Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Ahola, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study aims to understand and explain prehistoric funerary practices from the perspective of Finnish Stone Age hunter-gatherer and early pastoralist earth graves located in mainland Finland. These structures date primarily from the Late Mesolithic to the end of the Middle Neolithic (ca. 6800–2300 cal BC) and represent a unique challenge to archaeological research. This is because unburnt bone material — including human remains — along with other perishable materials are generally not preserved in the acidic soils of Finland. Accordingly, the only feature that marks a Stone Age earth grave is the presence of ochre or stained soil, sometimes together with grave goods typical for that period. This thesis presents a compilation of material remains and archival information from Stone Age earth grave sites and research material as a whole. This approach aims to demonstrate that, whilst Finnish Stone Age earth graves primarily lack human remains and other perishable materials, we can still gain important new insights into Stone Age funerary practices. Consequently, the objective of this thesis lies in systematically studying the earth grave materials, attempting to understand the rituals behind them, and using these data to interpret mortuary practices and cosmology. Based on the results described and discussed in this thesis, the Stone Age mortuary tradition in the Finnish territory represents a complex set of practices that includes not only the archaeologically visible earth grave tradition, but also other means of ritually disposing of the dead body. Accordingly, when we refer to Stone Age mortuary practices in the Finnish territory, we are not speaking of ‘inhumations in simple pit graves’, but of the material remains of complicated rituals that give meaning to and place death within the cosmology of those people. Indeed, the systematic archaeological research conducted in this thesis revealed that both adults and subadults were given earth graves, a tradition also known from better-preserved Stone Age cemeteries in nearby regions of Finland. Similarly, Stone Age people used — and did not use — certain artefacts or raw materials in their funerary practice, in clearly ritualised ways and, for example, to emphasise the identity of the community. When comparing the data in this thesis to other ritual practices known from that specific period and region, Finnish Stone Age earth graves seem to encode an animistic–shamanistic cosmology. Indeed, similar to, for example, prehistoric rock art sites, the Stone Age hunter-gatherer cemeteries are also situated next to topographic features possibly connected to supernatural powers, whilst the graves themselves were furnished with objects that might have been considered living. Simultaneously, an intentional connection to past generations was also sought by positioning new burials amongst older ones or by reusing old cemeteries. To conclude, even if the Finnish Stone Age earth graves primarily lack human remains and other perishable materials, the graves are not as poorly preserved as one might assume. On the contrary, when the earth grave material was investigated as a whole and subjected both to new analyses and theoretical understanding, we gain important new insights into Stone Age mortuary practices and cosmology.
  • Mercier, Stephanie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Over the period Shakespeare was writing there was a fundamental evolution in the meaning of “commodity” from something beneficial or serving one’s interest to something to be sold for personal profit. One important aspect of Shakespeare’s theatre is its ability to show how the new notion of “commodity” could also mean trading men and women. Commodity can, therefore, already be associated with “commodification” (OED 1974). Moreover, the process can be recognised across the social scale. The social values of early modern society as mirrored in Shakespeare’s theatre, rather than being an individual matter, are thus shown to be part of a collective process. As studies have shown, the most obvious early modern human commodity was the prostitute and, through association with the Southwark district of London, where Shakespeare’s works were being performed, so were the “hired men”, or players. Yet, Shakespeare’s theatre accords a degree of agency (the ability to make choices and act on those choices) to both, especially women, who were considered as belonging to men (either their fathers or husbands) or as prostitutes, but who are nonetheless given some space for manoeuvre by the playwright. The same cannot always be said for male characters when they come into contact with commodity. In Shakespeare’s plays, where commodity is often at the core of power relations, male authority is shown to be frail and corrupt; it becomes deviant and often makes male characters subservient to unjust laws or demonstrate dishonourable behaviour. In this thesis I show that once authority has been decentred by commodity for profit, it can be further destabilised across society. Shakespeare’s male characters are thus shown to be as objectified as their female counterparts. The phenomenon was already a familiar one within the army, since soldiers had for centuries been mere cannon fodder. It is significant that commodification also affects other male characters, who seem, at best, submissive dupes to commodity (they are either their own victims of commodity desire or gulls to commodity scams) or, at worst, commodified themselves. Even the soldier-king is not exempt from a substantial loss of agency in Shakespeare’s representation of England’s feudalistic culture being replaced by mercantilism. I approach the representation of commodity empirically and from a variety of theoretical perspectives: essentially Gender Studies, New Economic Criticism and Close Reading. I demonstrate that “commodity” was a textual and physical source of structural alteration that was itself undergoing important changes. I show that Shakespeare’s was a theatre of commodities regardless of status and rank. Moreover, Shakespeare approaches commodity from a variety of perspectives, ranging from the comic and light-hearted, to the serious, derisive, and tragic. Most importantly, as commodity becomes increasingly perceptible on stage, some characters lose sight of themselves while others better manage to adjust to the increasing predisposition for commodities. In short, I explore three essential questions: What does Shakespeare’s representation of commodity show us about early modern society? How does Shakespeare’s representation of commodity relate to wider significations of value? Why should we consider the issue on a societal rather than an individual level?
