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  • Lehecka, Tomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The study examines the use of 133 recent (1945-1999; according to Stålhammar 2003) English adjective imports in a Swedish newspaper corpus from 1965-2004 (110 million words). The aim of the study is twofold: (i) to describe the special character of adjective imports and their integration process in relation to other import words as described in earlier studies, and (ii) to inspect the connection between the lexical properties and preferences of adjective imports at different linguistic levels. In particular, the study examines the covariance between the morphological properties and syntactic and collocational preferences of adjective imports. The study utilizes cluster analyses and collocation analysis in order to compare the distributional properties of each adjective form. The results show that the integration process of adjective imports is fundamentally different from that of noun imports. The formal adaptation of adjective imports takes place on the basis of morphosyntactic requirements that apply to the class of adjectives in Swedish in general. It is shown that these requirements are most applicable to grammatical agreement in number and definiteness. The practice of adaptation co-varies with a number of the lexical properties of adjective imports: etymology, morphological form, syntactic use, collocation pattern and sociopragmatic characteristics. The lexical properties discussed in the study are shown to be closely interrelated. Using a probabilistic syntactic analysis as a starting point, the study demonstrates that the subject complement (predicative) function is preferred for adjectives which preserve a foreign morphological form and, more generally, for adjectives which belong to an informal oral register as reflected by their collocation pattern. In turn, an informal lexical context and the subject complement predicative function exert comparatively little pressure on the formal adaptation of adjective imports. Thus, each lexical property of an adjective both reflects and enforces other properties at different linguistic levels. Methodologically, it is shown that a quantitative analysis conducted simultaneously on a large number of lexical units gives valuable insight into both the relationship between units within a linguistic category and the relationship between different levels of linguistic analysis.
  • Svetlikova, Ilona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Katajisto, Kati (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The emperor of our fatherland The changing national identity of the elite and the construction of the Finnish fatherland at the beginning of the autonomy This study addresses the question of changing national identity of the elite at the beginning of the autonomy (1808 1814) in Finland. Russia had conquered Finland from Sweden, but Finland was not incorporated into the Russian Empire. Instead, it was governed as separately administered area, and Finland retained its own (laws of the realm of Sweden) laws. The inclusion in the Russian Empire compelled the elite of Finland to deliberate their national identity; they had to determine whether they remained Swedes or became Finns or Russians. The elite chose to become Finns, which may seem obvious from the nowadays perspective, but it cannot be taken for granted that the Swedish speaking and noble elite converted their local Finnish identity into a new national identity. The basis of this study is constructive in a sense that identity is not seen as stable and constant. Theoretical background lies on Stuart Hall s writings on national identity, which offer good practical methods to study national identity. According to Hall identity is based mainly on difference , difference to others . In practice this means how elite began to define themselves in contrast to Swedes and Russians. The Finnish national identity was constructed in contrast to Swedes due to the political reasons. In order to avoid Russians suspicions Finns had to diverge from Sweden. Sweden had also gone trough coup d état, which was disliked by the elite of Finland. However, the attitudes of the elite towards Sweden remained somewhat ambiguous. Even if it was politically and rationally thinking wisest to draw away from Sweden, emotionally it was difficult. Russia, on the other hand, had been for centuries the archenemy of the Finns as well as all the Swedes. The fear of the Russians was mainly imaginary. Russians were seen as cruel barbarians who hated and resented Finns. The Finnish national identity was constructed above all in contrast to the Russians, for the difference to Russia was seen as a precondition for the existence of Finland. Respectively, the new position of Finland also required approaching towards Russia, which was in its nature very pragmatic. The elite contrived to get rid off its prejudice against Russians on intellectual level, but not on emotional level. At the beginning of the autonomy the primary loyalty of the elite was directed into the Finnish fatherland and its habitants. This was a radical ideological change, because traditionally the loyalty of the elite had focused on monarch and monarch s realm. However, the role of Alexander I was crucial. According to the elite the emperor had granted them a new fatherland. The former native country (Finland) was seen as a new fatherland instead of Sweden. The loyalty of the elite to the emperor generated from the reciprocal gratitude; Alexander I had treated their native country so mercifully. The elite felt strong personal responsibility for Finland s existence. The elite believed that the future of Finland rested on their shoulders. Alexander I had given them fatherland, but it was in the hands of the elite to construct the Finnish state and national spirit. The study of the Finnish national identity brings forth also that the national identity was constructed by emphasizing Finns civic rights. The civic rights were essential part of the construction of the Finnish national identity, for the difference between Finns and Russians was based on Finns own laws and privileges, which the emperor of the Russia had ensured.
