Humanistinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Biskupska, Anna Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Abstract Verbi verbistä A verb for a verb A comparative study of the semantic structure of derived verb lexicon in Polish and Finnish Anna Maija Biskupska, University of Helsinki, Finland This thesis compares the verb derivation systems of Polish and Finnish on the grounds of their contrastive morphosemantic analysis. As the main database I have used large monolingual dictionaries of both languages and as a theoretical background structural and conceptual semantics. In both languages derivatives form the major part of the verb lexicon.The most crucial semantic categories among the derivatives are verbs describing causative and anticausative change of state events. Nevertheless, the morphosemantic structure of the Polish and Finnish derivatives expressing change of state has essential differences. This particularly concerns deverbal causative and anticausative derivatives. In Polish they are typically created by means of polysemous prefixes of lexical (local-directional) origin or the się reflexive, while Finnish produces them by using suffixes of a generic causative ((t)tA-) or anticausative (U-) meaning. Polish prefixes add to the causative stem verbs not only the meaning of a change of state but also its specified result. Moreover, the prefixes influence the aspect of the stem changing an imperfective stem verb into a perfective derivative. In Finnish, unlike in Polish, deverbal derivatives expressing change of state are not explicitly resultative. Even if derivational suffixes may have an influence on the aspectual features of their stem verbs, there is no grammaticalized verb aspect in Finnish. In Polish it is possible to derivate from a causative verb several resultative causative derivatives by using different prefixes to express different results. This kind of explicit multiresultativeness is alien to Finnish verbs. Accordingly, for both the Polish stem verb and its prefixal derivatives stands often only one Finnish verb, the meaning of which corresponds to the meaning of the Polish multiresultative stem verb and the whole group of its prefixal derivatives. Together with their stem verbs, prefixal derivatives build hierarchical taxonomies based on hyperonym-hyponym relations. This makes the Polish change of state verb lexicon rich in synonyms and its semantic structure deep. Compared with it, the Finnish lexicon is poorer in synonyms and its semantic structure shallower. The semantic differences between Polish and Finnish change of state derivatives reflect not only on the semantic structure of the verb lexicon. They as well come out in the argument structure and lexicalization strategies (patterns). Because of the prefixation, conflation is a very characteristic strategy for Polish, while the strategy Finnish prefers is typically straight. In sum, because of the prefixation Polish derivatives expressing change of state include more semantic and pragmatic information about a situation than Finnish suffixal derivatives. Information encoded in the verbs by prefixation may concern their aspectual features (perfective aspect, lexical aktionsart meanigs), modality, resultativeness, causativeness on the one hand, and semantic roles of the arguments and selection rules on the other hand. In Finnish such information is encoded partly in verbs and partly in their arguments.
  • Hirvelä, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Knowledge requires more than a true belief. In order to know something one must not only believe the truth, rather one’s belief has to be related to its truth in a certain way. One of the principal aims of epistemology, the study of knowledge, is to explain what that ‘certain way’ is. This dissertation examines the idea that knowledge requires a certain modal connection to truth. Such a connection is expressed with a condition that includes modal notions, like ‘would’, ‘must’, ‘could’, ‘might’ etc. Modal notions refer not to how things are, but to how things could have been, should be, must be, or would be. Modalized epistemology is epistemology that seeks to solve epistemological problems with the help of modal notions. The motivation for modalized epistemology stems from the fact that many concepts that have a central place in epistemology seem to be modal in nature. ‘Reliability’, ‘luck’, ‘ability’ and ‘certainty’ are perhaps best explicated with the help of modalities. This thesis develops further an existing modal condition known as the safety condition and applies it to several epistemological problems. According to the safety condition in order to know it must be the case that one could not easily have erred. In Essay 1 a novel way of understanding the safety condition is offered and used to solve two perennial problems in epistemology. In Essay 2 modalized epistemology is applied to the problem of peer disagreement. In Essay 3 it is argued that the modal relation that must hold between a belief and its truth in cases of knowledge cannot be as strong as some virtue epistemologists are inclined to think. The thesis contains also an introductory chapter that offers a brief historical background of the development of modalized epistemology and lays out the current debate as well as some problems that are left unanswered in the essays.
