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  • Keski-Rauska, Riku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Georg C. Ehrnrooth (1926-2010), Lawyer and Licentiate in Law, was one of the most well-known right-wing opposition politicians during the Presidency of Urho Kekkonen. His career in national politics started in the Swedish People s Party, where he became well known as an opponent of Urho Kekkonen and Communism. He was also known as a defendant of parliamentarianism and an advocate for the Nordic rule of law. As a long-time member of the Helsinki City Council, Ehrnrooth was known for his special interest in the social problems of the elderly. This thesis, a partial biography written using the traditional historical research method, examines the political involvement of Ehrnrooth during 1945-1982. The core issues researched in this study are Ehrnrooth s involvement in national politics as well as the development of his profile as a political opponent of Kekkonen and Communism. The development of Ehrnrooth s image and political career can begin to be uncovered by looking into his family, childhood, early years and education. The study pays special attention to the causes of Ehrnrooths political awakening and the formation of his political inclination. In addition to societal factors, research is conducted on other determining reasons for his political involvement such as psychological factors, family background and the environment he was brought up in. The activity leading up to Ehrnrooths political marginalization is studied by examining political harmony during the era as well as Cold War culture. The central questions of my thesis are: What factors caused the development of Ehrnrooths persona and political thinking? From where did his opposition to Kekkonen and Communism originate? Why did he continue on his political line, even though it caused his political marginalization? The most significant sources of data for the thesis are the Georg C. Ehrnrooth archives at the National Library, documents obtained directly from Georg C. Ehrnrooth and personal interviews and documents kept in several political party archives. In my thesis, I argue that the foundation of Georg C. Ehrnrooths inclination to the opposition of Communism and Kekkonen lies within his family roots, his future political inheritance and the societal events that took place between 1939-1946 in both Finnish society and his family life. The tradition of Christian-patriotism and the rule of law stems from his family, and ultimately leads to the development of his political thinking in combination with the resolutions that took place after World War II. In terms of his opposition to Kekkonen and Communism, the most significant event that took place was the war crime trials. In terms of the evolution of his political career, it was Ehrnrooths uncompromising character, criticism of Finlands official foreign policy and his steadfast belief in his own political disposition that led to his political marginalization - in reality this meant the weakening of possibilities for cooperation and falling outside the nucleus of the government. In addition to these other factors, Ehrnrooths political marginalization was also impacted by his western contacts and his settlement on the side of the United States in the confrontations of the Cold War.
  • Pallaskallio, Ritva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The news genre is generally defined by a strong demand of objectivity. Objectivity, on the other hand, is a more or less vague concept connected to neutrality, factuality and impersonality. The present study deals with the idea of objectivity from a diachronic point of view. More specifically, it highlights the linguistic means by which objectivity is construed in news texts from the 19th century to the present day. This doctoral dissertation examines tense usage in Finnish disaster news texts from the 1860´s to 2004. The study investigates the kinds of meanings associated with the use of tenses in the news text and the reasons for differing use of tenses during the time investigated. In addition, through grammatical and textual analysis, it describes changes in news writing conventions. Also relevant are approaches to text analysis taken in communication and literature studies. The data comprises 49 news texts and 9 800 finite verbs in 29 news events during 145 years. The structure of the news genre is seen as a dynamic interplay of two parallel traditions: dissemination of information and storytelling. The study demonstrates that this interplay is reflected in the disaster news conventions through the varying presence of two different discourse frames: perceiving and narrating. The changing relations of the discourse frames manifested are investigated by looking at the changes in tense usage as well as other deictic elements. It is argued that there are four different layers in disaster news production. What is more, every series of events reported is perceived through the eyes of someone who has participated in the original events. The study shows how a similar patterning of the production process is present in every disaster news text, but at different times different stages of the process are highlighted in the news texts. As a result, the data is divided into four different periods on the basis of tense usage and tense occurrence as well as the reporting style: the period of narrative news (1860−1892), the period of news room reporting (1903−1924), the period of news reportage (1929−1959), and finally, the period of factual news (1964−2004). The diachronic tense variation in disaster news text can thus be seen as reflecting the different aims and operating methods of the media at different times.
  • Tuomaala, Salome (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The present study focuses on the question of agency in the narratives of women who have experienced an abortion. The study scrutinizes agency by analyzing narratives and their context, that is, how narratives are entwined with cultural discourses and societal practices. The study thus addresses also the wider framework within which experiences and actions can be constructed in abortion narratives in the contemporary Finnish society. The women who wrote their stories or were interviewed were of different ages and had different social and religious backgrounds. Many variations of agency were found when abortion experiences were analyzed through the women s embodied and historically specific accounts. Independent and rational choices are entwined with emotions and choices made together with other people. Intimate relationships with family and friends have an important role in the choices regarding abortion. These relationships do not, however, simply belong in the private sphere but reflect the wider socio-cultural meanings of social bonds and family ties. Women s agency with regard to abortion is also constructed in encounters with the medical profession and within the wider framework of abortion legislation. The Finnish legislation grants women an abortion within certain parameters but not solely on the basis of a woman s wish to have an abortion. The data consists primarily of written narratives and interviews. All together 39 women shared their experiences with the researcher. The analysis focuses on decision-making regarding abortion, depictions of freedom and responsibility, emotions around abortion and expressions of values and religious views. The links between the women's experiences and the wider socio-cultural norms and institutions are analyzed through materials consisting of public debate on abortion in the media, ethical statements as well as literature and legislation on abortion. The analysis sheds light on the tensions apparent in the women's narratives between the legal status of abortion and more traditional views on abortion. The study demonstrates that the freedom linked to abortion is not solely to do with the right to have an abortion but also how abortion can be experienced, understood and where one can talk about the experience afterwards. The analysis reveals that Christian values shape women's experiences but that there are also new religious ways to deal with the ethical considerations brought about by abortion. Annually over 10 000 Finnish women experience an abortion, which is a situation involving ethical considerations. The study provides a nuanced account of the ways in which one can think and act when going through an abortion.