  • Obatnin, Gennady (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
    The subject of this work is the mysticism of Russian poet, critic and philosopher Vjacheslav Ivanov (1866-1949). The approach adopted involves the textual and discourse analysis and findings of the history of ideas. The subject has been considered important because of Ivanov's visions of his dead wife, writer Lydia Zinovieva-Annibal, which were combined with audible messages ("automatic writings"). Several automatic writings and descriptions of the visions from Ivanov's archive collections in St.Petersburg and Moscow are presented in this work. Right after the beginning of his hallucinations in the autumn of 1907, Ivanov was totally captivated by the theosophical ideas of Anna Mintslova, the background figure for this work. Anna Mintslova, a disciple of Rudolf Steiner's Esoteric School, offered Ivanov the theosophical concept of initiation to interpret paranormal phenomena in his intimate life. The work is divided into three main chapters, an introduction and aconclusion. The first chapter is called The Mystical Person: Anthropology of Ivanov and describes the role of the inner "Higher Self" in Ivanov's views on the nature of human consciousness. The political implications of the concepts, "mystical anarchism" and "sobornost" (religious unity) are also examined. The acquaintance and contacts with Anna Mintslova during 1906-1907 gave a framework to Ivanov's search for an organic society and personal religious experience. The second part, Mystics of Initiation and Visionary Aesthetics describes the influence of the initiation concept on Ivanov's aesthetic views (mainly "realistic symbolism"). On the other hand, some connections between the imagery of his visions and symbols in his verses of that period are established. Since Mintslova represented the ideas of Rudolf Steiner in Russia, several symbols shared by Steiner and Ivanov ("rose", "rose and cross") have been another subject of investigation. The preference for strict verse form in the lyrics of Ivanov's visionary period is interpreted as an attempt to place his own poetic creation within two traditions, a mystical and literary one. The third part of this work, Mystics of Hope and Terror, examines Ivanov's conception of Russia in connection with Mintslova's ideas of occult danger from the East. Ivanov's view of the "Russian idea" and his nationalistic idea during World War I are considered as a representation of the fear of the danger. Ivanov's interpretation of the October revolution is influenced by the theosophical concept of the "keeper of the threshold" which occurs in the context of the discourse of occult danger.
  • Kekäläinen, Markku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The doctoral dissertation James Boswell s Urban Experience in Eighteenth-Century London aims to reconstruct Boswell s urban experience according to five central themes. First, the distinction between country and city; secondly, the reception of the city as the imaginative reflection of multiplicities; thirdly, the city as a source of spectacular pleasure; fourthly, the metropolis as a scene of theatrical politeness; and finally, the metropolis as a locale of the libertine eroticism. The central argument of the thesis is that Boswell s urban experience included two culturally distant elements: the romantic sensibility on the one hand and the early modern, strongly aristocratic set of values and predilections on the other. Boswell s theory of politeness was possibly the most distinctive element of his urban experience. In the context of early-modern and eighteenth-century discussions about civility his conception of politeness had two seemingly inconsistent elements: its milieu was urban but its content was principally from the courtly code of politeness. Boswell was, like Joseph Addison or Samuel Johnson, a London gentleman of clubs and coffee-houses, but his principles of politeness had some typically courtly features and his ideal gentleman had obvious resemblances with the renaissance and baroque courtier. A significant detail in Boswell s gentlemanly figure was his libertine sexuality which can be seen as a logical element of his aristocratic ideal. The crucial characteristics were focused on the question of authenticity and theatricality. For Boswell, the art of pleasing was fundamentally a theatrical display, and he recognized the public self as an aesthetic artifact, a work of art which was a result of active fashioning of the self.
  • Reimann, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In Estonian jazz history, the period from 1944 to 1953 was dynamic and contradictory, when the official status of jazz changed from a highly prized musical form during the postwar era to musica non grata by 1950. While jazz symbolised victory and friendship with the Allies in the immediate postwar period, subsequent Soviet ideological campaigns targeted jazz as the focus of Soviet ideological attacks against the entire Western world and its values. Despite Soviet power s attempts to obliterate jazz from cultural life, rather than disappear, jazz music moved into more secret private spaces. Known as Sovietisation in Estonian history and as Late-Stalinism in Soviet history, this period witnessed extensive social changes in Estonia. On the one hand, throughout this era, the Soviet occupying regime aimed consolidate its power base. On the other hand, Late-Stalinism is known for its intense ideological pressure, which for creative intelligence meant a tightening of creative freedom established through the ideological doctrine of Zhdanovshchina. This article-based dissertation on Soviet Estonian jazz history offers new insights into the meaning of this popular cultural form of Western origin and how it functions in the Soviet society. I argue that the meaning of jazz culture in Soviet Estonia emerges from the dynamic interaction between Soviet socio-political forces, the actions of cultural agents and the traditions of jazz culture. As the study demonstrates, the Great Friendship decree of 1948 led to the rupture of the music and the disappearance of the word jazz from the public space. However, cultural actors who selected their strategies of action from the available cultural repertoire played the crucial role in shaping jazz culture. The study s focus on the everyday life of jazz musicians reveals that self-actualisation was the driving force feeding their motivation. The musicians everyday strategies for self-actualisation include touring, musical learning and listening, ritualising, humour, inventiveness, curiosity, dedication, and intellectualising jazz. Our current understanding of jazz tradition is related to what can be called the jazz-as-a-tradition paradigm. This paradigm refers to a relatively recently constructed overarching American-centred narrative which historians, critics and musicians have consistently drawn around jazz. The example of Estonian jazz tries to reconstruct the jazz-as-a-tradition paradigm and to create its own array of cultural and historical meanings. The important schemata identifying jazz in Estonia are classical/light, professional/amateur, bourgeois/proletarian, swing/bebop, and dance/concert. In addition, I aim to provide theoretical schemata for investigating and interpreting jazz culture under the Soviet regime. I expect these schemata to facilitate our understaning of the particularities of the Soviet cultural model and the translation of the essence of jazz culture in Soviet Estonia