Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Engelberg, Mila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The study examines the androcentrism in Finnish terms for person reference: generic masculinity, covert male bias, the use of the noun ”mies” ’man, male’ in a pronominal manner and the possible grammaticalization of ”mies”. The study consists of four studies and the compilation part. Generic masculinity (gm) in Finnish shows in masculine expressions which are used to refer to both sexes. The gm forms are compounds (e.g. ”esi-isä” lit. forefather, ’ancestor’), derivatives (e.g. ”veljeillä” < ”veli” ’brother’, ’to fraternize’), phrases such as ”uskottu mies” ’trustee, executor, administrator’, idioms (e.g. ”olla oma herransa” ’to be one’s own master’), and proverbs (e.g. ”Auta miestä mäessä, älä mäen alla” ’Help a man on the hill, not under the hill’). The gm forms are often presumed to be gender-neutral. However, in an experiment the participants (N= 150) interpreted the gm expressions as referring to men more often than their morphologically gender-neutral equivalents (e.g. ”lakimies” lit. law-man ’lawyer’ vs. ”juristi” ’lawyer’). The men interpreted the gm forms as referring to both sexes less often than the women did. Gender-neutral person reference terms such as ”ihminen” ’human being’ may have a covert male bias. In an experiment (N= 295), the boys and the men perceived ”ihminen” as male more often than as female. In a second experiment (N= 220), the adult participants, the men more often than the women, interpreted such category names as e.g. ”tyypillinen suomalainen” ’a typical Finn’ more often as referring to men. In a series of experiments (N= 507), the boys and the young adults, the men more often than the women, perceived the referent of the pronoun ”hän” ’she, he’ more often as male. The contexts of the stimulus terms did not indicate the gender of the referent. The noun ”mies” is also being used in place of e.g. the pronoun ”hän” to refer to a man who has been identified by his name. Data from crime articles (published 1971–1980 and 2008–2013) showed that the pronominal ”mies” is increasingly used in reference to a criminal person. In a questionnaire study (N= 80) the pronominal ”mies” with criminal reference was often perceived to have a weaker referentiality than the corresponding pronoun ”hän”. The study discusses the potential of the noun ”mies” to grammaticalize into an indefinite man pronoun (cf. e.g. indefinite ”man” in Swedish)
  • Enqvist, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The dissertation explores the key concepts of archaeological heritage management in Finland: their aspects, definitions and meanings, the history of the concepts and especially the contemporary, official discourse surrounding them – the ways in which people represent, talk and write about archaeological heritage [arkeologinen perintö] and ancient remains [muinaisjäännös]. The social context of the study was focused on the Finnish archaeologists who worked in the intersecting fields of heritage management and academic archaeology. The texts, produced by the archaeologists, were analysed by means of critical discourse analysis; the findings of the analysis were compared to one of the most important contributions in the development of critical heritage studies: Laurajane Smith's (2005) theory of the authorized heritage discourse (AHD). The study dissects the ideologies, identities and interaction which are constructed and maintained by the Finnish AHD. Consistent with Smith s arguments, the Finnish AHD appears as an ideological construction that is dominated by heritage officials and experts, and thus excludes other members of society from taking part in the processes that define heritage. The world view of the AHD represents reality as being divided into indisputable and naturalized conceptual categories, as well as into the quantitative results of measurements and numbers in the pursuit of scientific rigour. Archaeological heritage is defined and evaluated by the experts as material objects whose physical integrity, interpretation and representation of which archaeologists control. The AHD is maintained in the network of official texts which concatenate and refer to each other. The vital intertextual element of these texts is derived from the Finnish Antiquities Act, prepared in the 1950s, which carries the connotations of nationalism and a juridical discourse. The social significance of heritage management, protection and research of archaeological heritage is thus reduced to obeying the law in the AHD. The results and the conclusions of the study, concerning the historical contingency, causes, effects and action of the official heritage discourse, are vital in order to promote the more inclusive and participatory heritage practices in Finland in the future, the democratised heritage discourse , which consists in the emancipatory interest of the research. Keywords: archaeological heritage, cultural heritage, cultural environment, management, discourse analysis, concepts