  • Honkanen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study addresses the interplay of lexico-grammatical and wider textual patterns by which directive meanings are created in an administrative genre. The data comprises 123 circular letters sent to city schools by the Helsinki City Education authority. The dialogically oriented analysis draws on the concept of genre as a dynamic nexus between an individual s actions and a socially defined context. Further tools are utilized from cognitive and systemic-functional linguistics. The study first investigates conventionalized directives as clause(-like) lexico-grammatical units, profiling the directive function of the text and the agentive role handed down to the addressee. In the data, conventionalized directives are demonstrated to have a central role in the construal of a particular functional stage, the request sequence, realized differently in the three major sub-genres recognized in the data. In the request sequence, conventionalized directives further realize two functions, distinguished by different patterns of argument structure and thematic progression. Secondly, the study focuses on co(n)textual factors influencing the use of conventionalized directives as constitutive elements of the request sequence. The analysis shows that conventionalized directives not only function as a means of formulating requests for action but also direct the addressee s attention to the requests treated as the most newsworthy by the writer. The degree of newsworthiness is reflected in the argument structure of the conventionalized directive chosen at the beginning of the request sequence. Through the argument structure, it further shapes the structure of the sequence. Finally, the study investigates the kinds of co(n)texts in which a conventionalized directive construes the addressee as the agent of the desired action in an explicit way. The analysis shows that explicit construal is sometimes used to delimit the group of desired actors. However, it is also used when the linguistic choices made indicate that the request is treated by the writer as potentially problematic. This further confirms the finding of the explicit marking of the agent as a particular kind of focusing device, allowing for the interactants to treat the request given as particularly relevant in the ongoing interaction. In conclusion, the study shows how relevant aspects of the situation are dynamically fore- and backgrounded by the participants in and through linguistic action. In this way, it advocates an approach to directive language use in written data that resembles the one advocated for spoken data by interactional linguistics. The study also adds to knowledge on municipal workplace communication, offering tools for training of administrative staff and for analyzing organizational change discourse.
  • Roselius, Aapo (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2011)
    Conflict, Unity, Oblivion: Commemoration of the Liberation War by the Civic Guard and the Veterans´ Union in 1918-1944 The Finnish Civil War ended in May 1918 as a victory for the white side. The war was named by the winners as the Liberation War and its legacy became a central theme for public commemorations during the interwar period. At the same time the experiences of the defeated were hindered from becoming a part of the official history of Finland. The commemoration of the war was related not only to the war experience but also to a national mission, which was seen fulfilled with the independence of Finland. Although the idea of the commemoration was to form a unifying non-political scene for the nation, the remembrance of the Liberation War rather continued than sought to reconcile to the conflict of 1918. The outbreak of the war between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939 immediately affected the memory culture. The new myth of the Miracle of the Winter War, which referred to the unity shown by the people, required a marginalization of controversial memory of the Liberation War. This study examines from the concepts of public memory and narrative templates how the problematic experience of a civil war developed to a popular public commemoration. Instead of dealing with the manipulative and elite-centered grandiose commemoration projects, the study focuses on the more modest local level and emphasizes the significance of local memory agents and narrative templates of collective memory. The main subjects in the study are the Civil Guard and the Veterans´ Union. Essential for the widespread movement was the development of the Civic Guard from a wartime organization to a peacetime popular movement. The guards, who identified themselves trough the memories and the threats of civil war, formed a huge network of memory agents in every corner of the country. They effectively linked both local memory with official memory and the civic society with the state level. Only with the emergence of the right wing veteran movement in the 30ies did the tensions grow between the two levels of public memory. The study shows the diversity of the commemoration movement of the Liberation War. It was not only a result of a nation-state project and political propaganda, but also a way for local communities to identify and strengthen themselves in a time of political upheaval and uncertainty.