  • Koivisto, Nuppu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract: Electric Lights, Champagne, and a Wiener Damenkapelle: Ladies’ Salon Orchestras and Transnational Variety Show Networks in Finland, 1877–1916 In this doctoral dissertation, I examine the concert tours of ladies’ salon orchestras in Finnish cities from the 1870s to the First World War. These orchestras, which usually advertised themselves as ”Viennese” (Wiener Damenkapellen) and consisted of circa 10 to 15 musicians, were extremely popular in Europe at the turn of the century. They performed in urban hotels, restaurants, and cafés, where they entertained the customers by playing light, popular melodies. The orchestras’ modus operandi was based on international concert tours which could last for up to several months or even years. Thus, there were dozens of ladies’ orchestras performing in the larger Finnish cities – Turku, Viipuri, Tampere, and Helsinki – during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, where their performances formed a significant part of middle-class, urban entertainment. The aim of my study is to establish how the orchestras’ tours around the Baltic Sea region were organized, and what kind of a reception they received in Finnish cities. Special attention is paid to the musicians’ socioeconomic position, as well as to the orchestras’ touring routes, concert programming, and public image. The sources consulted consist mostly of newspaper clippings and biographical archival evidence, as well as photos, caricatures, literatury depictions and memoirs concerning the orchestras’ reception history. Methodologically, the dissertation draws on the traditions of transnationalism. The concerts of ladies’ salon orchestras in Finnish cities are examined as a part of late nineteenth-century cultural networks which transcended national and linguistic borders. I argue that the archetypical Viennese ladies’ orchestra may be analyzed as a cultural product which pervaded Europe in a relatively standardized form. In addition, the orchestras conveyed new musical trends from one area to another. Even though ladies’ salon orchestras have been previously studied especially in Sweden and Germany, they have not been considered within the context of of transnationalism. However, points of reference regarding the transnational perspective may be found in scholarly publications on the social and cultural history of music by both international and Finnish academics. My key argument is that the transnational nature of ladies’ salon orchestras as well as their role in cultural transfer was evident on four different levels in nineteenth-century Finland: the orchestras’ professional networks, their tour-based way of life, their choice of repertoire, as well as their public image. First of all, ladies’ orchestras developed as part of the institutionalizing restaurant and variety show entertainment, which was based on cross-border networks of artists and impresarios. Second, the model for ladies’ orchestras’ concert tours may be found in Central European traditions of itinerant family ensembles which saw musicians travel around Europe and the world. Third, ladies’ orchestras, via their daily concerts, disseminated new tunes and musical styles to their touring destinations. Fourth, the orchestras’ marketing strategies were based on national and regional attributes which were meant to evoke impressions of the cosmopolitan Vienna on the one hand and local musical traditions on the other.
  • Kinnunen, Heini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation provides an analysis of the uses of the concept of the public sphere in the works of three feminist political and social theorists: Nancy Fraser, Iris Marion Young, and Seyla Benhabib. My main argument is that Young, Benhabib, and Fraser all apply the concept of the public sphere as a mediating tool in taking distance to and building alliances with the Left tradition in the context of feminist debates since the second wave. Benhabib’s, Fraser’s, and Young’s discussions on the concept of the public sphere have been analyzed and confronted by many scholars. There are however no comprehensive, contextualized, or detailed analyses of the uses of the concept in their works, and my study is designed to do this. I argue that the negotiating of the Left tradition is a crucial and prevailing element of Benhabib’s, Fraser’s, and Young’s feminist argumentation and of their uses of the concept of the public sphere. In my analysis of my three theorists’ texts I have found four distinct expressions of this negotiation: Firstly, I argue that during the 1980s the concept of the public sphere starts to emerge as a tool of renegotiating Marxist tradition faced with its Critical, postmodern and socialist feminist critics. Secondly, in the discussions on the democratic and political role of civil society before and after the Cold War, the concept of the public sphere figures as a tool to take distance from the authoritarian expressions of political power but also from the un-critical valorization of the private market. Thirdly, the concept of the public sphere figures as a tool to negotiate the so-called shift from the politics of (social) equality to (cultural) difference in social and political theorizing and practice from the 1990s onward. Finally, I argue that the concept of the public sphere has a central role in both broadening the scope of “the political” as well as defending its limits and distinct features for both feminist and socialist movements. Taken together, the analysis of the uses of the concept of the public sphere provides a window to various debates within feminist political and social theorizing and brings out a common thread that runs through all these debates. The taking distance toward, holding on to, and reinterpreting elements of the Left tradition all figure in the feminist debates in which the concept of the public sphere is used in. At another level, the concept of the public sphere is involved in and interpreted differently in various discussions, and it is precisely these different debates that construct the concept of the public sphere and brings out previously unnoticed aspects of it.
