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  • Lahelma, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This study examines the dynamics of the self and art in the context of the Symbolist art and aesthetics of the fin-de-siècle. The purpose is to open new perspectives into how the self and its relationship with the world were understood and experienced, and to explore how these conceptions of selfhood suggest parallels with questions of art and creativity in ways that continue to affect our perceptions of these issues even today. The decades around the turn of the twentieth century were a period of intensifying preoccupation with questions of subjectivity as the coherence and autonomy of the self were constantly being threatened in the rapidly modernizing world. This issue is examined through an analysis and discussions of artworks by the Finnish artists Pekka Halonen and Ellen Thesleff, the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, the Swedish author and artist August Strindberg, and the Danish artist Jens Ferdinand Willumsen. The artworks are considered as active participants in the discourses of the period and as sites of intellectual and artistic reflection. Self-portraits are the most obvious products of artistic self-examination, but the highly subjective attitude towards art indicates that in a way every work of art can be perceived as a self-portrait. Symbolism, therefore, constitutes a point in art history where old definitions of self-portraiture were no longer sufficient. Art came to be understood as a form of knowledge and a source of truth. Hence, the creative process turned into a method of self-exploration motivated by an attempt to transcend beyond everyday consciousness in order to achieve a heightened perception of the self and the world. At the same time, the focus of the artwork shifted towards an immaterial space of imagination. Hence, the work of art was no longer understood as a finite material object but rather as a revelation of an idea. The constant need for self-exploration was also related to an ever increasing questioning of traditional religiosity and a subsequent interest in religious syncretism, as well as in various mystical, spiritual, and occultist ideologies, which affected both the form and content of art. Subjectivity is often perceived as one of the defining features of Symbolist art. However, due to the content-oriented approach, which until recent years has dominated art historical research on Symbolism, the meaning of this subjective tendency has not been properly analysed. Although the emphasis on subjectivity obviously had a great impact on the content of the new art, which became increasingly concerned with mythological and fantastic material, it also worked on a more abstract level affecting the ways that the meaning and status of art were understood. The approach taken in this study is based on an idea of the interconnectedness of form and content. Through this critical perspective, this study takes part in an international current of research which seeks to redefine Symbolism and its relation to modernism.
  • Calleja, Marianela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This thesis proposes temporal conceptions that stem from philosophical inquiry, such as linear time, cyclical time and branching time, to then find a connection with the way music is structured and with musical meaning. I consider ontological and phenomenological approaches to the problem of time and music in order to demonstrate this. The central aim of this investigation is to build bridges and dissolve the opposition between time taken (clock time) vs. time evoked (conceptual time) in studies on time and music. Lewis Rowell, Jonathan Kramer, Jos Kunst and Alan Marsden s contributions are going to be taken as the main references. I consider the ontological approach as extremely literal since linearity, circularity and branching time are not explored there as concepts defining the meaning of music, but as abstract orders in time for music being processed, viewed from an exclusively technical point of view. In turn, the phenomenological approach does not generally link music to philosophical developments, it just describes general cultural conceptions of time. This thesis interprets the temporal modes of the phenomenological approach as highly coincident with the temporal ontologies in the ontological approach, as seen through developments in temporal logic. Temporal logic, a branch of the classical logic, is used as a methodological trigger. Here the work of Arthur Prior is going to be taken as reference. Temporal logic first formalises, then clarifies, and finally validates assertions expressing temporal beliefs. The hypothesis of this thesis, that temporal conceptions are expressed through music, having in this case the power to explain at least its primary meaning, uses temporal logic as a bridging symbolism. In this sense, a comparison between music and language within a broader analysis is undertaken, before developing ideas of logic and temporal logic within musical practice. In particular, in my study of some works by the Argentinian composer Alberto Ginastera (1916 1983), I illustrate the idea of a multi-temporality, i.e. the same composer works with several time structures already available by a cumulative process in the history of ideas. The thesis finds there is a special type of time in music─neither an exclusive musical time as a totally separate time species; nor Time in music, in an abstract de-subjectified view. Thus, a cooperative, synthetic position is defended. Secondly, music represents by means of its distinct elements something inherent to itself, which links with concepts of time (ideas), and by using these elements in certain conventional ways, displays culturally conditioned temporal meanings. Thirdly, music displays a kind of temporal logic, although an extended view comparing it with the exclusively linear logic of music as conceived by the formalist tradition in musicology. It is also an aesthetically oriented approach different from the temporal logic as applied in literal representations of music in computing areas. Finally, I argue for a new musical temporal mode, the actual branched time in music (in the sense of parallel times), through the addition of a theoretical background for this mode in musicological studies.