  • Mäkitalo, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation is the first monograph written on Anna-Maija Raittila´s poetry. Raittila published 11 collections, the first of which is Ruiskukkaehtoo in 1947 and the last Paratiisini puut in 1999. The study discusses Christianity in Raittila s poetry and shows that it follows Christian mysticism, a contributing tendency to modernism. It is reflected in experiences portrayed by the poetry where the border of concrete reality is broken and the speaker is touched by, and feels, the presence of transcendent divine reality. Five frames of reference repeatedly occurring in poetry are utilised in this study to examine the content and characteristics of Raittila s poetry. These frames of reference are Christian art, Mary the mother of Jesus, intimate interaction without words, natural landscape and birds, and the paradisiacal garden. These frames of reference, introduced in the sections of this thesis as starting points, synthesise themes of poems. Poems analysed using the close reading method reveal the symbols of Raittila s poetry and the Biblical intertextuality in it. The study shows that the poet has used episodes described in her diary as an aid when writing a poem. Verbal traces left by the diary enrich the interpretation of the published poetry analysed by revealing information connected to the creation of a poem. According to the study an experience transcending the concrete reality of the poet is in particular connected to suffering, distress and a crisis of life. This experience transforms the relation of the poet to herself, other people and life, and fills the poet with a presentiment of the emergence of new life-energy. The experience is often associated to Revelations in its descriptions of the new heaven and earth, and references to it complement the image of the presence of divine reality in everyday situations and/or point to the poet seeing around her the garden of paradise and sensing its atmosphere. The paradisiacal moment is described by grace, joy and playfulness, non-hierarchical sense of community, unconditional mutual openness and sensual non-verbal interaction. Nature symbolism restates the image of man as earth, connected to the cyclical flow of life-energy in nature receiving symbolical meanings depicting human life. Among birds the nightingale is central and its voice transforms itself into an image of man consumed by passionate life-energy of paradisiacal origin. Also the meditative nature of the poetry reflects Christian mysticism, and it is connected to the structure and expression of the poetry. A medieval work of art often becomes the medium of meditation: the poet identifies herself with the events and figures therein and finds a response to a topical problem, to suffering and to distress. Ekphrastic poems convey the image of God as mother. key words: Anna-Maija Raittila, modernism in lyrics, Christian mysticism, ekphrasis, meditative poetry, nature lyrics, Bible in fiction, diaries
  • Merke, Saija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Student-initiated question sequences as learning potential in Finnish-as-foreign-language classes This dissertation examines sequences of student-initiated questions in classes of Finnish-as-a-foreign-language at a French university. The data were videotaped during two two-week periods separated by five years. During each session, two different student groups were videotaped, both a beginners group and one of advanced learners of Finnish. The data were videotaped and recorded by two cameras, one capturing the student group and the other filming the teacher and the blackboard. The research method adopted was ethnomethodological conversation analysis. The analysis focuses on sequences in which students express their surprise concerning a grammatical detail. The student s question is connected to a noticing that is based on mutually shared grammatical knowledge. By posing a question the student can take the floor and introduce a topic that is personally relevant. Student questions interrupt the on-going classroom activity so that they simultaneously engage in individual epistemic search sequences and a collective knowledge co-construction. The specific question sequences identified were those initiated by negatively formatted declaratives, adversative declaratives and question-word question that imply a contrast. A detailed sequential analysis demonstrated that these questions also activated issues of right and wrong that were connected to social and moral order. The question formulations related to previous norm violations and in this sense, to moral issues. Concretely, when a student asked a question, the other participants considered issues of epistemic primacy and territory, and evaluated the legitimacy of the question. This research offers new information on the construction of intersubjectivity and its relationship to learning opportunities. The analysis demonstrates that intersubjective understanding is at first under-mined when the students notice unexpected and contradictory grammatical details that are investigated in terms of the question. The study illustrates how these questions acquire a challenging quality and morality. Nonetheless, the question sequences constitute a positive potential for the ongoing collective learning activity. The re-examination of expectations regarding linguistic issues creates opportunities to test and re-establish linguistic knowledge. The question sequences also provide tools that aid the students in structuring their personal linguistic understanding and in advancing their collective language learning. A central result is that the emotional and moral dimension of asking a question in a language classroom simultaneously challenges the foreign language, the teacher and intersubjective understanding. The interactional dynamics in epistemicity, affectivity and morality creates shared learning spaces. Keywords: question-answer sequences, Finnish-as-foreign-language, classroom interaction, conversa-tion analysis, moral communication