  • Seitsonen, Oula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This dissertation discusses the material heritage of the German military presence in Finnish Lapland during the Second World War (WWII), as seen through archaeological and multidisciplinary studies. The Nazi German presence as brothers-in-arms in northern Finland has been a difficult and downplayed issue on multiple levels throughout the post-war decades. This study presents the first wider, problem-oriented and theoretically informed investigation about the archaeologies, materialities and heritage of the German WWII presence. However, even this work barely scratches the surface of this multifaceted subject and sets out future research directions. The experience of WWII in Lapland was different from the war experience elsewhere in Finland. The German troops had the frontal responsibility in Lapland in 1941–1944, and at the height of their military build-up there were more German troops and their multinational prisoners in the area than local inhabitants. After Finland made a cease-fire with the Soviet Union in 1944, a Finno-German Lapland War (1944–1945) broke out between the former brothers-in-arms. Due to the long nation-level downplay of the complex German presence, also the northern Finnish and Sámi war experiences have become side-lined. Accordingly, the German material remains have been treated dismissively as “war junk” littering Lapland’s nature. However, for the locals these were well-known throughout the post-war decades, as active material agents of communal and familial memories, and as part of Lapland’s cultural landscapes. This dissertation has two main focuses. Firstly, I study the Germans’ and their prisoners’ experiences in Lapland during the war through the material remains and archaeological inquiries, and secondly, the ways in which the different stakeholders have signified the traces of war in the post-war decades. The material traces illustrate and highlight in many ways the experiential aspects of the German soldiers’ and their prisoners’ wartime existence in an unfamiliar northern environment. The post-war perceptions of the German material remains underline the social value of these as part of the local long-term heritage and lived-in cultural landscape. Many locals see themselves as custodians of their “own past”, including the WWII legacy, wish to control access and engagement with the sites in their local landscape, and often feel that the authorities neglect their heritage. Thus, the traces of German presence have become one symbol of the continuing north-south confrontations, and the marginalization of the north. These issues tie in with Lapland’s long colonial history. The vast differences in engaging with the German WWII material remains appear to derive from fundamentally different mental templates with which the people perceive the subject and its importance. The people propagating the “clearing” of “war junk” appear to approach the subject, and the landscape, with a “western” gaze, and draw a division between “nature” and “culture” which labels the locals’ historical cultural landscape as a natural wilderness. Conversely, in the northern environmental awareness it is not meaningful to separate “nature” and “culture”, and instead, the landscape and its various layers form a web of relations, which tie together the past, present and future into a cognitively controlled and embodied unity. It appears that the different stakeholders should come to recognize and accept the differing standpoints from which they engage into the discussions, before a fruitful dialogue can be instigated.
  • Päiviö-Häkämies, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Abstract This dissertation focuses on the cultural development structured by the city of Kotka. The key question is, how did the local politicians influence in cultural development − particularly in cultural services and administration. Who decided, what was decided, when and why? The different periods of cultural transition can be identified in Kotka’s history using mainly the historical-qualitative methodology. This dissertation also shows how the different decision-making levels (local, regional and national) were combined in the local process during the research period 1879-1982. The city of Kotka was founded in 1879 at the estuary of Kymi River. Kotka was governed by the burghers before the renewed legislation concerning municipal elections was prescribed in 1917 and taken in action in Kotka in 1919. After that the Social Democratic Party took a leading role in Kotka for the following 90 years. The development culminated in the establishment of collective administration for cultural services, directed by the 1973 established Board of Culture. The research period completes to the year 1982 when the Municipal cultural activities act (prescribed 1980) was implemented. The institutional network has not changed dramatically after it. The local decision makers are often in an insignificant role in municipal historiography when cultural achievements are presented. One of the aims of this dissertation is to emphasize the role of local politicians in creating cultural services in Kotka: They made far-reaching decisions leading the city’s cultural development before any legislation was prescribed. Increasingly since the 1950's, the majority of local politicians started to value culture as a public good that needed to be promoted. This dissertation provides one example from the city of Kotka that gives insights to the present discussion concerning cultural policy. Finnish municipalities are self-governing entities and the promotion of general cultural activities is one of their tasks. The offering of culture should ideally be varied and diverse to be used by the townsmen. The research is useful to show what was, and may also be in the future, the importance of local decision-makers.