to a broader international readership. As a primary conceptual outcome of my dissertation, I propose a holistic framework called cultural spaces of action . This framework advances the sociological model of private/public distinction, which is of crucial importance in understanding Soviet society. Instead of a simplistic dualistic model, I provide a four-dimensional framework which highlights (1) the interaction of jazz culture and state power, and (2) the distinction of forms within jazz culture. According to this model, jazz culture existed as journalistic discourse, as professional concert music, as amateur dance music, and as an intellectualised formal educational practice. The benefit of the model is its ability to avoid the common strategies of confrontation between Soviet power and culture , where power is perceived to supress creative people, and to disclose the paradoxical nature of jazz in the Soviet Union, where jazz was concurrently forbidden, but never silent. This interdisciplinary study benefits from multiple research traditions; it subscribes to the principles of New Cultural History in its emphasis on meaning and interpretations. These interpretations are guided by the central ideas of constructionist history, which states that history stems from the dialogue between the historian and the past, born of the historian s imaginative and constructive engagement with the evidence. As a study of a global musical form in a national historical context and under regional socio-political conditions, it deploys the ideas of transnational history: the study decentralises the idea of the national and amalgamates perspectives and contexts of Estonian, Soviet and jazz historiographical traditions. The methodological approach also includes microhistory the intensive historical investigation of a relatively well-defined smaller object. I refer to source pluralism as the main research method, as it combines fragments from various sources including archival materials (radio broadcasts, newspapers), and interviews, as well as the recorded memories and the private documents of the people who experienced Soviet life.
  • Tapper , Janne (2012)
    The subject of my doctoral thesis is the social contextuality of Finnish theater director, Jouko Turkka's (b. 1942) educational tenure in the Theater Academy of Finland 1982 1985. Jouko Turkka announced in the opening speech of his rectorship in 1982 that Finnish society had undergone a social shift into a new cultural age, and that actors needed new facilities like capacity, flexibility, and ability for renewal in their work. My sociological research reveals that Turkka adapted cultural practices and norms of new capitalism and new liberalism, and built a performance environment for actors' educational work, a real life simulation of a new capitalist workplace. Actors educational praxis became a cultural performance, a media spectacle. Turkka's tenure became the most commented upon and discussed era in Finnish postwar theater history. The sociological method of my thesis is to compare information of sociological research literature about new capitalist work, and Turkka's educational theater work. In regard to the conceptions of legitimation, time, dynamics, knowledge, and social narrative consubstantial changes occurred simultaneously in both contexts of workplace. I adapt systems and chaos theory's concepts and modules when researching how a theatrical performance self-organizes in a complex social space and the space of Information. Ilya Prigogine's chaos theoretic concept, fluctuation, is the central social and aesthetic concept of my thesis. The chaos theoretic conception of the world was reflected in actors' pedagogy and organizational renewals: the state of far from equilibrium was the prerequisite of creativity and progress. I interpret the social and theater's aesthetical fluctuations as the cultural metaphor of new capitalism. I define the wide cultural feedback created by Turkka's tenure of educational praxis, and ideas adapted from the social context into theater education, as an autopoietic communicative process between theater education and society: as a black box, theater converted the virtual conception of the world into a concrete form of an actor's psychophysical praxis. Theater educational praxis performed socially contextual meanings referring to a subject's position in the social change of 1980s Finland. My other theoretic framework lies close to the American performance theory, with its close ties to the social sciences, and to the tradition of rhetoric and communication: theater's rhetorical utility materializes quotidian cultural practices in a theatrical performance, and helps the audience to research social situations and cultural praxis by mirroring them and creating an explanatory frame.
  • Heininen-Blomstedt, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The study examines the subjective meanings and cultural significance of the reconstruction period type house areas of the 1940s and 50s. I approach the topic within the phenomenological-hermeneutic tradition as lived space and as a planning issue. From the planning perspective the goal is to discern the important features to safeguard in order to maintain the historical narrative, the atmosphere and the appeal of a particular place. I attempt to form an understanding of the inhabitants images of place and a portrait of a changing place with the help of interviews, and to elucidate the planning ideas and the atmosphere of the place with photographs and graphic analyses. By examining the history of ideas pertaining to the suburban single-family house, the study also connects to the discussion on housing preferences. In the historiography of Finnish architecture attitudes towards reconstruction period areas have been critical for a long time. However, many of the areas attest to planning objectives, which introduced new ideas for creating unity and variation, intimate streetscapes and practical gardens. The reconstruction areas are local suburban adaptations of Garden City ideas. Post-war shortage of materials, wooden type houses and mature greenery, the continuous green of front gardens, life spreading to the yards, and the general modesty of the genius loci are characteristic features of the type house areas. In the Finnish story of urbanisation they represent a period of cultural transition and a significant, enriching milieu type in the housing stock. The suburban context as well as the housing question are both integral in the architectural interpretation of the post-war type houses. The architectural idiom of reconstruction houses centres around one chimney, and continues the development of an older plan type and the classicist cottage style type drawings of the 1920s. Notwithstanding their modernising goals and international references, the post-war type houses can be seen as part of the Nordic tradition and a regionalist phenomenon, and as variations of a theme, rather than in the framework of Functionalism or as a unified entity. As objects of planning these areas are local phenomena. To investigate the possibilities of infill building means to compare various inside and outside perspectives. The study argues that these areas should be seen in terms of milieu preservation and the quality of the human habitat. Mature neighbourhoods are valuable in the densifying city. Living close to nature means, essentially, that a direct, embodied experience makes possible an active participation in one s environment.