  • Kivilaakso, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study explores Pirkko Saisio s novel, Kainin tytär (Cain s Daughter, 1984) published under her own name, and her later novels that were published under different pseudonyms. Kiusaaja (Tornmenter, 1986), Viettelijä (Seducer, 1987) and Kantaja (Bearer, 1991) were published under the male pseudonym Jukka Larsson, and Puolimaailman nainen (A Demimonde, 1990) and Kulkue (Procession, 1992) were published under the female pseudonym, Eva Wein. My research investigates the poetics of gender difference constructed by these works, when considered in particular from the three perspectives of authorship, intertextuality and narrative structure. The novels are contextualized within Finnish feminist-oriented research and discourse on women s literature of the 1980s. During the spring of 1985, author Pirkko Saisio took part in a seminar on research in women s literature held at the University of Turku. This seminar addressed issues of research from feminist perspectives that were typical of the period, such as the different receptions of work by male and female writers, and the possible differences between literature written by men and women respectively. Pirkko Saisio was aware of feminist literary discourse of the 1980s and, as demonstrated in the present study, she also contributed to the discourse by writing under both male and female pseudonyms. The theoretical underpinning of the present study is feminist literary research. I interpret Saisio's switching from one pseudonym to another as the author commenting on the gender debates from outside the binary logic of male and female. From her borderline position, she worked not as a female or male author, but as a bit of both, or neither. The author's struggle to create a perspective beyond women's literature is precisely what makes Pirkko Saisio a lesbian feminist writer. The novels' intertextual references need to be contextualized within the literary discourse at the time of publication, defining the relationship of Saisio s Kainin tytär and her pseudonym novels with the literary tradition. The different relationships of male and female writers to this tradition were among the key issues of feminist literary discussion in the 1980s. Saisio s novels under different pseudonyms share a number of intertexts that are important for interpreting all of them and assemble the six novels into a whole. The main intertexts addressed in this study contain explicit or implicit statements on gender difference or the meaning of gender. Therefore analyzing the intertextual references open up the thematization of the problematic of gender in the novels. The novels of Saisio, Larsson and Wein also shared certain thematically central structural elements repeated from one work to another, such as a cyclical chronological structure, embedded narratives and recurring motifs. Pirkko Saisio s, Jukka Larsson s and Eva Wein s novels did not respond to the discussion on women s literature of the 1980s in any unequivocal way. Writing as Wein and Larsson, Saisio created a unique literary output that responded polemically to the literary debate of its time of publication, testing the boundaries and definitions of not only authorship and reception but also of literary production and the literary work . Keywords: author, authorship, gender, poetics, intertextuality, feminist narratology, feminist literary research, lesbian author, lesbian
  • Juvonen, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The study examines framing (or projecting) clause complexes in Finnish-language matriculation essays from the point of view of the intersubjective positioning of the writer. The clause complexes investigated comprise of a matrix clause and its complement, mainly an että that or a kuinka/miten how clause. The starting point for the analysis is the assumption that the matrix clause expresses a stance towards the complement and also the potential source of the stance (e.g. Luulen, että / on selvää, että / en tiedä, miksi kissat tarvitsevat paljon unta I think / it s clear that / I don t know why cats need a lot of sleep ). The analysis focuses on how students use these complexes to position themselves in respect to prior texts and to the putative reader: allowing for alternative positions (dialogic expansion) or restricting the dialogic space (dialogic contraction). The study also looks at the relation between the use of dialogic expansion and contraction in clause complexes and a) the communicative task required in the assignment and b) the grade given to the essay. Theoretically and methodologically the study draws on linguistically oriented discourse analysis, especially the study of evaluative language (in particular, the appraisal theory), textual interaction and text type (developed on the basis of e.g. Werlich s typology of textual strategies). The study is based on a corpus of 301 Finnish (mother tongue) matriculation essays given either high or low grades. The study consists of a summary and four published articles. The study shows how framing clause complexes can form rhetorical patterns involving dialogic expansion or contraction within the text. The rhetorical function of the clause complex derives both from the type of the clause complex and its co-text, particularly its text type (e.g. narration, description or exposition). The most clear-cut patterns relate to concession, juxtaposing competing claims, explicating reasoning processes and topic shifting. The patterns consist of sequential actions that stretch over clause boundaries and are accompanied with several cohesive elements. A key finding is that the cohesive function of a pattern is related to intersubjective positioning: to the ways the reader is expected to respond to the claims that are being made and to their relations as presented in the text. However, the study also shows that some of the analyzed clause complexes have only a localized scope, without a clear connection to a rhetorical pattern in the text.
  • Tervo, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Dissertation considers the birth of modernist and avant-gardist authorship as a reaction against mass society and massculture. Radical avant-gardism is studied as figurative violence done against the human form. The main argument claims avant-gardist authorship to be an act of masculine autogenesis. This act demands human form to be worked to an elementary state of disarticulateness, then to be reformed to the model of the artist's own psychophysical and idiosyncratic vision and experience. This work is connected to concrete mass, mass of pigment, charcoal, film, or flesh. This mass of the figure is worked to create a likeness in the nervous system of the spectator. The act of violence against the human figure is intended to shock the spectator. This shock is also a state of emotional and perceptional massification. I use theatrical image as heuristic tool and performance analysis, connecting figure and spectator into a larger image, which is constituted by relationships of mimesis, where figure presents the likeness of the spectator and spectator the likeness of the figure. Likeness is considered as both gestural - social mimetic - and sensuous - kinesthetically mimetic. Through this kind of construction one can describe and contextualize the process of violent autogenesis using particular images as case studies. Avant-gardist author is the author of theatrical image, not particular figure, and through act of massification the nervous system of the spectator is also part of this image. This is the most radical form and ideology of avant-gardist and modernist authorship or imagerial will to power. I construct a model of gestural-mimic performer to explicate the nature of violence done for human form in specific works, in Mann's novella Death in Venice, in Schiele's and Artaud's selfportaits, in Francis Bacon's paintings, in Beckett's shortplat NOT I, in Orlan's chirurgical performance Operation Omnipresense, in Cindy Sherman's Film/Stills, in Diamanda Galás's recording Vena Cava and in Hitchcock's Psycho. Masspsychology constructed a phobic picture of human form's plasticity and capability to be constituted by influencies coming both inside and outside - childhood, atavistic organic memories, urban field of nervous impulses, unconsciousness, capitalist (image)market and democratic masspolitics. Violence is then antimimetic and antitheatrical, a paradoxical situation, considering that massmedias and massaudiences created an enormous fascination about possibilities of theatrical and hypnotic influence in artistic elites. The problem was how to use theatrical image without coming as author under influence. In this work one possible answer is provided: by destructing the gestural-mimetic performer, by eliminating representations of mimic body techniques from the performer of human (a painted figure, a photographed figure, a filmed figure or an acted figure, audiovisual or vocal) figure. This work I call the chirurgical operation, which also indicates co-option with medical portraitures or medico-cultural diagnoses of human form. Destruction of the autonomy of the performer was a parallel process to constructing the new mass media audience as passive, plastic, feminine. The process created an image of a new kind of autotelic masculine author-hero, freed from human form in its bourgeois, aristocratic, classical and popular versions.