  • Nukke, Maret (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The study of nō theatre, a 14th century traditional Japanese performing art form, has focused primarily on the classical plays, while no extensive studies of the new nō plays or shinsaku nō have been made in Western scholarship. Since all nō plays, classical and new, are theatrical scripts that adapt their themes and characters from literary or other sources, they are viewed in this study as adaptations. Nō plays are a type of adaptations that adapt their sources in a conservative manner, relying on many limits defined by the specific rules of the genre called nō theatre. In this study, nō plays are divided into two categories: genre adaptations, which adapt literary or other sources and involve the change of genre from literature to theatrical script, and kinetic adaptations, which appropriate material from existing plays. In order to clarify the concept of nō plays as adaptations ten adaptation strategies are discussed and examples provided from classical nō plays, forming a theoretical framework for the analysis of shinsaku plays. The main focus of this study is on exploring the ways in which source materials have been transformed to create the main characters and intertextuality in shinsaku plays. For creating a comprehensive basis for the analysis, the traditional elements of nō theatre are divided into four structural and six performance elements. All structural elements and three performance elements (the actors’ training, music, costumes and masks) form internal elements of nō plays the modification of which to the extremes causes serious deviance from the limits of the genre. On the other hand, remaining three performance elements as external elements of nō plays (the stage, properties and lighting) offer more freedom and creativity in adaptation. Analysis of the practical application of various adaptation strategies in five shinsaku nō plays revealed that multiple strategies and techniques similar to those in classical plays have been applied simultaneously in the new plays. Some of the structural elements such as the design of characters, use of language and creation of allusiveness were modified to some extent in the new plays, and the prominence of religion was diminished. The internal performance elements were generally adapted within the limits of the nō canon, while the external performance elements were adapted more freely.
  • Stenberg-Sirén, Jenny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The object for this sociolinguistic study is the language and the language ideologies in Finland-Swedish broadcast news 1970–2009. The focus is on the pronunciation in the news readings and on the opinions and attitudes of the journalists. I analyze the journalists’ views on different language varieties and on media language norms. The phonological variation analysis is based on the pronunciation guidelines used within the Swedish section of the Finnish Broadcasting Company (YLE), called Svenska Yle ‘Swedish YLE’, and the study is descriptive as well as diachronically comparative. The study shows that the pronunciation in the news readings follows the pronunciation recommendations closely. For example, the final phoneme /t/ in definite nouns (e.g. bordet ‘the table’) and in non-finite verb forms (e.g. hoppat ‘[has] jumped’) is pronounced clearly, whereas it is almost always left out in everyday speech and in dialects. In addition, the study shows a shift towards a more formal pronunciation in the 1990s and 2000s also for short function words, such as efter ‘after’ or vid ‘by’. Furthermore, the study shows changes in two features that are characteristic of Finland-Swedish quantity. The Swedish rules of quantity require either V:C or VCC – for example /va:ra/ ‘to be’ – but the short form /vara/ is a normal feature in many dialects and in everyday speech in Swedish spoken in Finland. The study shows that this feature has increased slightly in the news readings. The other socially distributed quantity feature is the combination of a long vowel and a long consonant, for example in the word baka ‘to bake’, which in the Helsinki-region can be pronounced /ba:kka/. The frequency of this Helsinki-trait has decreased markedly in the news readings during the 1990s and 2000s. My results show that the pronunciation has become closer to the norm for some variables, while other variables have become regionally and socially more neutral. This interpretation is supported by the strong standard language ideology that journalists at Swedish YLE express. Even though many journalists would like to have a wider range of varieties on air, the standard language ideology still dominates their views, and they link this to the quality associated with public service values. The changes in the pronunciation in the news readings can be interpreted as a sociolinguistic neutralization of the standard language. The pronunciation is closer to the norms in some cases, but simultaneously closer to everyday speech. Especially the changes in the socially marked quantity features have made the standard language in the news readings regionally and socially more neutral, which can lead to a wider acceptance of the standard. I interpret this as a sign of a continuous standardization process of the Finland-Swedish standard language.