  • Soukola, Timo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Like an Icebreaker: The Finnish Seamen s Union as collective bargaining maverick and champion of sailors social safety 1944-1980. The Finnish Seamen's Union (FSU), which was established on a national basis in 1920, was one of the first Finnish trade unions to succeed in collective bargaining. In the early 1930s, the gains made in the late 1920s were lost, due to politically based internal rivalries, the Great Depression, and a disastrous strike. Unexpectedly the FSU survived and went on promoting the well-being of its members even during World War II. After the war the FSU was in an exceptionally favorable position to exploit the introduction of coordinated capitalism, which was based on social partnership between unions, employers and government. Torpedoes, mines and confiscations had caused severe losses to the Finnish merchant marine. Both ship-owners and government alike understood the crucial importance of using the remaining national shipping capacity effectively. The FSU could no longer be crushed, and so, in 1945, the union was allowed to turn all ocean-going Finnish ships into closed shops. The FSU also had another source of power. After the sailors of the Finnish icebreaker fleet also joined its ranks, the FSU could, in effect, block Finnish foreign trade in wintertime. From the late 1940s to the 1960s the union started and won numerous icebreaker strikes. Finnish seamen were thus granted special pension rights, reductions on income taxes and import duties, and other social privileges. The FSU could neither be controlled by union federations nor intimidated by employers or governments. The successful union and its tactically clever chairperson, Niilo Välläri, were continuously but erroneously accused of syndicalism. Välläri did not aim for socialism but wanted the Finnish seamen to get all the social benefits that capitalism could possibly offer. Välläri s policy was successfully followed by the FSU until the late 1980s when Finnish ship-owners were allowed to flag their vessels outside the national registry. Since then the FSU has been on the defensive and has yielded to pay cuts. The FSU members have not lost their social benefits, but they are under constant fear of losing their jobs to cheap foreign labor.
  • Paqvalen, Rita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The Struggle for Eros: On Love and Gender in the Pahlen Series The present dissertation examines how gender, sexuality and motherhood are constructed in the novel series Fröknarna von Pahlen (The Misses von Pahlen, I VII, 1930 1935) by the Swedish author Agnes von Krusenstjerna. The aim of the study is to analyze how the Pahlen series relates to the discourses on gender and sexuality circulating in the 1930s, and how the series opens a dialogue with the feminist thinking of the time especially with the book Lifslinjer I (Love and Marriage, 1903) by the Swedish author Ellen Key. Fröknarna von Pahlen holds a central position in the research on Agnes von Krusenstjerna partly due to the literary debate that the novel series triggered. The debate was connected to the development taking place in the Swedish society in the beginning of the 1930s, in the so-called second phase of the Modern Breakthrough. Sweden was at that time characterized by struggle over the definitions of gender, sexuality and parenthood, and this struggle is also visible in the Pahlen series. The literary debate took place in 1934 1935 and it began after an article by the modernist writer Karin Boye was published in Social-Demokraten on 28 January 1934. In her polemic article, Boye saw the Pahlen series as a sign that the family institution is on the verge of a breakdown and with it the whole moral system that has come to existence through it . Boye went on to state that Krusenstjerna only sees and describes and that she explores neither new literary forms nor new values. Boye wrote the article before the last two parts of the novel series were published, so obviously she could not discuss the utopian vision characterizing those parts. This study, however, strives to demonstrate that Krusenstjerna not only sees and describes, but that she like many of her contemporary female colleagues appears to take the request of Friedrich Nietzsche to revaluate all values seriously. Like the works of her contemporaries, Krusenstjerna s Pahlen series is marked by a double vision on the one hand a critique of the prevailing social order, and on the other hand a dream of a new world and a new human being. In this research the vision of the Pahlen series is characterized as queer in order to emphasize that the series not only criticizes the prevailing gender order and its morals, but is also open for new ways of doing gender, parenthood, and family.