  • Palmén, Helena Maria Beatrice (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Identity in interaction. Code-switching from dialect to the standard as risk and resource in eastern Nyland The purpose of the study is to show how native dialect speakers with an advanced understanding of the standard variety utilize their double linguistic competence in conversations. The study also more generally sets out to deepen our understanding of dialect usage and of the dialects in eastern Nyland (Östra Nyland) in Finland. Language is closely related to identity. With the help of a variety of data investigated from a sociolinguistic and dialectal point of view and with primarily sociolinguistic methods, the study approaches the intersection of language and identity. ---- The material on which the analysis is based consists of colloquial conversations between members of informal groups during their in situ gatherings. The analysis was done inductively without pre-planned schedules, but with a focus on how code-switching from a non-standard dialect to the standard variety takes place. The particular method used is specified as discourse analysis inspired by conversation analytic insights. To the already abundant list of existing theoretical tools needed to analyze and understand the material gathered, I introduced an additional take on linguistic identity, a notion of silent identity. This additional dimension proved fundamental for a deeper understanding and analysis of the group conversations that made up the primary material. The analysis shows that switching codes between the non-standard and the standard varieties poses risks of ostracism in the social group at hand and a severe blow to ones self-esteem. By contrast, the capacity to code-switch also provides an important resource for the communication participants in a group, who through frequent code-switching can make use of their full linguistic knowledge and competence. The reference to a silent identity has the force to either strengthen the bonds between individuals and highlight their mutual connection, or to completely separate an individual from a group which inevitably results in a deeply felt (linguistic) shame on the part of the outsider. Keywords: identity, dialect, standard, code-switching, sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, linguistic competence, silent identity, shame.
  • Heinonen, Tarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study is about lexical variation within idiomatic expressions in Finnish. A representative body of verb phrase idioms is selected and studied empirically against large quantities of data from newspaper corpora and the Internet. It is argued, contrary to the general belief, that lexical variability and structural flexibility are an inherent and essential property of phrasal lexemes. The methodological and theoretical framework of the present study is a combination of corpus-based lexicography and usage-based grammar. Moreover, psycholinguistic evidence on mental representations is considered together with observations from actual data. There are a few general principles that guide variation. First, semantic and conceptual relations between lexical units form the basis for paradigmatic substitution. Second, there are possibly universal constructional patterns according to which expressions of states, processes, causation and possession are interconnected. For instance, an idiom which in its canonical form expresses a state can be modified so that it expresses a process towards that state. The study proposes a grid of event types and links between them to represent and predict such variation. Third, there are partly unspecified schematic idiomatic expressions that require lexical realization. A particularly productive type of a schematic construction is a simile. Similes actually form a network of their own on many levels of specificity. Finally, I will consider cases where two conceptually related co-varying elements occur in a single expression. Throughout this thesis, I describe how variation is handled in dictionaries. Altogether, I recognize four different strategies to represent variation. The thesis ends with a discussion on the roles of synonymy, compositionality and productivity in variation. Ample evidence shows that neither lexical synonymy nor compositionality are preconditions for substitutability as is often assumed. My results also agree with the principle that variation in not fully productive patterns is expected to be semantically constrained.