  • Naarminen, Niina (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2018)
    The Power of Laughter. An oral history study of meanings of humour at the former industrial community of Tikkakoski arms factory. The Tikkakoski arms factory (1893-1991) village community was built around the factory during the first few decades of the 20th century, and was closed in 1991 due to “economical problems” caused by deindustrialization. The dissertation analyses the meanings of collective humour in the Tikkakoski arms factory community. The primary research material consists of the oral histories (filmed 1996-2014) of 27 interviewees in the local community, spanning three generations. The research is autoethnographical and also makes use of folklore materials from archives, literature, letters, and local publications. Forms of collectivity are analysed through microhistory and with methods of oral history research. The analytical framework of the study combines oral history and social history methods. The research approaches the issues of tradition and identity by viewing folklore as humour and narration, and also as the commitment of different generations to specific kinds of political ideologies. Carnivalization in working class culture, and forms of self-irony in particular, are ambivalent phenomena, simultaneously articulating an awareness of an opposition to inequality on the one hand, but making it tolerable on the other. The tradition of verbal and situational humour was an intrinsic part of the Tikkakoski shop floor culture, which the workers felt proud of. The reality was different to newcomers. The humour tradition in the community reveals patterns of structural discrimination. In his Prison Notebooks, Antonio Gramsci writes about workers developing a “contradictory consciousness” in which an implicit awareness of exploitation is unable to develop into a fully conscious and articulated form. This impasse is also shown in the narration of the Tikkakoski workers. One expression of this is the workers response to “paternalism”. The top managers were respected, but at the same time they were the butts of jokes. The trust that workers invested in the top management caused bitterness when the factory was closed. Interviewees felt that they had been betrayed generation after generation. The humiliation of losing work and own community, along with having deep financial and health problems, meant losing humour as well. The study shows that the workers who were retired when the factory closed, have lived active lives with good relations to former co-workers, but those who were made redundant faced difficulties. Losing laughter was a turning point and meant crisis for the ex-workers on a personal micro level but also on a macro level. Deindustrialization has changed working class culture. Instead of being proud of own community, there is a shame of losing it and a fear for the future.
  • Silde, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Abstract The dissertation explores side by side two different practices of aesthetic modification of body; the practice of the so called futuristclubbers (1981-1985) and the actor training practice led by Jouko Turkka in Theatre Academy (1981-1985). The dissertation belongs to the field of theatre studies and performance studies. It utilizes habitus analysis developed here as a tool for performance analysis in an interdisciplinary manner. The work examines the aesthetic modification of the body as creative actor or artist´s habitus in the practices of everyday life and theatre. The habituses are analysed as critical cultural performances in the context of urban cultural change in Helsinki in the beginning of 1980’s and as a part of the aesthetization of everyday life and the increasing complexity of culture. Here, the habitus and the body techniques are the key concepts in exploring the practices in their own material-discursive environment. The aim is to juxtapose the creative practices of everyday life and the art practice responding to social and cultural change. In addition it questions what happens to the habitus of an artist when social stage for the performances of the self becomes available for everybody. The body of the futuristclubber was modified by taking opportunities of the city culture´s new affordances. These were for examples the new kinds of urban spaces in which people from different walks of life brought together and found each other in order to innovate creative projects. Another such affordances were new media technology and cheap travelling to European metropols and