  • Salmenkivi, Eero (Eero Salmenkivi, 2010)
    According to Meno s paradox we cannot inquire into what we do not know because we do not know what we are inquiring into. There are many ways to interpret the paradox but the central issue about our ability to reach truth is a profound one. In the dialogue Meno, Plato presents the paradox and an outline of a solution which enables us to reach knowledge (epistēmē) through philosophical discussion. During the last century Meno has often been considered transitional between Socratic thinking and Plato s own philosophy, and thus the dialogue has not been adequately interpreted as an integrated whole. Therefore the distinctive epistemology of the dialogue has not gained due notice. In this thesis the dialogue is analysed as an integrated whole and the philosophical interpretation also takes into account its dramatic features. The thesis emphasises the role of language and definitions in acquiring knowledge. Among the results concerning these subjects is a new interpretation of Socrates s defintion of shape (schēma). The theory of anamnēsis all learning is recollection in the Meno is argued to answer the paradox philosophically although Plato s presentation also contains playful and ironic elements. The background of the way Plato presents his case is that he appreciated the fact that no argument can plausibly demonstrate that argumentation is able to reach truth. In the Meno, Plato makes the earliest explicit distinction between knowledge and true belief in the history of Western philosophy. He also gives a definition of knowledge which is the basis of the so called classical definition of knowledge as justified true belief. In the Meno, true beliefs become knowledge when someone ties them down by reasoning about the explanation. The analysis of the epistemology of the dialogue from this perspective gives an interpretation which integrates the central concepts of the epistemology in the dialogue elenchos, anamnēsis and hypothetical inquiry into a unified whole which contains a plausible argument according to which the ignorant can reach knowledge through discussion. The conception that emerges by such an analysis is interesting both from the point of view of current interests and that of the history of philosophy. The method of knowledge acquisition in the Meno can, for example, be seen as a predecessor of modern scientific methods. The Meno is the earliest Greek mathematical text that has survived in its original form. The analysis presented in the thesis of the geometric passages in the dialogue provides new results both concerning Socrates s geometry lesson with the slave and the example presenting the hypothetical method. Concerning the latter, a new interpretation is presented. Keywords: anamnēsis, epistēmē, knowledge, Meno s paradox, Plato
  • Schybergson, Anita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This dissertation is an onomastic study of Finland s stock of ship names (nautonomasticon) recorded over the period 1838 1938. The primary material investigated consists of 2 066 examples of ship names from the fleets of coastal towns, distributed over five sample years. The material is supplemented with two bodies of comparative data; one that consists of 2 535 examples of boat names from the archipelago area at the corresponding time, and another that comprises 482 examples of eighteenth century Finnish ship names. This study clarifies the categories of names that appear the frequency of the names, formation, morphology, linguistic origin, functions, and semantic qualities. By comparing the material with boat names from previous centuries, and from other countries, the characteristics of Finnish vessel names are further highlighted. Additional clarification is brought to the chronological, regional, and social variations, and to the emergence of various forms of systematic naming. This dissertation builds on older research from other countries, and uses traditional onomastic methods alongside a more modern methodology. The approach is interdisciplinary, meaning that the names are explored using facts not only from nautical history, but also from a range of other historical disciplines such as economics, culture, art, and literature. In addition, the approach is socio-onomastic, i.e. that the variations in names are studied in a societal context. Using a synchronised perspective, cognitive linguistic theories have provided the tools for this exploration into the metaphorical and the prototypical meaning of the names, and the semantic domains that the names create. The quantitative analysis has revealed the overall picture of Finnish boat names. Personal names, names from mythology, and place names, emerge as significant categories, alongside nonproprial names in Swedish and Finnish. The interdisciplinary perspective has made it possible to explain certain trends in the stock of boat names, for example, the predisposition towards names from classical mythology, the breakthrough of names taken from the national epos Kalevala, names in the Finnish language from around the middle of the nineteenth century, and the continuing rise of place names during the latter part of the period 1838 1938. The socio-onomastic perspective has also identified clear differences between those ship names used in towns, and those ship names used in the archipelago, and it has clarified how naming conventions tend to spread from town centres to peripheral areas. The cognitive linguistic methods have revealed that the greater part of the vessel names can be interpreted as metaphors, in particular personifications, and that many names are related in their content and also form semantic networks and cognitive systems. The results indicate that there is a mental nautonomasticon that consists of a standard set of traditional ship names, but they also reveal the existence of conscious or unconscious cognitive systems (rules and conventions) that guide the naming of boats.