  • Ahmala, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation analyses the character depiction of Joel Lehtonen s early Symbolist-Decadent works Perm (1904), Paholaisen viulu (1904), Villi (1905), and Mataleena (1905) from a new perspective, in the context of the cultural dialogue concerning authenticity and particularly in relation to Friedrich Nietzsche s views on existential authenticity and self-alienation. The themes of authenticity and alienation are treated as central early modernist concerns of Lehtonen s peculiar brand of fin de siècle Decadence. The thematization of these existential issues is part of the inward turn, which takes place in Finnish literature at the turn of the 20th century. Authenticity, as Nietzsche views it, can be defined in a very broad sense as wholeness of an individual s life and self-identity. Alienation, in turn, means not realizing the potential of one s existence. Alienation can be brought about in various ways, for instance through the influence of upbringing or by succumbing to the temptations of a comfortable life. As many studies on literary Decadence have noted before, Decadence cultivates experiences of alienation from society, the self or even life in general and typically presents human life as fragmented. In Lehtonen s early works, the Naturalist-Decadent depiction of entropy and determinism puts into question even the possibility of freely constructing oneself. The study argues that Nietzschean authenticity represents an anti-decadent ideal, which is relevant in fin de siècle Decadence and which plays a special role in Lehtonen s Nietzschean-Dionysian Decadence. For Nietzsche, striving to become authentic involves, first of all, taking a critical stance towards socialization and the moral values transmitted by tradition. Secondly, becoming what one is means unleashing one s creative powers in the construction of one s identity. Lehtonen s exceptional individuals express a pathos of transgression, which is aimed at the conservative Christian-patriarchal values of society. Still, having rebelled against tradition, the protagonists of Paholaisen viulu, Villi and Mataleena unlike the strong hero of Perm feel they have become at least partly alienated from what they could have been, from their innate potential or from what they perceive as their ideal self. Even the desirability of the kind of will to power over the self advocated by Nietzsche becomes questionable.
  • Pekkola, Airi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ABSTRACT THE AGONY OF TOOTHACHE ON THE USE OF FOLK MEDICINE TO CURE TOOTHACHE AND PREVENT TOOTH DECAY IN FINLAND AND ESTONIA Today, Finnish parents-to-be receive guidance on oral health at maternity clinics even before their child is born. An abundance of information is also available via newspapers, radio, television and the Internet. Although people know full well which foods, stimulants and lifestyles damage their teeth, tooth decay (caries) is an endemic disease, and its treatment is a major cost to both society and individuals. However, tooth decay is not the scourge of industrialised societies alone; rather, the aches and pains it causes have been deplored in texts ranging from the writings of classical antiquity to Finnish folk poetry. This study explores the use of folk medicine to cure and prevent toothache. The central theme is popular medicine as practised at home and in the domestic environment. The study spans from the 1750s to the 21st century, thus encompassing a period when no profession of medically trained dentists even existed. The research area covers Finland and Estonia, and the theoretical foundation is based on comparative research and hermeneutics. The primary research material has been obtained from archives which contain information on curing toothache, gathered through data collection, surveys and writing competitions. The research material also includes letters sent by Finns and Estonians in response to my newspaper advertisement requesting people to describe how they cure toothache at home. In addition, I examine the literature that has been available on oral healthcare and medical treatment, including laymen s medical and self-help books, medication guides, publications on medical plants and articles in professional journals, newspapers and magazines. This study demonstrates that the prevention of oral disease was effectively considered in past literature on medication. Dental decay is a disease that does not heal itself. The initially mild symptoms gradually get worse and become more frequent. As the disease progresses, its nature changes when the infection spreads to the jaw bone and an abscess is developed there. This study shows that people used to know about the many different types of toothache and could choose ways to cure toothache that stopped the pain and made the tooth healthy until the following pain episode. The magical elements involved in folk medicine did not play a key role in curing toothache in the domestic environment. Instead, efficient instruments and substances were employed to target each stage of the disease. This was impossible with internal diseases, which caused equally severe pain. It is unlikely that any other disease has been treated in the home environment with as many instruments, substances and methods as toothache. The recurring pain did not stop until the tooth was removed or it disintegrated as a result of the strong remedies used. Finns and Estonians have had access to knowledge