their clubs. Futuristclubbers were the first television generation affected by the transhistorial and transnational images of media, culture industry and high culture. With their creative habituses futuristclubbers deconstructed such hegemonic structures of modern society as the division between work and leisure, high and low culture and the continuity of body´s appearance and interiority. In addition, their habitus as a critical cultural performance contested the heteronormativity, the ideal of the Finnish citizen modified by agrarien-bourgeois nuclear family values and the masculine performance culture. They challenged the seriousness of the critique by utilizing irony, parody and camp attitude and they questioned the originality and sincerity of the critic by borrowing and iterating already existing material in their theatrical habituses. The body technique mediated by Jouko Turkka was based on traditions of modern psychophysical theatre and the ideal of romantic artistist with Nietzschean influences. According to these traditions the education practice excluded the urban influences and instead trusted in the emptified practicing room and body´s own power and imagery. The process of aesthetic-moral modification of the body aimed to deconstruct the influences of the institutions responsibled for socialization but it could not redefined the hegemonic structures of society because of its antagonistic relationship to it. The actor´s education practice produced the artist´s habitus that was based on inhibition towards urban influences; the uninfluenced artist was supposed to be able to resist the increasing complexity of society in which art as a separate and autonomous sphere was threatened and artist´s position and creativity was becoming commonplace.
  • Haapalainen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The everyday life of utopias: Places of participation and change in contemporary art 1980-–2011 Many processes of participatory art are utopian by definition: expressions of hope. This hope can be manifested, for instance, as care and help, as free food and services, or as unexpected gifts – just like in the participatory artworks of this study. This study examines the ways participatory art leads its participants into the transformation of everyday life and shared togetherness – in porous utopias. Often participatory artworks lack a clear form and character, which is why they have been considered challenging to critique and conceptualize. Therefore, this study asks how the transformative, utopian and relational quality of participatory art can be understood and conceptualized. I discuss this question through six contemporary artworks, which each have a very different relation to participation: Sophie Calle’s Suite vénitienne (1980), John Baldessari’s Your Name in Lights (2011), Minna Heikinaho’s Ilmainen aamiainen (Free Breakfast, 1994), the Free Shop (2011) of the Superflex artist group, Copenhagen Free University (CFU, 2001–2007) and Francis Alÿs’ When Faith Moves Mountains (2002). In the study, I also return regularly to the artistic strategies of the early 20th century European avant-garde and the experimental atmosphere of 1960s art. The processes of participatory art are dependent on their site-specific contexts. Therefore, I situate my research in the urban scene of the artworks: in the street, café, shop, school, cathedral and home. I examine the ‘Street’ as a public space of everyday life through two different artworks and urban structures: the labyrinth-like streets of medieval Venice in Suite vénitienne present a contrast to the modern and commercial streets of Your Name in Lights. Ilmainen aamiainen presents a ‘Café', where public sociability and hospitality become central. As a ‘Shop’, the Free Shop brings into focus the relational forms of humans and non-humans mediated by money. In the ‘School’, I discuss the institutional critique made by the CFU, which actualizes the notions of representation, schooling and knowledge. The ‘Cathedral’ features a temporal center that emerged during the artistic process of When Faith Moves Mountains. It opened a space for communality and communal imagination. Finally, I bring all the research themes to ‘Home’. The notions of free sharing, that is, radical hospitality, and the unfocused gift becomes crucial. This unfocusedness prompts a new understanding of the community as being-togetherness, not as a representation or description of a group. In such a case, participatory art can bring forth dissident imagination and dissident ways of being – everyday utopias.