  • Piispanen, Sirkku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    In my research I discuss belief legends as representations of folk morals. Doing wrong is not one s private affair because it can have consequences for the life of a whole community, and therefore, it is in a community s interest to control the conduct of its members. Belief legends have served as a means of instruction for proper behaviour. In this way a community has contributed to the socialization of its members so as to make them comply with common norms and morals. My study is focused on belief legends relating to some type of offence (a crime, an infringement or another kind of misdeed) and its consequences. I try to find out whether there are regional differences and similarities. The material consists of 3120 warning legends that have been recorded in the years 1881‒1981, mainly in Southern Savo and Southern Ostrobothnia, partly in Northern Savo and Northern Ostrobothnia. I have collected the material at the Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society. As a research method I apply discourse analysis to outline the schematic model of the legends, the superstructure, and the substance of the legends, the semantic macrostructure. Also I apply quantitative methods such as cross tabulations in order to establish regional differences and similarities in the concentrated and far abstracted semantic macrostructure of the legends. I look for explanations for the perceptions made in, above all, the cultural context but also with the view of the development of judicial history. Warning legends relating to what is wrong or right are clearly an expression of peasant folklore. The most common types of offences are violations of law and transgressions of Christian traditions and of social conduct. Transgression of Christian traditions is the most frequently committed offence in all geographical areas surveyed. Warning legends have an explicit focus on offence committed by a single person. The most common punishing figure in Southern Savo is the Devil, in Southern Ostrobothnia the Dead, in Northern Savo God, and in Northern Ostrobothnia the Dead or God. The most rigid folk morals are manifested in legends from Northern Savo, where narratives of mortal sin are more frequent than in other areas. The influence of the revivalist movements may be alleged in explanation of this phenomenon. According to these legends people living in Southern Savo are the most tolerant of those included in the study, presumably because of a more liberal revivalist movement in this area, called the Friendship movement. In folk morals women are treated more severely than men. Characteristic of the legends from Ostrobothnia is the emphasis on community, while the legends from Savo lay stress on individuality. The legends from Ostrobothnia manifest a more explicit distinction between the offence committed by a woman and one committed by a man than do legends from Savo. An explanation may be found in the prevailing industries, adherent in the division of labour between the sexes, in this region. The legends are man-centric. Women s occupations are connected with home and family, whereas men s fields of activities are wider. Women moralise each other harsher than do men. Folk morals advise people to be moderate in every sense. Through belief legends people are taught to respect human beings and the rest of creation, to obey the Christian religion and God, and to be moderate in search of wealth.
  • Tapaninen, Irma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation examines Finnish writer Algot Untola's (1868-1918) artistic mission in writing his first novel Harhama and presents a new interpretation. The research task focused on understanding the logic of his creative activity between the years 1906-1909. According to the main hypothesis Harhama and his other writings belong to the carnivalesque genre, which is always opposed to the mainstream culture of the era. The study applies Mikhail Bakhtin's language and literary theory to demonstrate the interaction between Untola's writings and the writings of other authors. The study investigates the value and meaning context in which Untola wrote Harhama, the values and meanings that Untola introduces in Harhama, and the value and meaning context where Harhama has been received. Harhama provides the most important research data, while the sequel Martva was a secondary source. Untola's newspaper articles of the same period are also important data as well as texts that have dealt with Untola or his writings during the research period in 1906 to 1909. One of the most important perspectives based on Bakhtin s theory has been an important theme in carnivalesque literature: the struggle between an official serious culture and unofficial comic culture. In Harhama Untola wrote from the perspective of traditional Finnish agrarian culture and attempted discourse with the national high culture. The study examines the carnival features of Harhama. It is a Menippean satire which includes a hidden polemic toward different philosophical and ideological trends. Harhama was Untola's statement commenting on topical cultural issues. He discussed in particular the ideas that characterized the radical cultural youth: political activism, free love and symbolist/decadent literature. The analysis in a broad context illuminates Untola's critical attitude toward these ideas. Untola was a dissident, which is why Harhama as well as his other texts caused much debate. The reception of Harhama linked to the struggle between liberal and conservative nationalist Finns. Untola s worldview was originally close to conservative nationalist thinking. The nationalist elite and Untola had, however, a big difference in their attitudes toward lower class people. In particular, this difference was reflected in morality and culture-related issues. Previous studies on Untola's writings and activity interpreted them from the cultural elite point of view. This study turns that perspective upside down and illuminates how Untola saw society. Thus, it also gives a new perspective on Finnish history.
  • Donner, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines the formation of the domestic garden in Finland 1870-1930. The purpose is to open new perspectives into how gardens, especially domestic gardens, served as a tool in building of the new nation and at the same time to explore the role of women in the process. The study is based on biographical material concerning Aino Sibelius (1871-1969) and her garden in Ainola, Järvenpää and the garden writing of Jenny Elfving (1870-1950), a teacher and prominent actor in the field of horticulture. Contemporary garden literature and articles in newspapers and magazines also served as material for this inquiry. Popular enlightenment was an essential part of the project of nation building. The notion of gardening as a tool for improving the people became one of its topics and spread widely in Finland in the last decades of the 19th century. A new type of garden for the people took shape in the popular garden literature that was published by the end of the century. This discussion links homes, gardens and women together. The analysis of Jenny Elfving´s and Aino Sibelius´s agency shows that women played vital role in the formation of the domestic garden. By hoeing and weeding, planting and tending, writing and teaching these two women defined the garden´s physical and intellectual boundaries. Their work in and for the gardens formed and reflected meanings that society assigned to gardens. Through this process the vegetable patch intended as the place for women, grew into a domestic garden, which became associated with the tools of craft and design, utility and beauty and feelings as well as the work done in the garden.