  • Isolammi, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation focuses on the concept “1920’s musical modernism in Finland” and what it means in Väinö Raitio’s (1891–1945) orchestral works from 1921–1923 and their reception. The examined compositions are Fantasia estatica op. 21 (1921), Antigone op. 23 (1921–1922), Kuutamo Jupiterissa [Moonlight on Jupiter] op. 24 (1922–1923) and Fantasia poetica op. 25 (1923). The works were written for a full symphony orchestra and premiered in Helsinki in the early 1920s. Their style has often been referred to as modernist. The more detailed analysis focuses on the reviews these aforementioned works received at their premieres. The reviews are examined in relation to Raitio’s own writings, the context of the musical life in Helsinki in 1920s, the modernist traits on the works themselves, as well as the image written music history has established of Raitio as a neglected and misunderstood composer. The dissertation also includes an extensive biographical chapter, which brings out new material about Raitio’s compositions, his aesthetic principles and his life. The viewpoint of this dissertation is biographical and reception-historical (verbal), and the main methods used are close reading and comparative analysis. When examining the reviews of the premieres, the focus is on the special vocabulary the critics used when describing the works as modernist. Some of the words are now used in a slightly different way and have slightly different meanings. On the strength of the modernism-associated vocabulary, I have chosen the parameters – timbre, harmony, thematics and form – which I examine using music analytical methods. Besides biographical and reception history, other research approaches that have influenced this dissertation are microhistory and cultural musicology. The new or previously not-referred-to material I bring out in this study both corrects flawed or incomplete knowledge and elaborates on the previously established picture of Raitio’s aesthetic views and his life. The close reading and contextualization of the contemporary reviews also shows that the image of Raitio as a misunderstood composer is slightly flawed, and the reasoning behind it is based mostly on the modernist features of Raitio’s works, rather than the context.
  • Hämäläinen, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The Internet has changed several areas of our society and culture, including communication and its tool, language. The change of language has been studied from different points of view, but proper names have not received much attention. This thesis fills the gap by examining two name categories in the Internet: user names and level names. Theoretically and methodologically, the study is based especially on onomastics but also on several other disciplines, for example computer-mediated communication (CMC), game studies, digital culture, and drug trade and culture. The thesis consists of four research articles and an extensive summary. In many online communities, a user can create a personal user name, which makes them recognizable to other users. Article I makes an overview of user names in Finnish online communities, using a large corpus. The focus is especially on structure and the semantics of names. Article II studies user names of drug vendors on a global marketplace on Tor network. The article examines especially what kind of information and images vendors share and create of themselves in their names while building the trust that the online drug trade requires. Video games often consist of several spaces of play, which are called levels in this thesis. Article III examines the names of levels in a game called Minigolf, which was located on an online gaming community Playforia (Aapeli in Finnish). Special attention is paid to the principles of naming: what kinds of connections are there between the names and levels’ characteristics? Article IV continues examining level names in Minigolf from the point of view of memorability: what kind of names are easy or difficult to remember? Results of the empirical memory tests completed by game hobbyists show that memorability is influenced by the principle of naming, language and the length of the name, as well as the characteristics of the level itself. The summary part of the thesis evaluates the differences and similarities of user names and level names. The most remarkable common features are uniqueness, intertextuality, the influence of the English language, plentiful use of made-up words, and a somewhat carefree and playful attitude towards naming. The summary also presents the most important research question of the whole thesis: has the Internet changed the ways we give and use names? The answer is an equivocal yes and no. There are some characteristics in the Internet names that do not appear in the name categories of the non-virtual world. On the other hand, there are many resemblances, and some of them seem to be based on the models adapted from real-world names.
  • Hamunen, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Mannerless infinitives. Construction Grammar of co-eventive infinitive structures in Finnish dialects Markus Hamunen, University of Helsinki This thesis deals with certain Finnish infinitive structures roughly designating how something happens simultaneously to an event described by a finite structure (e.g. Keijo syö hotkien ‘Keijo gulps his food down’). The thesis consists of two parts: four distinct research articles studying separate infinitive structures, and a theoretical introductory part. The objects of research are the so called colorative construction (e.g. juosta jol-kottaa ‘s/he runs at a trot’ or ‘s/he jogs’), the (T)e-infinitive instructive (TEN-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottaen ‘s/he runs trotting’), the mA-infinitive adessive (MALLA-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottamalla ‘s/he runs (by) trotting’), and the mA-infinitive abessive (MATTA-structure, e.g. juoksee jolkottamatta ‘s/he runs without trotting’). The unifying property of these structures is that they all describe how something happens. In the colorative construction, this meaning is incorporated in the lexical semantics of the colorative finite verb (e.g. jolkottaa ‘to run slowly at a trot’). The other three infinitive structures are adjuncts of finite structures. The semantics of their adjuncthood concerns how the infinitive structure characterizes described events by the finite structure. The data in this study is based on approximately 6,000 clausal examples gathered from three distinct corpora: Lauseopin arkisto (LA, Syntax Archive), Digitaalinen Muoto-opin arkisto (DMA, Digital Morphology archive), and Suomen murteiden sanakirja (SMS, Dictionary of Finnish Dialects, in the alphabetical range from A to kurvottaa). The most crucial research questions in this study can be illustrated in: What kind of infinitive structures are the objects of research, and how do theoretical concepts and tools of cognitive linguistics, and especially construction grammar (e.g. Fillmore & Kay 1995), implement the description of objects in this research? First, in the analysis of corpus data, in becomes apparent that both the colorative construction and the infinitive adjuncts are polysemous. In the colorative construction this can be seen in the colorative features characterizing the events in question where they may be dealing, for example, with an actor, an action itself or something emerging causally from the action (e.g. sound, see the article Liike ja tapa). Accordingly, the polysemy of infinitive adjuncts is manifest in the fact that different grammatical factors between verbs and verbal structures (subject and temporal interpretations, hyponymy, causal relations and negation) have an effect on whether the event described by the infinitive structure is interpreted as manner, means, concomitant, method, or as something else attributed to the event described by the finite structure (see articles Juosten vai juoksemalla and MATTA-rakenne). Second, in this study, the application of construction grammar is twofold. On the one hand, it gives a description of constructional development of the colorative construction from the reconstructed Late-Proto-Finnic form to the modern Finnish (see article Kieliopillistuminen). On the other hand, the actual theoretical contribution in this study addresses the constructional character of infinitive adjuncts. This thesis gives an overall grammatical and semantic description for the object structures of this study. At the same time, it offers insight into an extremely challenging topic for any grammar model: adjuncts.