  • Huttunen, Tomi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The study is dedicated to the Russian poet and prose writer Anatolii Borisovich Mariengof (1897–1962). Mariengof – “the last dandy of the Republic” – was one of the leaders and main theoreticians in the poetic group of the Russian Imaginists. For his contemporaries, he was an Imaginist par excellence. His Imaginist principles – in theory and practice – are applied to the study of his first fictional novel, Cynics (1928), which served as an epilogue for his Imaginist period (1918–1928). The novel was not published in the Soviet Union until 1988. The method used in the study is a conceptual and literary historical reading, making use of the contemporary semiotic understanding of cultural mechanisms and of intertextual analysis. There are three main concepts used throughout the study: dandy, montage and catachresis. In the first chapter, the history, practice and theory of the Russian Imaginism are analyzed from the point of view of dandyism. The Imaginist theatricalisation of life is juxtaposed with the thematic analysis of their poetry, and Imaginist dandyism appears as a catachrestic category in culture. The second chapter examines the Imaginist poetic theory. It is discussed in the context of the montage principle, defining the post-revolutionary culture in Soviet Russia. The Imaginist montage can be divided into three main theoretical paradigms: S. Yesenin’s “technical montage” (reminiscent of Dadaist collage), V. Shershenevich’s “nominative montage” (catalogues of images) and Anatolii Mariengof’s “catachrestic montage”. The final chapter deals with Mariengof’s first fictional novel, Cynics. The study begins with the complex history of publication of the novel, as well as its relation to the Imaginist poetic principles and to the history of the poetic movement. Cynics is, essentially, an Imaginist montage novel. The fragmentary play of the fictional and the documentary material follows the Imaginist montage principle. The chapter concludes in a thematic analysis of the novel, concentrating on the description of the October Revolution in Cynics.
  • Mononen, Kaarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Use of Finnish among Ingrian-Finns in St Petersburg and its surroundings This thesis examines the Finnish language use of the Ingrian-Finns in St. Petersburg and its surroundings. The rapidly altered linguistic situation in the area forms the background for the study. The St Petersburg area has had a Finnish-speaking population for many centuries as well as varying and longstanding contacts to Finland, except in the Soviet period. From the 19th century, however, a major shift from Finnish to Russian has taken place as the Finnish speaking communities have dramatically diminished. The data for the study have been collected through ethnographic fieldwork in St Petersburg and its surroundings in Russia, and the core data come from elderly people in a retirement home. The study combines methods of language sociology, study of linguistic per-ceptions and interactional sociolinguistics. The data consist of conversations and interviews and it is analysed qualitatively. In addition to actual language use, the participants personal history has been investigated. The analysis shows how sociohistorical background and political conditions and ideologies affect the participants linguistic choices. Bilingualism is a multifaceted concept. The linguistic resources of a speaker often change during one s life time. Among Ingrian-Finns this change has often been a dramatic one. Language shift from Finnish to Russian, due to strict minority politics, has caused many Ingrian-Finns to lose their first language although the data show cases where the heritage language is learned again. Exceptional individual choices are also discussed. The Ingrian Church is taken as an example of a change in the Finnish-language domain reflecting the discrepancy between past and contemporary realities. The speakers linguistic perceptions are investigated, reflecting past experiences. Concepts such as pure Finnish language and pure Finnish as well as Ingrian Finnish have specific meanings for individuals, and they are also context bound. The study also discusses the resources and interaction of the Ingrian-Finns in everyday situations with Finland-Finns. The Ingrian-Finns have different resources available to them including variants of an old Ingrian dialect, Finnish and Russian. Questions of multi-lingualism are approached analysing code switching; results show that Russian elements are used as part of the conversation, often in an unmarked way because of the heavy influence of Russian during the decades. Closer examination also shows different interactional functions of the Russian in Finnish speaking conversation: code switching is used, for example, to show distance and changed position. Attention is paid to the construction of understanding: the notion of a participant framework is used to analyse the speakers positions and contribution in a multiparty and multilingual conversation. Solving interactional problems which arise, e.g. because of using a Russian word, is discussed as well. Mutual understanding is constructed together in conversation reflecting the interactional goals of the situation. It is also studied how identity is constructed in interaction by means of a recurring narrative. Combining different approaches allows a deeper insight into the language use of Ingrian-Finns today. The Finnish language is still used in different ways and situations are multifaceted, reflecting different positions. Attitudes and values also reflect the sociohistori-cal conditions and are intertwined with the actual language use.