and training on oral health based on the science of dentistry since the 19th century. My research material and current knowledge indicate that the methods Finns use for dental care have improved over the past 100 years, albeit slowly. Preventive dental care used to begin in the same way as at present with pregnant women. They had to comply with certain rules to prevent permanent damage to their unborn child s developing teeth. Preventive measures continued immediately after delivery with the use of magical spells. The responsibility for children s oral health remains in the family. Modern dental experts have found it necessary to record this basic tenet in the Finnish Current Care Guidelines, but it was self-evident for our ancestors because no other type of dental care was available. This study on curing toothache explores an extensive and multidimensional field of popular medicine that has not yet been comprehensively charted. Keywords: folk medicine, toothache, magic, popular medicine, education, prevention
  • Vidberg, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Maria Vidberg University of Helsinki Place names in contact in Helsinki. Finnish elements in the use of street names in Swedish-language contexts This study focuses on Finnish elements in the usage of Swedish place names in Helsinki. The emphasis is on name usage and toponymic competence and the material consists of spoken and written data. The study uses socio-onomastic, folk-onomastic and contact-onomastic methods. The results from the study of name usage show that there are three categories in the use of Finnish elements, i.e. 1) the use of a Finnish name only, 2) the use of a hybrid name, and 3) the parallel use of a Finnish and a Swedish name. The study distinguishes between the use of Finnish elements in names as either actual or meta-linguistic, depending on whether the names are used as such or whether they are talked about, respectively. The study of toponymic competence builds on the findings in the study of name usage and investigates which resources Helsinkian name users utilize when they only know a Finnish name but need to refer to the place in question in a Swedish context. The status of Finnish elements in Swedish contexts is furthermore studied in order to find out what status the Finnish names have when they are borrowed into Swedish discussions. The study shows that the established models of contact onomastics need to be expanded with a category of unadapted name loans. On a theoretical level, the study shows the importance of a socioonomastic approach in modern name research and how this can be combined with contact-onomastic research. Since the study addresses both spoken and written data, it is methodologically possible to study name usage from different perspectives and in particular in context, which opens up for studies on how name users deal with the encounter of names in two languages exactly at the moment when the contact occurs. Keywords: name usage, toponymic competence, name contact, Swedish place names, Finnish place names, Helsinki, socio-onomastics
  • Buysse, Manon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Clause linking, or the incorporation of multiple predications within a complex linguistic unit, is an essential component of efficient language use, but also a major hurdle in the language learning process. Although discrete aspects of clause linking and its development in second language acquisition (SLA) have been studied before, a comprehensive and theoretically unified approach to the phenomenon in SLA is still lacking. To redress this gap, the study presented in this doctoral dissertation proposes a model of clause linking and its development in SLA based on the theoretical framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG; Van Valin and LaPolla 1997, Van Valin 2005) and its application to first language acquisition (Van Valin 2001). It provides a detailed account of clause linking, formalized in the Interclausal Relations Hierarchy (IRH; Van Valin 2005), which takes into account various structural levels of language and considers both the syntactic and the semantic aspects of clause linking. Oral narratives in L2 French and English were transcribed and divided into four groups based on their overall proficiency level in the L2, resulting in a total of 100 (4 x 25) samples per L2. Matched narrative production data from 25 native speakers of each target language served as a benchmark for our analyses. Results provide evidence for the universality of RRG s hypotheses in the sense that L2 learners seem to be guided by the same principles as L1 acquirers; forms of linkage characterized by similar syntactic and semantic strength are acquired more easily (as predicted by the IRH), and syntactic junctures at particular structural levels are associated with particular semantic relations between events. However, our L2 productions were also found to develop differently from those of Van Valin s (2001) young L1 acquirers in various respects: our L2 learners produce complex clauses from early stages of development onwards, as the hurdles they encounter in mastering the various L2 linking devices are unrelated to the development of their cognitive abilities or discourse organization capacities. In addition, we observed that the learners of L2 French and those of L2 English behave rather similarly in how they establish clause linking at various stages of development, but also deviate from one another in non-trivial ways which merit further research.