  • Cheas, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    My doctoral research creates and applies a methodology to systematically measure and compare the proportions of perspectives in world news. By perspectives, I mean news frames and the voices of people affiliated with different political, cultural, and economic institutions (i.e., institutional fields), quoted or paraphrased in the news. My method also assesses the relative positivity (tone) of frames. I focus on American and Finnish world news articles concerning South Africa and Brazil, as these Southern countries prepared to host the FIFA World Cup, thereby receiving global media attention. My primary sample consists of print and online news articles published in The New York Times and Helsingin Sanomat between 2006 and 2014. In their pursuit for more global democracy, South Africa and Brazil, along with other nations in the so-called Global South, have demanded a greater voice in the international public sphere. Building on Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, I examine what the proportions of perspectives in American and Finnish news reveal about the power relations between Southern and Northern countries and the institutions involved. The findings of this research challenge the prevailing claims that the Global South is voiceless or marginalized in Northern news: in both American and Finnish news, Southern sources received between 70–80 percent of total quoting space, on average, to express their views. However, the Southern fields were also depicted more negatively than the Northern fields. I found that American journalists try to maintain a neutral tone: negative definitions of Southern institutions in American news mostly appear in quotes from other Southern institutions and anonymous sources. Finnish journalists express critical opinions toward Southern institutions more explicitly than American journalists. My study also revealed significant differences between the American and Finnish forms of news: While the American news manages to reveal the complexity of the South African and Brazilian situations at the article level, which Finnish news does not, the views in American news articles are not developed as fully as in the Finnish news articles. My study concludes by providing concrete suggestions as to how the American and Finnish forms of news could be combined to create world news that abounds in both depth and a larger quantity of diverse perspectives.
  • Cederbom, Charlotte (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this dissertation is to research the guardian (Sw. malsman) and the guardianship in the Swedish realm 1350-1450, with focus on how this affected married women’s legal capacity. The purpose is reached by comparing written law with practice. The medieval Swedish word malsman is usually translated into legal guardian, which is also the modern meaning of the word. In Magnus Eriksson’s Law of the Realm from 1350 – the first law to apply to the whole realm – it was stated that a husband should be the malsman of his wife once they were married. The malsman and guardianship are therefore frequently used in research on medieval and early modern women as an explanatory model for the gender related hierarchies within marriage. According to this, the husband, as malsman, was his wife’s legal representative, and supposed to represent her in all legal matters. By studying the history of the malsman, in the laws preceding the Law of the Realm, I provide evidence of that the malsman system was introduced into the realm wide legislation through the regional law of Östergötland, in southern Sweden. I further show that the only regional laws in which a malsman, and a gendered legal guardianship over women, even existed were the laws of the Göta regions in the south. In the laws of the Svea regions, in the north, neither the word malsman nor the function of the husband as guardian can be found. Since the Law of the Realm came to be derived from both the regional law of Östergötland and that of the northern region Uppland – of which only the former recognized the malsman system – the new law became an equivocal compromise regarding the legal capacity of women. According to the law, married women were legally able and had procedural capacity, but the husband was still malsman. In order to compare the law with practice, I have read more than 6000 original charters. Based on these, I have created a database containing all the charters in any way concerning women from 1350-1450. The database contains closer to 3700 charters, and enables statistical calculations of women’s de facto actions in a multitude of legal matters. Through these statistics, it becomes obvious that married women could represent themselves at the assembly (Sw. ting), and participate in legal rituals, and that they hence were legally able and had the procedural capacity described in the law also in practice. My dissertation also shows that married women had control over their own landed property, that they were especially active in donations, and that women by no means were passive transmitters of land between men as has been argued by previous research. Women could, and did benefit from what they owned. My dissertation further shows that women, regardless of marital status, participated in legal matters to a far lesser extent than what men did. Even if women had legal capacity, law and legal matters were still a heavily male dominated area. This can, however, not be tied to the malsman system even by the middle of the 15th century. The system incorporated into the Law of the Realm, from the Göta regions, had not spread to the rest of the realm in practice even a hundred years after the creation of the law. The hierarchies within marriage had significant regional differences during the whole period studied here, and a uniform malsman system did not exist.