  • Lehecka, Tomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The study examines the use of 133 recent (1945-1999; according to Stålhammar 2003) English adjective imports in a Swedish newspaper corpus from 1965-2004 (110 million words). The aim of the study is twofold: (i) to describe the special character of adjective imports and their integration process in relation to other import words as described in earlier studies, and (ii) to inspect the connection between the lexical properties and preferences of adjective imports at different linguistic levels. In particular, the study examines the covariance between the morphological properties and syntactic and collocational preferences of adjective imports. The study utilizes cluster analyses and collocation analysis in order to compare the distributional properties of each adjective form. The results show that the integration process of adjective imports is fundamentally different from that of noun imports. The formal adaptation of adjective imports takes place on the basis of morphosyntactic requirements that apply to the class of adjectives in Swedish in general. It is shown that these requirements are most applicable to grammatical agreement in number and definiteness. The practice of adaptation co-varies with a number of the lexical properties of adjective imports: etymology, morphological form, syntactic use, collocation pattern and sociopragmatic characteristics. The lexical properties discussed in the study are shown to be closely interrelated. Using a probabilistic syntactic analysis as a starting point, the study demonstrates that the subject complement (predicative) function is preferred for adjectives which preserve a foreign morphological form and, more generally, for adjectives which belong to an informal oral register as reflected by their collocation pattern. In turn, an informal lexical context and the subject complement predicative function exert comparatively little pressure on the formal adaptation of adjective imports. Thus, each lexical property of an adjective both reflects and enforces other properties at different linguistic levels. Methodologically, it is shown that a quantitative analysis conducted simultaneously on a large number of lexical units gives valuable insight into both the relationship between units within a linguistic category and the relationship between different levels of linguistic analysis.
  • Svetlikova, Ilona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Katajisto, Kati (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The emperor of our fatherland The changing national identity of the elite and the construction of the Finnish fatherland at the beginning of the autonomy This study addresses the question of changing national identity of the elite at the beginning of the autonomy (1808 1814) in Finland. Russia had conquered Finland from Sweden, but Finland was not incorporated into the Russian Empire. Instead, it was governed as separately administered area, and Finland retained its own (laws of the realm of Sweden) laws. The inclusion in the Russian Empire compelled the elite of Finland to deliberate their national identity; they had to determine whether they remained Swedes or became Finns or Russians. The elite chose to become Finns, which may seem obvious from the nowadays perspective, but it cannot be taken for granted that the Swedish speaking and noble elite converted their local Finnish identity into a new national identity. The basis of this study is constructive in a sense that identity is not seen as stable and constant. Theoretical background lies on Stuart Hall s writings on national identity, which offer good practical methods to study national identity. According to Hall identity is based mainly on difference , difference to others . In practice this means how elite began to define themselves in contrast to Swedes and Russians. The Finnish national identity was constructed in contrast to Swedes due to the political reasons. In order to avoid Russians suspicions Finns had to diverge from Sweden. Sweden had also gone trough coup d état, which was disliked by the elite of Finland. However, the attitudes of the elite towards Sweden remained somewhat ambiguous. Even if it was politically and rationally thinking wisest to draw away from Sweden, emotionally it was difficult. Russia, on the other hand, had been for centuries the archenemy of the Finns as well as all the