Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Hämeen-Anttila, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Kurt Gödel's early views on intuitionism and constructive foundations of mathematics became publicly known in his three posthumously published lectures: "The present situation in the foundations of mathematics" (1933), "Lecture at Zilsel's" (1938), and "In what sense is intuitionistic logic constructive?" (1941). The aim of the study is to examine these works in light of Gödel's unpublished notes to construct a more detailed picture of his views. A wide selection of materials, including so far unpublished lecture notes as well as shorthand notes on mathematics and philosophy primarily from 1940-1941, was studied for this purpose. The analysis shows three phases in the development of Gödel's foundational views. Gödel's earliest studies in intuitionistic logic focused on its classical interpretations, and these shaped his belief that the found interconnections between intuitionistic and classical logics revealed something suspicious about intuitionism. The second phase, comprised of the 1933 and 1938 lectures, is shown to be characterised by a firm belief in formalisation and the Hilbert Programme. There is a strong parallelism between Gödel's and Hilbert's critique of intuitionism, and Gödel also agreed with Hilbert on the need for constructive consistency proofs for mathematical systems. In the 1938 lecture, it is suggested that a system based on functionals of finite types could fulfil this purpose while remaining properly finitary. The third phase begins with the lecture course in Princeton, where the functional system is finally introduced. However, it is now presented as an interpretation and a proof of constructivity of intuitionistic arithmetic, not as a finitistic consistency proof. In his notes written around the same time, Gödel started to reconsider the relationship between classical and intuitionistic systems, considering intuitionistic interpretations of classical logic as well as interpretations of intuitionism in its own terms. This gradual resignation of the formalistic viewpoint coincides with several failed formal endeavours and a slow turn towards philosophy.
  • Salminen, Jutta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study examines the auto-antonymy of the Finnish verb epäillä and its nominal derivatives epäily and epäilys. This is referred to as polar ambiguity in the study, meaning that the assessment expressed with the examined lexemes may incline either to negation (e.g. epäile-n projekti-n onnistumis-ta, epäillä-1SG project-GEN success-PAR ‘I doubt the success of the project’) or to affirmation (e.g. epäile-n vilppi-ä, epäillä-1SG deceit-PAR, ‘I suspect that deceit has taken place’). Furthermore, the interpretation of the lexemes under study often involves evaluative negativity (e.g. the unfavorableness of the complement proposition). This meaning aspect is examined and shown to be linked to the polar variation, that is, whether an epäillä expression is affirmation-inclining or negation-inclining. Moreover, evaluative negativity receives a prominent role in tokens lacking a clear polar inclination. This phenomenon becomes evident especially in the analysis of the nouns. The study draws on a usage-based theoretical framework and utilizes the ideas of meaning construal developed in Cognitive Linguistics. Following the methodological interpretation of the usage-based model, the analysis is based on corpus data. The examination of the verb epäillä relies on a data set compiled from several corpora and divided into three periods: Old Finnish data (263 tokens, approx. 16th to 18th c.), Early Modern Finnish data (1231, approx. 19th c.), and Modern Finnish data (500, approx. 20th c. to present). The analysis of the nouns draws from the News Comment Corpus illustrating Modern Finnish use (epäily: 603, epäilys: 173). The methodological core of the study lies in a qualitative contextual meaning analysis. In addition, quantitative collocational analysis is applied in the examination of the nouns. In the study, the synchronic variation in the usage of the verb epäillä as well as the diachronic changes in its polar meaning are examined. The main analytic units are complement constructions, i.e. combinations of the verb and its complement (e.g. an että ‘that’ clause or a NP object). The diachronic analysis shows that especially in the constructions with an että clause and the corresponding non-finite complement, the typical interpretation has changed from negation-inclining to affirmation-inclining during the history of written Finnish. In addition to the change and variation analysis, the usage patterns of epäillä are set in proportion to the syntagmatic behavior of inherently negative verbs in general. This analysis shows how a double negative (epäillä että ei ‘doubt that not’) can develop as a functionally motivated construction. Finally, the division of labor of the two nominal derivatives is under examination: although in a suitable context they are both capable of affirmation- and negation-inclining meanings, the data show specialized tendencies for both epäily and epäilys. The analysis of the polar ambiguity is based on two schemata indicating the role of the complement: target and content schema. In the target schema, the complement is in the scope of negation deriving from the inherently negative epäillä lexeme (verb or noun), whereas in the content schema no scope relation exists, as the complement verbalizes the thought or words of the one who doubts/suspects. The construction receives then an affirmation-inclining interpretation, in case the content complement itself contains no indication of negation. In this study, the two schemata serve mainly as a tool for analyzing the polar ambiguity of epäillä lexemes. They are, however, shown to be applicable also more broadly to the analysis of varying syntagmatic behaviors of different predicates. Finally, as the epäillä lexemes may receive the interpretation of both negation and evaluative negativity, the semantics of these words sheds light on the mutual relation of the named meaning concepts: the meaning variation both illustrates the intertwined nature of negation and e-negativity in language use and shows the importance of their conceptual differentiation. Keywords: cognitive semantics, auto-antonymy, polarity, negation, evaluative negativity, semantics of complementation
  • Kajander, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The Book and the reader in the digital everyday Books read from screens are often compared to printed books. This has led some readers to emphasise the importance of the materiality of books as objects. For example, readers enjoy the scent of books and the feel of covers as well as the aesthetics of bookish spaces, and consider these as highly positive aspects of reading. Reasons for these experiences are often difficult to explain. However, it is important to understand them, because they are connected to readers’ wishes, choices and comprehension about books and reading as a pleasant practice. The theoretical framework of this doctoral thesis draws from ethnological material culture studies. The methodology is based on close reading and ethnography, and the key concepts are materiality and the interaction between humans and objects. The focus is on reading as a pleasurable, cultural, and corporeal practice. The study analyses attitudes towards different book formats, focusing on meanings given to printed books in situations where e-books are an alternative. The research material consists of 546 texts that were sent to a life-writing call Life as a Reader, organised and collected by the Finnish Literature Society in 2014. The writers were Finns from different age groups and backgrounds. This research shows that for those readers who preferred printed books, the materiality of the books together with sensory experiences helped orient them to the reading situation and supported their feelings of concentration, relaxation and calm. Books also provided a sense of privacy and a break from other everyday activities often connected to digital screens and associated with hectic activities such as work. Books also functioned as social objects, gifts, mementoes and decorative objects. Bookish spaces such as libraries, bookstores and bookshelves at home were considered important aspects of reading practices. The experiences connected to materiality were both cultural and personal. They were composed from layers that consist of memories, lived situations and actions. This means that they were based on processes that can change throughout the reader’s life. E-books and audiobooks were associated with quick access and ease of use. The readers analysed in this research material who liked e-books did not compare different book formats, or seen them as a threat to reading practices related to the printed book. Instead, they emphasised the possibilities to read in different situations. They chose different book formats for different situations, for example an audiobook when driving, an e-book when travelling and a printed book for a quiet night at home. The possibility to choose from different book formats may therefore increase the amount of time used for reading.
