of the book. In A Hubbub of Phenomenon I study how different translations re-create the intertextual material of Joyce’s Ulysses in a new cultural context. Literary translation is understood as a process, a polyphonic dialogue, in which various texts – the source text, its various translations into different languages, and different translations into a single language – act as agents. The polyphonic model is based on Mikhail Bakhtin’s notion of literary polyphony as well as the productive translation criticism of Antoine Berman. Berman sees first translations and retranslations as a continuous, self-correcting process. In Berman’s method, translations are analysed on the basis of the translating position, the translation project, and the horizon of the translator. Berman calls the norms and expectations that define translation in a certain culture and a certain time, and the translator’s relationship to this discourse, the translating position. The conception of what the first translator or retranslator sets out to achieve, the composite of the translating position and the demands of the task at hand, Berman calls the translation project, an articulated purpose. The translating position and the translation project together are what Berman calls the horizon of the translator, the horizon of understanding in which the translation is received. The study of the translations of Ulysses uncovers explicitly something usually implicit in the processes of translation and retranslation, but conversely the study of these particular translations also uncovers new aspects of Ulysses, and more widely the techniques of intertextuality employed in it: parody, pastiche, and the musicalization of fiction. In light of the focus on intertextual structure in the dissertation, the episodes analysed through close reading are episode 12, ‘Cyclops’ for parody, episode 14 ‘Oxen of the Sun’ for pastiche, and chapter 11, ‘Sirens’ for intermediality, namely the musicalization of fiction. For the analysis of episode 14, ‘Oxen of the Sun’, I have created a digital companion for the study, The Oxen of the Sun hypertext (OSH). This novel and experimental device, employing the methods of the digital humanities, works as a machine-assisted tool for the reader of this dissertation. It allows a more extensive and intensive analysis on how the hypertext of the ‘Oxen of the Sun’ episode refers to its hypotexts from the history of English prose, and how these imitations are conveyed in the four Finnish and Swedish target texts.
  • Lindh, Ilona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study focuses on the rhetorical resources and devices characteristic to travel narratives based on subjective experience. The theoretical framework is based on a dialogical view of language use and theory of narrative as rhetorical action. The analysis combines concepts of narratology and life writing studies with the methods of linguistic discourse analysis. The research material of the study consists of four texts by three Finnish authors. A short travel narrative called “Mamma ok” by Antti Tuuri is published in a collection of travel narratives Matkoilla Euroopassa (‘Travels in Europe’, 2011). His Bospor Express (2013) is a book-long literary travel narrative. Vanhan rouvan lokikirja (‘Old lady’s logbook’, 2004) by Kyllikki Villa is a travel journal by form, adapted to a published book. Afrikan poikki (‘Across Africa’, 2009) by Juha Vakkuri combines the telling of personal experiences with informative passages based on literary sources. Through these four texts, we get to see the rhetorical variety and potential of the travel narrative genre. The analyses show, that (i) temporal choices are rhetorically important as they define the position of the reader in relation to the narration. Temporality also affects the “I” of the text so that the protagonist is on the level of the story, while the reporting and evaluating narrator is on the level of discourse. Another central set of rhetorical resources is connected to (ii) intertextuality and contextuality which can be used to emphasize the narrator’s expertise and place the work in its literary tradition. These polyphonic resources may offer conversational positions to the reader. A third set of resources is (iii) the ways of representing spaces and landscapes in order to convey the traveler’s experiences to the reader. Spaces are often seen as surroundings for the traveler’s needs and interests. While spaces are experienced inside, landscapes are observed from the distance. A fourth set of narrative resources is related to (iv) the traveler’s personal encounters during the journey. The representations of the encountered are often based on some kind of categorizing, and the assumption is that the reader recognizes those categories at least partly. Some of the represented people have a more central role in the course of the narrative and they can be regarded as equivalent to characters in fiction, having synthetic, thematic and mimetic functions. The research reveals that travel narratives can activate or acknowledge the reader in various ways. In the context of 21st century travel and media cultures, the primary function of a travel narrative is not to deliver encyclopedic knowledge, but to emphasize the tellability of personal experiences and observations, and their interpretations. The narratives accentuate both particular and typical aspects of the journey. The narrator’s authority is built on the ability to report, evaluate and contextualize. Keywords: non-fiction studies, travel writing studies, life writing studies, Finnish language, Finnish travel writing, narrative theory, narratology, narration, rhetoric, discourse studies, text analysis