  • Jauhiainen, Tommi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This work investigates the task of identifying the language of digitally encoded text. Automatic methods for language identification have been developed since the 1960s. During the years, the significance of language identification as an important preprocessing element has grown at the same time as other natural language processing systems have become mainstream in day-to-day applications. The methods used for language identification are mostly shared with other text classification tasks as almost any modern machine learning method can be trained to distinguish between different languages. We begin the work by taking a detailed look at the research so far conducted in the field. As part of this work, we provide the largest survey on language identification available so far. Comparing the performance of different language identification methods presented in the literature has been difficult in the past. Before the introduction of a series of language identification shared tasks at the VarDial workshops, there were no widely accepted standard datasets which could be used to compare different methods. The shared tasks mostly concentrated on the issue of distinguishing between similar languages, but other open issues relating to language identification were addressed as well. In this work, we present the methods for language identification we have developed while participating in the shared tasks from 2015 to 2017. Most of the research for this work was accomplished within the Finno-Ugric Languages and the Internet project. In the project, our goal was to find and collect texts written in rare Uralic languages on the Internet. In addition to the open issues addressed at the shared tasks, we dealt with issues concerning domain compatibility and the number of languages. We created an evaluation set-up for addressing short out-of-domain texts in a large number of languages. Using the set-up, we evaluated our own method as well as other promising methods from the literature. The last issue we address in this work is the handling of multilingual documents. We developed a method for language set identification and used a previously published dataset to evaluate its performance.
  • von Boehm, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study focuses on variation in Finnish university students’ use of English verb forms and teachers’ assessment of such use. The goal of the study was to identify the nature and extent of variation in both students’ responses and teachers’ assessment of these responses. The study demonstrates that there is extensive variation in both students’ use of English verb forms and in teachers’ assessment of the forms. The data consist of students’ responses to a fill-in-the-gap test. The study comprised 319 students attending English courses at three Finnish universities in 2003-2004. In addition, 13 English language teachers at the University of Helsinki evaluated the level of acceptability of the students’ responses. The study was conducted by drafting a list of all the suggested answers and asking teachers of English to rate the answers with a four-point scale. After this, the responses were analysed with different levels of strictness. The criteria for this depended on how many teachers were required to judge an answer successful. The results indicate that the level of expected teacher consensus radically affected the results. The criteria applied in assessment have a critical impact on the impression created of the students’ proficiency. The range of variation among teachers mainly resulted from their different interpretations of event time and their reactions to spelling errors and to providing unconventional tense or aspect. Finnish, American and British teachers of English had negligible differences at the group level: the differences were caused by the individual norms the teachers followed. Reliance on only one teacher’s assessment of a student’s performance may create arbitrary results, and more teachers are needed for reliable evaluation, at least for high-stakes purposes. The results also indicate that although some students are skilful at providing the expected verb forms, many students struggle with the provision of any forms beyond the simple past. It seems that investment in communicative teaching practices, although beneficial for promoting students’ fluency in English, does not assist them in their attempts at greater accuracy. Some further attention to grammar would provide students with more options to express their message accurately, proficiently, meaningfully and intelligibly. Of the background factors, increased exposure to and use of English or additional study did not influence students’ skills in the use of English verb forms. Regardingschool and matriculation examination marks, only high marks predicted good performance in the test, while marks in the middle and low end of the spectrum were not reliable indicators of students’ ability to provide verb forms accurately. The findings imply that researchers, raters and teachers need to become more aware of the limitations of reliance on intuition alone in evaluating students’ language skills. Some parts of language use do not readily bend to existing norms. The degree to which teachers are likely to accept unexpected forms significantly contributes to how learners are treated in testing situations. While it is useful to attempt to harmonise testing practices, it is also important to acknowledge the fact that there is variation both in learners’ use of English and in teachers’ assessment of such use.
  • Vepsäläinen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study investigates the use of the Finnish particle “no”, its meaning and use in conversation, especially in answers to questions. The theoretical background of the study is in Interactional Linguistics and the method used was Conversation Analysis. The data consist of audio- and videotaped naturally occurring conversations. The majority are telephone conversations, both landline and mobile calls. Some face-to-face conversations were also analyzed. The study had two main goals. First, to show what the use of the particle “no” accomplishes in interaction. The second goal was to investigate a specific action, answers to questions, to see what “no”-prefaced answers do when compared to non-prefaced answers, and what that reveals about the answering system of the Finnish language. The study begins with a comprehensive overview of the sequential positions of the particle “no”, showing that it is used equally often in responsive turns and in transitions that guide or correct the on-going project. In both of these positions, the particle “no” implies that the turn or turn constructional unit (TCU) it is prefacing is relevant for the larger project that the turn is part of, and it either aligns or disaligns with that project. The “no”-prefacing of a response to questions shows the relevance of the response to the project in tandem with the form of the response, which can be minimal, clausal or indirect. The two direct responses, minimal and clausal, occur in answers to specifying questions and in answers to telling questions. In these contexts, the clausal “no”-prefaced answer aligns with the project of the question, whereas the “no”-prefaced minimal answer shows disalignment with the project. When responding to a telling question, the “no”-prefaced clausal answer is the predominant way of answering when the topic is offered as new. The “no”-prefaced indirect response is reserved for situations where there is a need to negotiate the matter that the question has brought up before possibly reaching a jointly constructed decision. These situations can either involve mutual planning or a challenge in the relevance of posing the question.