  • Hautsalo, Liisamaija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    L Amour de loin: The semantics of the unattainable in Kaija Saariaho s opera Kaija Saariaho (born 1952) is one of the most internationally successful Finnish composers there has ever been. Her first opera L Amour de loin (Love from afar, 1999-2000) has been staged all over the world and has won a number of important prizes. The libretto written for L Amour de loin by Amin Malouf (born 1949) sets the work firmly in the culture of courtly love and the troubadours, which flourished in Occitania in the South of France during the Middle Ages. The male lead in the opera is the troubadour Jaufré Rudel, who lived in the twelfth century and is known to have taken part in the Second Crusade in 1147-1148. This doctoral thesis L Amour de loin: The semantics of the unattainable in Kaija Saariaho s opera, which comes within the field of musicology and opera research, examines the dimensions of meaning contained in Kaija Saariaho s opera L Amour de loin. This hermeneutic-semiotic study is the first doctoral thesis dealing with Saariaho to be completed at the University of Helsinki. It is also the first thesis-level study of Saariaho s opera to be completed anywhere in the world. The study focuses on the libretto and music of the opera, that is to say the dramatic text (L Amour de loin 1980), and examines on the one hand the dimensions of meaning produced by the dramatic text and on the other, the way in which they fix the dramatic text in a historical and cultural context. Thus the study helps to answer questions about the dimensions of meaning contained in the dramatic text of the opera and how they can be interpreted. The most important procedural viewpoint is Lawrence Kramer s hermeneutic window (1990), supplemented by Raymond Monelle s semiotic theory of musical topics (2000, 2006) and the philosophical concept of Emmanuel Levinas (1996, 2002) in which the latter acts as an instrument for semantic interpretation to build up an analysis. The analytical section of the study is built around the three characters in the opera, Jaufré Rudel, Clémence the Countess of Tripoli, and the Pilgrim. The study shows that the music of Saariaho, who belongs to the third generation of Finnish modernists, has become distanced from the post-serial aesthetic towards a more diatonic form of expression. There is diatonicity, for instance, in the sonorous individuality of the male lead, which is based on the actual melodies of the historical Jaufré Rudel. The use of outside material in this context is exceptional in the work of Saariaho. At the same time, Saariaho s opera contains a wealth of expressive devices she has used in her earlier work. It became apparent during the study that, as a piece of music, L Amour de loin is a many layered and multi-dimensional work that does not unambiguously represent any single stylistic trend or aesthetic. Despite the composer s post-serial background and its abrasive relationship with opera, L Amour de loin is firmly attached to the tradition of western opera. The analysis based on the theory of musical topics that was carried out in the study, shows that topics referring to death and resurrection, used in opera since the seventeenth century, appear in L Amour de loin. The troubadour topic, mainly identified with the harp, also emerges in the work. The study also shows that the work is firmly attached to the tradition of western opera in other aspects, too, such as the travesti or trouser role played by the Pilgrim, and the idea of deus ex machina derived from Ancient Greek theatre. The study shows that the concept of love based on the medieval practices of courtly love, and the associated longing for another defined by almost 1,000 years of western culture, are both manifested in the semantics of Kaija Saariaho s opera which takes its place in the contemporary music genre.
  • Vuorikuru, Silja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    At the Gate of the Temple of Beauty. Aino Kallas' Oeuvre and the Biblical Subtext. This study deals with the intertextual relationship between Aino Kallas oeuvre and the Bible. In this study, the Bible is understood as a general subtext of Kallas works. Aino Kallas (former Krohn, 1878-1956) was a Finnish-Estonian author, whose oeuvre nowadays is a part of the literary canons of both countries. Her role in the canon is, however, considered differently in Finland and in Estonia. The notion of intertextuality has been redefined several times in the past decades. In this study, intertextuality is, mainly, understood as a practical tool for analysing texts (e.g. K. Taranovski, H. F. Plett, W. Müller). In the previous body of research, the role of the Bible in Kallas oeuvre has been seen in a much smaller role than in this study. It has previously been suggested, that Kallas imitated a biblical style mainly in her historical stories of the 1920s. Primarily, imitation of the biblical style has been seen as a feature of her so-called archaic style. In this study, the biblical subtext is considered as one of the most significant features in Kallas works, opening up whole new interpretations of her stories. The most essential works in this study are Kallas novels, short stories and plays between the years of 1910 and 1937. In 1904, Aino Kallas published her first work set in an Estonian milieu. Soon after that, she began to search for new forms of literary expression. This period is currently known as the literary crisis of Aino Kallas (between the years of 1908 and 1912). In this study, it is argued that Kallas started to use the Bible as a general subtext in her works during the years of her literary crisis . The earliest and also the strongest indication of this is her biblical poetic play Bathseba (1910). For Aino Kallas, writing Bathseba was an ambitious project. However, at the time, the play was not considered to be of any merit and was not published. It was also believed to be totally lost, until the author of this study came across it in the archives of the Estonian Literary Museum (2008). In the 1910s and 1920s, Aino Kallas published several short stories with strong intertextual connections to biblical myths. The best-known part of Kallas oeuvre is her historical stories of the 1920s and 1930s, which also are analysed in the present study. In the 1940s, Kallas published three works of poetry, in which she returned to the traces of her early Bathseba. She, for example, uses the biblical subtext in a way characteristic only of Bathseba: by imitating the style of the poetry of the Old Testament. Aino Kallas oeuvre has been studied largely in Finland and in Estonia. However, these previous studies have had a contextual and a bibliographical orientation towards the subject. This dissertation is the first text-orientated, intertextual study of Kallas works. It is also the first monograph which deals with the intertextual relationship between the Bible and the oeuvre of a Finnish female author. Key words: Aino Kallas, intertextuality, biblical subtext, Finnish literature, Estonian literature