  • Alyukov, Maxim (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation focuses on how Russian TV viewers make sense of the news in the context of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. It is based on focus groups with TV viewers and borrows the conceptual apparatus of political communication, psychology, and political science to analyze three separate domains of news processing under an electoral authoritarian regime: the formation of political opinions based on television news, the use of heuristics to evaluate the credibility of TV news, and the use of a range of information sources, both offline and online, in a high-choice media environment. Based on the existing literature, this study relies on the premise that citizens under authoritarian regimes lack incentives, cognitive tools, and opportunities to substantively process news and investigates how these three features are reflected in the political psychology and news processing of TV viewers. First, this study contributes to the literature on news processing under electoral authoritarian regimes. While scholars have identified numerous factors which affect how citizens (dis)trust news in authoritarian contexts, the role of political engagement in news processing is rarely taken into account in the analysis of electoral authoritarian regimes. My findings suggest that crucially affects how citizens make sense of the news. I find that a minority of focus group participants are politically engaged and rely on consistent political schemas to make sense of the news and demonstrate signs of consistency bias. Most participants are politically disengaged. They rely on the ideas which are more accessible in memory, contain both criticism and approval of state policies, and support the authoritarian equilibrium by being unable to articulate consistent opinions. Second, this study contributes to a better understanding of the functioning of low-information rationality under an electoral authoritarian regime. Scholars assume that in dealing with the news and political information, TV viewers rely on a wide variety of heuristics which are drawn from both daily life and the political environment. However, the literature on how citizens use heuristics outside democratic contexts is limited. I find that in dealing with the news, TV viewers prefer to rely on common sense and cultural stereotypes because political and media institutions under an electoral authoritarian regime are not seen as independent and authoritative. Finally, the study contributes to a better understanding of how the development of high-choice media environments affects news processing outside of democratic contexts. I find that politically engaged participants often find information which fits their pre-existing preferences demonstrating signs of selective exposure. Participants who are less politically engaged participants rely on TV news in combination with news aggregators to simplify information search. Since Russian news aggregators include information which is not different from TV news, this synchronization verifies the credibility of TV news. While the original concept of the personalized filter bubble is based on the complex interaction between individuals’ preferences and algorithms, I identify the orchestrated filter bubble effect which is based on the agenda of state-controlled television. Imposed in top-down fashion by the state, this filter bubble effect is used to reinforce the messages of the state-controlled television rather than citizens’ individual preferences under an electoral authoritarian regime.
  • Ortiz-Nieminen, Oscar (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation examines changes in the perceptions and practices of architectural space in the context of the Lutheran sacral building in Finland from the 1900s to the mid-1960s. The topic was approached by studying multifunctional churches completed in Helsinki and its surrounding areas. In addition to a chapel, these hybrid buildings also contain other types of facilities, such as parish halls, club rooms, gyms, offices and employees' apartments. Nearly 40 Lutheran multifunctional churches were built in the Helsinki metropolitan area between 1900 and 1965. Both the temporal evolution and the development efforts associated with the building type have been examined in the light of six main case studies: the Betania (‘Bethany’) City Mission House (now known as the Betania Community Center) in Punavuori and the Kallio evangelical meeting house (now known as the Chapel of the Sacred Heart), both completed in the early 1900s; the Töölö Parish Hall (nowadays Church) and Saint Paul’s Church in Vallila, both built in the early 1930s; and the parish centers of Munkkivuori and Tapiola, both erected by the mid-1960s. The methodology used in this study is based on a close comparative reading of various research materials, such as buildings, drawings, written documents, newspaper clippings, memoirs and photographs. The research method was harnessed to closely reconstruct contemporary perspectives on the definition, design, execution, and everyday use of multifunctional church buildings. Theoretically, the dissertation relies on French theories of space, where the societal dimensions of spatial production are emphasized. Thus, space is defined as a physically, mentally, and socially conceived process. The analysis highlights the interconnections of the functional-structural goals of the multipurpose church building and categories of gender, class, age and language group. One of the key concepts used in the dissertation is that of heterotopia, developed by Michel Foucault. With this term, Foucault refers to a lived utopia, a special site or place where the prevailing social orders are reflected either directly or inversely. From the point of view of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the multifunctional church building became a transformative instrument of internal renewal denoting the ability of Christianity to adapt to the ideological challenges and utilitarian requirements of the modern world. From the users’ perspective, the building type expanded and diversified the spectrum of religious practice. Architects, who relied on modernist design principals that emphasized the functional separation of spaces, were generally resistant to the concept of the multipurpose church building.