  • Ovaska, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    “Fictions of Madness” is a study about the forms and functions of representations of mental illness in literary narratives. It focuses on experiences of shattering and distress in a corpus of first-person narrated modernist Finnish novels, and examines them through four sets of questions: 1) the narrative construction of shattering minds and experiential worlds, 2) the ways readers are invited to engage with the minds and worlds created in the texts, 3) the ethical problems and power relations inherent in storytelling and in reading about mental distress and illness, and 4) the ways in which fiction generates knowledge and understanding about experiences of pain and suffering. Drawing on a wide range of narrative theory, phenomenology, enactivist theories, and feminist theory, the study shows how fictional portrayals of “madness” employ and challenge their readers’ personal, cultural, and scientific understanding of psychiatric disability and experiences of distress. Instead of portraying minds and mental illness as disembodied or disengaged from the world, the novels discussed—Helvi Hämäläinen’s “Kaunis sielu” (The Beautiful Soul, 1928/2001), Jorma Korpela’s “Tohtori Finckelman” (Doctor Finckelman, 1952), Timo K. Mukka’s “Tabu” (The Taboo, 1965) and Maria Vaara’s “Likaiset legendat” (The Dirty Legends, 1974)—conceive them as bodily and embedded in the world, enacted in intercorporeal and intersubjective relations with other people and with the world, and entangled in socio-cultural norms and narratives that shape identity, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, the novels emphasize the aesthetic and constructed nature of the fictional portrayals of shattering: the sense of experientiality evoked in the first-person narration is a carefully planned literary effect. The analyses reveal how fictional stories can resist fixed cultural narratives of “normal” and “abnormal,” “natural” and “unnatural,” and “healthy” and “pathological” through their ambiguity and complexity. The discussed novels invite readers to ask aesthetic, ethical, and political questions about our views of psychiatric disabilities and persons suffering from them, and about the fictional portrayals and techniques of representation: How can we approach unusual and unsettling experiences without pathologizing or stigmatizing them? How can we honor the complexity of the experiences of others and cultivate an openness to difference? The study participates in the work done in the field of critical medical humanities and offers a Nordic perspective to representations of mental illness in literary fiction. It contributes to the understanding of how fictional narratives evoke and convey experiences of illness and distress, the role of narrative empathy and aesthetic immersion in understanding unsettling experiences, and how narratives create understanding about the experiences of others. From a literary historical perspective, the study also sheds light on the ways the mind, consciousness and mental illness were discussed in Finnish literature throughout the twentieth century, and situates the Finnish modernist works in the international modernist tradition. Keywords: fictional minds, illness narratives, Finnish modernism, psychiatric disability, phenomenology, enactivism, narrative theory, feminist theory, critical medical humanities
  • Pennonen, Anne-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study examines the relationship between landscape painting in Düsseldorf and the natural sciences in the nineteenth century. The natural sciences here comprise meteorology, geology, geography and botany. The point of view provided by these fields offers an approach to the subject that has not been considered in Finnish art-historical discourse to date. The main focus is on the artworks of Finnish artists Werner Holmberg and Fanny Churberg, as well as those by Victoria Åberg, Magnus and Ferdinand von Wright, with essential comparison material provided by studying works by German artists Johann Wilhelm Schirmer and Carl Friedrich Lessing, and by Norwegian artists Hans Gude and August Cappelen. The primary material consists of sketches, studies and finished works of art. I reflect on the developments of the natural sciences in Germany, Norway and Finland in the 19th century, and how these affected the works of art, using the history of ideas and discourse analysis. The main temporal scope of this study falls between the years 1853 and 1880. The time period should not be understood too strictly, because it is not possible to talk about the relationship between landscape painting and natural sciences within these decades alone. During the first decades of the 19th century, artists in Dresden were interested in natural sciences, as well as drawing and painting studies from nature. The same trend continued in Düsseldorf, starting in the 1820s, where it was considered essential to observe the landscape in a ‘proper fashion’, and expressions such as ‘the new naturalism’ and ‘the truth of nature’ were widely used. Thanks to the activities of Johann Wilhelm Schirmer and Carl Friedrich Lessing in the field of open-air painting, the notion of naturalism gained the dimension it has been granted in this investigation. It was their example that encouraged younger artists to go out into nature in pursuit of depicting different landscape phenomena. When researching open-air painting, the travels these artists made also gained more importance. The idea of discovery in connection with travelling led me to follow in the footsteps of Alexander von Humboldt. His work as a naturalist and his expedition to South and Central America helped me to connect landscape painting with the development of different fields of natural sciences. Humboldt was a representative of Romantic science, and in his work he regarded landscape painting as an essential way of studying nature. He also co-operated with several artists. The artistic process of composing a landscape recalls the work of a naturalist, as described by Humboldt. Likewise, Humboldt reverted to landscape aesthetics in his writings. In the case of Finnish landscapes, many artists were guided by the work and writings of Zacharias Topelius. Being one of the leading cultural figures in Finland at the time, Topelius worked as an author, journalist, Secretary of the Finnish Art Society and as a teacher lecturing on geography at the University of Helsinki.