  • Keski-Rauska, Riku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Georg C. Ehrnrooth (1926-2010), Lawyer and Licentiate in Law, was one of the most well-known right-wing opposition politicians during the Presidency of Urho Kekkonen. His career in national politics started in the Swedish People s Party, where he became well known as an opponent of Urho Kekkonen and Communism. He was also known as a defendant of parliamentarianism and an advocate for the Nordic rule of law. As a long-time member of the Helsinki City Council, Ehrnrooth was known for his special interest in the social problems of the elderly. This thesis, a partial biography written using the traditional historical research method, examines the political involvement of Ehrnrooth during 1945-1982. The core issues researched in this study are Ehrnrooth s involvement in national politics as well as the development of his profile as a political opponent of Kekkonen and Communism. The development of Ehrnrooth s image and political career can begin to be uncovered by looking into his family, childhood, early years and education. The study pays special attention to the causes of Ehrnrooths political awakening and the formation of his political inclination. In addition to societal factors, research is conducted on other determining reasons for his political involvement such as psychological factors, family background and the environment he was brought up in. The activity leading up to Ehrnrooths political marginalization is studied by examining political harmony during the era as well as Cold War culture. The central questions of my thesis are: What factors caused the development of Ehrnrooths persona and political thinking? From where did his opposition to Kekkonen and Communism originate? Why did he continue on his political line, even though it caused his political marginalization? The most significant sources of data for the thesis are the Georg C. Ehrnrooth archives at the National Library, documents obtained directly from Georg C. Ehrnrooth and personal interviews and documents kept in several political party archives. In my thesis, I argue that the foundation of Georg C. Ehrnrooths inclination to the opposition of Communism and Kekkonen lies within his family roots, his future political inheritance and the societal events that took place between 1939-1946 in both Finnish society and his family life. The tradition of Christian-patriotism and the rule of law stems from his family, and ultimately leads to the development of his political thinking in combination with the resolutions that took place after World War II. In terms of his opposition to Kekkonen and Communism, the most significant event that took place was the war crime trials. In terms of the evolution of his political career, it was Ehrnrooths uncompromising character, criticism of Finlands official foreign policy and his steadfast belief in his own political disposition that led to his political marginalization - in reality this meant the weakening of possibilities for cooperation and falling outside the nucleus of the government. In addition to these other factors, Ehrnrooths political marginalization was also impacted by his western contacts and his settlement on the side of the United States in the confrontations of the Cold War.
  • Pallaskallio, Ritva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The news genre is generally defined by a strong demand of objectivity. Objectivity, on the other hand, is a more or less vague concept connected to neutrality, factuality and impersonality. The present study deals with the idea of objectivity from a diachronic point of view. More specifically, it highlights the linguistic means by which objectivity is construed in news texts from the 19th century to the present day. This doctoral dissertation examines tense usage in Finnish disaster news texts from the 1860´s to 2004. The study investigates the kinds of meanings associated with the use of tenses in the news text and the reasons for differing use of tenses during the time investigated. In addition, through grammatical and textual analysis, it describes changes in news writing conventions. Also relevant are approaches to text analysis taken in communication and literature studies. The data comprises 49 news texts and 9 800 finite verbs in 29 news events during 145 years. The structure of the news genre is seen as a dynamic interplay of two parallel traditions: dissemination of information and storytelling. The study demonstrates that this interplay is reflected in the disaster news conventions through the varying presence of two different discourse frames: perceiving and narrating. The changing relations of the discourse frames manifested are investigated by looking at the changes in tense usage as well as other deictic elements. It is argued that there are four different layers in disaster news production. What is more, every series of events reported is perceived through the eyes of someone who has participated in the original events. The study shows how a similar patterning of the production process is present in every disaster news text, but at different times different stages of the process are highlighted in the news texts. As a result, the data is divided into four different periods on the basis of tense usage and tense occurrence as well as the reporting style: the period of narrative news (1860−1892), the period of news room reporting (1903−1924), the period of news reportage (1929−1959), and finally, the period of factual news (1964−2004). The diachronic tense variation in disaster news text can thus be seen as reflecting the different aims and operating methods of the media at different times.