  • Pääsky, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract This study concentrates on the Dutch artist, Piet Mondrian, as a producer of a Neo-Plastic theory of art. My semiotic reading focuses mainly on one of his article series, Natural Reality and Abstract Reality (Natuurlijke en abstracte realiteit [1919-1920]), and acknowledges also the accompanying writings in the De Stijl periodical where it appeared, and a few photographs of Mondrian’s studio and motifs present in the paintings at the time when Mondrian wrote Natural Reality and Abstract Reality. Mondrian produces his ideas of non-figurative art in a way in which other external cognitive processes from science, certain esoteric streams, modern urban experience and popular culture, are to be taken as integral parts of the theory formation in his own text. This view elucidates the idea of creativity in a new way because it situates the artist’s individual activity within cultural knowledge and memory rather than just taking influences from it. I have reached these findings by relating Mondrian’s little-researched article series to the surrounding international philosophical, esoteric and technologizing cultures of the 1920s. Studying this relation in terms of significations has led to my study reflecting the paradigmatic and related meaning effects in contemporary philosophies and reflections, such as those of Henri Poincaré, Rudolf Steiner, Henri Bergson and Sigmund Freud. By reading the text as a fictive dramatic score my study relies on Roman Jakobson’s poetic function. Following in the lines of literary scholar Jørgen Johansen’s subsequent application of Charles Peirce’s semiotics this study reads Mondrian’s article series as the process of iconization; as a flow of images, as diagrammatic enactment and as metaphors of night and a stroll. To stage the route from ‘natural reality’ to ‘abstract, Mondrian gives to Natural Reality and Abstract Reality the flavour of being a form of logical inference applied by means of images. As a flow of images the text shows a stream of consciousness and, thus, the modern insight of perception, which differs from the traditional Kantian dualistic insight and the notion of the stable subject. The form of the text itself also represents meaning, which shows that Mondrian had literary ambitions. The aesthetic effect of the text as a diagram of many thematic oppositions and as the characters’ relations makes it a self-reflective icon of its own theme of modern consciousness. Metaphorically, the text presents the processual character of an artist’s creative thought as a night-time stroll, while developing the idea of Neo-Plasticism. Thus, there are definite Neoplatonic tenets in Mondrian’s text. This study shows that creative activity takes place not only in the processes of an individual mind but also by actively integrating and using cultural signs, such as the idea of evolution or the cultural text of the Euclidean derivative, the ‘point to line to plane’. By these kinds of ‘cultural artefacts’ Mondrian is able to conduct his own activity within and for the modern culture of the 1920s.
  • Björkman, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This doctoral thesis discusses the architecture of industrial communities constructed by forest industry companies from the perspective of cooperation and social networks of an architect and his clients between the two World Wars. The forest industry was the forefront of Finland’s rapid industrialization in the 1920s and 1930s. Success was manifested in the built environment. The main actor of this research is architect Wäinö Gustaf (W. G.) Palmqvist (1882–1964), who designed a considerable number of projects for Finnish industrial companies. In addition to the architect, the study also includes clients: G.A. Serlachius Oy and Yhtyneet Paperitehtaat Oy. The architect-client relationship was emphasized in the 1920s and 1930s as a personal relationship between Gösta Serlachius and Rudolf Walden. Serlachius and Walden are, along with Palmqvist, the ones I look at from the close range. More detailed research is focused on the Mänttä and Myllykoski mills. In both of these, the success of the forest industry's economic growth was – and still is – visible in the built structure and architecture of the entire community. Both are now valued as nationally significant built cultural environments mostly through their industrial history. In addition to economic growth, there were sociopolitical reasons behind building up the industrial communities. Forest industry companies struggled to restore peace after the Finnish civil war and to continue their production. I have described building the industrial communities as work where concepts of corporate social responsibility and welfare capitalism were connected. Besides the factories, the companies built housing, schools, churches and other social welfare amenities for the workers. It was a goal-oriented and guided construction where the idea behind the assignments given to the architect was to get the right, aesthetically high quality and beautiful community. In the study, architecture is linked to the political, economic and cultural contexts of time. This research connects Finnish industrial communities to the international models that first appeared in the United Kingdom, Germany and France and the United States. In this study, I refer in particular to the examples known as model communities. The communities have been designed with the ideas of urban design of the early 20th century, such as a garden city and the ideals of aesthetics. The research complements the art historical perspective in the history writing of forest industry.