  • Saarinen, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study deals with the poetics of the Finnic tradition of oral poetry known as kalevalaic poetry, concentrating on the interplay between verse structure, syntax and parallelism. The research material consists of all recorded texts of the singer Arhippa Perttunen (1769–1841) from Viena Karelia. This material is approached from two perspectives: folkloristic research on an individual tradition bearer and linguistic analysis elucidating the poetic structures of the texts. The first perspective examines how an individual uses and moulds tradition. The second examines what traits and features in general define and characterise texts in this tradition. These perspectives overlap in the process of composition, which is treated especially by recourse to the theories of the Oral-Formulaic School. The kalevalaic tradition is a poetic register, here addressed through two concepts frequently used in contemporary research on oral poetry: the concept of "register" developed by the systemic-functional approach in linguistics, and the concept of the poetic function of language developed by Roman Jakobson. The study on the syntax of the poems takes as a starting point the theory of enjambement in kalevalaic poetry, as expounded by Matti Kuusi. Kuusi’s theory is advanced by refining his rules for enjambement and rules for combining different syntactic units within a line. Parallelism is a very characteristic feature of kalevalaic poetry. Its most distinctive form, verse parallelism, is studied in detail as a syntactic-semantic phenomenon. It is shown how a set of parallel verses functions to create a poetic picture that is richer in meaning than the verses could convey separately. The research presents and analyses all the information available concerning Arhippa. His narrative poems appear to be quite stable from one sung performance to another, but they usually diverge from the variants of other singers. From this it can be deduced that the shaping of each song for the most part occurred when he acquired it. With respect to lyrical and other non-narrative poems, Arhippa seems to have always been able to create new entities from poems with which he was already familiar or from other traditional materials, especially proverbs.
  • Kaislaniemi, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation investigates the multilingual practices of 17th-century English East India Company merchants, as revealed by the vocabulary they used in the texts they produced while stationed in the East Indies. The English East India Company (EIC) was founded in 1600. At first it was a moderately successful trading company, but in the 18th and 19th centuries the EIC rose to dominate the European trade in Indian goods, and then in Chinese tea and porcelain. During this period, it also came to control large territories in India, paving the way for the British Empire to take over the entire subcontinent. Despite the immense economic, social and cultural impact of the EIC on world history, its records have not previously been studied for their language. This thesis breaks fresh ground in this respect, by investigating letters written by early EIC employees stationed at a trading post in Japan, 1613–1623. The five studies forming the nucleus of this dissertation focus on lexis in these letters. Through a study of foreign words – of lexical borrowings from and code-switches into languages like Japanese, Spanish, Malay and Portuguese – it is shown that by charting the use of foreign words in correspondence, we can identify discourse communities of writers with shared practices. Moreover, foreign words can also be used to reveal the linguistic competence of the writers. Two of the studies use methods of historical lexicography and lexicology to look at native English vocabulary. They show that EIC records can be used to trace change over time in lexical fields, which in turn reveals that the EIC had direct influence on the development of the English lexicon. They also show that investigations of hapax legomena can yield insights into the intimate connections between early modern English merchants and contemporary literature on the one hand, and lexical ecologies of early dictionaries on the other. A central finding of this dissertation is that historical linguistics in general, and lexical studies in specific, not only can benefit from multidisciplinary methodologies, but should adopt them as a matter of course. This dissertation shows that a blend of quantitative and qualitative methods is not only convenient, but in fact necessary if we want to draw reliable conclusions about historical multilingualism.