  • Bennett, Eleanor (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    During the Neo-Assyrian period (approximately 934-612 BCE, based in modern Iraq) the annals and royal inscriptions of several kings mention women with a curious title: ‘Queen of the Arabs’. These women have been included in previous discussions regarding Assyrian interaction with the ‘Arabs’, but a full investigation into their roles as rulers has been lacking. This is what this dissertation seeks to answer: what were the roles of the ‘Queens of the Arabs’ during the Neo-Assyrian period? The reason for no prior traditional Assyriological research into these women is due to a very small number of texts. As Assyriology has traditionally been a text-based discipline, a corpus of just twenty-eight texts has not been seen as ‘worthy’ of a full investigation. This dissertation goes beyond the traditional approach, by incorporating gender theory and comparative methodology. A key heuristic tool in this dissertation is Michael Mann’s ‘IEMP’ model of power. This has identified three key areas where we can clealy see the roles of the ‘Queens of the Arabs’: military, economic, and religious roles. The most important finding was that the process of researching about ‘Arabs’ meant contending with two layers of misinterpretation. The first of which is the misunderstandings of modern scholars allowing modern stereotypes influence how they write about ‘Arabs’. The second is that the ancient sources themselves do not seem to know who or what they refer to when they discuss the ‘Arabs’. This has resulted in a discussion based on these women as individuals, not as a group. We do not know if they all ruled the same population group, and so they may have all been rulers of different cultures. We see Samsi, Teʾelḫunu, and Adiye in positions of military leadership, and Samsi was potentially even present on the battlefield. Zabibê, Samsi, and Tabūʾa all exhibited the ability to control either resources or access to the networks that transported these resources. And finally, Teʾelḫunu likely had a religious role of some sort as part of her leadership duties, but we do not know what that was. None of these women appear in all of the chapters, and as such should be discussed as individuals.
  • Philippova, Nailya (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation describes Amri Karbi, a language that has not received much attention in the past among linguists. This grammar is the first comprehensive and holistic description of the Amri Karbi language, which is a crucial step for the language community and their self-identity. Amri Karbi, also known as a variety of Karbi or Mikir is a Trans-Himalayan/Tibeto-Burman language spoken in scattered villages in the states of Assam and Meghalaya of North Eastern India. The Amri Karbis are agriculturalists, but at the same time some community members also practice hunter-gathering. Some Amri Karbi villages, especially those that are near or inside Guwahati, the capital of Assam, have shifted to Assamese, the state language of Assam. The vitality of Amri Karbi becomes gradually stronger as one moves away from Guwahati and further into the hills. The majority of the population in those areas are bilingual or multilingual; but other languages, like Assamese, English and Hindi are usually acquired through education. This grammar description is based mainly on data collected by the author during the fieldwork. There were three field trips in total, one was a two-year long stay in the area from 2013-2015, followed by two short trips in 2016 and 2017. Besides that, the main language consultant for the grammar visited Helsinki twice to work on the grammar. The theoretical approach for writing this grammar has been framework free but it has been guided and inspired by typological literature. The Amri Karbi phoneme inventory includes 23 consonants and 5 full vowels and two marginal vowels. Amri Karbi is a tonal language, with three tones, low, medium and high, which exhibit low functional load. Amri Karbi is a verb final and agglutinative language with more suffixes than prefixes. Verbs especially may be stacked with numerous suffixes, but a verb stem with a negative suffix may alone function as a predicate. The most frequently occurring morphemes are the general possessive prefix a- and the nominalizer ki-. These prefixes have a wide range of functions that include nominal modification and clause subordination. What is peculiar to Amri Karbi is that the personal names carry gender suffixes -po/-pe. Amri Karbi also has definiteness markers that intersect with gender, evaluative and plural meanings. Most of the adjectival functions are covered by adjectival verbs that convey property or state. As modifiers these verbs are nominalized and then often marked with the possessive prefix a-. Amri Karbi uses numeral classifiers in order to count nouns. The counting system is based on both ten and twenty. Like many related languages, Amri Karbi makes a clusivity distinction in first person plural pronouns.
  • Pallasvirta, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation discusses the Finnish-American relations in Finno-Ugric linguistics and the development of the field in the United States from the Second World War into the 1960s. These academic relations are studied from the viewpoint of four Finnish linguists’ visits to the United States and the correspondence and events surrounding these visits. The study seeks to gain understanding as to why, when and how Finnish-American relations in Finno-Ugristics were formed and how they interrelated with the development of the field in the United States. To achieve this goal, the study traces the institutional history of the field in the United States from war-time language instruction to Cold War area studies and places the Finnish linguists’ visits in this larger context. In this study, the history of linguistics is approached from an externalist point of view, utilizing the broad contextualization of cultural history. The dissertation’s framework draws on histoire croisée, and by focusing on the reciprocal and asymmetrical nature of the relations, the study analyzes the various drivers and barriers that affect the formation and development of academic relations. The study is based on archival sources consisting of linguists’ private correspondence and institutional documents from American universities. The outset of Finnish-American relations in Finno-Ugristics was opposite to that of many other fields, as Finland was in the field’s international forefront while the United States was only beginning to build Finno-Ugristics as an academic field after the Second World War. The study shows how Finland subsequently provided expertise and publications to the newly established field in the United States. By examining the subject from institutional and personal perspectives, the entwined nature of these micro and macro levels is highlighted in the study. Furthermore, the study shows how profoundly factors both internal and external to science influenced the formation and development of Finno-Ugristics in the United States and the field’s Finnish-American relations.