  • Tyrväinen, Helena (Suomen musiikkitieteellinen seura ; Suomen musiikkikirjastoyhdistys, 2013)
    Uuno Klami (1900-61) was the most successful of all those Finnish composers who made their debuts between the two World Wars. The interest stimulated in Helsinki by his student works, together with his sensational debut concert in 1928, launched a meteoric career that culminated in his recognition as one of the most esteemed figures in the musical life of his country through his election to the Academy of Finland. Yet Klami was also a controversial figure. His music was felt to be fragmentary, derivative, and oddly detached in tone, and his contemporaries found it notably difficult to find adequate terms in which to conceptualize it. This study is historical-critical, evidence-based and contextualising in orientation. Its two inseparable aims are to describe and conceptualize the evolution and distinctive character of Klami s musical style, and to spotlight the two cities, Helsinki and Paris, that shaped him as a composer. It is taken as given that there are multiple subjective factors at work in leading a creative individual towards some choices rather than others. I ask what are the memorable features of Klami s music, whether we can distinguish in them specific choices that lend themselves to conceptual interpretation, and what sorts of subject position they might reflect. French and Russian music formed a part of Klami s Finnish education, but it was only during his Paris year (1924-25) that a notably eclectic attitude to pre-existing repertories began to emerge in his music. A cosmopolitan identity was manifest in his obvious affiliations to the music of la belle époque, with its distinctive Franco-Russian orchestral idioms, and to the anti-romanticism characteristic of the time (and place). An indifference to the values associated with a German Romantic aesthetic (notably its ethos of individualism and its ideal of musical progress) values that seemed outmoded to many European contemporaries was thereby revealed. Despite this cosmopolitanism, Klami s return to his home country was marked by his successful integration to the network of actors prominent within a Finnish national culture. His best-known work, the Kalevala Suite (Kalevala-sarja) on the topic of the Finnish national epic, emerged in this context over a fourteen-year period (1929-43). It is true that towards the end of this project his antiromantic attitude and his cosmopolitan subject position began to make room for a rather different aesthetic. But at the same time Klami held onto, and continued to refine, his colourful, Franco-Russian virtuoso orchestral style. His success in inter-war Finland does not primarily speak of the conservatism of Finnish culture, but rather of its receptiveness to novelty and in particular the novelty of a virtuoso orchestral style.
  • Bliumbaum, Arkadi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
    The subject of this work is the poetics of «The Wax Effigy», a short novel or novella by Jurii Tynianov, Russian writer, literary critic, historian of literature and prominent literary theoretician. The plot structure of the novel is based upon a real event, the creation by Bartolomeo Carlo Rastrelli in 1725 of a wax sculpture of the first Russian emperor, Peter the Great. «Construction of the Sham» consists of three chapters, an introduction and a conclusion. Due to the fact that Tynianov was at the same time a prose writer and theoretician of literature it seemed important to consider the reception of his prose and his works on literary theory in relationship to each other. The introduction is devoted to this task. The first chapter is about the history of the creation of the novel and its reception. Tynianov stopped writing one short story in order to write the novel; these two works have some common traits. It seems almost obvious that his work on the first text was a real step toward the creation of the second. In the first story there is an opposition of dead/alive which is semantic prefiguring of a central motif in «The Wax Effigy». An analysis of the reception of the novel demonstrated that almost every critic writing about the novel has described it as nonsense. Critics considered Tynianov's work in terms of «devices» and «content» and could not understand how devices are related to the content of the novel: the novel was thought as a signifier without any signified. Implicitly, critics thought the signified of the novel as a traditional one of the historical novel, as the historiosophical «idea», embodied in the system of literary devices. In this case literature becomes something instrumental, a kind of expression of extraliterary content. In contradistinction to that Tynianov considered literary semantics as an effect of the literary structure. From his point of view the literary sense is immanent to the process of signification accomplished inside the literary text. The second chapter is devoted to a rhetorical analysis of the opposition dead/alive. Tynianov systematically compares both terms of the opposition. As a result of this strategy the wax effigy of the dead emperor becomes «as if» alive and the world of living people «as if» dead. The qualifier «as if» refers to the fact that Tynianov creates an ambiguous semantic system. This rhetoric is related to European Romanticism and his «fantastic literature» (Merimé, Hoffmann, Maupassant etc.). But Tynianov demonstrates a linguistic origin of the strange fantoms created by romantics; he demystifies these idols by parodying the fantastic literature, that is, showing «how it was done». At the same time, the opposition mentioned above refers to his idea of «incongruity» which plays a prominent role in Tynianov s theory but has never been conceptualised. The incongruity is a inner collision of the literary text; from Tynianov's point of view the meaning of the work of literature is always a dynamic collision of semantically heterogeneous elements struggling with each other. In «The Wax Effigy» Tynianov creates a metalevel of the work demonstrating the process of creation of the literary sense. The third chapter is a reconstruction of Tynianov's conception of the historical prose, specifically of the mechanisms by which historical facts are transformed into literary events. Tynianov thought that the task of the historical novelist is to depict his hero as an actor, to demonstrate that as a wearer of many masks he is a creator of appearances, ambiguities. Here, in the «figure of fiction» (Andrei Belyi), the very idea of the historical prose and rhetoric employed in «The Wax Effigy», history and literature meet each other. In his last theoretical work, «On parody» Tynianov writes about the so-called sham structure of parody. In his opinion every parody is a text about other texts and «serious» work which could be read at the same time as a text about «reality». This twofold structure of parody is that of «The Wax Effigy»: that text speaks about ambiguities of the history and about ambiguities of the literary sense, about social reality of the past and - about the working of the literature itself. «The Wax Effigy» is written as a autoreflective text, as an experiment in literary semantics, as a system of literary ambiguities - of hero, rhetoric and the text itself. The meaning of the novel is created not by the embodiment extraliterary idea, but by the process of signification accomplished inside the work of literature. In this sense Tynianov's novel is parody, a break with the tradition of the historical novel preceding «The Wax Effigy».