  • Munck, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    From Enlighteners to Professionals. Finnish Journalists Long Road from 1771 to 1921 The From Enlighteners to Professionals research presents a new interpretation of the professionalization process of the Finnish journalists from the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. According to the research, the journalist occupation was professionalised much earlier than has been presented in previous studies. This interpretation of Finnish journalists professionalization is based on exploring professional co-operation, the structural changes of the profession and the development of journalistic culture. The evaluation is made in the economic, political and social contexts. The important part of the research is a socio-economic examination of Finnish journalism between 1771 and 1921. The development of newspaper work into a profession began in Finland in the second half of the 19th century. The professionalization process followed in the footsteps of Nordic colleagues, especially Swedish journalists. The research focuses on the changes in the social position of journalists and the different defensive strategies the profession used to improve its position. The most effective strategy to improve the occupation s social status was the foundation of professional organisations. The Finnish journalists organized six national congresses between 1876-1900 and founded their first professional organisation, the Finnish Association of Journalists. Between 1905 and 1920, professional co-operation developed into political journalist associations and in 1921 the journalists established a national trade association, the Union of Journalists in Finland. Participating in journalists international co-operation was also an important part of the Finnish journalists professionalization process. The number of Finnish journalists increased rapidly from the second half of the 19th century. There were over 2,000 people who worked at Finnish newspapers as journalists or contributors between 1771 and 1921. The increase in the number of professional journalists escalated the professionalization and affected the organisation of professional co-operation. The relationship between journalists and political parties was very close in Finland at the beginning of the 20th century. This connection was highly accepted and political commitment was not considered an obstacle to execute the public duty of journalists. Keywords: journalists, journalistic profession, professionalization, journalist organisation, journalism, Finnish Association of Journalists, Union of Journalists in Finland, International Union of Press Associations.
  • Pussinen, Olga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Olga Pussinen's study "Functionally limited Russian language: Contact varieties, variations in language consciousness and diverse communication types" reviews the phenomenon of functional limitations of the Russian language (FLRL). The author defines the bilingualism within an everyday communication system that comprises two types of languages: functionally dominant and functionally limited. The work represents a complex analysis of Russian language functional limitations inside Russia (in Mordovia) and outside of it (in the Russian-speaking diaspora of Finland). The research describes the different types of the acquisition of FLRL and different levels of their existence and usage: lexis-grammatical, cognitive-psychological and socio-pragmatic. The author analyses the findings with the data collected from the interviews and from free associative experiments. Part 1, The Transformation of FLRL linguistic levels , consists of the chapters Language used at home . Russian language as the second mother tongue: The strategy of its functioning in the Russian-speaking diaspora in Finland ; Features of the language situation and the Russian language in Mordovia ; and Key features defining the pronunciation of Russian vowels by Erzyan bilinguals . Part 2, The Transformation of the FLRL cognitive level: The balance and dynamics of a bilingual thesaurus , consists of the chapters Formation of an associative-verbal network in bilingualism (based on interaction materials between the Russian and Finnish languages) and The specificity of language consciousness formation for Russian-Finnish bilingual students . Part 3, The transformation of FLRL communicative-pragmatic usage , consists of the chapters Changes in etiquette communication in the Russian-speaking diaspora in Finland ; The types of communication failures occurring when Russian language is functionally not the first ; and The ratio of functionally dominant and functionally limited languages in a bilingual speech system .
  • Lafontaine, Juan Francisco (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ABSTRACT The Healthy, Happy and Holy Organization (3HO) was founded in 1969 by the Indian Sikh and Yogi Harbhajan Singh Puri (1929-2004), AKA Yogi Bhajan , to spread his teachings and build a spiritual community. Since its foundation in Los Angeles, 3HO has reached many countries worldwide. Several ethnographical researchers have studied 3HO and most of these studies recognized 3HO as a part of the Sikh religion. Others have paid attention to 3HO as a New Religious Movement with New Age overtones. Some of these studies have focused on Yogi Bhajan s Kundalini Yoga and a small percentage have addressed all three constituent elements of the organization (Kundalini yoga, Sikhism, and New Age/Aquarian Age), but none have studied 3HO s experiential dimension. Thus, this study primarily concerned itself with the key experiential dimension of the organization, with the aim of identifying and describing the role that experience plays in 3HO s three-folded construction, and how a group of members of the movement deemed their experiences. The first data used for this study was the official manuals and books that have been published by the organization. This was complemented by the main data, which was gathered in interviews in a field research context with eleven 3HO members who were participating in the European Yoga Festival in France. All the material was approached through the perspective of Attributional Theory, which looks at how the notions of experience or experiences have been presented through a deeming making process. According to this approach, the findings achieved showed that experience plays a primary role in encompassing the three-folded parts of the movement. Also, 3HO gives their people the prescriptive aim to have an experience rather than believe or merely study the teachings of the founder. Thirdly, the study indicates that the attributions to the experiential dimension were based on the idea of its efficacy in order to experientially achieve a progress deemed spiritual . Similarly, the study was able to distinguish that a key encompassing notion attributed to the experiential perspective was that experience works. Ultimately, this dimension was more important than beliefs or theoretical discussions in opening the potential members to affiliate or assume an external as well as an internal involvement with the 3HO way of life.