  • Tuomaala, Salome (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The present study focuses on the question of agency in the narratives of women who have experienced an abortion. The study scrutinizes agency by analyzing narratives and their context, that is, how narratives are entwined with cultural discourses and societal practices. The study thus addresses also the wider framework within which experiences and actions can be constructed in abortion narratives in the contemporary Finnish society. The women who wrote their stories or were interviewed were of different ages and had different social and religious backgrounds. Many variations of agency were found when abortion experiences were analyzed through the women s embodied and historically specific accounts. Independent and rational choices are entwined with emotions and choices made together with other people. Intimate relationships with family and friends have an important role in the choices regarding abortion. These relationships do not, however, simply belong in the private sphere but reflect the wider socio-cultural meanings of social bonds and family ties. Women s agency with regard to abortion is also constructed in encounters with the medical profession and within the wider framework of abortion legislation. The Finnish legislation grants women an abortion within certain parameters but not solely on the basis of a woman s wish to have an abortion. The data consists primarily of written narratives and interviews. All together 39 women shared their experiences with the researcher. The analysis focuses on decision-making regarding abortion, depictions of freedom and responsibility, emotions around abortion and expressions of values and religious views. The links between the women's experiences and the wider socio-cultural norms and institutions are analyzed through materials consisting of public debate on abortion in the media, ethical statements as well as literature and legislation on abortion. The analysis sheds light on the tensions apparent in the women's narratives between the legal status of abortion and more traditional views on abortion. The study demonstrates that the freedom linked to abortion is not solely to do with the right to have an abortion but also how abortion can be experienced, understood and where one can talk about the experience afterwards. The analysis reveals that Christian values shape women's experiences but that there are also new religious ways to deal with the ethical considerations brought about by abortion. Annually over 10 000 Finnish women experience an abortion, which is a situation involving ethical considerations. The study provides a nuanced account of the ways in which one can think and act when going through an abortion.
  • Vehkanen, Marjut (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    From grammar to communication: Finnish as a second and foreign language textbooks from 1866 to 1953. Marjut Vehkanen, University of Helsinki, Finland The primary sources of this study include Finnish as a second and foreign language textbooks that were published between 1866 and 1953. The corpus for the study consists of 52 Finnish as a second and foreign language textbooks targeted both at children and adult learners. The analysis focuses on the following domains: the presentation of grammar, text types, content topics and pedagogical methods. Methodologically, this study is based on close reading and content analysis of the chosen textbooks. The research questions of this dissertation are the following: - Who were the authors and the intended audience of the textbooks analysed in this dissertation, and where were these textbooks studied? - What is the role of grammar in the textbooks? How has the presentation of grammatical phenomena changed during the research period? - How are different text types used in the analysed textbooks? - What changes in the world are seen in the textual contents? - How is the development of language teaching methods reflected in the textbooks during the researched period? The study shows that the teaching of grammar occupied a very central position from 1866 to 1953; even most of the practically oriented textbooks included grammar sections. Significant differences emerged when comparing the text types among the adult textbooks. For example, the analysed corpus includes a Finnish phrasebook with phrases intended to be learnt by heart. Whereas some types of text were discontinued after the first part of the period, new types emerged, but some permanent text types were found in the books during the entire period. The study reveals how the books for adult learners offered a diverse and rich range of themes and pedagogical methods and how little the contents of the schoolbooks changed. The results of this study introduce many linguistic and historical themes for further research. For example, one topic for further study is how past authors of textbooks have approached the Finnish cases or the extent to which they have focused on combining the teaching of vocabulary and grammar in their textbooks. In addition, no research has yet been conducted to survey the pedagogical history of Finnish as a second and foreign language textbooks.
  • Honkanen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study addresses the interplay of lexico-grammatical and wider textual patterns by which directive meanings are created in an administrative genre. The data comprises 123 circular letters sent to city schools by the Helsinki City Education authority. The dialogically oriented analysis draws on the concept of genre as a dynamic nexus between an individual s actions and a socially defined context. Further tools are utilized from cognitive and systemic-functional linguistics. The study first investigates conventionalized directives as clause(-like) lexico-grammatical units, profiling the directive function of the text and the agentive role handed down to the addressee. In the data, conventionalized directives are demonstrated to have a central role in the construal of a particular functional stage, the request sequence, realized differently in the three major sub-genres recognized in the data. In the request sequence, conventionalized directives further realize two functions, distinguished by different patterns of argument structure and thematic progression. Secondly, the study focuses on co(n)textual factors influencing the use of conventionalized directives as constitutive elements of the request sequence. The analysis shows that conventionalized directives not only function as a means of formulating requests for action but also direct the addressee s attention to the requests treated as the most newsworthy by the writer. The degree of newsworthiness is reflected in the argument structure of the conventionalized directive chosen at the beginning of the request sequence. Through the argument structure, it further shapes the structure of the sequence. Finally, the study investigates the kinds of co(n)texts in which a conventionalized directive construes the addressee as the agent of the desired action in an explicit way. The analysis shows that explicit construal is sometimes used to delimit the group of desired actors. However, it is also used when the linguistic choices made indicate that the request is treated by the writer as potentially problematic. This further confirms the finding of the explicit marking of the agent as a particular kind of focusing device, allowing for the interactants to treat the request given as particularly relevant in the ongoing interaction. In conclusion, the study shows how relevant aspects of the situation are dynamically fore- and backgrounded by the participants in and through linguistic action. In this way, it advocates an approach to directive language use in written data that resembles the one advocated for spoken data by interactional linguistics. The study also adds to knowledge on municipal workplace communication, offering tools for training of administrative staff and for analyzing organizational change discourse.