  • Jurkiewicz-Rohrbacher, Edyta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The objective of this contrastive research is (1) to determine the rules of correlation between the language-specific category Polish Verbal Aspect (PVA) and the elements of Finnish clause, whilst (2) re-examining the semantic scope of PVA, and (3) improving the definition of the cross-linguistically valid comparative concept of aspectuality. The investigation is empirical, and based on 900 Polish-Finnish clauses compiled in the form of a bidirectional parallel corpus stratified in three samples according to text types. The corpus is annotated on three levels, following the scalar model of temporality: the morphosyntactic and semantic clause-internal levels, as well as the clause-external level, including such elements as taxis and the quantificational-pragmatic context, temporally located (existentially quantified) situation, and generic or generalising interpretation (universal quantification). The reasoning in the study is mostly inductive. In contrast to the previous studies on aspect, the work is organised bottom-up. The data is approached quantitatively, using state-of-the-art methods. First, the descriptive statistics of temporal markers in the corpus are discussed. Afterwards, the data is summarised in a statistical model and visualised in a hierarchical cluster structure. Particularly interesting correlations (e.g. tense-aspect or case-aspect) are further validated with the random-forests method. The quantitative results yield a two-layered model of aspectuality, distinguishing between two levels: the outer, temporal-deictic level and the inner level related to the notion of change in time. Thus, the study confirms the validity of multi-layered concepts of aspectuality as previously postulated. As to language-specific results, PVA correlates with Polish and Finnish tenses within the outer, temporal-deictic layer. This interaction involves the third element – temporal quantification. The inner layer is realised in Finnish in the predicate-argument structure, and therefore, the Finnish argument case-marking is the closest correlate of PVA. Here the most important systematic opposition are between the lative and essive semantic cases (including Translative and Essive), and between the Total and Partitive type of object. The notion of change which is the semantically relevant factor is treated as gradable opposition (next to the traditionally used polar and equipollent oppositions), and therefore, the formal comparison between PVA and Finnish differential object marking is possible within the scalar description. The Finnish derivational valency modifiers (transtivisers and detransitivisers), however, do not seem to play any significant role in the marking of aspectual oppositions. Neither do lexical temporal expressions play much role here, as their generally low frequency does not deviate from the frequency of Polish expressions of that kind. In particular, the study shows that the measure adverbials in the object cases are quite infrequent in language use. Therefore, their contribution in expressing aspect is marginal.
  • Lindblom, Jeanette (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of the study is to sketch a picture of female presence in public space in the urban milieu of the Byzantine Empire in the 6th to the 8th centuries. The ideological framework of society is juxtaposed with narrated praxis. Women’s public presence is viewed from different horizons, taking into consideration aspects such as location, occasion and the diversity within the female population, such as the division into social groups and civil status. Traditional methods of historical research are employed. However, the study also takes advantage of various theoretical considerations evolving in the 20th century. A selection of different source types serves to represent a broad spectrum of society. These sources include legal texts, papyri, chronicles, hagiographies and other religious texts, epigrams, and other poetry, as well as non-textual material such as manuscript illustrations and mosaic decorations. The connection between the sources and the society producing them ensures that the broad selection of relevant material reflects cultural attitudes and practices. The study begins with a theoretical discussion and a review of previous research and the relevant source material, followed by an overview of the cultural and ideological framework within which women operated. The focus in the subsequent chapters is on women’s presence in public in four segments of society: religious, financial, political and social life. Thereafter the discussion turns to female movability, gender correlations and the relationship between ideals and praxis, and chronological shifts. Whereas many previous studies concentrate on one category of women, or treat all women as an entity, this study considers the whole spectrum of women in society and the differences in their situations. Although the basic framework of female behaviour was relatively homogeneous in ideological terms, the study shows that factors such as social class, civil status, locality and circumstances affected the way in which women were present in public and how this presence was evaluated by the surrounding society. Further, there was some chronological fluctuation. An interesting finding is the idea of gender symmetry, also displayed in public space. This was at its peak during the 6th century, when the female public presence generally seems to have been slightly more prevalent than in later centuries.
  • Yliniemi, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis is a descriptive grammar of Denjongke, or Sikkimese Bhutia (also known as Lhoke or Sikkimese) (ISO 639-3 sip), an endangered Tibeto-Burman, Tibetic language spoken in the Indian state of Sikkim. The study is based on original fieldwork conducted over more than six years. The theoretical framework is functionalist-typological and may further be characterized as an application of Basic Linguistic Theory. The discussion is data-oriented and aims to describe Denjongke in its own terms. The thesis begins with an introduction to the language and the people who speak it and continues with a description of phonology and an introduction to word classes, suffixes and clitics. The remainder of the grammar presents a mainly functionally-oriented description, starting with phrase-level syntax and proceeding through clausal syntax to discourse. The last chapter on vocabulary and the texts in the appendix provide a cultural window into Denjongke speakers' life. Denjongke is an incipient tone language with 43 consonants and eight vowels. Nasalization and length are contrastive in vowels. The analysis establishes four major word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) and eleven minor word classes. Many nouns and verbs have ordinary and honorific equivalents. Controlled vs. non-controlled verbs occur in phonologically related pairs. Unlike many Tibetic languages, Denjongke does not make a clusivity distinction in first person plural pronouns. There are five case-marking enclitics some of which may be stacked. In syntax, the marking of A argument shows signs of both syntactic and pragmatic control. The marking of P argument is sensitive to animacy, specificity and affectedness. Denjongke has a rich array of copula forms, which mark three evidential values: personal, sensorial and neutral. The semantically oriented category “personal” differs from the more syntactically-oriented Lhasa Tibetan category “egophoric”. Denjongke is a clause-chaining language and has a wide variety of adverbial clauses, which are expressed through various constructions, including ten converbs. Relative clauses are a subclass of genitive-marked constituent-modifying clauses. Denjongke is rich in ideophones, i.e. vividly descriptive words which are semantically, phonologically and morphologically distinct from other words.