  • Tiili, Miia-Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ANCHORING PROFESSIONALISM Kinaesthetic and Cultural Knowledge in Finnish Coast Guard Units This study analyses the professionalism of military personnel working in the Gulf of Finland Coast Guard District, an administrative unit of the Finnish Border Guard operating under the Ministry of the Interior. The purpose of the study is to examine the construction of Coast Guard officers cultural knowledge, and to discuss its impact on adapting to changes in the operational environment. The study is situated in the field of phenomenological cultural analysis. The research material consists of ethnographic fieldwork conducted during a 1.5-year period between 2007 and 2009 that examines Coast Guard stations, patrol ships and border control units, as well as interviews with officers, their families and civilian personnel. The study defines cultural knowledge as verbalized and non-verbalized shared understanding constructed in everyday practices and experiences. Here, cultural knowledge is therefore grounded in an officer s interaction with his physical and social environment while working, using equipment, and encountering colleagues and clients. The concept of bodily knowledge , for its part, emphasizes the embodied aspects of professionalism. At the same time, gestures, facial expressions and postures are seen as nodal points collecting cultural influences and expressing both formal and informal content. In an officer s moving body, cultural and kinaesthetic knowledge overlap and intertwine. The study argues that cultural knowledge cannot be divided into categories, such as formal and informal, but should instead be understood as an intermingling of influences and knowledge formation in, through and between working bodies. The analysis draws attention to movement as a way of capturing and bringing forth basic cultural assumptions and their impact on, for instance, the officers apprehension of trust, discipline and different functions. According to the findings, the trajectories and collective choreographies of working bodies explicate the cultural friction between the functions at sea and the border control. The kinaesthetic dispositions of the Coast Guard preserve the cultural knowledge of true Coast Guard professionalism, and engage in the processes of meaning making also in times of change.
  • Koponen, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation investigates the practice of machine translation post-editing and the various aspects of effort involved in post-editing work. Through analyses of edits made by post-editors, the work described here examines three main questions: 1) what types of machine translation errors or source text features cause particular effort in post-editing, 2) what types of errors can or cannot be corrected without the help of the source text, and 3) how different indicators of effort vary between different post-editors. The dissertation consists of six previously published articles, and an introductory summary. Five of the articles report original research, and involve analyses of post-editing data to examine questions related to post-editing effort as well as differences between post-editors. The sixth article is a survey presenting an overview of the research literature. The research reported is based on multiple datasets consisting of machine translations and their post-edited versions, as well as process and evaluation data related to post-editing effort. The dissertation presents a mixed methods study combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, as well as theoretical and analytical tools from the fields of language technology and translation studies. Data on edits performed by post-editors, post-editing time, keylogging data, and subjective evaluations of effort are combined with error analyses of the machine translations in question, and compared for various post-editors. The results of this dissertation provide evidence that, in addition to the number of edits performed, post-editing effort is affected by the type of edits as well as source text features. Secondly, the results show that while certain language errors can be corrected even without access to the source text, certain other types that more severely affect the meaning cannot. Thirdly, the results show that post-editors' speed and the amount of editing they perform differ, and that various profiles can be identified in terms of how the edits are planned and carried out by the post-editors. The results of this work may have both theoretical and practical implications for the measurement and estimation of post-editing effort.