  • Vihanninjoki, Vesa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis addresses the question of the role of everyday places in the constitution of the contemporary urban lifeworld. The focus of the examination is on the aesthetics of places, understood primarily as the experiential quality and character of places, and on the interconnections between the abstract experiential dimensions and more concrete functional and material dimensions inherent in the mundane places of our urban life. The theoretical framework of the thesis comes primarily from philosophical aesthetics, particularly from everyday aesthetics, and it is complemented by insights from the postphenomenological philosophy of technology and ecological environmental psychology. Certain ideas originating in human geography, planning theory, architectural theory and the theory of design are also applied. On this basis, the thesis introduces a postphenomenologically-oriented affordance-based framework for understanding the aesthetics of everyday urban places. The thesis builds on a Heideggerian place-based ontology that acknowledges “placedness” as the general condition for human experience and existence. According to the Heideggerian line of thought, there is an ontological difference between places as ontic phenomena and places as ontological structures, referring to the difference between places encountered within the lifeworld and places as constitutive of the lifeworld. As ontological structures, places cannot in principle be encountered and thus thematized as objects of conscious experience. This distinction is not acknowledged adequately enough in common accounts of place, including certain forms of place-based urban planning and urban development, such as various design-led place-making policies and practices. The thesis presents an alternative, affordance-based account of places and their experiential qualities that is helpful in understanding the speculativeness of the place-making project that operates at the level of “generalized subject” and “generalized place experiences,” thus ignoring the necessary idiosyncrasies inherent in every possible experiencing agent. According to the main argument, there are certain commonly recognized features in urban everyday places that make them “known” for many people from different backgrounds and with different experiential histories. Using the affordance-based terminology, such features comprise the canonical affordances of the places: they are the possibilities for use and action that first come into one’s mind when thinking of a well-known place in one’s home town. Canonical affordances are normative in that they can be perceived and utilized either correctly or incorrectly, and they manifest the “normal way” of relating to the affordances present in an environment. The canonical affordances inherent in our daily environments largely define the contents of our everyday life, as well as our understanding of our everyday life. However, normativity also prevails with regard to more nuanced and intricate place-based affordances, giving rise to the conventionalization of more personal and reference group-specific relations to a place and its experiential character. Thus the experiential character of an everyday place is, at least partially, the outcome of the processes of familiarization and canonization. Such an outlook on the aesthetics of everyday places highlights the role that certain lesser-known and unrecognized experiential dimensions of mundane places may have in the constitution of the contemporary urban lifeworld. The central outcome of the thesis is that the idiosyncratic and often not-so-obvious experiential qualities inherent in the most familiar environments and places are crucial when looked at from the viewpoint of comprehensive well-being, thus forming a subject that requires more attention when trying to enhance the sustainability of our urban life-form from an all-encompassing perspective.