  • Marila, Marko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In philosophical metaphysics, speculation is often seen to have value as an ontological concept referring to rational contemplation on the fundamental but unobservable nature of reality. In philosophy of science, on the other hand, speculation is commonly taken as an epistemological notion to mean that a proposition regarding the nature of reality can be possibly either true or false, and that the veracity of a proposition can be tested against empirically observed facts. This simplistic division into speculation as a matter of metaphysics and a matter of empirics also pertains to archaeology where speculation, as an ontological concept pertaining to the unobservable, has had little value. Instead, speculation, as well as the ambiguity and uncertainty introduced with it, have been treated as provisional resorts and epistemological points of elimination. In reviewing the history of archaeology in terms of the common views of the form and constituents of archaeological inference, and in drawing philosophical inspiration from a range of speculative philosophies and contemporary archaeological theorising, this thesis argues that the desirable strategy in the epistemology of archaeology is not the systematic elimination of speculation. In contrast, the thesis takes speculation seriously and contends that it has significance in the epistemology of archaeology as both an epistemological and an ontological notion. The thesis holds that in order to develop an empirically sensitive, ontologically considerate, and ethically sustainable epistemology of archaeology, speculation should be cultivated and cared for as a systematic consideration of the multiplicity of experience. In other words, speculation is to be preserved as a method of thinking otherwise; a countermeasure to the methodological (and the ensuing ontological) simplification risked by adhering to the eliminationist strategies. The practical possibilities towards a speculative epistemology of archaeology are discussed in terms of methodological and theoretical deceleration, a matter that has become increasingly relevant with the recent natural scientific revolution in archaeology. Slowing down, in this context, aims towards a historical understanding of the discipline as a community of practitioners with possibly conflicting concerns and objectives. In this way, the principle of speculative epistemology becomes the perpetual anticipation of the possible practical effects of pursuing truths and realities on epistemologies that entertain different understandings of those concepts.
  • Hiipakka, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This dissertation consists of six independent published papers or unpublished manuscripts. They treat metaphysics of modalities (necessity, possibility, contingency etc.) and how to distinguish different types of modalities from each other I try to distinguish between logical, analytic and metaphysical modalities. Sometimes philosophers also talk about genuine possibilities in distinction from mere conceivability (see the first chapter and especially references to D.M.Armstrong there). I approach the metaphysics of modalities through a version of combinatorial theory of modality that our research group has developed (Janne Hiipakka, Markku Keinänen, and Anssi Korhonen: "A Combinatorial Theory of Modality", Australasian Journal of Philosophy (AJP 77:4, 483-497). When treating demarcation problem of different types of modality, I take as my starting point Erik Stenius' writings on the subject. As my method, I have used used philosophical method which is basically thinking applied to questions held central in philosophical community. Most important results are the version of combinatorial theory of modality developed by us, my suggestion of how to demarcate between logical and analytic modalities, and to show that Per Martin-Löf´s type theory is incompatible with certain metaphysical theory about properties, so-called trope theory.
  • Kortekallio, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Reading Mutant Narratives explores how narratives of environmental and personal transformation in contemporary ecological science fiction can develop more-than-human modes of embodied experience. More specifically, it attends to the conflicted yet potentially transformative experientiality of "mutant narratives". Mutant narratives are viewed as uneasy hybrids of human-centered and posthumanist science fiction that contain potential for ecological understanding. Drawing on narrative studies and empirical reading studies, the dissertation begins from the premise that in suitable conditions, reading fiction may give rise to experiential change. The study traces and describes experiential changes that take place while reading works of science fiction. The bodily, subjective and historical conditions of reading are considered alongside the generic contexts and narrative features of the fictional works studied. As exemplary cases of mutant narratives, the study foregrounds the work of three American science fiction authors known for their critiques of anthropocentrism and for their articulations of more-than-human ecologies: Greg Bear, Paolo Bacigalupi, and Jeff VanderMeer. While much of contemporary fiction naturalizes embodied experience and hides their own narrative strategies, mutant narratives have the potential to defamiliarize readers’ notions of bodies and environments while also estranging their embodied experience of reading fiction. As a theoretical contribution to science fiction studies, the study considers such a readerly dynamic in terms of "embodied estrangement". Building on theoretical and practical work done in both embodied cognitive and posthumanist approaches to literature, the study shows how engagements with fictional narratives can, for their part, shape readers’ habitual patterns of feeling and perception. These approaches are synthesized into a method of close reading, "performative enactivism", that helps to articulate bodily, environmental, and more-than-human aspects of readerly engagement. Attending to such experiential aspects integrates ecological science fiction more deeply into the contemporary experiential situation of living with radical environmental transformation.