  • Nenonen, Olga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Phonetic development in Russian-Finnish bilinguals of pre-primary age The doctoral dissertation addresses the phonetic development in Russian-Finnish bilingual children of pre-primary age. The study combines qualitative and quantitative methods in the framework of child language development studies, and contrastive and contact linguistics. It also takes into account language therapy approaches. The data were collected through an articulation test specially designed for Russian and Finnish. The research is based on the results of both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. The longitudinal study observes the evidence from 6 normally developing bilingual children in a 2.5-year time period. The sample of the cross-sectional study consists of 126 children divided into three groups: (1) 46 typically developing Russian-Finnish bilinguals; (2) 40 typically developing Russian monolinguals and 20 typically developing Finnish monolinguals; and (3) 20 Russian-Finnish bilinguals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). The participant s production of target words in the articulation test was transcribed and phonetic errors were analysed. Despite considerable individual variation in phonetic production, the findings suggest that bilinguals acquire Russian and Finnish phonetic inventories later than their monolingual pairs. The difference is visible both in the speed of acquisition and in the number and nature of errors. With regard to the nature of mispronunciation, four types of bilingual mistakes were distinguished: (1) common developmental mistakes made by bilinguals and monolinguals; (2) language-specific mistakes made by monolinguals and bilinguals, however the latter group makes considerably more mistakes, especially at an older age; (3) cross-linguistic interference mistakes caused by the differences in Russian and Finnish phonetic systems, made only by bilinguals, resembling the mistakes of second language learners; and (4) unpredictable mistakes common in bilingual normally developing and bilingual SLI children. The analysis reveals that from a longitudinal perspective, phonetic development is faster and easier for bilinguals in Finnish than in Russian. However, relatively simple Russian vocalism is acquired faster than Finnish vocalism, whereas the complex system of Russian consonants takes longer to develop than the Finnish consonant system. Furthermore, language-specific features appear to be the most problematic for acquisition. The research shows the evidence of language interaction in bilingual phonetic development, e.g. in the form of cross-language phonetic interference. As a result, some bilingual children may have either a Russian or a Finnish accent. However, this accent tends to gradually disappear.
  • Möttönen, Tapani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation is a metatheoretical survey into the central semantic concepts of Cognitive Grammar (CG), a semantics-driven theoretical grammar developed by Ronald W. Langacker. CG approaches language as a semiotic system inherently structured by certain cognition-general capacities, and it defends a usage-based conception of language, therefore denying the strict dichotomy between language and other realms of conceptualization and human experience. For CG, linguistic meaning is thus defined relative to our general cognitive and bodily disposition, as well as to the contents of experience the former structure. The cognitive and experiential aspects of meaning are described relative to so-called dimensions of construal. In this study, I will provide a systematic critical account of the theoretical explanation Cognitive Grammar provides for the dimensions of construal. The point of departure will be in social ontology of linguistic meaning developed and defended by Esa Itkonen, who has accordingly criticized Cognitive Grammar for inconsistent psychologism. According to Itkonen, linguistic meaning is an object of common knowledge and cannot be reduced into an individual s conceptualization; the dimensions of construal capture experiential meaning that is part of language as a social semiotic resource. This entails that linguistic semantics assume as its object of description non-objective, perspectival meanings that are commonly known. It will be argued that the usage-based nature of CG provides a way to release this tension between objective and non-objective aspects of meaning by explaining how perspectivity of semantics results from the acquisition and adjustment of meanings in actual discourse. This, however, necessitates an ontological revision of Cognitive Grammar and rehabilitation of the sociality of a linguistic meaning, which is the topic of this study. In addition to the work by Itkonen, prominent socially oriented cognitive linguists, such as Jordan Zlatev, have emphasized the necessary intersubjective basis of experiential meaning. Within the Fennistic studies, on the other hand, the intersubjective approach to CG and Cognitive Linguistics in general has taken the form of combining cognitive linguistic methodologies with Conversation Analysis. This study combines elements from both of these approaches in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of the notion of construal in CG. In so being, the main task of this study is to critically evaluate the cognition-based explanation for the dimensions of construal, provide a socially grounded alternative, and apply the alternative into analysis of construal in (written discourse). The thesis demonstrates that the dimensions of construal are not dependent on the aspects of cognitive theory on the basis of which they are argued for. Instead, the notion of construal is shown to be inherently intersubjective and context-sensitive. Construal captures aspects of semantic organization that are correlates of intersubjective alignment between conceptualizing subjects in a given discursive context.