Swedes. The fear of the Russians was mainly imaginary. Russians were seen as cruel barbarians who hated and resented Finns. The Finnish national identity was constructed above all in contrast to the Russians, for the difference to Russia was seen as a precondition for the existence of Finland. Respectively, the new position of Finland also required approaching towards Russia, which was in its nature very pragmatic. The elite contrived to get rid off its prejudice against Russians on intellectual level, but not on emotional level. At the beginning of the autonomy the primary loyalty of the elite was directed into the Finnish fatherland and its habitants. This was a radical ideological change, because traditionally the loyalty of the elite had focused on monarch and monarch s realm. However, the role of Alexander I was crucial. According to the elite the emperor had granted them a new fatherland. The former native country (Finland) was seen as a new fatherland instead of Sweden. The loyalty of the elite to the emperor generated from the reciprocal gratitude; Alexander I had treated their native country so mercifully. The elite felt strong personal responsibility for Finland s existence. The elite believed that the future of Finland rested on their shoulders. Alexander I had given them fatherland, but it was in the hands of the elite to construct the Finnish state and national spirit. The study of the Finnish national identity brings forth also that the national identity was constructed by emphasizing Finns civic rights. The civic rights were essential part of the construction of the Finnish national identity, for the difference between Finns and Russians was based on Finns own laws and privileges, which the emperor of the Russia had ensured.
  • Obatnin, Gennady (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
    The subject of this work is the mysticism of Russian poet, critic and philosopher Vjacheslav Ivanov (1866-1949). The approach adopted involves the textual and discourse analysis and findings of the history of ideas. The subject has been considered important because of Ivanov's visions of his dead wife, writer Lydia Zinovieva-Annibal, which were combined with audible messages ("automatic writings"). Several automatic writings and descriptions of the visions from Ivanov's archive collections in St.Petersburg and Moscow are presented in this work. Right after the beginning of his hallucinations in the autumn of 1907, Ivanov was totally captivated by the theosophical ideas of Anna Mintslova, the background figure for this work. Anna Mintslova, a disciple of Rudolf Steiner's Esoteric School, offered Ivanov the theosophical concept of initiation to interpret paranormal phenomena in his intimate life. The work is divided into three main chapters, an introduction and aconclusion. The first chapter is called The Mystical Person: Anthropology of Ivanov and describes the role of the inner "Higher Self" in Ivanov's views on the nature of human consciousness. The political implications of the concepts, "mystical anarchism" and "sobornost" (religious unity) are also examined. The acquaintance and contacts with Anna Mintslova during 1906-1907 gave a framework to Ivanov's search for an organic society and personal religious experience. The second part, Mystics of Initiation and Visionary Aesthetics describes the influence of the initiation concept on Ivanov's aesthetic views (mainly "realistic symbolism"). On the other hand, some connections between the imagery of his visions and symbols in his verses of that period are established. Since Mintslova represented the ideas of Rudolf Steiner in Russia, several symbols shared by Steiner and Ivanov ("rose", "rose and cross") have been another subject of investigation. The preference for strict verse form in the lyrics of Ivanov's visionary period is interpreted as an attempt to place his own poetic creation within two traditions, a mystical and literary one. The third part of this work, Mystics of Hope and Terror, examines Ivanov's conception of Russia in connection with Mintslova's ideas of occult danger from the East. Ivanov's view of the "Russian idea" and his nationalistic idea during World War I are considered as a representation of the fear of the danger. Ivanov's interpretation of the October revolution is influenced by the theosophical concept of the "keeper of the threshold" which occurs in the context of the discourse of occult danger.