  • Cederberg, Sara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In this thesis, I have studied the literary debate in Sweden during the 1960’s and 1970’s from the perspective of intellectual history. These decades have proven to be of great importance to the development of almost every field of culture in the western world today, in many different ways. During this period, western students and intellectuals embraced a radical socialist worldview and the Humanities saw an explosive development of marxist philosophy and theory. The European and American youth questioned traditional morals and lifestyles, and artists revolted against traditional ways of creating art, literature and music. My aim is to analyze what effect this international cultural radicalism had on the literary debate and on literary expression in Sweden. To answer this question, I have analysed the literary debate, and formed a new understanding of what the cultural radicalism of the 1960s and 70s essentially was. Unlike previous researchers, who define the cultural radicalism as a political revolution, I view it as a response to an existential crisis. After World War II, the great narratives (meaning the ideologies and stories that define western culture) were questioned by artists and intellectuals who saw these meta narratives as the cause for the rise of the totalitarian ideologies that had destroyed so much of western civilisation during the first half of the 20th century. Instead, intellectuals advocated for a pluralistic, tolerant position based only on the objective truth that modern science could produce. The problem with this position, which denied all values that could not be scientifically proven, was that it robbed traditional culture, such as literature, of its meaning and legitimacy in society. By the early 1960s, Swedish writers and literary critics no longer felt that there was a legitimate reason for them to carry out their creative work. For a period of two decades, from the early 1960s to the early 1980s, writers and critics debated this problem and tried to find a way for literature to regain its importance in modern culture. In this endeavour, they combined ideas from three different philosophical and cultural movements: marxism, romanticism and christianity. In my thesis I have mapped out how and when these ideas entered the debate, and analyzed how they were combined to form a new worldview, which could give literature an important role in modern culture. These philosophical movements were deeply critical of modernity and secularism,which is why I have come to understand this cultural radicalism as a battle between an enlightened, scientific worldview and a romantic-holistic philosophy.
  • Rauhala, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The subject of this research is the skill of knitting in Finland from the late 19th century to the present day. The cultural analytic focus is turned on a craft that has been considered a self-evident everyday practice but can also be looked at as a changing skill with different meanings for individuals and society in the past and present. Skills are learned culturally in interaction with the social and ecological environment. Craft skills are largely based on experiment- and sensory-based tacit knowledge which can be observed in the process of making, as well as in the end products. The main sources of this research are museum artefacts, altogether 110 pairs or single knitted mittens dating from 1876 to 1969 in the collections of the National Museum of Finland, experiences of knitting the copies of museum mittens that reflect the sensory experiences of knitters both in the past and in the present, and questionnaire material collected from 1962 to 1977 and in 2015 and preserved in the Archives of the National Board of Antiquity in Finland. In this ethnography of skill, the knowledge base and interpretations are derived from the verbal and tacit knowledge contained in the research data, of the researcher and the interaction between them. Knitting has been an important skill in the northern climates to make necessary clothing for households and to earn extra income. A knitted textile fragment found in archeological excavations in the Mätäjärvi area of Turku dates from the 15th century, possibly as early as the 14th century. Knitting in Finland was previously reliably dated to the 17th century, so this discovery dates it to much earlier than was previously thought. The discovery also supports the notion that knitting could have been mastered in Sweden, on the Öland island, in the 15th century. Girls began to learn knitting skills at the age of five with the guidance of the women in their family. The oldest knitting technique in Europe is so-called English knitting in which the knitter holds the yarn in the right hand. This technique was practiced in Finland in the early 20th century and it was the way girls learned to knit at home. The oldest museum mittens are most likely knitted with English knitting which is more suitable for making thick fabric from fine yarns than continental knitting. At an institutional level, knitting was considered an important skill due to its practical benefits and therefore knitting was part of the craft education in schools from the late 19th century. The technique taught in schools was continental knitting. Teachers used their authority and institutional power to require pupils to knit in the new and in their point of view the right way instead of using the skill that had been passed on through the generations. As a result of this teaching, the older knitting skill vanished with the last generation of women who grew up before the advent of compulsory education. Museum collections represent power in the choices they make about what is deemed worthy of preserving in the collections and what is left out. The museum collections give a different kind of picture of knitting than the questionnaire material. The colorful Fair Isle knitted mittens form the majority of the collections even though Fair Isle knitting was not an ordinary skill. The mittens were chosen to represent the regional knitting patterns and the tradition of knitting. Many of them were published in knitting books from 1930s onwards and knitters learned the Fair Isle patterns from these books. In rural communities, knitting was considered a feminine skill although it was not solely a craft for women. Attitudes towards men who knitted were twofold. Knitting was mainly considered shameful work for men, as it was seen to transgress social norms. To avoid being mocked or excluded from the social group, some men knitted secretly. On the other hand, men who were forced to knit due to circumstances, for example widowers, were appreciated. Sailors and forest workers who were unmarried or spent time away from their family, knitted as a pastime. During World War II, especially during the extremely cold winter of 1939–1940, the best and rare wool was used for knitting rifle gloves, helmets, socks and knee warmers for soldiers. The knits were appreciated by soldiers and there was a strong emotional bond between the knitter and the user. Women were encouraged to knit for all solders, not only for their loved ones, by making it free to send the knits to ‘the unknown soldiers’. Necessity was turned into a virtue at times when there were no alternatives to exhausting knitting that also caused strain. Knitting in the past and knitting today are different phenomena. In the past, knitting was a mandatory and necessary skill, while today it is a voluntary and enjoyable skill. For today’s knitters, the primary reasons for their craft are the relaxation and pleasure of knitting. Knitting also helps to cope with difficult life situations. Even today, knitters still find it important to make useful knitwear for loved ones, for themselves or for charity. The knitting tradition is still associated with regional knitting patterns as shown in the artefacts collected by museums. On the other hand, the knitting tradition is also seen as an international, cross-border handicraft tradition, transmitted through the Internet, publications and travel.