  • Heinonen, Pilvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Evaluation as a teacher’s interactional practice: dimensions of classroom participation This thesis examines evaluation as an interactional practice adopted by teachers in classroom settings at comprehensive and upper secondary schools. The main objective of this study is to analyse teacher interactional activity in terms of evaluation and appraisal from three points of view: 1) the types of linguistic resources and structures teachers use to construct evaluative actions, 2) the role the evaluative activity has in the interactional organisation of classrooms and 3) the types of pedagogical functions teachers accomplish by evaluating pupils in classroom interaction. The theoretical and methodological framework of the study is Conversation Analysis. Teachers’ evaluative actions are analysed as situated interactional practices, which are based on the participants’ orientations and therefore constructed by the participants during classroom interaction. The data consist of 15 videotaped classroom lessons at a Finnish comprehensive school and an upper secondary school. The data were collected in 2003 and 2011 and consist of lessons on Finnish language and literature and history and civics. The analysed situations occur during teacher-led pedagogical interaction. The main objective of the study is to analyse teachers’ evaluative activity as a response to pupil initiations and unprompted participation in classrooms. The study illustrates how teachers construct evaluative actions to respond to and to deal with pupils’ initiations. A majority of past studies have examined teacher evaluations in teacher-initiated sequences, whereas this study offers an analysis of evaluative activity from a new perspective. The detailed analysis focuses on three evaluative types that have specific pedagogical functions: praise evaluation, agent-oriented evaluation and echoing evaluation. The analysis demonstrates how the teachers use evaluative actions as a pedagogical practice to reveal the relevance of the pupils’ actions and to negotiate the limits of appropriate actions in classroom situations. The evaluative action is co-constructed with the action by the pupils. This is evident in sequences where the teacher either relates pupil initiations to the pedagogical agenda or uses pupils’ voice as a resource for evaluation. The results of the study reveal that evaluative activity is reflexively tailored to the evaluated objects as well as to the interactional context that it occurs in, particularly the ongoing pedagogical activity and its goals. Evaluative activity is not only a resource that teachers use to guide pupils’ actions and participation, but it is also used to communicate the limits and dimensions of appropriate activity to pupils during classroom interaction.
  • Tallberg-Nygård, Manuela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study explores differences between intracultural translation (into Finnish) and intercultural translation (into German) of culture- and location-bound Finland-Swedish literature. The key concepts used in this analysis are the semiosphere (Lotman) coined in cultural semiotics and the chronotope (Bakhtin). The research material consists of four novels by the Finland-Swedish author Kjell Westö: Drakarna över Helsingfors (1996), Vådan av att vara Skrake (2000), Där vi en gång gått (2006) and Gå inte ensam ut i natten (2009). All four novels have been translated into Finnish, Leijat Helsingin yllä (1996), Isän nimeen (2000), Missä kuljimme kerran (2006) and Älä käy yöhön yksin (2009), while three of them have been translated into German, Vom Risiko, ein Skrake zu sein (2005), Wo wir einst gingen (2008) and Geh nicht einsam in die Nacht (2013). In these novels the fictive characters’ microhistory runs parallel with the authentic history of Finland. Westö is known for embedding his stories in a Finnish environment, with a special emphasis on the bilingual society, Helsinki as a location, the Finland-Swedish dimension, and the meeting of the Finland-Swedish with the Finnish. Translations are the means of spreading minority literature to a wider audience and of increasing awareness and understanding of a minority. This can be achieved both on an intracultural and an intercultural level. This interdisciplinary study combines methodology and concepts of cultural semiotics, translation studies, linguistics, and literature studies to answer three research questions. The first question addresses the intra- and extralinguistic phenomena Westö uses to create the fictive Finland-Swedish semiosphere in the four novels about Helsinki. I call these semiosphere-specific phenomena, and they include both facts and fiction and can further be divided into four main categories: society, location, characters and culture. These are the main construction blocks of the semiosphere. The next step is to analyze how these phenomena are conveyed into the Finnish and German translations. The third phase is to identify possible differences between the intracultural and intercultural translations. The translation analysis focuses on recognizing what has been preserved and what has been changed in the translations. On a global level the question is how to reproduce implicit and explicit references to the Finnish society, the bilingual environment, and the Finland-Swedish dimension, while the solutions on the local level focus on how the global choices are implemented. The results show that the local solutions that have been applied in the translations into Finnish without any problems, as one would expect, follow a systematic pattern that creates a similar illusion of society, location, characters, and culture as the source text. In the intercultural translation, however, the sociocultural space differs and thus the phenomena that are used to create the illusion of society cause problems in translation. The local solutions vary more in the German translations, rendering a target text that is more distant from the source text thus affecting the style.