  • Kotilainen, Lari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Dynamic constructions Dynamic constructions is a study of the dynamism of Finnish grammar. Dynamism as a linguistic phenomenon is studied on both the diachronic and synchronic level. The study therefore focuses not only on the temporal changes of grammar but also on the conventionality of grammatical structures and on the interplay between closely related constructions. Dynamism is also treated as a phenomenon occurring between different varieties of Finnish. All in all, dynamism is shown to be a key feature of the nature of grammar. The study is set within the framework of cognitive linguistics and construction grammar. Both theories emphasise the role of constructions pairings of form with semantic or discourse function in the composition and development of grammar. The grammar of a language is understood to be a structured inventory of such constructions. I argue that the constructions are best studied in their original contexts of use. Thus, the study is usage-based in a strict sense. The data is compiled from various corpora consisting of both written and spoken as well as standard and non-standard Finnish. The dissertation consists of an introduction and four empirical studies. The four papers examine various Finnish constructions and thereby shed light on different aspects of the dynamism of a grammar. The first paper focuses on the diachronic development of the Finnish temporal converb essa. The second paper discusses a specific construction which includes the essa converb, that is, the mikäs on ollessa construction. Some closely related constructions and their semantic interplay are also examined. The third paper extensively studies what is generally regarded as an ellipsis of the negation verb in Finnish. By using present day Finnish data, I show that the omission of the negation verb is not an instance of mere ellipsis but rather a construction. The final paper combines the themes of the second and the third paper by focusing on closely related constructions of the negative ellipsis construction.
  • Forsskåhl, Mona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This study concerns the most common word pair in spoken Swedish, de e (it is, third person pronoun + copula-verb in present tense). The aim of the study is twofold, with an empirical aim and a theoretical aim. The empirical aim is to investigate if and how the string de e can be understood and described as a construction in its own right with characteristics that distinguishes it from other structures and resources in spoken Swedish. The theoretical aim is to test how two different linguistic theories and methods, interactional linguistics and construction grammar, can be combined and used to describe and explain patterns in languaging that traditional grammar does take into account. The empirical analysis is done within the interactional linguistic framework with sequence analyses of excerpts from authentic conversation data. The data consists of approximately ten hours of recorded conversation from Finland and Sweden. The sequence analysis suggests that the string de e really is used as a resource in its own right. In most cases, the string is also used in ways consistent with abstract grammatical patterns described by traditional grammar. Nevertheless, there are instances where de e is used in ways not described before: with numerals and infinitive phrases as complements, without any complements at all and together with certain complements (bra, de) in idiomatic ways. Furthermore, in the instances where de e is used according to known grammatical patterns the function of the particular string de e is clearly contextually specific and in various ways linked to the micro-context in which it is used. A new model is suggested for understanding and concluding the results from the sequence analyses. It consists of two different types of constructions grammatical and interactional. The grammatical constructions show how the string is used in eleven structurally different ways. The interactional constructions show seven different sequential positions and functions in which the string occurs. The two types of constructions are also linked to each other as potentials. This is a new way to describe how interactants use and responds to a concrete string like de e in conversation.
  • Martola, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The topic for the study is the Swedish preposition “åt”. The corresponding prepositions in English are “to”, “for” and “at”. One of the main purposes of the study is to compare the use of the preposition in two varieties of Swedish, the Swedish spoken in Sweden (Sweden Swedish, ‘sverigesvenska’) and the Swedish spoken in Finland (Finland Swedish, ‘finlandssvenska’), and to point out differences and similarities. The study is corpus-based and the corpora, one for each variety, consist mainly of newspapers and novels from 1980 to around 2000. The total number of words is around 40 million, 19 million in the Sweden Swedish and 23 million in the Finland Swedish corpus. The other purpose of the study is to analyze in what kind of patterns the preposition åt occurs. General semantic patterns, valency patterns and idiomatic patterns are all brought to the fore. The theoretical basis for the study is Construction Grammar as developed by Ch. Fillmore, Fried & Östman, A. Goldberg, and W. Croft. Also Frame Semantics and its further development FrameNet play an important role in the study. According to Construction Grammar, constructions are constellations of form and meaning/function. The constructions are abstract units, but in an empirical study it is possible to arrive at abstract constructions through generalizations over concrete occurrences. The results indicate that the use of the preposition “åt” differs in Finland Swedish from the use in Sweden Swedish – but not as much as expected (on the basis of previous studies), at least not in written language. In Finland Swedish the preposition is used more to indicate the role Recipient, whereas the role Beneficiary is more predominant in Sweden Swedish. In both varieties, however, the use of “åt” is most often highly idiomatic and it is only the Beneficiary-role that can be said to be entirely productive. As to valency binding, the preposition phrase with “åt” occurs either as an argument or as a middle. Middles are complements that are neither arguments nor real adjuncts but stand somewhere in between these two. The preposition “åt” occurs as part both of general patterns and of specific idiomatic patterns. The constructions in which the preposition “åt” is an element are connected in an intricate network.