  • Honkasalo, Sami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation describes Eastern Geshiza, a previously insufficiently known Trans-Himalayan (Sino-Tibetan) Horpa language spoken primarily in eastern Geshiza Valley of Danba County in the People’s Republic of China. The approximately 5000 speakers of Eastern Geshiza are categorised as ethnic Tibetans, practice agriculture, and follow the religious traditions of Bön and Tibetan Buddhism. Adopting a functional-typological framework and following an approach that emphasises linguistic ecology, the dissertation aims to anchor the grammatical description to the various contexts of the language. Eastern Geshiza is currently endangered. Almost all speakers of the language are bilingual: Eastern Geshiza functions as an in-group language while Sichuanese Mandarin, also acquired since childhood, is used for external communication as a regional lingua franca. Knowledge of Tibetan lects and Written Tibetan, however, is low among the speakers. A substantial influx of new lexical loans from Chinese and a gradual language shift towards Chinese among the young constitute issues that will greatly affect both the future shape and vitality of the language. Eastern Geshiza exhibits complex phonology. It possesses an extensive phoneme inventory that contains 8 fully phonemic vowels and 37 fully phonemic consonant phonemes. The language abounds in complex consonant clusters of up to three members. Eastern Geshiza is morphologically complex. The complexity is particularly prominent in verb morphology that is characterised by an argument indexation system based on accessibility hierarchy and a set of multi-functional verbal prefixes that encode orientation, aspect, and mood. Like many of the other regional languages, Eastern Geshiza is also rich in evidential categories and includes the grammatical category of engagement. Typological peculiarities of the language make it an important source of data for typological research. The dissertation is based on first-hand field data collected on five major field trips during 2015-18 with the total duration of approximately eight months. The fieldwork was primarily carried out in Balang Village and the surrounding area, the easternmost Geshiza communities closest to Danba County Town. As its theoretical foundations, the description builds on Basic Linguistic Theory and linguistic typology. I hope that this description of the language’s most prominent features will be helpful in advancing our knowledge of Horpa studies and Trans-Himalayan linguistics together with providing new material for linguistic typology and other branches of linguistics.
  • Holopainen, Sampsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation discusses the Indo-Iranian loanwords in the Uralic languages. The loanwords that have been suggested in earlier research are critically analyzed and commented based on modern views of Uralic and Indo-Iranian historical phonology and etymology. The etymologies are analyzed on the basis of the general methods of loanword research: arguments of phonology, distribution and semantics are taken into account. In addition to the analyzis of older etymological proposals, also some new etymologies are presented. Also the research history of the topic is discussed. The aim of this study is to establish rules for the sound substitutions and bring new light to the relative chronology of the loanwords. Because the phoneme systems of Proto-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Iranian and later Iranian languages were very different from those of Proto-Uralic and its daughter languages, the phonemes of the Indo-Iranian donor languages have been substituted in various ways in the Uralic languages. Differences reflect both conditional developments (different substitutions in different environments) and chronological differences, and it is often difficult to distinguish between the two. Special attention is also paid to the distribution of loanwords and the use of distribution as a criterion in dating the loanwords. Contrary to views expressed in many earlier works, it is shown that the distribution is not a very good criterion, as the distribution of loanwords within the Uralic language family forms a rather complicated picture due to loss of words in some branches. A notable problem is the parallel borrowing of same Indo-Iranian words to various branches of the Uralic family. It is not always easy to distinguish the parallel borrowings from the earlier loanwords into the common proto-language, and in earlier research the parallel loans have not received enough attention, despite their key importance to the chronology of the loanwords. The results of this study reinforce the stratigraphy of Indo-Iranian loanwords (Pre-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Iranian and later Iranian loanwords) that has been prevalent in recent decays. However, it is shown that many of the substitution rules are open to different interpretations and some words are difficult to assign to a certain loanword layer. A notable result of this study is also that many of the etymologies presented in earlier works are uncertain or unconvincing, and there are also cases in which some other archaic Indo-European source is more probable donor language than Indo-Iranian.
  • Hatakka, Sampsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Northern supply security: The functioning of the Crown’s magazine supply system in Finland during the construction period of Sveaborg 1747–1756 Building the fortress of Sveaborg was an enormous project which required thousands of soldiers as construction workers year after year. Merchants of Helsinki could not procure enough food for the market and consequently the soldiers could not buy what they needed. Thus, the Crown had to provide bread, meat and other foodstuffs for them. The aim of this thesis is to examine how the Crown storage magazines were utilised in organising food supplies for the workforce. The study also emphasises the other functions of the magazines. Stores had to be prepared for a possible war against Russia, and farmers required seed for their fields in case of harvest failure. In addition to the accounts of the magazines, the main sources for this study are the letters and minutes of the central governmental institutions. The thesis demonstrates that, unlike many other European states in the 18th century, Sweden had a highly centralised supply organisation. When the Crown bought grain, flour and other foodstuffs, it played an active part in business negotiations. The officials of the Crown also took care of many other functions of the supply organisation: storing the goods in magazines, transportation, and manufacturing bread. The reasons for the relative lack of private entrepreneurs’ involvement in the supply organisation are manifold. Finnish towns were small, and their merchants had only a limited amount of capital. The rich merchants of Stockholm, on the other hand, could not freely take part in the provisioning of soldiers in Finland, because the Crown had a principle of buying foodstuffs locally whenever it was practical and affordable. Magazines were also needed to store grain which farmers delivered as taxes. In addition, magazines were needed in case of harvest failure to prevent grain shortages. Because Finland was blocked by ice during the winter months, it was especially important to have stores gathered in advance in case sudden subsistence crises occurred. The functioning of the magazine supply system during the construction period of Sveaborg reveals how much effort and preparation it took to provide food for soldiers and grain for farmers in the northernmost parts of Europe. The Crown had to take an active part in all levels of the system to ensure that it worked well. For that reason, the Swedish military supply system significantly differed from those in use in many other countries.