  • Kekäläinen, Markku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The doctoral dissertation James Boswell s Urban Experience in Eighteenth-Century London aims to reconstruct Boswell s urban experience according to five central themes. First, the distinction between country and city; secondly, the reception of the city as the imaginative reflection of multiplicities; thirdly, the city as a source of spectacular pleasure; fourthly, the metropolis as a scene of theatrical politeness; and finally, the metropolis as a locale of the libertine eroticism. The central argument of the thesis is that Boswell s urban experience included two culturally distant elements: the romantic sensibility on the one hand and the early modern, strongly aristocratic set of values and predilections on the other. Boswell s theory of politeness was possibly the most distinctive element of his urban experience. In the context of early-modern and eighteenth-century discussions about civility his conception of politeness had two seemingly inconsistent elements: its milieu was urban but its content was principally from the courtly code of politeness. Boswell was, like Joseph Addison or Samuel Johnson, a London gentleman of clubs and coffee-houses, but his principles of politeness had some typically courtly features and his ideal gentleman had obvious resemblances with the renaissance and baroque courtier. A significant detail in Boswell s gentlemanly figure was his libertine sexuality which can be seen as a logical element of his aristocratic ideal. The crucial characteristics were focused on the question of authenticity and theatricality. For Boswell, the art of pleasing was fundamentally a theatrical display, and he recognized the public self as an aesthetic artifact, a work of art which was a result of active fashioning of the self.
  • Tapper , Janne (2012)
    The subject of my doctoral thesis is the social contextuality of Finnish theater director, Jouko Turkka's (b. 1942) educational tenure in the Theater Academy of Finland 1982 1985. Jouko Turkka announced in the opening speech of his rectorship in 1982 that Finnish society had undergone a social shift into a new cultural age, and that actors needed new facilities like capacity, flexibility, and ability for renewal in their work. My sociological research reveals that Turkka adapted cultural practices and norms of new capitalism and new liberalism, and built a performance environment for actors' educational work, a real life simulation of a new capitalist workplace. Actors educational praxis became a cultural performance, a media spectacle. Turkka's tenure became the most commented upon and discussed era in Finnish postwar theater history. The sociological method of my thesis is to compare information of sociological research literature about new capitalist work, and Turkka's educational theater work. In regard to the conceptions of legitimation, time, dynamics, knowledge, and social narrative consubstantial changes occurred simultaneously in both contexts of workplace. I adapt systems and chaos theory's concepts and modules when researching how a theatrical performance self-organizes in a complex social space and the space of Information. Ilya Prigogine's chaos theoretic concept, fluctuation, is the central social and aesthetic concept of my thesis. The chaos theoretic conception of the world was reflected in actors' pedagogy and organizational renewals: the state of far from equilibrium was the prerequisite of creativity and progress. I interpret the social and theater's aesthetical fluctuations as the cultural metaphor of new capitalism. I define the wide cultural feedback created by Turkka's tenure of educational praxis, and ideas adapted from the social context into theater education, as an autopoietic communicative process between theater education and society: as a black box, theater converted the virtual conception of the world into a concrete form of an actor's psychophysical praxis. Theater educational praxis performed socially contextual meanings referring to a subject's position in the social change of 1980s Finland. My other theoretic framework lies close to the American performance theory, with its close ties to the social sciences, and to the tradition of rhetoric and communication: theater's rhetorical utility materializes quotidian cultural practices in a theatrical performance, and helps the audience to research social situations and cultural praxis by mirroring them and creating an explanatory frame.