  • Castrillón Arcila, Sergio Andrés (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This work analyses the repertoire for solo cello and cello with electronic media from 2000 to 2015 by Colombian composers, focusing on timbre as the main musical element explored. Nevertheless, a historical view on the European and non-European repertoire is included. This thesis consists of two parts. The first part includes chapters 1, 2, and 3. Chapter 1 classifies the cello playing techniques used in the most well-known pieces and studies the solo cello from the 17th century onwards, emphasising so-called extended playing techniques. Such classification serves as a tool for the further musical analyses in this work and as a foundation for the methodological framework in chapter 2, which discusses the notions of timbral modulation, timbral polyphony, and timbral re-signification. Chapter 3 discusses a new timbral development in the solo cello and cello with electronic media repertoire in the 20th and 21st century. This chapter surveys the crucial historical facts that generated a paradigm shift in the cello repertoire. This includes the emergence of different musical tendencies and the work of pioneer composers and performers. The second part of this study includes chapters 4 and 5, where the solo cello and cello with electronics repertoire from 2000 to 2015 by Colombian composers is analysed. The pieces involved emphasise a new timbral development within the repertoire. To summarise, this thesis emphasises how timbre was one of the elements that bifurcated the cello repertoire in the 20th and 21st century. Furthermore, this study describes how progressive composers and performers have deeply expanded playing techniques and the timbre of the instrument, and the exploration and combination of the medium with apparatus, artefacts, and new instruments into new ways of making music.
  • Kirkinen, Tuija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis investigates the skin and fur finds which have been excavated from Iron Age (500 BC – AD 1200/1300) and historical (1200/1300–1700) burials in eastern Fennoscandia during the past 130 years. The research material is unique in Europe, as fur remains usually decompose in archaeological contexts. For eastern Fennoscandian Iron Age research, this study brings new information on the roles that animal skins and wild animals held in societies, which produced furs both for domestic use and for the international fur trade. The main questions of this thesis are 1) How can archaeological fur remains be studied? What information do they provide? 2) What kinds of furs have been discovered in the graves? 3) Why were the furs placed in the graves? 4) What are the recommendations for future research? The research material consists of skin remains from 121 inhumation burials (animal skins and hairs) and 22 cremation burial sites (remains of claws). Animal hairs were found especially in contact with metals. Hairs were also found from the Late Neolithic soil samples in Perttulanmäki Corded Ware burial in Kauhava, which evidences the huge potential of microarchaeological analysis in fibre research. In cremation cemeteries, the predator 3rd phalanges provide evidence for the cremation of brown bear and lynx skins. Animal skins were identified by species by the morphology of the hairs. The method was applied to the identification of species, fur preparation traditions like pulling, and the qualities of origin animals, such as the colour of the coat. In this thesis, morphological identification of hairs proved its usefulness as a cost-effective method for identifying archaeological samples. First, it can be applied in cases that lie outside the scope of scientific methods. These constraints are met when the sample size is very small, when the material is mineralized or when DNA has degenerated in acidic soils. However, most archaeological samples had undergone several taphonomic processes, caused especially by bacterial and fungal activity. This has altered the morphology and other qualities of hairs like the preservation of DNA. As shown in this thesis, animal skin products formed an integral part in burials as grave goods, garments and burial inner structures. For future research on animal fibres, recommendations are made for the handling of finds and samples.