  • Lahti, Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The rhetorics of the immigration debate This dissertation deals with online discussions of immigration in Finland. The data of the study is derived from the Finnish online discussion forum Suomi24 (“Finland24”), and the data dates from August 2015, when the number of asylum seekers coming to Finland was growing very fast. The study investigates how argumentation and a shared view of the world are jointly constructed by the discussants. The research questions are: How are different groups linguistically and discursively constructed? What kind of arguments and argumentation strategies are used? How do discussants express agreement and disagreement with other discussants? The analysis focuses first on the construction of immigrants and, secondly, on the construction of other groups, including both the parties that take part in the conversations and other groups that are talked about (e.g. Finns, politicians and media representatives). Whereas in previous studies the focus has often been on the representations of immigrants in different media and political texts, the main focus of this study is on the joint construction of argumentation and the interaction between the discussants in social media. The general theoretical and methodological framework of the study is discourse analysis, in which several linguistic methods are applied. These include the New Rhetoric approach, Appraisal theory, Conversation Analysis and role semantics. The data of the study is from the sub-forum “Immigration” of the online forum Suomi24. The data consists of 117 conversation threads, 2 412 messages in all, written in Finnish. The vast majority of the messages are against immigration, but there are also messages that take a positive stance towards immigration and defend immigrants’ rights. However, not much space remained for deliberative or constructive discussion. The findings show that by the discussants who take a negative stance towards immigration, immigrants are represented and constructed as a financial burden, exploiters, a danger and a threat, and as too different to live in peace with Finns. The findings are similar to findings of previous international studies. The representations are constructed and strengthened by choices of naming, semantic roles and by the repeated presentation of immigrants engaging in certain activities. These representations are used in order to justify the demands to restrict immigration and to justify negative attitudes towards immigrants. In addition to that, different strategies, e.g. juxtaposition, comparison, nightmare scenarios, generalization, as well as the use of examples, numbers and statistics, and authorities, are employed to build arguments. The discussants who take a positive stance towards immigration appeal to human rights and human dignity and try to show that immigrants and refugees are similar to Finns. Moreover, the findings show that the parties of the debate construct each other as stupid and ignorant. This is done for example by using different kinds of offensive and pejorative terms. In addition, the opposing side’s intentions and thoughts are treated as known and certain. Agreement with previous discussants’ arguments is expressed by endorsing, praising, answering questions and continuing previous messages, whereas disagreement is shown by expressing a differing opinion, denying, asking provocative questions and judging the disagreeing discussants. Furthermore, the study shows that ingroup solidarity and a close-knit bond with the like-minded are built, and this is further strengthened by being openly offensive to disagreeing discussants. Even though the results are predictable in many ways, they especially show that discussants who are against immigration strongly support each other and that a shared view of the world is collectively constructed by the anti-immigration discussants when the argumentation is based on presuppositions and reasons that are considered as commonly known.
  • Väkiparta, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In Somaliland, the prevalence rate for female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) renders it nearly universal. An overwhelming majority of girls undergo the most radical type of FGM/C, locally referred to as pharaonic cutting. Yet, there is some evidence on a shift towards less radical types, locally labelled sunnah cutting. Amongst international institutions, researchers and activists engaged in preventing FGM/C, the practice is increasingly conceptualised as a human rights violation and as a form of gender discrimination. It is now argued that challenging stereotypes about gender power structures will pave the way for abandoning the practice. Simultaneously, researchers and activists urge men to voice their opinions about the practice. This research provides a deeper understanding of the engagement of young men in the prevention of FGM/C, but it also critically examines men’s engagement. Focusing on discursive practices, I examine how young men engaged in preventing FGM/C in Somaliland discursively negotiate violence against women, gender norms, and the gender order. I also explore whether these negotiations are on the one hand, consistent with those goals related to deconstructing the patriarchal gender regime and, on the other hand, consistent with locally prevailing masculinities. My study is guided by critical studies on men and masculinities and by a critical discourse analysis, through which I address the complex and often hidden workings of power and ideology in discourse. To do so, I collected data via semi-structured individual interviews with 19 university students (15 men, 4 women) who volunteered in a project to advocate against FGM/C in Somaliland. The interviewees employed four interlinked discourses: the righteousness discourse, the health discourse, the hierarchical difference discourse, and the masculine responsibility discourse. These discourses challenge some forms of violence against women, while legitimating others. They (re)produce prevailing masculinities and hierarchical gender order in many ways, but there are also discursive elements that renegotiate prevailing gender norms, particularly idealised womanhood. The findings of this study contribute to theories associated with female genital cutting as patriarchal violence, feminist theories on the workings of power and ideology within a discourse, and theories on men and masculinities. More practically, these findings can inform the design of programmes to prevent FGM/C, which should remain consistent with the deconstruction of patriarchal structures and practices that uphold FGM/C.
  • Ylä-Anttila, Tupu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this work, I examine the education of princesses and forms of female power in the 16th -century through three women of the Habsburg family – Margaret of Austria (1480–1530), Mary of Hungary (1505–58) and Juana of Austria (1535–73) – all of whom acted as regents for Emperor Charles V (1500–1558) either in the Netherlands or in Spain. Great hopes had been laid on Charles, in his youth, as the ruler who would unite Christendom and bring peace. Erasmus of Rotterdam dedicated his Institutio principis Christiani to Charles in 1516. My work asks, what happened when the Habsburg princes shared their power with their sisters and daughters? I argue that female regency in the Habsburg family needs to be considered as a form of queenship. The three princesses studied in this work reflect the changes in the expanding empire of Charles V. At the same time, the image of an ideal queen was evolving. One aspect of the queen-like regency was their status as childless widows combined with a motherly role towards royal children in their care. This, I argue, reveals how they used the regency to resist marriage plans, and in turn, remained unmarried to maintain their regency. This work gives a new interpretation to previous studies that have considered these women mainly as parts of the Habsburg imperial political machinery. Here, the means and limits of female political power are investigated by asking how they acquired the skills they needed for governing, persuading the emperor and arguing their viewpoint. I want to challenge the view of the princesses as exceptionally cultivated women and offer instead a more variable picture of how the regents, with inadequate education for ruling, faced the challenges of governing. The principle of hereditary rule gave the Habsburg princesses unforeseen possibilities as regents. However, all the dynasty's princesses were educated to become queen consorts. On the one hand, I study the influence of the regents’ advisors. On the other hand, I consider the impact of the contemporary ideals on queenship, as well as the influence of humanist thought and religious reformers. Through a case study of these three regents, my work shows how and with what tools the Habsburg women were able to act as alter-egos of the emperor and to adjust to the changing political situations. The princess regents’ correspondence forms the central part of the sources used for this work. The regency formally required the princess only to represent the authority of the absent ruler. The crucial role of the princesses was, nevertheless, to use their correspondence as the ruler’s connection to the region’s government. The correspondence was also their channel for persuasion and influence.