  • Hyvönen, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Discussions on care of the self have intensified in Finland over the last thirty years. Self-care discourses are produced, for example, in public discussions in which individuals are motivated to become more responsible for themselves under the assumption that the weakening welfare society is no longer able to support each and every individual through difficult times. Concurrently, ideas about caring for and nurturing the self have increased in commercial value. Employers and numerous commercial actors have started to define the proper way to care for the self and to offer individuals means of self-care. For instance, the promotion of mindfulness exercises to deal with work-related stress, various diets as enhancers of physical activity, and the shaping of personal attitudes in response to increased insecurity in the labor market are ways in which individuals are being challenged to shift their gaze to their bodies and behaviors, and shape them to fit the new demands set by working life. Thus, self-care is not a single, undivided social movement, but the site of a struggle wherein disagreements are constituted between interest groups representing different conceptualizations of the proper care of the self. This dissertation focuses on how men think and talk about their practices of work-related self-care, and the norms and expectations placed on men’s work-related self-care. The first empirical dataset of my study consists of interviews with men regarding their conceptualizations, perceptions, and memories of work-related self-care. The second dataset consists of media data from texts addressing men’s work-related self-care. The context of the present study is post-industrialized working life in Finland, where men’s job opportunities lie increasingly in the knowledge-intensive sector, social services and healthcare, and service-based jobs. The changes in the labor market and the ethical deliberation on self-care in both public discussions and workplaces problematizes those masculinities that have traditionally been idealized in the Finnish socio-cultural context. Many men no longer identify with, and are not expected to identify with, the way of being a man characterized by an ethos of surviving alone, a suspiciousness towards authorities, and a reluctance to monitor one’s own health status and emotions. In line with recent theoretical discussions in critical studies on men and masculinities, my study adopts the concept of hybrid masculinity to depict men’s incorporation of performances and identity elements previously associated with various femininities. By adopting Michel Foucault’s concept of care of the self, the study addresses self-care as a practice that is enabled and constrained by institutions and norms. Theoretically and methodologically, the dissertation draws from poststructuralist theorizations. The results indicate that contemporary men identify with masculinities that include performances and behaviors previously associated with femininities. The participants in my study conceptualized their bodily and mental health as partly imperfect and malleable material, which they wanted to and were able to shape and refine. They associated their way of participating in working life with genderless worker citizenship, in which self-reflexivity, adaptability, and responsibility for the productivity of one’s work are the guiding principles in life. Concurrently, the men in the study aimed to maintain their personal health and wellbeing as well as a balance between work and non-work. As a part of their self-care, they expressed a desire to heal from traditional masculinity. This means an intention to abandon the positive male identity achieved through success at work and sacrificing oneself for work. The media addresses work-related self-care in a way that reproduces persistent discursive interrelations between men and paid work. Media texts present self-care aimed at maintaining or increasing work performance in a favorable light. Personal wellbeing is subordinated to workplace productivity in media texts. The masculinities present in the speech of the participants and the idealized masculinities produced by the media have been hybridized, albeit based on different aspirations and problematizations. The participants prioritized their personal wellbeing and the meaningfulness of their lives in ways that escaped the external pressures placed on them. In contrast, the concerns and aspirations voiced in the media highlighted the idea that men should focus purely on their abilities to work effectively, avoid illness, and aim to prolong their careers. My study reveals tensions in the contemporary developments of masculinities in relation to both men’s health behavior and their ways of participating in working life.  
  • Eskola, Ksenia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study examines the encounter between Finnish and Russian naming cultures (anthroponymy, naming systems and naming practices) in Finland and Russia from 2000 to 2018. It specifically focuses on the criteria for selecting names in Finnish–Russian families, name selections for native-speaking Russian children, official surname changes in Finland for Finnish and Russian name bearers and the use of Finnish given names in Russia. Socio-onomastics and name typology (structure) make up the theoretical and methodological framework of the study. In a broader context, the contact between the two languages is also part of the research. The materials comprise questionnaires and interviews involving criteria for name selection, documents on surname changes from the Names Committee of the Finnish Ministry of Justice, interviews and questionnaires on the use of Finnish given names in Russia and the given names of Russian children born in Finland. This doctoral study is composed of four articles as well as a summary which details the content of the articles and their findings. Articles I, II and III discuss given names and article IV covers surnames. Article I examines given names in bilingual Finnish–Russian families and discusses the criteria for selecting a name and the actual selections. It focuses on the main criteria for name selection in bilingual families: practicality and cultural ties. Article II continues with the investigation of given names, creating an overall picture of names given to native Russian-speaking children born in Finland. Article III covers Russia regionally and looks at the use and adaptation of Finnish given names in a Russian-language environment. The focus of article IV is on official surname changes made in Finland, changes in which the name bearer wishes to Fennicise a Russian surname and vice versa. I also discuss cases where an erroneous Finnish surname is corrected back to its original spelling in Russian. The summary provides a uniform overview of the study, along with its starting points, and pulls the findings of all the articles together. On a more general level, it considers what happens when Finnish and Russian naming cultures encounter one another in terms of naming systems as well as from the perspective of linguistic minorities. The study shows that along with the encounter between naming cultures, Finnish anthroponymy is becoming diverse in that Russian given names and surnames are entering its official nomenclature. In addition, Russian patronyms are being entered in the Finnish population register. These names, which are not found in the native Finnish-speaking population, are being counted as second or third given names as part of official Finnish nomenclature. Moreover, Russian unofficial names, those based on given names, an intrinsic part of Russian naming practice, can also be found in Finnish naming culture. As for Finnish given names, these are enriching the anthroponymy found in Russia, as Russian derivational suffixes are being used to form unofficial names under Russian naming practices.

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