  • Heininen-Blomstedt, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The study examines the subjective meanings and cultural significance of the reconstruction period type house areas of the 1940s and 50s. I approach the topic within the phenomenological-hermeneutic tradition as lived space and as a planning issue. From the planning perspective the goal is to discern the important features to safeguard in order to maintain the historical narrative, the atmosphere and the appeal of a particular place. I attempt to form an understanding of the inhabitants images of place and a portrait of a changing place with the help of interviews, and to elucidate the planning ideas and the atmosphere of the place with photographs and graphic analyses. By examining the history of ideas pertaining to the suburban single-family house, the study also connects to the discussion on housing preferences. In the historiography of Finnish architecture attitudes towards reconstruction period areas have been critical for a long time. However, many of the areas attest to planning objectives, which introduced new ideas for creating unity and variation, intimate streetscapes and practical gardens. The reconstruction areas are local suburban adaptations of Garden City ideas. Post-war shortage of materials, wooden type houses and mature greenery, the continuous green of front gardens, life spreading to the yards, and the general modesty of the genius loci are characteristic features of the type house areas. In the Finnish story of urbanisation they represent a period of cultural transition and a significant, enriching milieu type in the housing stock. The suburban context as well as the housing question are both integral in the architectural interpretation of the post-war type houses. The architectural idiom of reconstruction houses centres around one chimney, and continues the development of an older plan type and the classicist cottage style type drawings of the 1920s. Notwithstanding their modernising goals and international references, the post-war type houses can be seen as part of the Nordic tradition and a regionalist phenomenon, and as variations of a theme, rather than in the framework of Functionalism or as a unified entity. As objects of planning these areas are local phenomena. To investigate the possibilities of infill building means to compare various inside and outside perspectives. The study argues that these areas should be seen in terms of milieu preservation and the quality of the human habitat. Mature neighbourhoods are valuable in the densifying city. Living close to nature means, essentially, that a direct, embodied experience makes possible an active participation in one s environment.
  • Soukola, Timo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Like an Icebreaker: The Finnish Seamen s Union as collective bargaining maverick and champion of sailors social safety 1944-1980. The Finnish Seamen's Union (FSU), which was established on a national basis in 1920, was one of the first Finnish trade unions to succeed in collective bargaining. In the early 1930s, the gains made in the late 1920s were lost, due to politically based internal rivalries, the Great Depression, and a disastrous strike. Unexpectedly the FSU survived and went on promoting the well-being of its members even during World War II. After the war the FSU was in an exceptionally favorable position to exploit the introduction of coordinated capitalism, which was based on social partnership between unions, employers and government. Torpedoes, mines and confiscations had caused severe losses to the Finnish merchant marine. Both ship-owners and government alike understood the crucial importance of using the remaining national shipping capacity effectively. The FSU could no longer be crushed, and so, in 1945, the union was allowed to turn all ocean-going Finnish ships into closed shops. The FSU also had another source of power. After the sailors of the Finnish icebreaker fleet also joined its ranks, the FSU could, in effect, block Finnish foreign trade in wintertime. From the late 1940s to the 1960s the union started and won numerous icebreaker strikes. Finnish seamen were thus granted special pension rights, reductions on income taxes and import duties, and other social privileges. The FSU could neither be controlled by union federations nor intimidated by employers or governments. The successful union and its tactically clever chairperson, Niilo Välläri, were continuously but erroneously accused of syndicalism. Välläri did not aim for socialism but wanted the Finnish seamen to get all the social benefits that capitalism could possibly offer. Välläri s policy was successfully followed by the FSU until the late 1980s when Finnish ship-owners were allowed to flag their vessels outside the national registry. Since then the FSU has been on the defensive and has yielded to pay cuts. The FSU members have not lost their social benefits, but they are under constant fear of losing their jobs to cheap foreign labor.