  • Hamari, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study analyses the types and use contexts of ceramic roof tiles in the eastern part of the Roman Empire. Despite ceramic roof tiles being one of the most frequent finds from archaeological excavations and surveys of this period from the Mediterranean area, they have not received much interest in research. In particular, the study of plain, undecorated, or unstamped tiles has been extremely limited considering the volume of material found. This study looks at roof tile assemblages from three different excavations across the eastern Mediterranean from northern Greece and from the environs of Petra in Jordan. Based on this body of material, and collecting comparative evidence from published research, the study builds a picture of the types of roof tiles used in the area during the Roman period. By doing this, it addresses a sizable gap in our knowledge on the typological development and regional distribution of roof tile types in the study area. Chronologically, the research covers a period from the 1st to the 5th centuries CE, coinciding with the Roman dominance in the area. Spatially, it reaches from Roman Greece to the Roman Near East. In this study, methods typically applied in the study of plain pottery have been adapted to this material, namely the study of forms (typology) and the study of fabrics (compositional analysis). Typology is used as the key explanatory tool for the material. In addition, the study uses x-ray fluorescence (microXRF) to analyse the composition of the tile fabrics from one of the assemblages, in order to study the particulars of the production process. The results shed new light on the practice of roof tiling in the eastern part of the Mediterranean, on regional types and variations of tile types in the Roman period, and on societal aspects related to tile production and use. Despite the conservatism apparent in the general forms, the study recognizes potential typological traits in the Roman-period tile types. Moreover, it highlights the regional variation present in this seemingly uniform material. The study confirms that the tile types used in this area are derivatives of earlier eastern types, rather than emulations of Roman types, and an adherence to the use of the specific combinations of pan and cover tiles that originally defined the early Greek tile systems (Laconian, Corinthian, and hybrid) continues throughout the period under study. The data underlying the research does not currently allow for the development of full regional typologies, but a preliminary hypothesis is formed about the tile regions in the study area for the Roman period. Three separate macro regions are identified, based on the types of tile used, corresponding roughly to Roman Greece, Roman Asia Minor, and the Roman Near East. In addition to defining tile regions and types, the study reveals a large variation in the use contexts of roof tiles in this area during the Roman period, which is reflected in the presence and frequency of tiles in the archaeological landscape. In summary, while frequent in the Greek archaeological record of the Roman period, ceramic tile has a very low to minimal penetration into the Roman-period countryside of the Near East, in particular in southern Levant. In this area, tile use contexts are limited to public urban and grander domestic architecture. The results clearly indicate that with improved documentation of tile assemblages, valuable new data would become available for archaeological research in this area.
  • Holm, Sophie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    During the 1740s, the War of the Austrian Succession influenced the foreign policy of many European countries. The Swedish Diet of 1746–1747 dealt with different alliance options, resulting in the diplomatic corps to engage more actively in government affairs in Stockholm. This dissertation examines diplomacy as a social practice created by individual agents by focusing on the relationship between diplomacy, opinions, and everyday conflicts. The study builds on previous research on early-modern diplomacy, public opinion and foreign envoys in Sweden during the Age of Liberty. Contrary to studies highlighting foreign influence on Swedish politics, it focuses on influence in the opposite direction by discussing how local politics influenced the diplomatic agency of different embassies. The theoretical framework builds on the notion of early-modern diplomatic agents as an epistemic community with a shared set of norms and the notion that early-modern society was characterized by competing normative systems. The study addresses three questions. First, and building on ideas of parallel diplomatic cultures in Europe, I examine Stockholm as a diplomatic arena. Second, following the notion of normative competition, I examine the norms defining the social scope of diplomacy. Finally, I discuss the mechanisms behind diplomats’ management of opinion and conflict. Methodologically, the study is influenced by new diplomatic history. The perspective is actor-centred, focusing on the actions of individual diplomats rather than state interests on the macro level. The sources come largely from the British, Danish and French embassies in Stockholm and the Swedish authorities. I show that Stockholm, as a diplomatic arena, was a shared experience that nonetheless contained diverging elements for the envoys in the city. This confirms the need for taking local and regional characteristics of early-modern European diplomatic cultures into consideration. I further highlight several norms underlying diplomatic practice. Envoys were supposed to fulfil expectations of diplomatic cooperation, impartial behaviour in public, social obligations at court and at the embassy, as well as discretion and abstinence in relation to political debates and rumours amongst the public. In all, I demonstrate that the diplomatic conflict which took place during 1747-1748 in Stockholm was a result of tensions around these norms, but also the result of an accumulation of conflict within the diplomatic everyday life and the political situation in the Swedish capital.