  • Strandberg, Hindrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Cupping in Finland until the middle of the 20th century Since antiquity various forms of blood-letting based on humoral pathology the doctrine of four body fluids have been used as curing methods. Here they are studied using an ethnographic-medico-historical approach. In Finland four different methods of therapeutic blood-letting have been practised since the beginning of the 16th century A.D., namely, leeches, scarification of the calves, bleeding and cupping. The most frequent form of blood-letting in Finland has however been cupping, performed in a sauna, which was found in nearly every farmyard. The principal source for this thesis is a comprehensive body of archive material on cupping in Finland. The archive material has been combined with information about different kinds of cupping instruments used since antiquity, cupping instructions in medical books from classical antiquity, through medieval manuscripts, and medical books from the beginning of the 16th century until the beginning of the 20th century. Cupping was mainly performed in the spring and autumn in a well-heated so-called smoke-sauna and was used mostly by the middle-aged women. The main aim here is to investigate where upon the patient s body the cupping woman applied the cupping horns, using suction, how many horns were applied, and also the relationship between these application spots and the diseases, or complaints which were being treated. When the cupping horn had been applied, a small swelling appeared just beneath it. After a while the horn was removed and the cupping woman started picking small wounds or holes in the skin with her cupping axe. Then the horn was applied again and blood started to flow from the wounds. Afterwards the wounds were carefully cleaned with water. There were two kinds of cupping women. One was a woman who lived in a village and performed cupping on request. The other was a cupping woman who travelled around the district offering her services. The second aim is to investigate all the different diseases or complaints that were treated. Among the diseases which were cured, headaches and toothaches were the most common Another question is whether these diseases were really cured and if so, how is this to be explained. I have compared the diseases and complaints listed in a medieval manuscript and in later medical books with the diseases and complaints cured by our cupping women, which leads to the question of where these cupping women acquired their skills and their knowledge of where to apply the cupping horns to treat different diseases. Probably the answer is that such instructions and knowledge was handed over orally from one generation of cupping women to another. Finally there is a brief examination of modern cupping which was revived in the 1970s and is still used as a form of complementary medicine today in Finland.
  • Pasanen, Annika (Suomalais-ugrilainen seura ja Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The topic of this study is the revitalization of the Inari Saami language, the only Saami language spoken exclusively in Finland. The Inari Saami language became severely endangered in the 1900s, and toward the 1990s its extinction seemed inevitable. Thanks to conscious efforts originating from the community, this grim path of development was reversed. The most important factors for reversing language shift have been the language nest (an Inari Saami immersion program for children under school age), mother tongue medium school instruction and intensive language education for adults. The Inari Saami language association Anarâškielâ servi, founded in 1986, has played the most important role in the revitalization activities. The study investigates the revitalization of the Inari Saami language on the societal and individual levels between 1997 and 2014. The data consists of interviews with members of the language community, observations from Inari Saami-speaking environments, questionnaires sent to members of Anarâškielâ servi, reports from students of the intensive adult language education program and interviews with their language masters, as well as editorials from the Inari Saami-language Anarâš newspaper. The data is analysed primarily in the light of three main concepts: linguistic culture, language ideologies and ideological clarification. In the study, linguistic culture refers to the combination of historical, political, geographical, sociological, demographic and ideological circumstances under which the Inari Saami language has experienced endangerment and subsequent revitalization. The concept of language ideologies encompasses the language-related attitudes, beliefs, principles and choices prevalent in the language community that have facilitated the revitalization of the language. A third decisive phenomenon from the perspective of the outcome of revitalization is manifested in the process of ideological clarification, which refers to facing language ideologies consciously, recognizing the goals and means of revitalization, and personally committing to and taking responsibility for one,s own language. The study demonstrates that on a global scale, Inari Saami revitalization has been exceptionally successful. During the period analysed in the study, transmission of the language to children has resumed, adults have begun to learn and reclaim the Inari Saami language through intensive language education, older native speakers have taken on an active role in the revitalization process and the use of the language has increased significantly in several integral domains, such as the home and school. The language is now valued by the local community, and has gradually gained a more equal position with the other Saami languages. The community-based revitalization of the Inari Saami language exemplifies a linguistic culture and language ideology that foster a reversal of language shift, including factors related to linguistic tolerance. The process of ideological clarification in the language community can be seen in the motivation and commitment of those who have learned Inari Saami as adults, in the personal reversal of language shift in families and social networks, and in collective endeavours to use Inari Saami whenever possible. On the other hand, the revitalization of Inari Saami is connected to several critical factors and questions that have been investigated relatively little in the language community as of the end of this study. These include questions related to the language skills and linguistic identities of new speakers, language transmission at home vs. outside of the home, and the linguistic choices and identities of children and youth. These questions are significant with regard to the vitality of the language and should be examined both in daily life in the linguistic community and in future studies.
  • Suvikumpu, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Dozens of Finnish artists, practically all the professional sculptors and painters, travelled to and stayed in Rome during the 19th century. The study at hand concentrates for the first time on the Finnish artists in Rome in corpore, and analyses their way of life based on a broad variety of previously unknown and unexplored sources from a number of archives in both Scandinavia and Rome. The extensive corpus of source material is scrutinized with microhistorical precision from the point of view of cultural history. The new information thus achieved adds to the previous knowledge of Rome s often overlooked importance as a source of inspiration in Scandinavian culture in general and significantly clarifies our understanding of the development of Finnish artistic life and cultural identity in the 19th century. The study proves that in Finland, like in all of Europe, the stay in Rome was considered to be a necessary part of becoming a true artist. Already the journey was an integral part of the encounter with Rome, corresponding with the civilized ideal of the period. The stay in Rome provided a northern artist with overwhelming opportunities that were incomparable to the unestablished and modest forms of artistic life Finland could offer. Without domestic artistic institutions or traditions, the professional status of Finnish painters and sculptors took shape abroad, firstly through the encounter with Rome and the different networks the Finnish artists belonged to during and after their stay in the eternal city. The Finnish artists were an integral part of the international artistic community in the cultural capital of Europe, which gave a totally new impetus to their work and contributed to their cosmopolitan identification. For these early masters of Finnish art, the Scandinavian communality and universal artistic identity seemed to be more significant than their nationality. In all, the scrutiny of Finnish artists in their wide social, ideological and international framework gives an interesting aspect to the cultural ambiance of the 19th century, in both Rome and Finland. The study highlights many long-forgotten artists who were influential in shaping Finnish art, culture and identity in their time.