  • Paqvalen, Rita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The Struggle for Eros: On Love and Gender in the Pahlen Series The present dissertation examines how gender, sexuality and motherhood are constructed in the novel series Fröknarna von Pahlen (The Misses von Pahlen, I VII, 1930 1935) by the Swedish author Agnes von Krusenstjerna. The aim of the study is to analyze how the Pahlen series relates to the discourses on gender and sexuality circulating in the 1930s, and how the series opens a dialogue with the feminist thinking of the time especially with the book Lifslinjer I (Love and Marriage, 1903) by the Swedish author Ellen Key. Fröknarna von Pahlen holds a central position in the research on Agnes von Krusenstjerna partly due to the literary debate that the novel series triggered. The debate was connected to the development taking place in the Swedish society in the beginning of the 1930s, in the so-called second phase of the Modern Breakthrough. Sweden was at that time characterized by struggle over the definitions of gender, sexuality and parenthood, and this struggle is also visible in the Pahlen series. The literary debate took place in 1934 1935 and it began after an article by the modernist writer Karin Boye was published in Social-Demokraten on 28 January 1934. In her polemic article, Boye saw the Pahlen series as a sign that the family institution is on the verge of a breakdown and with it the whole moral system that has come to existence through it . Boye went on to state that Krusenstjerna only sees and describes and that she explores neither new literary forms nor new values. Boye wrote the article before the last two parts of the novel series were published, so obviously she could not discuss the utopian vision characterizing those parts. This study, however, strives to demonstrate that Krusenstjerna not only sees and describes, but that she like many of her contemporary female colleagues appears to take the request of Friedrich Nietzsche to revaluate all values seriously. Like the works of her contemporaries, Krusenstjerna s Pahlen series is marked by a double vision on the one hand a critique of the prevailing social order, and on the other hand a dream of a new world and a new human being. In this research the vision of the Pahlen series is characterized as queer in order to emphasize that the series not only criticizes the prevailing gender order and its morals, but is also open for new ways of doing gender, parenthood, and family.
  • Piispanen, Sirkku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    In my research I discuss belief legends as representations of folk morals. Doing wrong is not one s private affair because it can have consequences for the life of a whole community, and therefore, it is in a community s interest to control the conduct of its members. Belief legends have served as a means of instruction for proper behaviour. In this way a community has contributed to the socialization of its members so as to make them comply with common norms and morals. My study is focused on belief legends relating to some type of offence (a crime, an infringement or another kind of misdeed) and its consequences. I try to find out whether there are regional differences and similarities. The material consists of 3120 warning legends that have been recorded in the years 1881‒1981, mainly in Southern Savo and Southern Ostrobothnia, partly in Northern Savo and Northern Ostrobothnia. I have collected the material at the Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society. As a research method I apply discourse analysis to outline the schematic model of the legends, the superstructure, and the substance of the legends, the semantic macrostructure. Also I apply quantitative methods such as cross tabulations in order to establish regional differences and similarities in the concentrated and far abstracted semantic macrostructure of the legends. I look for explanations for the perceptions made in, above all, the cultural context but also with the view of the development of judicial history. Warning legends relating to what is wrong or right are clearly an expression of peasant folklore. The most common types of offences are violations of law and transgressions of Christian traditions and of social conduct. Transgression of Christian traditions is the most frequently committed offence in all geographical areas surveyed. Warning legends have an explicit focus on offence committed by a single person. The most common punishing figure in Southern Savo is the Devil, in Southern Ostrobothnia the Dead, in Northern Savo God, and in Northern Ostrobothnia the Dead or God. The most rigid folk morals are manifested in legends from Northern Savo, where narratives of mortal sin are more frequent than in other areas. The influence of the revivalist movements may be alleged in explanation of this phenomenon. According to these legends people living in Southern Savo are the most tolerant of those included in the study, presumably because of a more liberal revivalist movement in this area, called the Friendship movement. In folk morals women are treated more severely than men. Characteristic of the legends from Ostrobothnia is the emphasis on community, while the legends from Savo lay stress on individuality. The legends from Ostrobothnia manifest a more explicit distinction between the offence committed by a woman and one committed by a man than do legends from Savo. An explanation may be found in the prevailing industries, adherent in the division of labour between the sexes, in this region. The legends are man-centric. Women s occupations are connected with home and family, whereas men s fields of activities are wider. Women moralise each other harsher than do men. Folk morals advise people to be moderate in every sense. Through belief legends people are taught to respect human beings and the rest of creation, to obey the Christian religion and God, and to be moderate in search of wealth.