  • Tiikkaja, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Paired Opposites: The Development of Einojuhani Rautavaara’s Harmonic Practices studies the music of the Finnish composer Einojuhani Rautavaara (1928–2016). The focus of this work is on Rautavaara’s preferences in writing harmonic motions. The main aim of the work is to investigate those aspects of Rautavaara’s harmonic practices that remained invariant, or at least relatively invariant, throughout his career. Rautavaara used various composing techniques in his long career and embraced many different aesthetic attitudes, but this study shows a common vein running through his music in most of its stylistic phases. Among the works studied are compositions from six decades of Rautavaara’s career, from the late 1940s to mid-1990s, by which time he can be considered to have reached a synthesis of all his previous stylistic phases. Most of Rautavaara’s music is based on tertian harmonies. Accordingly, it may be tempting to analyze his œuvre with tools designed for tonal music. However, Rautavaara very rarely employed tonal functions. Therefore, tonal cadences are replaced by various other means of regulating harmonic tension and release. The present study investigates Rautavaara’s harmonic practices with a tool called the Harmonic Circle, a ­<3, 4> compound interval cycle that can be used to trace tertian harmonies but does not imply functional tonality––even though, as the study shows, tonal music can also be analyzed with the Harmonic Circle. Analytic tools from the neo-Riemannian analytic tradition are also used to investigate harmonic motion in Rautavaara’s music. The Harmonic Circle provides insights into serial music, at least of the kind written by Rautavaara, where the hexachords of twelve-tone rows often create distinct harmonic areas. This study shows that it is the contrast of such harmonic areas that Rautavaara often manipulates in his music, serial or otherwise, to control harmonic tension and release. The notion of harmonic areas in Rautavaara’s music is associated with the principles of symmetry. Symmetries are explored in the study from both aesthetic and technical perspectives. For Rautavaara, symmetry was a way of regulating tone materials, and he associated symmetries with mandalas––circular diagrams that are used as meditational aids in Buddhism and Hinduism. On a purely technical level, he drew parallels between mandalas and serialism, as he saw twelve-tone composing as a way of controlling post-tonal harmony, much like concentrating on a mandala focuses a meditating person’s thoughts. Significantly, Rautavaara was prone to using symmetrical twelve-tone rows. After his first serial period (1957–1965), he sought to employ similar symmetrical structures and tone materials in his non-serial, neo­romantic music as well, in a stylistic phase which lasted for nearly 20 years, from 1967 to 1985. In his last period (1985–2016), he succeeded in fusing together serial writing with neoromantic timbres. His fondness of symmetries can also be seen to extend to his whole production; his habit of alluding to and quoting from his own previous compositions amounts to œuvre-wide symmetry, as motifs and themes from various earlier stages of his career keep reappearing in later compositions.
  • Vanhanen, Santeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Better knowledge of cultivation and plant gathering enables a deeper understanding of prehistoric societies. People-plant interactions have resulted in the creation of human ecological niches and, over time, people began to increasingly gain their subsistence from productive economies. However, in Finland prehistoric cultivation and plant gathering remain poorly understood. What plants were gathered during the prehistoric period, and how would they have been used? When do the first signs of cultivation occur, and where did it originate from? How did cultivation develop after its introduction? This study reviews and expands on archaeobotanical data on cultivation and plant gathering in Finland. The aim is to provide a long-term perspective of plant-people interactions in the area. Such knowledge is valuable for scholars studying prehistoric societies, plant use and agricultural history. The primary method employed in this study is the archaeobotanical analysis of plant macrofossils. This method enables species-level identifications of plant remains found at archaeological sites. In this study, such plant remains were retrieved from flotation samples gathered at archaeological sites in Finland and Sweden. Altogether, approximately 800 samples were studied. In addition, several remains of plants were directly accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dated, thus enabling an absolute chronology for these particular remains. Secondary methods employed in the study include the anthracological analysis of wood charcoal, ethnography and geochemistry. A review of charred and waterlogged plant remains from the Stone Age in Finland show that numerous wild plants were collected. During the Holocene thermal maximum, hazel and water chestnut grew further north than today. Wild plants were used throughout Finland during the Stone Age, although the number of taxa diminished northwards. Use of starch-rich plants, such as water-lilies, appears to have decreased after the onset of agriculture. The earliest macrofossil remains of cultivated plants in Finland, naked barley and naked wheat, were found at Pitted Ware Culture sites on the Åland Islands. Radiocarbon dates show that these remains date from the years 3300–2500 cal BC. Cultivated plants occur for the first time in mainland Finland during the second millennium BC. Radiocarbon-dated plant remains indicate continuous cultivation of barley on mainland Finland since approximately 1500 cal BC. The early development of plant cultivation is, however, poorly understood. Larger assemblages of plant remains have been discovered during the first millennium AD. At Isokylä, in southern Finland, such assemblages show that barley was the main crop cultivated during the Iron Age, cal AD 200–550. Both hulled and naked barley were cultivated together with other crops. Here, the earliest find of hemp in Finland was discovered and directly dated to cal AD 258–425. The Late Iron Age can be considered as a period of agricultural expansion. The site of Orijärvi shows that permanent field cultivation, with hulled barley as the main crop, was conducted from approximately cal AD 600 onwards. The results of this study have implications especially for studies of prehistoric societies, which can be better understood with a deeper knowledge of their plant use. Plants not only provided nutrients, medicine, fuel and construction materials, but people could even construct their niches by removing or preserving certain plants in their surroundings. The active role of humans should be considered when studying past environmental changes, for example via pollen analytical studies. Cereal grains found at Pitted Ware Culture sites on Åland forces us to consider whether these hunter-gatherers could have conducted small-scale cultivation, possibly even reaching mainland Finland. Cultivation most probably originated from east-central Sweden, where it was first introduced by the Funnel Beaker Culture approximately 4000 cal BC. Later, continuous cultivation throughout the Bronze Age must have had social consequences, and the appearance of numerous cairns might well be associated with an increasing reliance on agriculture. The Iron Age find of hemp at Isokylä might indicate contacts with areas farther south. Remains of ancient fields and the archaeobotanical material at Orijärvi and other similar sites show that field cultivation was conducted in Finland at the latest since the Late Iron Age. These finds call into question whether we can consider slash-and-burn cultivation as the earliest cultivation method in Finland.

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