  • Ilmakunnas, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Consumption and the lifestyle of the high nobility in eighteenth-century Sweden This monograph is an analysis of the lifestyle, consumption and private finances of the Swedish high nobility during the eighteenth century (ca 1730 1795). It describes the lifestyle of one noble house, the House of Fersen. The Fersen family represents the leading political, economic and cultural elite in eighteenth-century Sweden. The analysis concentrates on Count Carl von Fersen (1716 1786) and his brother Count Axel von Fersen (1719 1794), their spouses and children. Carl von Fersen was a courtier whilst Axel von Fersen was an officer and one of the leaders of the Francophile Hat party. His son, Axel von Fersen the younger, was in his time an officer and a favourite of Gustavus III, King of Sweden, as well as a favourite and trusted confidant of Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France. The research is based upon the Fersen family s private archives, the Counts personal account books, probate inventories, letters and diaries. The study discusses the Fersens landed property and investments in ironworks and manufacturing, the indebtedness of the high nobility, high offices in civil administration, the militia and at court, as well as marriages as the foundations of noble wealth and power. It analyses the Count von Fersens revenue and expenditure, their career options and personal expenses, their involvement in the building and decorating of palaces, and the servants in service of the Fersen family as well as the ideal nobleman and his consumption. Central themes are inheritance, children s education, marriages and ladies preparing their trousseaux, the nobility ordering luxury goods from France, the consumption of Counts and Countesses before and after marrying and having children, the pleasures of a noble life as well as the criticism of luxury and sumptuousness. The study contributes to the large body of research on consumption and nobility in the eighteenth century by connecting the lifestyle, consumption and private finances of the Swedish high nobility to their European context. Key words: nobility, Fersen, lifestyle, consumption, private finances, Sweden, eighteenth century
  • Talvitie, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The emergence of exclusive property rights in land Enclosure in the Western Nyland in the 18th century This is a study of the storskifte reform (the Swedish equivalent of the Europe-wide enclosure movement), one of the major events in the history of the Finnish countryside from the mid-18th century onwards. In this work I analyse the storskifte from the local-community point of view. How did the peasantry react to the storskifte and how did the rural community actually change? The study area comprises four parishes, Ingå, Karis, Sjundeå and Tenala, situated in the province of Western Nyland at the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland. At the time Western Nyland was one of the most industrialised regions in Finland with a flourishing sawmill and iron industry. In this study I demonstrate that enclosure was not implemented against the will of the peasant population, as has been previously assumed. Firstly, peasants actively applied for the privatisation of the commons: about 60% of all applicants were peasant farmers. The most active initiators were the so-called rusthållare (the holders of the farm , obliged to furnish a cavalryman). Every second rusthållare applied for enclosure. Secondly, there are no signs of peasant resistance, even though some farmers were afraid of the high costs. Even the landless population seems to have accepted the partition without opposition. Furthermore, the enclosure proceedings began immediately after the first enclosure statute of 1757. The very first enclosure was carried out at the village of Breds in the parish of Ingå in 1757, and the majority of the commons had been privatised by 1775. The heyday of privatisation came in the 1760s, when cereal prices were high. The storskifte reform started early in the Helsinki region and around the town of Lovisa too, whereas in the inland parishes of the province of Nyland storskifte proceedings were carried out much later. Thus, the proximity of large consumer centres, such as towns and other industrial centres, can be seen as by far the most important explanation for the diffusion of enclosure. This positive attitude was largely due to the fact that landowners could decide the timing of the partition by themselves. The storskifte was not an enforced reform. The situation was different in the provinces of Ostrobotnia (then including Lapland), Savolax and Karelia, and later in the province of Viborg, where all common land was privatised at the same time as the implementation of fiscal reforms. According to the special enclosure statute for the southern provinces of Finland, enacted in 1766, county governors were entitled to initiate enclosure proceedings without consulting land-owners, and governors also exercised their powers in Western Nyland. Around 10 40% of all proceedings were carried out publicly. However, the enclosure process had begun long before these general regulations, therefore the vast majority of enclosures were eventually carried out privately. In addition, the peasants were ready to abandon the common field system because it was prone to conflict. Some neighbours widened their narrow strips of land illegally, or logged more wood than others. The policing of property rights was difficult, especially in those villages where the commons were used for heavy land clearances and commercial purposes. Thus, as a consequence, privatising the commons was an attractive opportunity for a land-owner, as it was then much easier to determine what was mine and what was thine. Furthermore, privatisation facilitated the clearance of unproductive wastelands such as marshes and fens. As far as new settlements are concerned, the partition of commons failed to achieve its intended influence, as Western Nyland was already densely populated before the storskifte reform.