  • Loponen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study discusses the evolution of racialized concepts in the genres of the fantastic, especially fantasy, science fiction, and supernatural horror. It provides the first detailed interpretation of how such concepts are constructed and how they develop based on their interaction with the evolving cultural landscapes, thus showing how characteristics are borrowed from real world cultural stereotypes. The analysis concentrates on fantastic renderings of racialized stereotypes based on real world cultural fears. The concepts are examined both in their source cultures and through the lenses of transmediality and translation. As the fantastic arts have always been heavily transmedial in nature, the study is not limited to a certain art form, but views all media as complementary in producing concepts of the fantastic, either by adding new facets to the concepts, or by changing them on a temporal basis. Contextualizing concepts in the fantastic arts through their linkage to the real world cultural development provides a method through which we can perceive how the concepts are built on – and preserve – racialized stereotypes of their cultures of origin. In order to do so, this study provides a framework that utilizes several approaches from cultural semiotics as well as translation studies. Furthermore, it presents a view of the evolution of the genres in specific media through case studies. The framework is applied to some well-known fantastic concepts (orcs, dwarves, goblins, and gnomes), by mapping their entry into the fantastic arts and examining how the changes in their signifying imagery have affected their allusive links to the real world stereotypes that are (intentionally or non-intentionally) portrayed through them. In addition, translational tools are applied in a case study to examine how racialized features are transported to a new cultural setting in translation. The study argues that the inclusion of properties of racialized stereotypes from real world cultures to fantastic concepts is widespread and that especially negative racialized allusions often survive in texts of the fantastic, even after they have been perceived as offensive in the real world cultures from which they stem. It displays how racialized narratives can change when fantastic concepts inherit properties from new real world racialized stereotypes, and how inheriting signifiers from a “positive” real world racialization can affect the negative properties of fantastic concepts. Keywords: semiotics, fantasy, science fiction, game studies, transmediality, racism
  • Greed, Teija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This doctoral thesis consists of four language-specific articles and an introductory article. In it I investigate evidentiality and related functional categories in four non-Slavonic languages spoken in the Russian Federation: Nakh-Daghestanian Lezgi, two Turkic languages Bashkir and Tatar, and Tungusic Even. Evidentiality pertains to the expression of source of information. This study focuses on the grammatical expression of information source. To gather the data I worked with mother-tongue language consultants, studied language descriptions, utilised digital language corpora and analysed texts. My research concentrated on finding out how evidential meanings are expressed through grammatical means in these four languages, and how evidentiality interacts with other related categories. I discovered that the key categories interacting with evidentiality are tense/aspect, mirativity, person, subjectivity, discourse, and (epistemic) modality. In a number of languages of the world the verb forms expressing tense and aspect have been documented as central for the expression of evidentiality. This is also true of the languages in this study. In all four languages the verb form expressing the resultative or perfect meaning has extended to convey the evidential meaning of inference, or non-witnessed. In three of these languages these meanings have crossed over from evidentiality to the domain of discourse, as the verb form conveying the non-witnessed meaning has acquired the function of a specific narrative genre. Mirativity manifests itself in these languages mainly in the context of evidential inference, with grammatical person also being involved. In three of these languages inference in first-person contexts receives a mirative interpretation, that is, the speaker expresses that the event she experienced was not in her control or in her consciousness. With regard to mirativity, the key discovery of the study is that in Even inference in second-person contexts also conveys a mirative meaning. In my research it became clear that subjectivity, that is, how the speaker or experiencer expresses her own involvement in the processing of the information she is conveying, functions together with evidentiality. In Bashkir and Tatar the evidential quotative, that is, a marker coding a citation, can connect with verbs of perception, cognition and feeling, in addition to regular speech verbs, and together with them express subjective meanings at differing levels. Through the use of the quotative marker in Bashkir subjectivity expands further in conjunction with the verb “know” into multisubjectivity, in which the perspective of the original communicator is conveyed in addition to the viewpoint of the person currently “knowing” the conveyed message. In the languages studied the expression of evidentiality does not in general contain meanings of epistemic modality which would show the speaker’s attitude or evaluation of the message conveyed. Evidential meanings can, however, receive a contextual epistemic interpretation. The key results of the thesis are presented in a figure which depicts both the way the studied semantic categories fit in semantic space and also their interaction. The figure also displays the meanings conveyed by the grammatical markers discovered in the four languages. In semantic space these meanings settle in places where the categories partially overlap, which underlines the foundational idea and contribution of my thesis: the complexity of the interaction of different semantic categories in human communication.
  • Puura, Ulriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation consists of four articles and an introductory chapter that describes the background of the study and draws together the main results of the independent articles. The study focuses on the perceptions of speakers of the Veps language on the importance of the Veps language in identifying as a Veps. Veps is a severely endangered language spoken in North-Western Russia in three different administrative areas. Currently there are less than 3,500 mostly elderly bilingual speakers of Veps. Theoretically, this research falls under critical ethnographic sociolinguistics (e.g. Heller & Pietikäinen & Pujolar 2018). Not only does the study discuss the metalanguage of speaking Veps and being Veps, it also foregrounds language ideologies behind these discourses. The language ideologies in turn affect the expectations about language maintenance and revitalization. Further, reflections of bilingualism and language revitalization are analysed in conversational code-switchings of two speakers from the same family. The data consists of Veps speakers’ interviews from 2006‒2011 and of newspaper material from 1993‒2016 from the only Veps language paper Kodima. The interview data are drawn from two research projects, the ELDIA project and the project the Veps language community in the 21st century. The researcher’s field notes were used as ethnographic background data. The study suggests that although the Veps language has been revitalized and standardized since the turn of the 1990s, the discourses of a common Veps ethnic identity have not reached all the speakers. Language endangerment and shift as well as simultaneous language revitalization bring about partly conflicting ideologies and constructions of language and ethnicity. Two different communities are discerned in the data: traditional speakers living in bilingual Veps villages and Veps intelligentsia developing the Veps language in Petrozavodsk, Karelia. The concepts of mother tongue, speakerhood and language acquisition are constructed differently in the discourses of these two groups. In addition, the official representation of Veps space, spread through the main minority media, the Kodima newspaper, differs from the subjective space constructed by traditional Veps speakers living in the villages. The former locates the Veps mainly in the Republic of Karelia and as part of the (trans)national minority people category, whereas the villagers’ view on being Veps is based on locality. Language standardixation and the purist ideologies behind it are reflected in the level of idiolects, as the micro-study on code-switching reveals. The Veps do not have high expectations for intergeneral language transmission or Veps language education, but they do expect the language to be conserved by the small activist group through documentation and new language products.

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